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  • 1.
    Gantasala, Sudhakar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    A Preliminary Experiment to Excite and Identify Modal Frequencies of a Rotor in the Rotating Frame of Reference2019In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Rotor Dynamics: IFToMM / [ed] Cavalca, Katia Lucchesi; Weber, Hans Ingo, Springer, 2019, Vol. 3, p. 265-277Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current work uses two types of excitation on a rotating shaft to identify its modal frequencies. The first one is a non-contact excitation where an oscillating magnet is placed near the shaft, eddy currents generated by the oscillating magnetic field excites vibrations in the shaft. In the second type of excitation, a miniature electrodynamical exciter powered by a decoder amplifier board is placed on the shaft to excite vibrations with predefined frequencies in a signal (mp3 format) stored on the USB flash drive connected to the board. The shaft is rotated at different speeds and vibration accelerations are measured using a small data logger placed on the shaft while excited using these two excitation systems. These two types of asynchronous excitation on the shaft excites both forward and backward whirl vibration modes of the rotor system. The modal frequencies are identified at the peak amplitudes in the waterfall plots of the measured vibration accelerations to a chirp excitation of the shaft. A Campbell diagram is plotted with the identified modal frequencies of the shaft in the rotating frame of reference.

  • 2.
    Soltani Dehkharqani, Arash
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Experimental Investigation of a 10 MW Prototype Kaplan Turbine during Start-Up Operation2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 23, article id 4852Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increase in the start/stop cycles of hydraulic turbines due to the penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources is important. Hydraulic instabilities that occur in hydraulic turbines during start/stops may cause structural issues in the turbine components. High-stress fluctuations on the runner blades are expected during start-ups due to the unsteady pressure loading on the runner blades. This paper presents experiments performed on a 10 MW prototype Kaplan turbine at the Porjus Hydropower Center during a start-up cycle. Synchronized unsteady pressure and strain measurements on a runner blade and axial, bending (in two directions) and torsion strain measurements on the shaft were performed. In addition, the general parameters of the turbine (e.g., rotational speed, guide vane opening and runner blade angle) were acquired. Low-frequency fluctuations (0–15 Hz) were observed in the pressure data on the runner blade after opening the guide vanes from the completely closed position. A higher strain value was observed on the strain gauges installed on the runner blade near the hub (200–500 μm/m ) compared to the ones near the shroud at the leading and trailing edge. The strain fluctuation level on the shaft decreased after loading the generator by further opening the guide vanes. Higher fluctuations were observed in the torsion strain compared to axial and bending strain. In addition, the torsion strain peak-to-peak value reached 12 times its corresponding value at 61% guide vane opening.

  • 3.
    Soltani Dehkharqani, Arash
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Fluid added polar inertia and damping for the torsional vibration of a Kaplan turbine model runner considering multiple perturbations2019In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Institute of Physics (IOP), 2019, Vol. 240, article id 062007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A water turbine runner is exposed to several perturbation sources with differentfrequencies, phases, and amplitudes both at the design and off-design operations. Rotor-statorinteraction, cavitation, rotating vortex rope, and blade trailing edge vortices are examples of suchperturbations which can disturb the runner. The rotor dynamic coefficients require beingdetermined to perform a reliable dynamic analysis. Fluid added inertia, damping, and stiffnesshave previously been investigated for individual perturbation frequencies for the torsionalvibration of a Kaplan turbine model runner. However, a number of perturbation sources mostlytake place simultaneously and alter the dynamics of the runner. Soltani et al. [1] have evaluatedthe torsional added parameters for a Kaplan turbine runner using numerical simulationsconsidering single perturbation frequency. In the present work, the fluid added parameters areassessed in the presence of multiple perturbation sources. A similar methodology is used. Asingle-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) model for the dynamic model and unsteady ReynoldsaveragedNavier–Stokes approach for the flow simulations are assumed. Perturbations withdifferent frequencies are applied to the rotational speed of the runner to determine the fluid addedparameters for the torsional vibration. A number of previously investigated frequencies arechosen and their combinations are investigated. In addition, two different phase shifts areconsidered between the applied perturbations to study the effect of phase. Two more test caseswith higher perturbation amplitude are also conducted to investigate its influence on the fluidadded inertia and damping. The results are compared with the previous study and the interactionof multiple perturbations on the added parameters is investigated.

  • 4.
    Gantasala, Sudhakar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Tabatabaei, Narges
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Numerical Investigation of the Aeroelastic Behavior of a Wind Turbine with Iced Blades2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 12, article id 2422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind turbines installed in cold-climate regions are prone to the risks of ice accumulation which affects their aeroelastic behavior. The studies carried out on this topic so far considered icing in a few sections of the blade, mostly located in the outer part of the blade, and their influence on the loads and power production of the turbine are only analyzed. The knowledge about the influence of icing in different locations of the blade and asymmetrical icing of the blades on loads, power, and vibration behavior of the turbine is still not matured. To improve this knowledge, multiple simulation cases are needed to run with different ice accumulations on the blade considering structural and aerodynamic property changes due to ice. Such simulations can be easily run by automating the ice shape creation on aerofoil sections and two-dimensional (2-D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of those sections. The current work proposes such methodology and it is illustrated on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 5 MW baseline wind turbine model. The influence of symmetrical icing in different locations of the blade and asymmetrical icing of the blade assembly is analyzed on the turbine’s dynamic behavior using the aeroelastic computer-aided engineering tool FAST. The outer third of the blade produces about 50% of the turbine’s total power and severe icing in this part of the blade reduces power output and aeroelastic damping of the blade’s flapwise vibration modes. The increase in blade mass due to ice reduces its natural frequencies which can be extracted from the vibration responses of the turbine operating under turbulent wind conditions. Symmetrical icing of the blades reduces loads acting on the turbine components, whereas asymmetrical icing of the blades induces loads and vibrations in the tower, hub, and nacelle assembly at a frequency synchronous to rotational speed of the turbine.

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  • 5.
    Soltani Dehkharqani, Arash
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    A Review of Available Methods for the Assessment of Fluid Added Mass, Damping, and Stiffness With an Emphasis on Hydraulic Turbines2018In: Applied Mechanics Review, ISSN 0003-6900, E-ISSN 1088-8535, Vol. 70, no 5, article id 050801Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluid added mass, damping, and stiffness are highly relevant parameters to consider when evaluating the dynamic response of a submerged structure in a fluid. The prediction of these parameters for hydraulic turbines has been approached relatively recently. Complex fluid-structure analyses including three-dimensional flow and the need for experiments during operation are the main challenges for the numerical and experimental approaches, respectively. The main objective of this review is to address the impact of different parameters, for example, flow velocity, cavitation, nearby solid structure, and rotational speed on the fluid added mass and damping of Kaplan/Propeller and Francis turbine runners. The fluid added stiffness is also discussed in the last section of the paper. Although studies related to hydraulic turbines are the main objective of this paper, the literature on hydrofoils is also taken into consideration to provide valuable information on topics such as individual runner blades. In this literature survey, the analytical, numerical, and experimental approaches used to determine fluid added parameters are discussed, and the pros and the cons of each method are addressed.

  • 6.
    Gantasala, Sudhakar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Luneno, Jean-Claude
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Identification of ice mass accumulated on wind turbine blades using its natural frequencies2018In: Wind Engineering: The International Journal of Wind Power, ISSN 0309-524X, E-ISSN 2048-402X, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 66-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work demonstrates a technique to identify information about the ice mass accumulation on wind turbine blades using its natural frequencies, and these frequencies reduce differently depending on the spatial distribution of ice mass along the blade length. An explicit relation to the natural frequencies of a 1-kW wind turbine blade is defined in terms of the location and quantity of ice mass using experimental modal analyses. An artificial neural network model is trained with a data set (natural frequencies and ice masses) generated using that explicit relation. After training, this artificial neural network model is given an input of natural frequencies of the iced blade (identified from experimental modal analysis) corresponding to 18 test cases, and it identified ice masses’ location and quantity with a weighted average percentage error value of 17.53%. The proposed technique is also demonstrated on the NREL 5-MW wind turbine blade data.

  • 7.
    Gantasala, Sudhakar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Luneno, Jean-Claude
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Investigating How an Artificial Neural Network Model Can Be Used to Detect Added Mass on a Non-Rotating Beam Using Its Natural Frequencies: A Possible Application for Wind Turbine Blade Ice Detection2017In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structures vibrate with their natural frequencies when disturbed from their equilibrium position. These frequencies reduce when an additional mass accumulates on their structures, like ice accumulation on wind turbines installed in cold climate sites. The added mass has two features: the location and quantity of mass. Natural frequencies of the structure reduce differently depending on these two features of the added mass. In this work, a technique based on an artificial neural network (ANN) model is proposed to identify added mass by training the neural network with a dataset of natural frequencies of the structure calculated using different quantities of the added mass at different locations on the structure. The proposed method is demonstrated on a non-rotating beam model fixed at one end. The length of the beam is divided into three zones in which different added masses are considered, and its natural frequencies are calculated using a finite element model of the beam. ANN is trained with this dataset of natural frequencies of the beam as an input and corresponding added masses used in the calculations as an output. ANN approximates the non-linear relationship between these inputs and outputs. An experimental setup of the cantilever beam is fabricated, and experimental modal analysis is carried out considering a few added masses on the beam. The frequencies estimated in the experiments are given as an input to the trained ANN model, and the identified masses are compared against the actual masses used in the experiments. These masses are identified with an error that varies with the location and the quantity of added mass. The reason for these errors can be attributed to the unaccounted stiffness variation in the beam model due to the added mass while generating the dataset for training the neural network. Therefore, the added masses are roughly estimated. At the end of the paper, an application of the current technique for detecting ice mass on a wind turbine blade is studied. A neural network model is designed and trained with a dataset of natural frequencies calculated using the finite element model of the blade considering different ice masses. The trained network model is tested to identify ice masses in four test cases that considers random mass distributions along the blade. The neural network model is able to roughly estimate ice masses, and the error reduces with increasing ice mass on the blade.

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  • 8.
    Soltani Dehkharqani, Arash
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics. Waterpower Laboratory, Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Numerical analysis of fluid-added parameters for the torsional vibration of a Kaplan turbine model runner2017In: Advances in Mechanical Engineering, ISSN 1687-8132, E-ISSN 1687-8140, Vol. 9, no 10, article id 1687814017732893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of fluid on the runner of a hydraulic turbine is a recurrent problem. Fully coupled fluid-structure simulations are extremely time consuming. Thus, an alternative method is required to estimate this interaction to perform a reliable rotor dynamic analysis. In this paper, numerical estimations of the added inertia, damping and stiffness for a Kaplan turbine model runner are presented using transient-flow simulations. A single-degree-of-freedom model was assumed for the fluid-runner interaction, and the parameters were estimated by applying a harmonic disturbance to the angular velocity of the runner. The results demonstrate that the added inertia and damping are important, whereas the stiffness is negligible. The dimensionless added polar inertia is 23-27% of the reference value (ρR5). Damping significantly contributes to the moment at low excitation frequencies, whereas the inertia becomes dominant at higher frequencies.

  • 9.
    Thiery, Florian
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Gantasala, Sudhakar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Numerical evaluation of multilobe bearings using the Spectral Method2017In: Advances in Mechanical Engineering, ISSN 1687-8132, E-ISSN 1687-8140, Vol. 9, no 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydropower rotors and pumps have the specificity to be oriented vertically, meaning that the bearing forces have to be evaluated at each time-step depending on the position of the rotor for dynamical analyses. If the bearing forces cannot be evaluated analytically, a suitable numerical method should be used to calculate the pressure distribution over the bearing domain. This process can be computationally expensive as it should be performed for each discrete time-step. As a result, a comparison between the spectral method, the finite difference method, and the finite element method is performed to investigate which method is more adapted to dynamical analysis of the bearing. It is observed that the spectral method has the advantage of having a reasonable simulation time for any eccentricity magnitude with a moderate number of interpolation points. However, this method should be restricted to simple bearing models such as plain bearings or multilobe bearings due to the advantage of finding a global numerical solution directly on the entire bearing/pad domain

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  • 10.
    Gantasala, Sudhakar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Luneno, Jean-Claude
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Aeroelastic simulations of wind turbine using 13 DOF rigid beam model2016In: Open archives of the 16th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery, Symposia on Rotating Machinery , 2016, article id hal-01516690Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vibration behavior of wind turbine substructures is mainly dominated by their first few vibration modes because wind turbines operate at low rotational speeds. In this study, 13 degrees of freedom (DOF) model of a wind turbine is derived considering fundamental vibration modes of the tower and blades which are modelled as rigid beams with torsional springs attached at their root. Linear equations of motion (EOM) governing the structural behavior of wind turbines are derived by assuming small amplitude vibrations. This model is used to study the coupling between the structural and aerodynamic behavior of NREL 5 MWmodel wind turbine. Aeroelastic natural frequencies of the current model are compared with the results obtained from the finite element model of this wind turbine. Quasi-steady aerodynamic loads are calculated considering wind velocity changes due to height and tower shadow effects. In this study, vibration responses are simulated at various wind velocities. The derived 13 DOF simplified model of the wind turbine enables to simulate the influence ofchange in parameters and operating conditions on vibration behavior with less computational effort. Besides that, the results of the simplified models can be interpreted with much ease.

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  • 11.
    Thiery, Florian
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Gustavsson, Rolf
    Vattenfall Research AB, Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Evaluation of Campbell diagrams for vertical hydropower machines supported by Tilting Pad Journal Bearings2016In: Open archives of the 16th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery, 2016, article id hal-01884263Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In vertically oriented machines with tilting-pad journal bearings, there is no static load that allow tocalculate the bearing properties around a determined static position. As a result, most of simulationsare performed by solving Reynolds equation at each time-step which can result in long computationaltime. To avoid this concern, a simplified model is used that takes in account the variation of unbalanceload depending on the pad configuration. This nonlinear model is used to simulate the dynamics ofa hydropower turbine and compared with the Campbell diagram calculations used from hydropowerindustry standards. A comparison between the linear and nonlinear model is performed to evaluate howaccurate the linear model is and until which limits it can be relevant. In case of qualitative discrepancies inthe results in terms of natural frequencies and damping ratios, an improvement of the Campbell diagramcalculation is proposed to obtain a more accurate linear model.

  • 12.
    Synnegård, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Gustavsson, Rolf
    Vattenfall Research and Development, Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Forced response of a vertical rotor with tilting pad bearings2016In: Open archives of the 16th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery, Symposion on Rotating Machinery , 2016, article id hal-01884264Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates how tilting pad bearings can aect the forced response of a vertical rotor. Thestiness and damping for a tilting pad bearing is dependent on the position in the bearing (load on pador load between pad) and the magnitude of the load. In a vertical machine the position of the shaft inthe bearing will change for each time-step and produce a periodic stiness and damping. This periodicstiness has shown to produce higher frequency components depending on the number of pads. For thefour pad bearing considered in this paper these frequency components are 3 and 5 in the stationarycoordinate system. The aim of this study is to evaluate if the periodic coecients in the bearing couldexcite the system and cause resonance problems. It is found that for high loads the system can be exciteddue to the bearing dynamics at =!n = 0:33 and =!n = 0:2. However at low loads this eect isnegligible.

  • 13.
    Synnegård, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Gustavsson, Rolf K.
    Vattenfall Research & Development , Vattenfall Power Consultant AB Mechanical and Process Engineering, Kyrkogatan 4, Gävle.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Influence of cross-coupling stiffness in tilting pad journal bearings for vertical machines2016In: International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, ISSN 0020-7403, E-ISSN 1879-2162, Vol. 111-112, p. 43-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates how cross-coupling coefficients affects the dynamics of a vertical rotor with tilting pad journal bearings. For vertical machines, the bearing properties are dependent on the bearing load and direction. As a result, it generally requires that bearing properties are calculated at each time step using the governing fluid dynamic equations. This method gives a good representation of the bearing but computational time increases and can cause stability problems. In this study the bearing properties are instead modelled as a function of eccentricity and its direction. Hence, the bearing properties can be evaluated at each time step without solving Navier-Stokes or Reynold's equation. The main advantage of using this method is to decrease the computational time. The cross-coupling stiffness and damping coefficients are usually neglected since they are small compared to the radial stiffness and damping coefficients. In this paper, the simulated unbalanced response is compared to experimental results and it is seen that the cross-coupling stiffness for vertical machines can influence the dynamics. It is shown that the cross-coupling can be of the same order of magnitude as the radial stiffness component depending on the shaft angular position in the bearing. Including cross-coupling increases higher frequency components and the experiments show similar behaviour. Hence the cross-coupling stiffness and damping coefficients should be included when simulating vertical machines subjected to high loads or when the detailed dynamical behaviour is important to investigate.

  • 14.
    Gantasala, Sudhakar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Luneno, Jean-Claude
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Influence of Icing on the Modal Behavior of Wind Turbine Blades2016In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 9, no 11, article id 862Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind turbines installed in cold climate sites accumulate ice on their structures. Icing of the rotor blades reduces turbine power output and increases loads, vibrations, noise, and safety risks due to the potential ice throw. Ice accumulation increases the mass distribution of the blade, while changes in the aerofoil shapes affect its aerodynamic behavior. Thus, the structural and aerodynamic changes due to icing affect the modal behavior of wind turbine blades. In this study, aeroelastic equations of the wind turbine blade vibrations are derived to analyze modal behavior of the Tjaereborg 2 MW wind turbine blade with ice. Structural vibrations of the blade are coupled with a Beddoes-Leishman unsteady attached flow aerodynamics model and the resulting aeroelastic equations are analyzed using the finite element method (FEM). A linearly increasing ice mass distribution is considered from the blade root to half-length and thereafter constant ice mass distribution to the blade tip, as defined by Germanischer Lloyd (GL) for the certification of wind turbines. Both structural and aerodynamic properties of the iced blades are evaluated and used to determine their influence on aeroelastic natural frequencies and damping factors. Blade natural frequencies reduce with ice mass and the amount of reduction in frequencies depends on how the ice mass is distributed along the blade length; but the reduction in damping factors depends on the ice shape. The variations in the natural frequencies of the iced blades with wind velocities are negligible; however, the damping factors change with wind velocity and become negative at some wind velocities. This study shows that the aerodynamic changes in the iced blade can cause violent vibrations within the operating wind velocity range of this turbine.

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  • 15. Cupillard, Samuel
    et al.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Influence of the thrust bearing on the natural frequencies of a72-MW hydropower rotor2016In: IAHR symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, 2016, article id 236Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The thrust bearing is an essential element of a hydropower machine. Not only does itcarry the total axial load but it also introduces stiffness and damping properties in the system.The focus of this study is on the influence of the thrust bearing on the lateral vibrations of theshaft of a 72-MW propeller turbine. The thrust bearing has a non-conventional design with alarge radius and two rows of thrust pads. A numerical model is developed to estimate naturalfrequencies. Numerical results are analyzed and related to experimental measurements of arunaway test.The results show the need to include the thrust bearing in the model. In fact, the vibrationmodes are substantially increased towards higher frequencies with the added properties fromthe thrust bearing. The second mode of vibration has been identified in the experimentalmeasurements. Its frequency and mode shape compare well with numerical results.

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  • 16.
    Cupillard, Samuel
    et al.
    Hydro-Québec Research Institute, Varennes, Québec, Canada.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Influence of the thrust bearing on the natural frequencies of a72-MW hydropower rotor2016In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environment, ISSN 1755-1307, E-ISSN 1755-1315, Vol. 49, no 8, article id 082024Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The thrust bearing is an essential element of a hydropower machine. Not only does it carry the total axial load but it also introduces stiffness and damping properties in the system. The focus of this study is on the influence of the thrust bearing on the lateral vibrations of the shaft of a 72-MW propeller turbine. The thrust bearing has a non-conventional design with a large radius and two rows of thrust pads. A numerical model is developed to estimate natural frequencies. Numerical results are analyzed and related to experimental measurements of a runaway test. The results show the need to include the thrust bearing in the model. In fact, the vibration modes are substantially increased towards higher frequencies with the added properties from the thrust bearing. The second mode of vibration has been identified in the experimental measurements. Its frequency and mode shape compare well with numerical results.

  • 17.
    Thiery, Florian
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Nonlinear vibrations of a misaligned bladed Jeffcott rotor2016In: Nonlinear dynamics, ISSN 0924-090X, E-ISSN 1573-269X, Vol. 86, no 3, p. 1807-1821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the numerical and experimental investigation of the nonlinear vibration of a bladed Jeffcott rotor. The nonlinearity in the system is due to discontinuities caused by multiple contacts with an outer ring as well as the nonlinear deformation of the massless blades. Contacts occur since the rotor shaft is initially misaligned by displacing the outer ring in one direction. The aim of the paper is to develop a simple model of bladed rotor and verify whether the global dynamics of the numerical simulations can be observed experimentally. The experimental rig and data acquisition are presented in detail together with the experimental procedures. The results between the numerical simulation and experiments are compared in terms of bifurcation diagrams and waterfall plots. An overall correlation is observed between the numerical and experimental study in the case of stiff blades, with differences mainly in localized frequency ranges due to parameter variation.

  • 18.
    Tabatabaei, Narges
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Trivedi, Chirag
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Numerical Study of Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Symmetric NACA Section with Simulated Ice Shapes2016In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 753 A, article id 022055Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To develop a numerical model of icing on wind turbine blades, a CFD simulation was conducted to investigate the effect of critical ice accretions on the aerodynamic characteristics of a 0.610 m chord NACA 0011 airfoil section. Aerodynamic performance coefficients and pressure profile were calculated and compared with the available measurements for a chord Reynolds number of 1.83x106. Ice shapes were simulated with flat plates (spoiler-ice) extending along the span of the wing. Lift, drag, and pressure coefficients were calculated in zero angle of attack through the steady state and transient simulations. Different approaches of numerical studies have been applied to investigate the icing conditions on the blades. The simulated separated flow over the sharp spoilers is challenging and can be seen as a worst test case for validation. It allows determining a reliable strategy to simulate real ice shapes [1] for which the detailed validation cannot easily be provided.

  • 19.
    Mohammed, Omar D.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Rantatalo, Matti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Dynamic modelling of a one-stage spur gear system and vibration-based tooth crack detection analysis2015In: Mechanical systems and signal processing, ISSN 0888-3270, E-ISSN 1096-1216, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 293-305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the purpose of simulation and vibration-based condition monitoring of a geared system, it is important to model the system with an appropriate number of degrees of freedom (DOF). In earlier papers several models were suggested and it is therefore of interest to evaluate their limitations. In the present study a 12 DOF gear dynamic model including a gyroscopic effect was developed and the equations of motions were derived. A one-stage reduction gear was modelled using three different dynamic models (with 6, 8 and 8 reduced to 6 DOF), as well as thedeveloped model (with 12 DOF), which is referred as the fourth model in this paper. The time-varying mesh stiffness was calculated, and dynamic simulation was then performed for different crack sizes. Time domain scalar indicators (the RMS, kurtosis and the crest factor) were applied for fault detection analysis. The results of the first model showa clearly visible difference from those of the other studied models, which were made more realistic by including two more DOF to describe the motor and load. Both the symmetric and the asymmetric disc cases were studied using the fourth model. In the case of disc symmetry, the results of the obtained response are close to those obtained from both the second and third models. Furthermore, the second model showed a slight influence from inter-tooth friction, andtherefore the third model is adequate for simulating the pinion’s y-displacement in the case of the symmetric disc. In the case of the asymmetric disc, the results deviate from those obtained in the symmetric case. Therefore, for simulating the pinion’s y-displacement, the fourth model can be considered for more accurate modelling in the case of the asymmetric disc.

  • 20.
    Mohammed, Omar D.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Rantatalo, Matti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Dynamic modelling of gear system with gyroscopic effect and crack detection analysis2015In: Proceedings of the 9th IFToMM International Conference on Rotor Dynamics / [ed] Paolo Pennacchi, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2015, Vol. X, p. 1303-1314Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a 12 DOF gear dynamic model was developed and the equations of motions were derived. A one-stage reduction gear was modelled with gyroscopic effect of the gear disc, and both cases of symmetric and asymmetric disc were studied. Gear mesh stiffness was calculated for different crack sizes, and dynamic response was simulated. Time domain scalar indicators (the RMS, kurtosis and the crest factor) were applied for fault detection analysis. In the case of asymmetric disc the simulation shows results that are different from those obtained in the symmetric case. The coupling terms have an effect on the obtained pinion’s displacement which is studied for fault detection analysis. Therefore, for simulating the pinion’s displacement, this model can be considered for more accurate modelling in case of asymmetric disc.

  • 21.
    Thiery, Florian
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Gustavsson, Rolf K.
    Vattenfall Research & Development.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Dynamics of a misaligned Kaplan turbine with blade-to-stator contacts2015In: International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, ISSN 0020-7403, E-ISSN 1879-2162, Vol. 99, p. 251-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rotor-to-stator contacts can occur in hydropower systems due to mechanical and electrical misalignment as well as high unbalance forces. It can result in high impact forces and damages in case of malfunction of the machine. As a result, a real hydropower rotor is studied to evaluate the different types of dynamic motion due to multiple impacts when it is initially misaligned. In this paper, the simplicity of its blade rubbing modelling allows us to evaluate in a fast and efficient way the dynamics of this system as a function of several design parameters. It is observed that the global dynamics of the system are similar to simple bladed Jeffcott rotors when scaled with the number of blades. Since the rotor runs at its operating point, the contact forces are also evaluated at nominal speed. A parametric study - as a function of contact stiffness and damping - is performed and results are given in terms of Poincaré sections, bifurcation diagrams and maximum displacements at steady state. These simulations are used to determine if the system is safe to operate. It can be used to design hydropower rotors by choosing the operating speed in a suitable range, or to analyse if the machine can be stopped before a catastrophe occurs

  • 22.
    Calleecharan, Yogeshwarsing
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Jauregui, Ricardo
    DEE Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya , El Grupo de Compatibilidad Electromagnética GCEM, Barcelona.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Estimating forces in mixed eccentricities motion for purley dynamic eccentric rotor centre motion in a hydropower generator and their validation against EM simulations2015In: Balkan Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, ISSN 2147-284X, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 78-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electromagnetic analysis of hydropower generators is commonpractice but there is little emphasis on studying the effect ofrotor whirling in the analysis. This paper demonstrates the use ofthe unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP) curves based on purely dynamiceccentricity motion for a wide range of whirling frequencies in theprediction of the steady state UMP in the case of mixed eccentricitiesmotion. The latter motion type is more realistic in practice. Actualelectromagnetic (EM) simulations are also carried out for these mixedeccentricities motion cases in order to verify the proposed method. Goodagreement between the UMP from the actual EM simulations and theUMP predictions are made when low eccentricities exist. The proposedmethod is thus very useful since firstly, very few EM software packagescan handle mixed eccentricities motion and secondly, since actual EMsimulations of intricate rotor centre motion are time-consuming, theproposed method is a big time saver. A modified feature selective validation(FSV) method, the FSV-UPC, is also applied to assess the similarities andthe differences in the force computations.

    Download full text (pdf)
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  • 23.
    Thiery, Florian
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Influence of the blades configuration on the dynamics of a 3-bladed Jeffcott rotor2015In: Proceedings of the 9th IFToMM International Conference on Rotor Dynamics / [ed] Paolo Pennacchi, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2015, Vol. II, p. 79-87Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nonlinear behaviour of blade rubbing has usually been investigated using complex modelling for the contact description. However, a simplified model of a 3-bladed Jeffcott rotor with nonlinear beam deformation contacting a fixed ring due to initial misalignment was used to unveil the global dynamic behaviour of the system. Chaotic regions were found at integer fraction of the natural frequency divided by the number of blades. Similarities in the global behaviour have also been observed for a model with rigid blades contacting a flexible casing. Even though the periodic and chaotic properties were observable experimentally, some difference occurred in localized frequency range due to material loss at the blade tip at higher speed. It is also difficult to accurately set all the blades with the exact same slight contact in experimental test rigs. As a result, the global properties of the rotor are also evaluated with two blades of the same length and the third one shorter. The extreme case where one or two blades are out is also investigated. The results are explored in terms of phase plots, Poincaré sections and bifurcation diagrams as function of the rotating speed. It can be seen that the inherent properties can be modified depending on the blades configuration and unbalance forces.

  • 24.
    Synnegård, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Gustavsson, Rolf K.
    Vattenfall Research & Development.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Modeling of visco-elastic supports for hydropower applications2015In: Proceedings of the 9th IFToMM International Conference on Rotor Dynamics / [ed] Paolo Pennacchi, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2015, Vol. XVIII, p. 2189-2197Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a numerical model of how a visco-elastic support affects the dynamical response of a 42 MW Kaplan turbine that is experiencing resonance problems. The supports are placed between the bearing bracket and the supporting concrete structure. Since the supports are nonlinear, the nodal displacements are solved using a Runge-Kutta time integration method where the visco-elastic supports are implemented as a nonlinear force. To reduce calculation time the number of degrees of freedom of the rotor model is reduced using the Improved Reduction System. Excitation of the system is implemented as a stationary force in the runner with varying frequency. The resulting nodal displacement from the transient simulation is then compared to the system simulated without the supports to show how the machine dynamics are affected. The simulations show that the visco-elastic supports efficiently reduces the displacements in the lower vibration modes. The reduced vibration levels should decrease the probability of resonance problems occurring when running at operating speed.

  • 25.
    Calleecharan, Yogeshwarsing
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Brauer, J.P
    No-load electromagnetic simulations of a hydropower generator considering the effect of rotor whirling2015In: Balkan Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, ISSN 2147-284X, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 124-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electromagnetic (EM) analysis of hydropower generators iscommon practice but there is little emphasis on studying the effect of rotorwhirling in the analysis. This paper explores the effect on electromagneticanalysis as the rotor is allowed to whirl both in forward and inbackward directions under no-load conditions. As a hydropower generatorrotor shaft can experience whirling when under eccentric operation,the objective is to examine how whirling can affect the unbalancedmagnetic pull (UMP), flux densities, damper currents, and ohmic lossesin a synchronous hydropower generator. These results are obtained ina commercial FEM-based EM field modelling software package thatallows various degrees of freedom in motion types and multiple motioncomponents to be set. It is seen that backward whirling tends to inducehigher eddy currents than forward whirling does.

  • 26.
    Nässelqvist, Mattias
    et al.
    Hydro Power, ÅF, 80320 Gävle.
    Gustavsson, Rolf K.
    Vattenfall Research & Development.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Experimental and numerical simulation of unbalance response in vertical test rig with tilting-pad bearings2014In: International Journal of Rotating Machinery, ISSN 1023-621X, E-ISSN 1542-3034, Vol. 2014, article id 309767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In vertically oriented machines with journal bearing, there are no predefined static radial loads, such as dead weight for horizontal rotor. Most of the commercial software is designed to calculate rotordynamic and bearing properties based on machines with a horizontally oriented rotor; that is, the bearing properties are calculated at a static eccentricity. For tilting-pad bearings, there are no existing analytical expressions for bearing parameters and the bearing parameters are dependent on eccentricity and load angle. The objective of this paper is to present a simplified method to perform numerical simulations on vertical rotors including bearing parameters. Instead of recalculating the bearing parameters in each time step polynomials are used to represent the bearing parameters for present eccentricities and load angles. Numerical results are compared with results from tests performed in a test rig. The test rig consists of two guide bearings and a midspan rotor. The guide bearings are 4-pad tilting-pad bearings. Shaft displacement and strains in the bearing bracket are measured to determine the test rig's properties. The comparison between measurements and simulated results shows small deviations in absolute displacement and load levels, which can be expected due to difficulties in calculating exact bearing parameters.

  • 27. Lundström, Niklas
    et al.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Grafström, Anton
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Small shape deviations causes complex dynamics in large electric generators2014In: European Physical Journal: Applied physics, ISSN 1286-0042, E-ISSN 1286-0050, Vol. 66, no 2, article id 130447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We prove that combinations of small eccentricity, ovality and/or triangularity in the rotor and stator can produce complex whirling motions of an unbalanced rotor in large synchronous generators. It is concluded which structures of shape deviations that are more harmful, in the sense of producing complex whirling motions, than others. For each such structure, we derive simplified equations of motions from which we conclude analytically the relation between shape deviations and mass unbalance that yield non-smooth whirling motions. Finally we discuss validity of our results in the sense of modeling of the unbalanced magnetic pull force

  • 28. Simmons, Gregory F
    et al.
    Cha, Matthew
    Machine Design, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Glavatskih, Sergei
    Steady state and dynamic characteristics for guide bearings of a hydro-electric unit2014In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part J, journal of engineering tribology, ISSN 1350-6501, E-ISSN 2041-305X, Vol. 228, no 8, p. 836-848Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiments are conducted using a 10-MW Kaplan hydropower machine which is outfitted with an extensive array of sensors to determine oil film thickness, pad load and oil temperature in all three guide bearings as well as motion of the shaft in relation to both the bearing housings and the concrete foundation. Test results for all journal bearings are compared to a commercial rotor dynamics model and results for the central journal bearing are compared to a multi-physics model to provide insight into the machine's steady state and dynamic characteristics and their variations during normal operation.

  • 29.
    Nässelqvist, Martin
    et al.
    Vattenfall Research & Development.
    Gustavsson, Rolf
    Vattenfall Research & Development.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    A methodology for protective vibration monitoring of hydropower units based on the mechanical properties2013In: Journal of Dynamic Systems Measurement, and Control, ISSN 0022-0434, E-ISSN 1528-9028, Vol. 135, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is important to monitor the radial loads in hydropower units in order to protect the machine from harmful radial loads. Existing recommendations in the standards regarding the radial movements of the shaft and bearing housing in hydropower units, ISO-7919-5 (International Organization for Standardization, 2005, "ISO 7919-5: Mechanical Vibration-Evaluation of Machine Vibration by Measurements on Rotating Shafts-Part 5: Machine Sets in Hydraulic Power Generating and Pumping Plants, " Geneva, Switzerland) and ISO-10816-5 (International Organization for Standardization, 2000, "ISO 10816-5: Mechanical Vibration-Evaluation of Machine Vibration by Measurements on Non-Rotating Parts-Part 5: Machine Sets in Hydraulic Power Generating and Pumping Plants, " Geneva, Switzerland), have alarm levels based on statistical data and do not consider the mechanical properties of the machine. The synchronous speed of the unit determines the maximum recommended shaft displacement and housing acceleration, according to these standards. This paper presents a methodology for the alarm and trip levels based on the design criteria of the hydropower unit and the measured radial loads in the machine during operation. When a hydropower unit is designed, one of its design criteria is to withstand certain loads spectra without the occurrence of fatigue in the mechanical components. These calculated limits for fatigue are used to set limits for the maximum radial loads allowed in the machine before it shuts down in order to protect itself from damage due to high radial loads. Radial loads in hydropower units are caused by unbalance, shape deviations, dynamic flow properties in the turbine, etc. Standards exist for balancing and manufacturers (and power plant owners) have recommendations for maximum allowed shape deviations in generators. These standards and recommendations determine which loads, at a maximum, should be allowed before an alarm is sent that the machine needs maintenance. The radial bearing load can be determined using load cells, bearing properties multiplied by shaft displacement, or bearing bracket stiffness multiplied by housing compression or movement. Different load measurement methods should be used depending on the design of the machine and accuracy demands in the load measurement. The methodology presented in the paper is applied to a 40MW hydropower unit; suggestions are presented for the alarm and trip levels for the machine based on the mechanical properties and radial loads

  • 30.
    Thiery, Florian
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Comparison of contact dynamics in bladed Jeffcott rotors2013Conference paper (Other academic)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 31.
    Luneno, Jean-Claude
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Gustavsson, Rolf
    Vattenfall Research & Development.
    Experimental verification of a combi-bearing model for vertical rotor systems2013In: Journal of Vibration and Acoustics-Transactions of the ASME, ISSN 1048-9002, E-ISSN 1528-8927, Vol. 135, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combi-bearing is a combined thrust-journal bearing design used in vertical hydropower rotors. The dynamic characteristics of this component (combi-bearing) were analytically modeled by Luneno et al. (2011, "Model Based Analysis of Coupled Vibrations Due to the Combi-Bearing in Vertical Hydroturbogenerator Rotors," ASME J. Vib. Acoust., 133, p. 061012). This analytic model was inserted into a finite element model of a vertical rotor rig and numerically simulated. In this paper, the simulated vertical rotorbearings system is a small-scale vertical machine constructed to validate the analytically derived combi-bearing model. Good agreement was found between the simulation and experimental results. The simulation and experimental results showed that the journal (radial) bearing's position relative to the contact point between the combi-bearing's collar and the rotor influences the rotor system's fundamental natural frequencies. Therefore, the combi-bearing model needs to be included into rotor dynamic models. Neglecting the effect of this component may cause significant errors in the predicted results. Copyright

  • 32.
    Mohammed, Omar D.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Rantatalo, Matti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Improving mesh stiffness calculation of cracked gears for the purpose of vibration-based fault analysis2013In: Engineering Failure Analysis, ISSN 1350-6307, E-ISSN 1873-1961, Vol. 34, p. 235-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the purpose of vibration-based condition monitoring and to prevent occurrence of catastrophic gear failures it is important to improve the simulated dynamic response of the studied gear model. The time varying gear mesh stiffness will contribute to the dynamic response of a geared system. Some previously applied methods for stiffness calculation, described in the literature, show good agreement with the results obtained with FEM simulation for smaller crack sizes. However, when larger crack sizes are reached, these methods show an increasing deviation from FEM simulation results. A reduction in the gear mesh stiffness can be considered to assess the status of tooth damage and, therefore, by increasing the accuracy of the calculated mesh stiffness, dynamic simulations of a gear can be improved. In this paper a new method is presented for calculating the gear mesh stiffness for a propagating crack in the tooth root. The influence of gear mesh stiffness on the vibration-based fault detection indicators, the RMS, kurtosis and the crest factor, is investigated. Different crack sizes are examined by using this new method for sizes up to around 50% of the total tooth root thickness. When compared to FEM simulations, the presented method shows more accurate results for calculations of the gear mesh stiffness (for the studied model) than the previously suggested methods.

  • 33.
    Luneno, Jean-Claude
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Gustavsson, Rolf K.
    Vattenfall Research & Development.
    Misalignment in combi-bearing: A cause of parametric instability in vertical rotor systems2013In: Journal of engineering for gas turbines and power, ISSN 0742-4795, E-ISSN 1528-8919, Vol. 135, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamic characteristics of the combi-bearing (combined thrust-journal bearing) in vertical rotor systems were analytically modeled and experimentally verified in the authors' previous publications. An angular misalignment, which may be caused by a possible manufacturing or assembling error, is introduced in the combi-bearing's rotating collar. A new model of the defective combi-bearing has been derived. The derived model shows that the angular misalignment in the combi-bearing's rotating collar generates an asymmetry in the rotor system at the combi-bearing's location. The rotor system's stiffness in its two translational X and Y directions differ at the combi-bearing's location. Constant parameters and/or coefficients in rotating asymmetric structures appear to change with time when observed in the stationary frame. These time dependent parameters (coefficients) are the source of the so-called parametric instability in rotating systems. If the collar angular misalignment is located in the X-Z plane all rotor motions in this plane at the contact point between the combi-bearing and the rotor will be coupled. A parametric instability is observed within certain ranges of the rotor speed, depending on the magnitude of the angular misalignment

  • 34. Simmons, Gregory F
    et al.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Glavatskih, Sergei
    Operational transients in the guide bearings of a 10 MW Kaplan turbine2013In: International journal on hydropower and dams, ISSN 1352-2523, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 94-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiments are conducted using a 10 MW Kaplan hydropower machine with a PowerFormerT M generator, the Porjus U9 research machine. This machine is outfitted with an extensive array of sensors to determine oil film thickness, pad tilting, pad load and oil temperature in all three guide bearings as well as motion of the shaft in relation to both the bearing housings and the concrete foundation. Test results for all three guide bearings are examined during both steady state and transient operation.

  • 35.
    Calleecharan, Yogeshwarsing
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Jauregui, Ricardo
    DEE Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya , El Grupo de Compatibilidad Electromagnética GCEM, Barcelona.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Towards a general method for estimating the unbalanced magnetic pull in mixed eccentricities motion including sufficiently large eccentricities in a hydropower generator and their validation against EM simulations2013In: European Physical Journal: Applied physics, ISSN 1286-0042, E-ISSN 1286-0050, Vol. 63, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electromagnetic (EM) analysis of hydropower generators is common practice but rotor whirling is little studied. This paper suggests a novel semi-analytical method for estimating the steady state unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP) when the rotor centre is undergoing mixed eccentricities motion. The ability to estimate the UMP for mixed eccentricities motion in finite element method (FEM)-based modelling software packages is rare. The proposed methodology in its formulation takes advantage of the fact that a purely dynamic eccentricity motion including non-synchronous whirling and a purely static eccentricity motion can be more amenable to implement in existing FEM-based EM modelling software products for UMP estimation. After these initial separate UMP results are obtained, the proposed method can be applied for virtually any mixed eccentricities motion cases up to sufficiently large eccentricities for quick analysis instead of running the mixed eccentricities simulations directly in a FEM-based software package. Good agreement between the UMP from the actual EM mixed eccentricities motion simulations in a commercial FEM-based software package and the UMP estimations by the novel method is made for a wide range of eccentricities that may commonly occur in practice. A modified feature selective validation (FSV) method, the FSV-UPC, is applied to assess the similarities and the differences in the UMP computations

  • 36.
    Mohammed, Omar D.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Rantatalo, Matti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Vibration signal analysis for gear fault diagnosis with various crack progression scenarios2013In: Mechanical systems and signal processing, ISSN 0888-3270, E-ISSN 1096-1216, Vol. 41, no 1-2, p. 176-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are different analytical scenarios assumed for crack propagation in the gear tooth root. This paper presents an investigation of the performance of statistical fault detection indicators (the RMS and kurtosis) for three different series of crack propagation scenarios, to compare these scenarios from a fault diagnostics point of view. These scenarios imply different forms of cracks with propagation by a certain step of crack depth. The 1st scenario assumes a crack being extended through the whole tooth width with a uniform crack depth distribution, while the 2nd scenario assumes the crack being extended through the whole tooth width with a parabolic crack depth distribution, and finally in the 3rd scenario the crack is assumed to be propagating in both the depth and the length directions simultaneously. The time-varying gear mesh stiffness has been investigated using the program code developed in the present research, and the crack propagation can be modelled with any of the presented crack propagation scenarios. Dynamic simulation has been performed to obtain the residual signals of all the studied cases for each crack propagation scenario. The comparison of the statistical indicators applied to the residual signals shows that in the 1st scenario the faults are most easily detectable, since in this scenario there is a change in the indicators implying a dramatic decrease in the gear mesh stiffness. The fault detection in the 2nd scenario is more difficult, as the crack propagates with no significant reflection on the mesh stiffness loss. The 3rd proposed scenario should receive more attention in research because it could occur in reality in case of non-uniform load distribution. However, with this scenario it is difficult to perform early fault detection, since there is a very slight change in the statistical indicators at the beginning of the crack propagation. After which, these indicators show a significant change when the crack grows deeper which implies a serious crack propagation condition.

  • 37.
    Nässelqvist, Mattias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Gustavsson, R.
    Vattenfall Power Consultant AB Mechanical and Process Engineering, Kyrkogatan 4, Gävle.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Bearing load measurement in a hydropower unit using strain gauges installed inside pivot pin2012In: Experimental mechanics, ISSN 0014-4851, E-ISSN 1741-2765, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 361-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To determine a machine's mechanical condition it is of importance to know the radial bearing forces in the machine. Radial forces are caused by magnetic pull forces in the generator, clamped shafts, mass unbalance and flow properties around the turbine. Measuring the shaft displacement in the bearing or the bearing housing acceleration is not sufficient for status determination of a vertical hydropower unit. It is the magnitude and frequencies of the radial forces in combination with structure properties which give information as to whether a measured value is harmful or not. This paper presents an alternative method for measurement of radial bearing load in a hydropower unit. The method presented in this paper is based on strain measurements on pivot pins. The pivot pins are placed behind the bearing pad and the radial loads acting on the pad propagate through the pivot pin. New pivot pins were purchased and equipped with strain gauges. The new pivot pins were calibrated and a transfer function between applied load and measured output voltage was identified for each pivot pin. After calibration the pivot pins were installed in a vertical hydropower unit. Measurements were performed for several different operating modes of the hydropower unit. To verify that the measured load levels were of right order of magnitude, the radial bearing loads were calculated from numerical simulations of bearing properties and shaft eccentricity measurements. The two methods for determining bearing load showed almost the same results. This indicates that either method can be used to determine bearing load

  • 38.
    Nässelqvist, Martin
    et al.
    Vattenfall Research & Development.
    Gustavsson, Rolf
    Vattenfall Research & Development.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Design of Test Rig for Rotordynamic Simulations of Vertical Machines2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the applications for fluid film bearings have horizontally oriented rotors. This has led to commercial software developers using algorithms and calculations for bearing properties based on machines with a horizontally oriented rotor. This means that the shaft has a set operating point in the bearing based on static radial loads caused by the dead weight of the rotor, magnetic pull forces etc. Large hydropower units generally have vertically oriented shafts. In such systems with vertical rotors, there is no predetermined operating point. This paper presents the design of a test rig that was built at Vattenfall R&D during 2010-2011 in order to study and compare dynamic behaviour of vertical and horizontal rotors. The test rig consists of two bearings and a Jeffcott rotor. The bearings are 4-pad tilting-pad bearings and the operating speed of the test rig is from 0 to 3000 rpm. Radial load and shaft displacement are measured at each bearing using strain gauges and inductive displacement sensors. In the test rig presented in this paper, the excitation of shaft motion is self-induced, i.e. the shaft motion is caused by dead weight of the rotor and applied mass unbalance. Initial tests were performed in order to evaluate the test rig and differences in behaviour between bearing properties when the test rig is in vertical and horizontal position. Results from initial tests indicate that the bearing load - shaft eccentricity ratio is independent of the type of eccentricity, static or dynamic. In vertical operation at high dynamic eccentricities the load and eccentricity orbits have rectangular shapes due to the difference in stiffness for load on pads and load between pads. For vertical rotating systems using tilting pad bearings with a low number of pads and operating at high dynamic radial loads, the bearing properties can possibly cause excitation of natural frequencies at n times the nominal speed, where n is the number of pads.

  • 39.
    Thiery, Florian
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Dynamics of a Jeffcott rotor with rigid blades rubbing against an outer ring2012In: Chaotic Modeling and Simulation (CMSIM), ISSN 2241-0503, E-ISSN 2241-0503, p. 643-650Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The non-linear behaviour of rub-impact systems have been studied recentlyby approximating rotor-stator systems as rubbing cylinders. In reality, therotor shape is more complex, resulting in richer dynamics over smaller parameter ranges. In this paper, a bladed turbine is modelled using a Jeffcott rotor with three rigid beams attached to the mass center. The contact forces are described by a radial restoring force induced by the massless outer ring, and a tangential Coulomb frictional force. The results are presented in bifurcation diagrams and compared with a previous model described by three flexible beams entering in contact with a fixed ring assuming large displacement beam theory. This paper shows that the two models described give similarities in the overall bifurcation diagram, only showing greater differences in localized frequency ranges.

  • 40.
    Jansson, Ida
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Åkerstedt, Hans O.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    The effect of inertia and angular momentum of a fluid annulus on lateral transversal rotor vibrations2012In: Journal of Fluids and Structures, ISSN 0889-9746, E-ISSN 1095-8622, Vol. 28, p. 328-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An extensive amount of work exists on experimental and theoretical analysis of unsteady flow phenomena in hydraulic turbines. Still, resonance phenomena and self-excited vibrations of the rotor of hydropower machines are not considered as a major problem during normal operation conditions. Nevertheless, in development and research it is not sufficient to rely on earlier experience. An accurate predictive rotor model is crucial in risk assessment of rotor vibrations of hydraulic generator units. This paper discusses the effects of inertia and the rotational energy of the fluid in the turbine on lateral transversal shaft vibrations of hydraulic generator units. There is a lack of agreement among engineers upon how fluid inertia of the turbine should be included in rotor models. The rotational energy of the fluid has a potential risk of feeding self-excited vibrations. A fluid-rotor model is presented that captures the effect of inertia and angular momentum of a fluid annulus on vibrations of an inner rigid cylinder. The purpose of the model is to gain physical understanding of the phenomena at work and it is not applicable to specific turbines. The linearized equation of motion of the cylinder surrounded by a fluid annulus is solved for by one single complex equation. The constrained cylinder has two degrees of freedom in the plane perpendicular to its axis. By the assumption of irrotational cyclic flow, the fluid motion is described by a complex potential function. The motion of the cylinder is described by three parameters. Two surfaces are defined that splits the parameter space into regions with different qualitative behaviour. One surface defines the limit of stability whereas the other defines a limit when the eigenvalues have opposite signs or are both positive. The response to an external periodic rotating force is visualized by the magnitude of the inverse of the complex dynamic stiffness.

  • 41.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Kokkolaras, Michael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Tyapin, Ilya
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Larsson, Tobias
    A knowledge-based master-model approach with application to rotating machinery design2011In: Concurrent Engineering - Research and Applications, ISSN 1063-293X, E-ISSN 1531-2003, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 295-305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Novel rotating machinery design concepts and architectures are being explored to reduce mass, energy consumption, manufacturing costs, and environmental impact while increasing performance. As component manufacturers supply parts to original equipment manufacturers, it is desirable to design the components using a systems approach so that they are optimized for system-level performance. To accomplish that, suppliers must be able to model and predict the behavior of the whole machinery. Traditional computer-aided design/computer-aided engineering master-modeling approaches enable manual changes to be propagated to linked models. Novel knowledge-based master-modeling approaches enable automated coordination of multidisciplinary analyses. In this article, we present a specific implementation of such a knowledge-based master-modeling approach that facilitates multidisciplinary design optimization of rotating machinery. The master-model (MM) approach promotes the existence of a single governing version of the product definition as well as operating scenarios. Rules, scripts, and macros link the MM to domain-specific models. A simple yet illustrative industry application is presented, where rotor-dynamics and displacement analyses are performed to evaluate relocation alternatives for the rear bearing position of a rotating machinery under a ‘fan-blade-off’ load case.

  • 42. Lundström, Niklas
    et al.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Dynamics in large generators due to oval rotor and triangular stator shape2011In: Acta Mechanica Sinica, ISSN 0567-7718, E-ISSN 0459-1879, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 18-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier measurements in large synchronous generators indicate the existence of complex whirling motion, and also deviations of shape in both the rotor and the stator. These non-symmetric geometries produce an attraction force between the rotor and the stator, called unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP). The target of this paper is to analyse responses due to certain deviations of shape in the rotor and the stator. In particular, the perturbation on the rotor is considered to be of oval character, and the perturbations of the stator are considered triangular. By numerical and analytical methods it is concluded for which generator parameters harmful conditions, such as complicated whirling motion and high amplitudes, will occur. During maintenance of hydro power generators the shapes of the rotor and stator are frequently measured. The results from this paper can be used to evaluate such measurements and to explain the existence of complex whirling motion.

  • 43.
    Calleecharan, Yogeshwarsing
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Dynamics of a hydropower generator subjected to unbalanced magnetic pull2011In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part C, journal of mechanical engineering science, ISSN 0954-4062, E-ISSN 2041-2983, Vol. 225, no 9, p. 2076-2088Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eccentricity leading to unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP) in electrical machines is a significant concern in industry. The UMP is known to be composed of two components: a radial component and a tangential one. Models that are used in industry tend to include the radial component alone. In this article, a Jeffcott rotor model together with a new UMP model that incorporates both radial and tangential UMP constituents is studied for an industrial hydropower generator. Characterizing the UMP as springs permits the model to inherit UMP stiffness contribution. Interesting dynamics are observed with the new model for a wide range of external forcing frequencies. It is shown firstly that the new UMP model is sensitive to forcing frequency in the rotor movements. Secondly, it is found that this sensitivity to forcing frequency increases with decreasing rotor system stiffness. Moreover, quasi-periodic motion in the rotor displacements is observed and it is noted that the rotor does not need to be forced by frequencies above its critical speed for this less desirable motion to occur. Thus, it becomes interesting to be able to account for the UMP stiffness contribution in order to curb machine malfunction which might result from these UMP forces

  • 44.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Lindkvist, Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Dynamics of a rubbing Jeffcott rotor with three blades2011In: Chaos Theory: Modeling, Simulation and Applications: Selected Papers from the 3rd Chaotic Modeling and Simulation International Conference (CHAOS2010) / [ed] Christos H. Skiadas; Ioannis Dimotikalis; Charilaos Skiadas, Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co Pte Ltd , 2011, Vol. Part II. Invited and Contributed Papers, p. 97-104Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Luneno, Jean-Claude
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Gustavsson, Rolf
    Vattenfall Research & Development.
    Model based analysis of coupled vibrations due to the combi-bearing in vertical hydroturbogenerator rotors2011In: Journal of Vibration and Acoustics-Transactions of the ASME, ISSN 1048-9002, E-ISSN 1528-8927, Vol. 133, no 6, article id 061012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The studies presented in this paper focus on analyzing how the combined thrust-journal bearing (commonly called combi-bearing) influences the dynamics of hydropower rotors. Thrust bearing is a component used in vertical rotating machinery and shafts designed to transmit thrust. The total axial load is carried by the single thrust bearing. Any design, manufacture, or assembly error in this component (thrust bearing) would certainly influence the functionality of the entire machine. The analyzed combi-bearing is an existing machine component used in the hydropower unit Porjus U9 situated in northern Sweden. This combi-bearing is a fluid-film lubricated tilting-pad thrust and journal bearings combined together. Only linear fluid-film stiffness was taken into account in the model while fluid-film damping and pads inertia effects were not taken into account. The linearized model shows that the combi-bearing couples the rotor's lateral and angular motions. However, if the thrust bearing's pads arrangement is not symmetrical or if all the pads are not angularly equidistant the rotor axial and angular motions are also coupled. This last case of coupling will also occur if the thrust bearing equivalent total stiffness is not evenly distributed over the thrust bearing. A defective pad or unequal hydrodynamic pressure distribution on the pads' surfaces may be the cause. The Porjus U9's simulation results show that the combi-bearing influences the dynamic behavior of the machine. The rotor motions' coupling due to combi-bearing changes the system's natural frequencies and vibration modes.

  • 46.
    Calleecharan, Yogeshwarsing
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    On the dynamics of an hydropower generator subjected to unbalanced magnetic pull2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Eccentricity leading to unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP) in electrical machines is a significant concern in industry. The UMP is known to be composed of two components: A radial component and a tangential one. Models that are used in industry currently tend to include the radial component alone. In this paper, a Jeffcott rotor model together with a new UMP model that incorporates both radial and tangential UMP constituents is studied for an industrial hydropower generator. Characterising the UMP as springs permits the model to inherit UMP stiffness contribution. Interesting dynamics are observed with the new model for a wide range of external forcing frequencies. It is shown firstly that the new UMP model is sensitive to forcing frequency in the rotor movements. Moreover, complex dynamics in the displacements of the rotor are observed for some forcing frequencies and it is noted that the rotor does not need to be forced by frequencies above its critical speed for this less desirable motion to occur. Eigenvalue-based stability analysis is performed and shows that damping of the rotor and of the bearings are important when non-synchronous whirling of the rotor is considered. Accounting for both components of UMP is an important cornerstone in the generation of better rotor design parameters which can help to curb rotor-stator malfunction and can contribute in the design of long lasting rotors to the betterment of hydropower technology.

  • 47.
    Calleecharan, Yogeshwarsing
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    On the dynamics of an hydropower generator subjected to unbalanced magnetic pull2011In: The Institution of Engineering and Technology 8th International Conference on Computation in Electromagnetics: (CEM 2011), Wroclaw, Poland, 11-14 April 2011, 2011, p. 50-51Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eccentricity leading to unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP) in electrical machines is a significant concern in industry. The UMP is known to be composed of two components: A radial component and a tangential one. Models that are used in industry currently tend to include the radial component alone. In this paper, a Jeffcott rotor model together with a new UMP model that incorporates both radial and tangential UMP constituents is studied for an industrial hydropower generator. Characterising the UMP as springs permits the model to inherit UMP stiffness contribution. Interesting dynamics are observed with the new model for a wide range of external forcing frequencies. It is shown firstly that the new UMP model is sensitive to forcing frequency in the rotor movements. Moreover, complex dynamics in the displacements of the rotor are observed for some forcing frequencies and it is noted that the rotor does not need to be forced by frequencies above its critical speed for this less desirable motion to occur. Eigenvalue-based stability analysis is performed and shows that damping of the rotor and of the bearings are important when non-synchronous whirling of the rotor is considered. Accounting for both components of UMP is an important cornerstone in the generation of better rotor design parameters which can help to curb rotor-stator malfunction and can contribute in the design of long lasting rotors to the betterment of hydropower technology.

  • 48.
    Karlberg, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Rotordynamical simulations of a fibre refiner during production2011In: Journal of Sound and Vibration, ISSN 0022-460X, E-ISSN 1095-8568, Vol. 330, no 18/19, p. 4460-4473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key component in panel board production is the refiner, whose task is to break raw cellulose wood chips into slender fibres, done by a relative angular motion between stator and rotor. The main problem in predicting the dynamics of these machines is to model the complicated fibre breaking process, since the refining process leads to a three-phase flow (solid wood, water and steam) between the stator and rotor. By modelling the rotor as a rigid body, the process can only contribute by a resulting force and a resulting moment. Through this approach and axial force measurements, it has been shown that the refining process can be treated as a time dependent stiffness matrix and external load. The objective for this paper is to predict and explain dynamical characteristics of fibre refiners during production in such a way that the results can be used already at early stages of the product development process. Two different pressure distribution cases are studied, i.e. one axisymmetric with only radial variations and one non-axisymmetric. It is found that the axisymmetric case only excited forward modes, while the non-axisymmetric case excited all modes. The time dependent stiffness matrix resulted in unstable domains, but also in stable domains with intermittent high amplitudes.

  • 49.
    Calleecharan, Yogeshwarsing
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Stability analysis of an hydropower generator subjected to unbalanced magnetic pull2011In: IET Science, Measurement & Technology, ISSN 1751-8822, E-ISSN 1751-8830, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 231-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eccentricity leading to unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP) in electrical machines is a significant concern in industry. The UMP is known to be composed of two components: A radial component and a tangential one. Models that are used in industry currently tend to include the radial component alone. In this study, a Jeffcott rotor model together with a new UMP model that incorporates both the radial and tangential UMP constituents is studied for an industrial hydropower generator. Characterising the UMP as springs permits the proposed model to inherit UMP stiffness contribution. It is shown firstly that the new UMP model is sensitive to forcing frequency in the rotor movements and secondly, that this sensitivity to forcing frequency increases with decreasing rotor system stiffness. Moreover, quasi-periodic motion in the rotor displacements is observed for some forcing frequencies and system stiffnesses. Eigenvalue-based stability analysis is performed and shows that damping and stiffness of the rotor and of the bearings are important when non-synchronous whirling of the rotor comes into play. Accounting for both UMP components is an important cornerstone in the generation of better rotor designs which can help to curb rotor-stator malfunction and can contribute in the design of long lasting rotors.

  • 50.
    Mill, O.
    et al.
    Svenska Kraftnät.
    Dahlbäck, N.
    Vattenfall.
    Worman, A
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Johansson, F.
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Andreasson, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Yang, J.
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Lundin, U.
    UU.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Nilsson, H.
    CTH.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Glavatskih, Sergei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Analysis and development of hydro power research: synthesis within Swedish Hydro Power Centre2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The market for hydropower re-investments in Sweden is approx 2.5 billion SEK/yr the coming decade. Large investments will also be carried out in Swedish tailing dams. This will result in challenging projects and need of experts. A crucial factor for a successful management of these challenges is the supply of engineers and researchers with hydro power and dam skills and knowledge. Swedish Hydro Power Centre (Svenskt vattenkraftcentrum, SVC) is a competence centre for university education and research environments within hydro power and mining dams. SVC comprises of two knowledge areas: Hydraulic Engineering and Hydro Turbines and Generators, respectively. SVC builds high-quality and long term sustainable knowledge at selected universities...

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