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  • 1.
    Kasiuliene, Alfreda
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Carabante, Ivan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Hydrothermal carbonisation of peat-based spent sorbents loaded with metal(loid)s2019In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 26, no 23, p. 23730-23738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) is a wet and relatively low-temperature process where, under autogenous pressures, biomass undergoes a chain of reactions leading to the defragmentation of organic matter. As well as its other uses (e.g. for producing low-cost carbon-based nano-compounds), HTC is utilised for the treatment of wet wastes, such as manure and biosludge. This study aimed to determine if hydrothermal carbonisation is a feasible treatment method for spent sorbents that are highly enriched with arsenic, chromium, copper, and zinc. The chemical properties of hydrochar and process liquid were evaluated after HTC treatment, where peat-based spent sorbents were carbonised at 230 °C for 3 h. Analysis of Fourier transform-infrared spectra revealed that during HTC, the oxygenated bonds of ethers, esters, and carboxylic groups were cleaved, and low-molecular-weight organic fragments were dissolved in the process liquid. A large fraction of arsenic (up to 62%), copper (up to 25%), and zinc (up to 36%) were transferred from the solids into the process water. Leaching of these elements from the hydrochars increased significantly in comparison with the spent sorbents.

  • 2.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Antelo, Juan
    Technological Research Institute, University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Carabante, Ivan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Komárek, Michael
    Department of Environmental Geosciences, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic.
    Söderberg, Charlotta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    In situ chemical stabilization of trace element-contaminated soil: Field demonstrations and barriers to transition from laboratory to the field : A review2019In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 100, p. 335-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical stabilization, or immobilization, of trace elements (metals and metalloids; TE) in contaminated soil has been studied for decades. A vast number of scientific publications are available on the method performance in laboratory settings, reporting that the application of various soil amendments to contaminated soil reduces TE mobility, bioavailability and toxicity. The most commonly used soil amendments include organic matter, iron oxides, phosphates, ashes, and lately biochar, alone or in combination with each other and/or lime. Most of the implemented field studies show a certain degree of improvement in soil and/or vegetation status following amendment. Regardless the positive performance of the technique in the laboratory, field validations and demonstrations remain scarce. The establishment of a field experiment often involves permits from authorities and agreements with site owners, both of which are considerably more time-consuming than laboratory tests. Due to conservative institutional structures, public authorities have been slow to adopt alternative remediation technologies, especially when the total TE concentration in soil remains the same and all of the associated risks are not yet convincingly described. For this reason, researchers should also focus on enhancing public knowledge of alternative remediation techniques so that future projects which aim to demonstrate the effectiveness of in situ immobilization techniques under natural conditions will be supported.

  • 3.
    Kasiuliene, Alfreda
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Carabante, Ivan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Treatment of metal (loid) contaminated solutions using iron-peat as sorbent: is landfilling a suitable management option for the spent sorbent?2019In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 26, no 21, p. 21425-21436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study firstly aimed to investigate the potential of simultaneous metal (loid) removal from metal (oid) solution through adsorption on iron-peat, where the sorbent was made from peat and Fe by-products. Up-flow columns filled with the prepared sorbent were used to treat water contaminated with As, Cu, Cr, and Zn. Peat effectively adsorbed Cr, Cu, and Zn, whereas approximately 50% of inlet As was detected in the eluent. Iron-sand was effective only for adsorbing As, but Cr, Cu, and Zn were poorly adsorbed. Only iron-peat showed the simultaneous removal of all tested metal (loid)s. Metal (loid) leaching from the spent sorbent at reducing conditions as means to assess the behaviour of the spent sorbent if landfilled was also evaluated. For this purpose, a standardised batch leaching test and leaching experiment at reducing conditions were conducted using the spent sorbent. It was found that oxidising conditions, which prevailed during the standardised batch leaching test, could have led to an underestimation of redox-sensitive As leaching. Substantially higher amounts of As were leached out from the spent sorbents at reducing atmosphere compared with oxidising one. Furthermore, reducing environment caused As(V) to be reduced into the more-toxic As (III).

  • 4.
    Kasiuliene, Alfroda
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Carabante, Ivan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Carporale, A.G.
    Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II.
    Adamo, P.
    Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Removal of metal(oid)s from contaminated water using iron-coated peat sorbent2018In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 198, p. 290-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed at combining iron and peat to produce a sorbent suitable for a simultaneous removal of cations and anions from a solution. Peat powder, an industrial residue, was coated with iron by immersing peat into iron salt solutions. The adsorption efficiency of the newly produced sorbent towards As, Cr, Cu and Zn was tested by means of batch adsorption experiments at a constant pH value of 5. Coating of Fe on peat significantly increased the adsorption of As (from <5% to 80%) and Cr (from <3% to 25%) in comparison to uncoated peat. Removal of cations on coated peat slightly decreased (by 10–15%), yet remained within acceptable range. Electron Microscopy combined with X-Ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy revealed that iron coating on the peat was rather homogenous and As and Cr were abundantly adsorbed on the surface. By contrast, Cu and Zn displayed a sparing distribution on the surface of the iron coated peat. These results indicate that iron-peat simultaneously target sufficient amounts of both cations and anions and can be used for a one-step treatment of contaminated groundwater

  • 5.
    Quintela-Sabarís, Celestino
    et al.
    BIOGECO, INRA, Univ. Bordeaux.
    Marchand, Lilian
    BIOGECO, INRA, Univ. Bordeaux.
    Kidd, Petra S.
    Instituto de Investigaciones Agrobiológicas de Galicia (IIAG), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Santiago de Compostela .
    Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology.
    Puschenreiter, Markus
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna .
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Müller, Ingo
    Saxon State Agency for Environment, Agriculture and Geology.
    Neu, Silke
    Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Geology.
    Janssen, Jolien
    Hasselt University, Centre for Environmental Sciences.
    Vangronsveld, Jaco
    Hasselt University, Centre for Environmental Sciences.
    Dimitriou, Ioannis
    Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology.
    Siebielec, Grzegorz
    Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation - State Research Institute.
    Gałązka, Rafał
    Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation - State Research Institute.
    Bert, Valérie
    INERIS, Clean and Sustainable Technologies and Processes Unit, DRC/RISK, Parc Technologique Alata.
    Herzig, Rolf
    Phytotech Foundation (PT-F), and AGB-Bioindikation Umweltbeobachtung und oekologische Planung Quartiergasse, Bern.
    Cundy, Andrew B.
    Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre (Southampton), University of Southampton.
    Oustrière, Nadège
    BIOGECO, INRA, Univ. Bordeaux.
    Kolbas, Aliaksandr
    BIOGECO, INRA, Univ. Bordeaux.
    Galland, William
    BIOGECO, INRA, Univ. Bordeaux.
    Mench, Michel
    BIOGECO, INRA, Univ. Bordeaux.
    Assessing phytotoxicity of trace element-contaminated soils phytomanaged with gentle remediation options at ten European field trials2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 599-600, p. 1388-1398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gentle remediation options (GRO), i.e. in situ stabilisation, (aided) phytoextraction and (aided) phytostabilisation, were implemented at ten European sites contaminated with trace elements (TE) from various anthropogenic sources: mining, atmospheric fallout, landfill leachates, wood preservatives, dredged-sediments, and dumped wastes. To assess the performance of the GRO options, topsoil was collected from each field trial, potted, and cultivated with lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) for 48 days. Shoot dry weight (DW) yield, photosynthesis efficiency and major element and TE concentrations in the soil pore water and lettuce shoots were measured.

    GRO implementation had a limited effect on TE concentrations in the soil pore water, although use of multivariate Co-inertia Analysis revealed a clear amelioration effect in phytomanaged soils. Phytomanagement increased shoot DW yield at all industrial and mine sites, whereas in agricultural soils improvements were produced in one out of five sites. Photosynthesis efficiency was less sensitive than changes in shoot biomass and did not discriminate changes in soil conditions.

    Based on lettuce shoot DW yield, compost amendment followed by phytoextraction yielded better results than phytostabilisation; moreover shoot ionome data proved that, depending on initial soil conditions, recurrent compost application may be required to maintain crop production with common shoot nutrient concentrations.

  • 6.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Giagnoni, Laura
    Department of Agrifood Production and Environmental Sciences, University of Florence.
    Marschner, Bernd
    Ruhr-Universität Bochum.
    Denys, Sébastien
    Joint Research Unit (UMR) Biodiversity, Genes & Communities (BIOGECO), French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA).
    Mench, Michel
    Agence Nationale de Sécurité Sanitaire (Anses).
    Andriaensen, Kristin
    i-CLEANTECH Vlaanderen.
    Vangronsveld, Jaco
    Hasselt University, Centre for Environmental Sciences.
    Puschenreiter, Markus
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna.
    Renella, Giancarlo
    Department of Agrifood Production and Environmental Sciences, University of Florence.
    Assessment of Methods for Determining Bioavailability of Trace Elements in Soils: A Review2017In: Pedosphere, ISSN 1002-0160, E-ISSN 2210-5107, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 389-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trace element-contaminated soils (TECSs) are one of the consequences of the past industrial development worldwide. Excessive exposure to trace elements (TEs) represents a permanent threat to ecosystems and humans worldwide owing to the capacity of metal(loid)s to cross the cell membranes of living organisms and of human epithelia, and their interference with cell metabolism. Quantification of TE bioavailability in soils is complicated due to the polyphasic and reactive nature of soil constituents. To unravel critical factors controlling soil TE bioavailability and to quantify the ecological toxicity of TECSs, TEs are pivotal for evaluating excessive exposure or deficiencies and controlling the ecological risks. While current knowledge on TE bioavailability and related cumulative consequences is growing, the lack of an integrated use of this concept still hinders its utilization for a more holistic view of ecosystem vulnerability and risks for human health. Bioavailability is not generally included in models for decision making in the appraisal of TECS remediation options. In this review we describe the methods for determining the TE bioavailability and technological developments, gaps in current knowledge, and research needed to better understand how TE bioavailability can be controlled by sustainable TECS management altering key chemical properties, which would allow policy decisions for environmental protection and risk management

  • 7.
    Bert, Valérie
    et al.
    INERIS, Clean and Sustainable Technologies and Processes Unit, DRC/RISK, Parc Technologique Alata.
    Neu, S.
    Technische Universität Dresden, Institute of Wood and Plant Chemistry.
    Zdanevitch, Isabelle
    NERIS, Clean and Sustainable Technologies and Processes Unit, DRC/RISK, Parc Technologique Alata.
    Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Energy Department.
    Collet, Serge
    INERIS, Sources and Emissions Unit, DRC/CARA, Parc Technologique Alata.
    Gaucher, Rodolphe
    INERIS, Clean and Sustainable Technologies and Processes Unit, DRC/RISK, Parc Technologique Alata.
    Puschenreiter, Markus
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna – BOKU, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences.
    Müller, Ingo
    Saxon State Agency for Environment, Agriculture and Geology.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    How to manage plant biomass originated from phytotechnologies?: Gathering perceptions from end-users2017In: International journal of phytoremediation, ISSN 1522-6514, E-ISSN 1549-7879, Vol. 19, no 10, p. 947-954Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A questionnaire survey was carried out in 4 European countries to gather end-user's perceptions of using plants from phytotechnologies in combustion and anaerobic digestion (AD). 9 actors of the wood energy sector from France, Germany and Sweden, and 11 AD platform operators from France, Germany and Austria were interviewed. Questions related to installation, input materials, performed analyses, phytostabilization and phytoextraction. Although the majority of respondents did not know phytotechnologies, results suggested that plant biomass from phytomanaged areas could be used in AD and combustion, under certain conditions. As a potential advantage, these plants would not compete with plants grown on agricultural lands, contaminated lands being not suitable for agriculture production. Main limitations would be related to additional controls in process' inputs and end-products and installations that might generate additional costs. In most cases, price of phytotechnologies biomass was mentioned as a driver to potentially use plants from metal-contaminated soils. Plants used in phytostabilisation or phytoexclusion were thought to be less risky and, consequently, benefited from a better theoretical acceptance than those issued from phytoextraction. Results were discussed according to national regulations. One issue related to the regulatory gap concerning the status of the plant biomass produced on contaminated land.

  • 8.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Macsik, Josef
    Ecoloop Stockholm.
    Carabante, Ivan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Leaching behaviour of copper slag, construction and demolition waste and crushed rock used in a full-scale road construction2017In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 204, no 1, p. 695-703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The leaching behaviour of a road construction with fayalitic copper slag, recycled concrete and crushed rock as sub-base materials was monitored over ten years. All studied materials used in the road construction, including crushed rock, contained concentrations of several elements exceeding the guideline values recommended by the Swedish EPA for total element concentrations for waste materials used in constructions. Despite that, leaching from the road construction under field conditions in general was relatively low. The leachates from the recycled materials contained higher concentrations of several constituents than the leachates from the reference section with crushed rock. The leaching of the elements of interest (Cr, Mo, Ni, Zn) reached peak concentrations during the second and fourth (Cu) years and decreased over the observation period to levels below the Swedish recommended values. Carbonation of the concrete aggregates caused a substantial but short-term increase in the leaching of oxyanions such as chromate. The environmental risks related to element leaching are highest at the beginning of the road life. Ageing of materials or pre-treatment through leaching is needed prior to their use in construction to avoid peak concentrations. Also, the design of road constructions should be adjusted so that recycled materials are covered with low-permeability covers, which would minimize the exposure to atmospheric precipitation and weathering.

  • 9.
    Touceda-Gonzalez, M.
    et al.
    Instituto de Investigaciones Agrobiologicas de Galicia (IIAG), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC).
    Prieto-Fernandez, A.
    Instituto de Investigaciones Agrobiologicas de Galicia (IIAG), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC).
    Renella, Giancarlo
    Department of Agrifood Production and Environmental Sciences, University of Florence.
    Giagnoni, Laura
    Department of Agrifood Production and Environmental Sciences, University of Florence.
    Sessitsch, A.
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Center for Health & Bioresources.
    Brader, G.
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Center for Health & Bioresources.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Dimitriou, Ioannis
    Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology.
    Eriksson, J.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, Department of Soil and Environment.
    Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology.
    Gałązka, Rafał
    Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation - State Research Institute.
    Janssen, Jolien
    Hasselt University, Centre for Environmental Sciences.
    Mench, Michel
    Agence Nationale de Sécurité Sanitaire (Anses).
    Müller, Ingo
    Saxon State Agency for Environment, Agriculture and Geology.
    Neu, Silke
    Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Geology.
    Puschenreiter, Markus
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna.
    Siebielec, Grzegorz
    Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation - State Research Institute.
    Vangronsveld, Jaco
    Hasselt University, Centre for Environmental Sciences.
    Kidd, Petra S.
    Instituto de Investigaciones Agrobiológicas de Galicia (IIAG), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Santiago de Compostela .
    Microbial community structure and activity in trace elementcontaminatedsoils phytomanaged by Gentle Remediation Options (GRO)2017In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 231, no 1, p. 237-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gentle remediation options (GRO) are based on the combined use of plants, associated microorganisms and soil amendments, which can potentially restore soil functions and quality. We studied the effects of three GRO (aided-phytostabilisation, in situ stabilisation and phytoexclusion, and aided-phytoextraction) on the soil microbial biomass and respiration, the activities of hydrolase enzymes involved in the biogeochemical cycles of C, N, P, and S, and bacterial community structure of trace element contaminated soils (TECS) from six field trials across Europe. Community structure was studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting of Bacteria, α- and β-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Streptomycetaceae, and sequencing of DGGE bands characteristic of specific treatments. The number of copies of genes involved in ammonia oxidation and denitrification were determined by qPCR.

    Phytomanagement increased soil microbial biomass at three sites and respiration at the Biogeco site (France). Enzyme activities were consistently higher in treated soils compared to untreated soils at the Biogeco site. At this site, microbial biomass increased from 696 to 2352 mg ATP kg−1 soil, respiration increased from 7.4 to 40.1 mg C-CO2 kg−1 soil d−1, and enzyme activities were 2–11-fold higher in treated soils compared to untreated soil. Phytomanagement induced shifts in the bacterial community structure at both, the total community and functional group levels, and generally increased the number of copies of genes involved in the N cycle (nirK, nirS, nosZ, and amoA). The influence of the main soil physico-chemical properties and trace element availability were assessed and eventual site-specific effects elucidated. Overall, our results demonstrate that phytomanagement of TECS influences soil biological activity in the long term.

  • 10.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Nordmark, Désirée
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Carabante, Ivan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Sužiedelytė-Visockienė, Jūratė
    Department of Geodesy and Cadastre, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University.
    Česlovas Aksamitauskas, Vladislovas
    Department of Geodesy and Cadastre, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University.
    Remediation of soil contaminated with organic and inorganic wood impregnation chemicals by soil washing2017In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 184, p. 13-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a large scale washing/wet sieving technique for a soil contaminated with wood impregnation chemicals by 1) defining the final distribution of trace elements (As, Cu, Cr, Zn) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in separated soil particle size fractions; and 2) defining the leaching behavior of the contaminants in these soil fractions. A soil washing experiment was implemented at waste management facility in Sweden using a full scale soil sorting and washing equipment. Five tons of soil was loaded to the equipment and wet-sieved into the following fractions: >16 mm, 8–16 mm, 2–8 mm, 0.2–2 mm, <0.2 mm and a fraction that floated on top of the slurry before the final separation phase, composed of organic matter (OM). Analysis of total concentrations of contaminants in all soil fractions indicated that wet sieving/soil washing was not efficient to reduce the total volume of soil that needs further treatment. Even the coarsest soil fractions (>8 mm) contained elevated concentrations of total As and PAH. Leaching of As from all washed soil fractions was so high, that none of the particle size fractions could be disposed of without additional treatment.

  • 11.
    Kasiuliene, Alfreda
    et al.
    Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Institute of Environment and Ecology, Kaunas.
    Paulauskas, Valdas A.
    Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Institute of Environment and Ecology, Kaunas.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Chelant-Assisted Accumulation of Cd, Cu, and Zn in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Biomass as a Renewable Energy Feedstock2016In: Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, ISSN 1230-1485, E-ISSN 2083-5906, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 1985-1993Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the environmental concerns regarding soil contamination by heavy metals and the possibility of growing a high biomass-yielding crop (i.e., rapeseed) as a tool of phytoremediation. The aim of our research was to investigate the growth parameters and the capacity of rapeseed to accumulate Cd, Cu, and Zn from the contaminated soil and to investigate the effects of the chelants (EDTA, EDDS) as potential heavy metal mobility-enhancing agents. A pot experiment was performed under greenhouse conditions where rapeseed was grown on heavy metal-contaminated soil taken from former septic drain fields. Chelants were applied twice using doses of 3 mmol kg(-1) of wet soil weight. Plants from contaminated soil produced more biomass and heavier seeds. The highest Cd concentrations were detected in rapeseed stems and leaves: Cu in roots and Zn in seeds and stems with leaves. Rapeseed in some cases exhibited translocation factor values for single plant parts greater than unity, whereas the bioconcentration factor was always below unity. Detected concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Zn in the biomass indicate that rapeseed may be considered an excluder rather than accumulator. Chelant application did not provide the expected enhancing effect on heavy metal uptake by rapeseed.

  • 12.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Niero, L.
    Contaminated soil for landfill covers: Risk mitigation by arsenic immobilization2016In: Arsenic Research and Global Sustainability: Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, AS 2016 / [ed] Bhattacharya, Prosun; Vahter, Marie; Jarsjo, Jerker; Kumpiene, Jurate; Charlotte, Sparrenbom, London: CRC Press, 2016, p. 579-580Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the risks of arsenic (As) spreading from soil that was used in a landfill cover. The As-contaminated soil was treated with iron, and a combination of iron and peat and placed in a pilot-scale landfill cover. The main exposure pathways concerning risks to human health and the environment were studied by analysing dissolved As in soil pore water, As phytotoxicity and bioaccessibility. The results showed that the stabilization of As-contaminated soil with a combination of Fe0and peat signifi-cantly reduced the As concentration in soil pore water, uptake by plants and improved the main morphological parameters of plants. The soil treatment also reduced the bioaccessibility As indicating the reduced risks to human health. Using Fe0amendment alone, the positive impact on the measured indicators was considerably smaller or not significant

  • 13.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Vahter, Marie E.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Jaresjö, Jerker
    Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ahmad, Arslan
    KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Nieuwegein.
    Sparrenbom, Charlotta Jönsson
    Department Geology, Quaternary Sciences, Lund University.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Donselaar, Marinus Eric
    Department of Geoscience and Engineering, Delft Univ. of Technology.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Naidu, Ravi
    Global Centre for Environmental Remediation (GCER), Faculty of Science & Information Technology, The University of Newcastle.
    Editors’ foreword2016In: Arsenic Research and Global Sustainability: Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, AS 2016 / [ed] Bhattacharya, Prosun; Vahter, Marie; Jarsjo, Jerker; Kumpiene, Jurate; Charlotte, Sparrenbom, London: CRC Press, 2016, p. xlv-xlviConference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Fly ash in landfill top covers: a review2016In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 11-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increase of energy recovery from municipal solid waste by incineration results in the increased amounts of incineration residues, such as fly ash, that have to be taken care of. Material properties should define whether fly ash is a waste or a viable resource to be used for various applications. Here, two areas of potential fly ash application are reviewed: the use of fly ash in a landfill top cover either as a liner material or as a soil amendment in vegetation layer. Fly ashes from incineration of three types of fuel are considered: refuse derived fuel (RDF), municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and biofuel. Based on the observations, RDF and MSWI fly ash is considered as suitable materials to be used in a landfill top cover liner. Whereas MSWI and biofuel fly ashes based on element availability for plant studies, could be considered suitable for the vegetation layer of the top cover. Responsible application of MSWI ashes is, however, warranted in order to avoid element accumulation in soil and elevation of background values over time.

  • 15.
    Tiberg, Charlotta
    et al.
    Statens Geotekniska Institut, Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Marsz, Aleksandra
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Persson, Ingmar
    Department of Chemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Mench, Michel
    Bordeaux University, UMR BIOGECO INRA 1202, Ecology of Communities, Bordeaux 1 University.
    Kleja, Dan B.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Immobilization of Cu and As in two contaminated soils with zero-valent iron: Long-term performance and mechanisms2016In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 67, p. 144-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immobilization of trace elements in contaminated soils by zero-valent iron (ZVI) is a promising remediation method, but questions about its long-term performance remain unanswered. To quantify immobilization and predict possible contaminant remobilization on long timescales detailed knowledge about immobilization mechanisms is needed. This study aimed at assessing the long-term effect of ZVI amendments on dissolved copper and arsenic in contaminated soils, at exploring the immobilization mechanism(s), and at setting up a geochemical model able to estimate dissolved copper and arsenic under different scenarios. Samples from untreated and ZVI-treated plots in two field experiments where ZVI had been added 6 and 15 years ago were investigated by a combination of batch experiments, geochemical modeling and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. Dissolved copper and arsenic concentrations were described by a multisurface geochemical model with surface complexation reactions, verified by EXAFS. The ZVI remained “reactive” after 6-15 years, i.e. the dissolved concentrations of copper and arsenic were lower in the ZVI-treated than in the untreated soils. There was a shift in copper speciation from organic matter complexes in the untreated soil to surface complexes with iron (hydr)oxides in the ZVI-treated soil. The pH value was important for copper immobilization and ZVI did not have a stabilizing effect if pH was lower than about 6. Immobilization of arsenic was slightly pH-dependent and sensitive to the competition with phosphate. If phosphate was ignored in the modeling, the dissolution of arsenate was greatly underestimated

  • 16.
    Kasiuliene, Alfreda
    et al.
    Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Institute of Environment and Ecology, Kaunas.
    Paulauskas, Valdas A.
    Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Institute of Environment and Ecology, Kaunas.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Influence of nitrogen fertilizer on Cd and Zn accumulation in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) biomass2016In: Agronomy Research, ISSN 1406-894X, E-ISSN 2228-4907, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 418-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffuse soil contamination with heavy metals and Cd in particular is a matter of serious concern. Application of conventional remediation methods usually is not feasible due to the large territories and relatively low heavy metal content. Thus, phytoremediation is seen as an alternative. Rapeseed was grown on Cd and Zn contaminated as well as clean soil under the greenhouse conditions. Solid and liquid nitrogen fertilizers were applied during the pot experiment in order to test their influence on heavy metal accumulation in plant tissues. Vegetative parameters were measured four times during the pot experiment and it was concluded, that the elevated concentrations of Cd and Zn in the soil did not disrupt the development of rapeseed plants. Furthermore, plants from contaminated soil produced significantly bigger seeds in comparison to plants from uncontaminated soil. Calculated Bioconcentration factors for rapeseed grown on Cd and Zn contaminated soil in all cases were below unity, thus possibility to use this plant species for phytoextraction purposes is limited, but it can be successfully grown on contaminated land as an energy crop. Application of nitrogen fertilizers had a significant effect on heavy metal accumulation and decreased Cd and Zn concentrations in rapeseed roots and stems with leaves were recorded. Accumulation differences between the liquid and solid fertilizer applications were negligible.

  • 17.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Nordmark, Desiree
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Hamberg, Roger
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Carabante, Ivan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Simanavičienė, Rūta
    Department of Mathematical Modelling, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University.
    Česlovas Aksamitauskas, Vladislovas
    Department of Geodesy and Cadastre, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University.
    Leaching of arsenic, copper and chromium from thermally treated soil2016In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 183, no 3, p. 460-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal treatment, if properly performed, is an effective way of destroying organic compounds in contaminated soil, while impact on co-present inorganic contaminants varies depending on the element. Leaching of trace elements in thermally treated soil can be altered by co-combusting different types of materials. This study aimed at assessing changes in mobility of As, Cr and Cu in thermally treated soil as affected by addition of industrial by-products prior to soil combustion. Contaminated soil was mixed with either waste of gypsum boards, a steel processing residue (Fe3O4), fly ash from wood and coal combustion or a steel abrasive (96.5% Fe0). The mixes and unamended soil were thermally treated at 800 °C and divided into a fine fraction <0.125 mm and a coarse fraction >0.125 mm to simulate particle separation occurring in thermal treatment plants. The impact of the treatment on element behaviour was assessed by a batch leaching test, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The results suggest that thermal treatment is highly unfavourable for As contaminated soils as it increased both the As leaching in the fine particle size fraction and the mass of the fines (up to 92%). Soil amendment with Fe-containing compounds prior to the thermal treatment reduced As leaching to the levels acceptable for hazardous waste landfills, but only in the coarse fraction, which does not justify the usefulness of such treatment. Among the amendments used, gypsum most effectively reduced leaching of Cr and Cu in thermally treated soil and could be recommended for soils that do not contain As. Fly ash was the least effective amendment as it increased leaching of both Cr and As in majority of samples.

  • 18.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Wolters, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Skoglund, Nils
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Cirba, Stasys
    Department of Mathematical Modelling, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University.
    Aksamitauskas, Vladislovas Ceslovas
    Department of Geodesy and Cadastre, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University.
    Phosphorus and cadmium availability in soil fertilized with biosolids and ashes2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 151, p. 124-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recycling of hygienized municipal sewage sludge (biosolids) to soil as the source of phosphorus (P) is generally encouraged. The use of biosolids, however, has some concerns, such as the presence of elevated concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements, and the possible presence of pathogens, hormones and antibiotics. Organic substances are destroyed during combustion whereas trace elements could partly be separated from P in different ash fractions. Biomass combustion waste (ash) can instead be considered as an alternative P source. This study evaluates and compares the impact of biosolids and their combustion residues (ashes), when used as fertilizers, on P and Cd solubility in soil, plant growth and plant uptake of these elements. Biosolids were also amended with K and Ca to improve the composition and properties of P in ashes, and incinerated at either 800 °C or 950 °C. Combustion of biosolids improved the Cd/P ratio in ashes by 2-5 times, compared with the initial biosolids. The low Cd content in ashes (4-9 mg Cd (kg P)-1) makes this material a particularly attractive alternative to mineral fertilizers. Significantly higher pore water P (as well as total N) was measured in soils containing biosolids, but plants produced a higher biomass in soil fertilized with ashes. The K and Ca amendments prior to biosolids combustion generally decreased the total Cd in ash, but had little effect on P and Cd uptake and biomass growth. Similarly, the combustion temperature had negligible effect on these factors as well

  • 19.
    Travar, Igor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Development of drainage water quality from a landfill cover built with secondary construction materials2015In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 35, p. 148-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the drainage water quality from a landfill cover built with secondary construction materials (SCM), fly ash (FA), bottom ash (BA) sewage sludge, compost and its changes over time. Column tests, physical simulation models and a full scale field test were conducted. While the laboratory tests showed a clear trend for all studied constituents towards reduced concentrations over time, the concentrations in the field fluctuated considerably. The primary contaminants in the drainage water were Cl−, N, dissolved organic matter and Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn with initial concentrations one to three orders of magnitude above the discharge values to the local recipient. Using a sludge/FA mixture in the protection layer resulted in less contaminated drainage water compared to a sludge/BA mixture. If the leaching conditions in the landfill cover change from reduced to oxidized, the release of trace elements from ashes is expected to last about one decade longer while the release of N and organic matter from the sludge can be shortened with about two–three decades. The observed concentration levels and their expected development over time require drainage water treatment for at least three to four decades before the water can be discharged directly to the recipient.

  • 20. Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Wolters, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Tekedo AB, Nyköping, Sweden.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Elements availability in soil fertilized with pelletized fly ash and biosolids2015In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 159, p. 27-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of combined and pelletized industrial residues on availability and mobility of nutrients and potentially toxic elements in soil, plant growth and element uptake. Plant pot experiments were carried out using soil to which 2% of pelletized residue containing biosolids mixed with either municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MFA) or biofuel fly ash (BFA) was added. The tests showed that the plant growth did not correspond to the content of available nutrients in fertilised soil. MFA application to soil resulted in elevated concentrations of P (506 mg/kg), As (2.7 mg/kg), Cd (0.8 mg/kg) and Pb (12.1 mg/kg) in soil, lower plant uptake of Al (25 mg/kg) and Ba (51 mg/kg), but higher accumulation of As (4.3 mg/kg) and Cd (0.3 mg/kg) in plants compared to the unamended soil and soil amended with BFA. On average, the biomass of the plants grown in the soil containing MFA was larger than in other soils.Considering the use of industrial residue mixtures as soil amendments or fertilizers, the amount of added elements should not exceed those taken up by plants, by this preventing the increase of soil background concentrations.

  • 21.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Energy generation by waste incineration: the management of impregnated wood2015In: Energy and Sustainability VI / [ed] Whady Florez-Escobar; Farid Chejne; Fanor Mondragon; Carlos Brebbia, Southampton, UK: WIT Transactions on Ecology and The Environment , 2015, p. 89-100Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfilling of organic waste is no longer allowed in Sweden. Instead, essentially all such waste is being recycled, and about half of it goes to incineration which accounts for about 10% of the total need for heating of buildings. Incineration implies destruction of potentially harmful constituents in the waste, but does not destroy contaminant elements such as arsenic which almost exclusively originates from impregnated wood. Methods for identification of chromium, copper and arsenic in such wood are analysed as well as techniques for sorting it into two categories. If incinerated separately, these can give rise to ash with Cr, Cu and As, and ash with only Cu. The former ash has a small volume and can be stabilized/landfilled at a qualified facility, and the latter ash might be used for beneficiation of Cu. In addition, the contamination by As, especially, in other fuels will be small and consequently also in the ash, thus facilitating its use. It is found that such sorting may be achieved using visual inspection as well as x-ray fluorescence (XRF), whilst use of reagents does not appear to offer any advantage over these two. Both methods are already in industrial use in Sweden, thus proving the feasibility of segregation and stabilization of contaminants in impregnated wood.

  • 22.
    Xue, K.
    et al.
    Institute for Environmental Genomics and Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology, University of Oklahoma, Norman.
    Nostrand, J.D. van
    Institute for Environmental Genomics and Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology, University of Oklahoma, Norman.
    Vangronsveld, Jaco
    Hasselt University, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek.
    Witters, N.
    Hasselt University, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek.
    Janssen, Jolien
    Hasselt University, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Siebielec, Grzegorz
    Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation - State Research Institute.
    Galazka, Rafal
    Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation - State Research Institute.
    Giagnoni, L.
    University of Florence, Department of Agrifood Production and Environmental Sciences, P.le delle Cascine 28, I-50144 Florence.
    Arenella, Mariarita
    Department of Plant, Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Florence.
    Zhou, J-Z
    Institute for Environmental Genomics and Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology, University of Oklahoma, Norman.
    Renella, Giancarlo
    University of Florence, Department of Agrifood Production and Environmental Sciences, P.le delle Cascine 28, I-50144 Florence, Department of Plant, Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Florence, University of Florence.
    Management with willow short rotation coppice increase the functional gene diversity and functional activity of a heavy metal polluted soil2015In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 138, p. 469-477Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the microbial functional diversity, biochemical activity, heavy metals (HM) availability and soil toxicity of Cd, Pb and Zn contaminated soils, kept under grassland or short rotation coppice (SRC) to attenuate the risks associated with HM contamination and restore the soil ecological functions. Soil microbial functional diversity was analyzed by the GeoChip, a functional gene microarray containing probes for genes involved in nutrient cycling, metal resistance and stress response. Soil under SRC showed a higher abundance of microbial genes involved in C, N, P and S cycles and resistance to various HM, higher microbial biomass, respiration and enzyme activity rates, and lower HM availability than the grassland soil. The linkages between functional genes of soil microbial communities and soil chemical properties, HM availability and biochemical activity were also investigated. Soil toxicity and N, P and Pb availability were important factors in shaping the microbial functional diversity, as determined by CCA. We concluded that in HM contaminated soils the microbial functional diversity was positively influenced by SRC management through the reduction of HM availability and soil toxicity increase of nutrient cycling. The presented results can be important in predicting the long term environmental sustainability of plant-based soil remediation.

  • 23.
    Xu, Jingying
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Bravo, Andrea Garcia
    Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology, University of Uppsala.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology, University of Uppsala.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Sources and remediation techniques for mercury contaminated soil2015In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 74, p. 42-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mercury (Hg) in soils has increased by a factor of 3 to 10 in recent times mainly due to combustion of fossil fuels combined with long-range atmospheric transport processes. Other sources as chlor-alkali plants, gold mining and cement production can also be significant, at least locally. This paper summarizes the natural and anthropogenic sources that have contributed to the increase of Hg concentration in soil and reviews major remediation techniques and their applications to control soil Hg contamination. The focus is on soil washing, stabilisation/solidification, thermal treatment and biological techniques; but also the factors that influence Hg mobilisation in soil and therefore are crucial for evaluating and optimizing remediation techniques are discussed. Further research on bioremediation is encouraged and future study should focus on the implementation of different remediation techniques under field conditions.

  • 24.
    Travar, Igor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kihl, Anders
    Rang-Sells Avfallsbehandling AB.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    The release of As, Cr and Cu from contaminated soil stabilized with APC residues under landfill conditions2015In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 151, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the stability of As, Cr and Cu in contaminated soil treated with air pollution control residues under landfill conditions. The influence of landfill gas and temperature on the release of trace elements from stabilized soil was simulated using a diffusion test. The air pollution control residues immobilized As through the precipitation of Ca–As minerals (calcium arsenate (Ca5H2(AsO4)3 × 5H2O), weilite (CaAsO4) and johnbaumite (Ca5(AsO4)3(OH)), incorporation of As into ettringite (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 × 26H2O) and adsorption by calcite (CaCO3). The air pollution control residues generally showed a high resistance to pH reduction, indicating high buffer capacity and stability of immobilized As in a landfill over time. Generation of heat in a landfill might increase the release of trace elements. The release of As from stabilized soil was diffusion-controlled at 60 °C, while surface wash-off, dissolution, and depletion prevailed at 20 °C. The air pollution control residues from the incineration of municipal solid waste immobilized Cr, indicating its stability in a landfill. The treatment of soil with air pollution control residues was not effective in immobilization of Cu. Contaminated soils treated with air pollution control residues will probably have a low impact on overall leachate quality from a landfill.

  • 25.
    Travar, Igor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kihl, Anders
    Rang-Sells Avfallsbehandling AB.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Utilization of air pollution control residues for the stabilization/solidification of trace element contaminated soil2015In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, no 23, p. 19101-19111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stabilization/solidification (S/S) of trace element-contaminated soil using air pollution control residues (APCRs) prior to disposal in landfill sites. Two soil samples (with low and moderate concentrations of organic matter) were stabilized using three APCRs that originated from the incineration of municipal solid waste, bio-fuels and a mixture of coal and crushed olive kernels. Two APCR/soil mixtures were tested: 30 % APCR/70 % soil and 50 % APCR/50 % soil. A batch leaching test was used to study immobilization of As and co-occurring metals Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. Solidification was evaluated by measuring the unconfined compression strength (UCS). Leaching of As was reduced by 39–93 % in APCR/soil mixtures and decreased with increased amounts of added APCR. Immobilization of As positively correlated with the amount of Ca in the APCR and negatively with the amount of soil organic matter. According to geochemical modelling, the precipitation of calcium arsenate (Ca3(AsO4)2/4H2O) and incorporation of As in ettringite (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O) in soil/APCR mixtures might explain the reduced leaching of As. A negative effect of the treatment was an increased leaching of Cu, Cr and dissolved organic carbon. Solidification of APCR/soil was considerably weakened by soil organic matter.

  • 26.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Niero, L.
    Universita Degli Studi di Padova.
    Chemically stabilized arsenic-contaminated soil for landfill covers2014In: One century of the discovery of arsenicosis in Latin America (1914-2014): As 2014 - proceedings of the 5th international congress on arsenic in the environment / [ed] Marta I. Litter, Boca Raton,Ffla.: CRC Press, 2014, p. 842-843Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic (As) stabilization using zerovalent iron (Fe0) and its combination with peat was investigated in soil used as a pilot scale landfill cover in Northern Sweden. Leachate percolating through a 2 m thick layer of treated and untreated soil was collected in field. Chemical fractionation using sequential extraction, phytotoxicity test with dwarf beans and bioaccessibility tests simulating gastric solution were performed to assess the residual risks to the environment and human health. The results show that the exchangeable As-fraction in stabilized soils decreased when compared to the untreated soil, while other fractions remained unaffected. All the morphological parameters of plants improved and the bioaccessible As-fraction significantly decreased in the Fe-peat treated soil. The analysis of the leachates collected in field showed a substantially decreased As concentration in the Fe-peat amended soil. Further sampling is on-going in order to determine whether or not the treatment is successful in a long-term.

  • 27.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Zamora, Carles Belmonte
    LTU.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Effect of industrial residue combinations on availability of elements2014In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 276, p. 171-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial residues, such as fly ashes and biosolids, contain elements (e.g. N, P, K, S, Ca and Zn) that make them a viable alternative for synthetic fertilizers in forestry and agriculture. However, the use of these materials is often limited due to the presence of potentially toxic substances. It is therefore necessary to assess and, when warranted, modify the chemical and physical form of these and similar waste materials before any advantages are taken of their beneficial properties. Biofuel fly ash, municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash, biosolids, peat, peat residues and gypsum board waste were combined in various proportions, and this resulted in increased leaching of N, P, S, Cu and Mn, but decreased leaching of Ca, K, Mg, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Al, As and Pb. Chemical fractionation revealed that elements Ca, K, Mg, S and Mn were predominantly exchangeable, while the rest of the elements were less mobile. Cadmium was mostly exchangeable in MSWI fly ash, but less mobile in biofuel fly ash mixtures. Recycling of MSWI fly ash in the mixtures with fertilizers is considerably less attractive, due to the high levels of salts and exchangeable Cd.

  • 28.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Professional Support, Externfinansiering. Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology.
    Nilsson, Malin
    Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology.
    Skoglund, Nils
    Umeå University. Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology.
    Effect of residue combinations on plant uptake of nutrients and potentially toxic elements2014In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 132, p. 287-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the plant pot experiment was to evaluate potential environmental impacts of combined industrial residues to be used as soil fertilisers by analysing i) element availability in fly ash and biosolids mixed with soil both individual and in combination, ii) changes in element phytoavailability in soil fertilised with these materials and iii) impact of the fertilisers on plant growth and element uptake.Plant pot experiments were carried out, using soil to which fresh residue mixtures had been added. The results showed that element availability did not correlate with plant growth in the fertilised soil with. The largest concentrations of K (3534mg/l), Mg (184mg/l), P (1.8mg/l), S (760mg/l), Cu (0.39mg/l) and Zn (0.58mg/l) in soil pore water were found in the soil mixture with biosolids and MSWI fly ashes; however plants did not grow at all in mixtures containing the latter, most likely due to the high concentration of chlorides (82g/kg in the leachate) in this ash. It is known that high salinity of soil can reduce germination by e.g. limiting water absorption by the seeds. The concentrations of As, Cd and Pb in grown plants were negligible in most of the soils and were below the instrument detection limit values.The proportions of biofuel fly ash and biosolids can be adjusted in order to balance the amount and availability of macronutrients, while the possible increase of potentially toxic elements in biomass is negligible seeing as the plant uptake of such elements was low. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 29.
    Xu, Jingying
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Kleja, Dan B
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Biester, Harald
    Department of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geoecology, University of Braunschweig.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Influence of particle size distribution, organic carbon, pH and chlorides on washing of mercury contaminated soil2014In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 109, p. 99-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feasibility of soil washing to remediate Hg contaminated soil was studied. Dry sieving was performed to evaluate Hg distribution in soil particle size fractions. The influence of dissolved organic matter and chlorides on Hg dissolution was assessed by batch leaching tests. Mercury mobilization in the pH range of 3–11 was studied by pH-static titration. Results showed infeasibility of physical separation via dry sieving, as the least contaminated fraction exceeded the Swedish generic guideline value for Hg in soils. Soluble Hg did not correlate with dissolved organic carbon in the water leachate. The highest Hg dissolution was achieved at pH 5 and 11, reaching up to 0.3% of the total Hg. The pH adjustment was therefore not sufficient for the Hg removal to acceptable levels. Chlorides did not facilitate Hg mobilization under acidic pH either. Mercury was firmly bound in the studied soil thus soil washing might be insufficient method to treat the studied soil.

  • 30.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    Luleå University of Technology, Professional Support. EXTfinansiering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Project: North Waste Infrastructure2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31.
    Bolan, Nanthi
    et al.
    Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia.
    Kunhikrishnanc, Anitha
    Chemical Safety Division, Department of Agro-Food Safety, National Academy of Agricultural Science.
    Thangarajan, Ramya
    Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Park, Jinhee
    Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation, University of Queensland.
    Makino, Tomoyuki
    Soil Environmental Division, National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba.
    Kirkham, Mary Beth
    Department of Agronomy, 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center, Kansas State University.
    Scheckel, Kirk
    National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 5995 Center Hill Avenue, Cincinnati.
    Remediation of heavy metal(loid)s contaminated soils: To mobilize or to immobilize?2014In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 266, p. 141-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    nlike organic contaminants, metal(loid)s do not undergo microbial or chemical degradation and persist for a long time after their introduction. Bioavailability of metal(loid)s plays a vital role in the remediation of contaminated soils. In this review, the remediation of heavy metal(loid) contaminated soils through manipulating their bioavailability using a range of soil amendments will be presented. Mobilizing amendments such as chelating and desorbing agents increase the bioavailability and mobility of metal(loid)s. Immobilizing amendments such of precipitating agents and sorbent materials decrease the bioavailabilty and mobility of metal(loid)s. Mobilizing agents can be used to enhance the removal of heavy metal(loid)s though plant uptake and soil washing. Immobilizing agents can be used to reduce the transfer to metal(loid)s to food chain via plant uptake and leaching to groundwater. One of the major limitations of mobilizing technique is susceptibility to leaching of the mobilized heavy metal(loid)s in the absence of active plant uptake. Similarly, in the case of the immobilization technique the long-term stability of the immobilized heavy metal(loid)s needs to be monitored.

  • 32.
    Carabante, Ivan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Mouzon, Johanne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Grahn, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Fredriksson, Andreas
    Mining Technology R and D, LKAB Kiruna Mine.
    Hedlund, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Reutilization of porous sintered hematite bodies as effective adsorbents for arsenic(V) removal from water2014In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 53, no 32, p. 12689-12696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method was developed to enhance the arsenic adsorption capacity of porous bodies of sintered hematite. The method comprised the formation of a coating of 1 wt % iron oxide nanoparticles on the raw material. The nanoparticles showed two distinct habits: spherical habit, likely ferrihydrite, and acicular habit, likely goethite and/or akaganéite. The specific surface area of the hematite raw material increased from 0.5 to 3.75 m2/g, and the adsorption capacity increased from negligible to 0.65 mg of [As]/g as calculated from equilibrium and breakthrough adsorption data. Equilibrium adsorption data of arsenate on the adsorbent from a solution at pH 5 followed the Langmuir model, while breakthrough adsorption data for a 500 μg/L arsenate solution at pH 5 followed the Thomas model. The adsorbed arsenic could be desorbed using distilled water at pH 12. These results show the potential for the reutilization of waste products comprising coarse hematite bodies as adsorbents.

  • 33.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Bert, Valérie
    INERIS, Technologies and Sustainable and Clean Processes, Parc Technologique Alata, BP2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte.
    Dimitriou, Ioannis
    Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology.
    Eriksson, Jan
    Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, Department of Soil and Environment.
    Friesl-Hani, Wolfgang
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Health and Environment Department.
    Galazka, Rafal
    Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation - State Research Institute.
    Herzig, Rolf
    Phytotech Foundation and AGB, Quartiergasse 12, 3013 Bern.
    Janssen, Jolien
    Hasselt University, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek.
    Kidd, Petra
    Instituto de Investigaciones Agrobiológicas de Galicia (IIAG), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Santiago de Compostela.
    Mench, Michel
    UMR BIOGECO INRA 1202, Ecology of Communities, Bordeaux 1 University.
    Müller, Ingo
    Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Geology, Pillnitzer Platz 3, 01326 Dresden.
    Neu, Silke
    Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Geology, Pillnitzer Platz 3, 01326 Dresden.
    Oustriere, Nadège
    INRA, UMR1202 BIOGECO, F-33610 Cestas, France and Université de Bordeaux.
    Puschenreiter, Markus
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna — BOKU, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences.
    Renella, Giancarlo
    University of Florence, Department of Agrifood Production and Environmental Sciences, P.le delle Cascine 28, I-50144 Florence.
    Roumier, Pierre-Hevré
    Instituto de Investigaciones Agrobiológicas de Galicia (IIAG), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Santiago de Compostela.
    Siebielec, Grzegorz
    Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation - State Research Institute.
    Vangronsveld, Jaco
    Hasselt University, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan Building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek.
    Manier, Nicolas
    INERIS, Expertise and Assays in Ecotoxicology, Parc Technologique Alata.
    Selecting chemical and ecotoxicological test batteries for risk assessment of trace element-contaminated soils (phyto)managed by gentle remediation options (GRO)2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 496, p. 510-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past decades a number of field trials with gentle remediation options (GRO) have been established on trace element (TE) contaminated sites throughout Europe. Each research group selects different methods to assess the remediation success making it difficult to compare efficacy between various sites and treatments. This study aimed at selecting a minimum risk assessment battery combining chemical and ecotoxicological assays for assessing and comparing the effectiveness of GRO implemented in seven European case studies. Two test batteries were pre-selected; a chemical one for quantifying TE exposure in untreated soils and GRO-managed soils and a biological one for characterizing soil functionality and ecotoxicity. Soil samples from field studies representing one of the main GROs (phytoextraction in Belgium, Sweden, Germany and Switzerland, aided phytoextraction in France, and aided phytostabilization or in situ stabilization/phytoexclusion in Poland, France and Austria) were collected and assessed using the selected test batteries. The best correlations were obtained between NH4NO3-extractable, followed by NaNO3-extractable TE and the ecotoxicological responses. Biometrical parameters and biomarkers of dwarf beans were the most responsive indicators for the soil treatments and changes in soil TE exposures. Plant growth was inhibited at the higher extractable TE concentrations, while plant stress enzyme activities increased with the higher TE extractability. Based on these results, a minimum risk assessment battery to compare/biomonitor the sites phytomanaged by GROs might consist of the NH4NO3 extraction and the bean Plantox test including the stress enzyme activities.

  • 34.
    Travar, Igor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kihl, Anders
    Rang-Sells Avfallsbehandling AB.
    Stabilization of As-contaminated soil with fly ashes2014In: One Century of the discovery of arsenicosis in Latin America (1914-2014): As 2014 - proceedings of the 5th international congress on arsenic in the environment / [ed] Marta I. Litter, Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press, 2014, p. 847-849Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this study is to evaluate the stabilization of As-contaminated soil with Fly Ash (FA) and the environmental impact assessment of a soil/ash mixture after treatment. Two soil samples heavily contaminated with As were stabilized with two FA that originate from incineration of biofuels (BFA) and mixture of coal and crushed olive kernel (CFA). The As solubility was reduced between 39 and 93% in soil/ash mixtures. Leaching of As from soils decreased with increased amount of ash. Immobilization of As was positively correlated to pH and negatively correlated to the amount of organic matter in soil. Geochemical modeling showed that the release of As was controlled by Ca3(AsO4)2:4H2O in soil/ash mixtures that can be a possible explanation for the reduced solubility of As from soil/ash mixtures. A negative effect of the treatment was the mobilization of Cu from ashes and Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) from soil.

  • 35.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Changes in Element Solubility in Fly Ash and Biosolid Mixtures Used for Soil Fertilization2013In: 12th International Conference on the Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements, Athens, Georgia, USA, June 16-20, 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Xu, Jingying
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kleja, Dan Berggren
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Influence of soil particle size, organic carbon and pH on mercury distribution and dissolution in contaminated soil2013In: Influence of soil particle size, organic carbon and pH on mercury distribution and dissolution in contaminated soil, 2013, p. 45-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mercury (Hg) cannot be destroyed therefore only two principal processes are available for the treatment of Hg-contaminated soil: 1) separation of Hg from soil (through wet-sieving and/or chemical extraction), or 2) stabilization of Hg within the soil (through chemical immobilisation or stabilisation/solidification). If Hg separation is used, soil can be cleaned while Hg recovered. A complex matrix may, however, cause low treatment efficiency. Therefore, prior to selecting the suitable treatment technique, an understanding of Hg solubility and distribution in particle size fractions of the contaminated soil is necessary. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential for applying soil washing technology to clean Hg contaminated soil based on Hg distribution in soil particle size fractions, Hg solubility in water and pH-dependant Hg dissolution. Soil contaminated by different industrial processes (e.g. waste dump, chlor–alkali process, harbour activities) was collected from Tidermans padding area upstream of Göta River, Sweden during the site remediation. The soil was dry sieved into particle-size fractions of <0.063 mm, 0.063–0.125 mm, 0.125–0.25 mm, 0.25–0.5 mm, 0.5–1 mm, 1–2 mm and 2–4 mm and along with the bulk soil were analysed for total Hg and total organic carbon (TOC). A batch leaching test at liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S) 10 was performed to determine water soluble Hg and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). A pH-static leaching test was performed to determine Hg solubility in the pH range of 3-11. All particle size fractions contained Hg above the Swedish guideline value for contaminated soil (2.5 mg/kg for less sensitive land use). Total Hg concentrations decreased with increasing particle size (except fraction 1-2 mm), ranging from 48.70 mg/kg to 10.29 mg/kg. The TOC contents were similar in all size fractions from 8.72 to 10.88 and had no correlation with the total Hg. Water soluble Hg was low in all size fractions, making up for 0.04% to 0.12% of the total Hg. Contents of DOC declined from fine to large fractions, however, no correlation between Hg solubility and DOC content has been observed. Mercury desorption was affected by pH and fluctuated throughout the tested pH range. The least Hg dissolution was achieved at pH=3 and pH 9 in all fractions and the bulk soil, while the dissolution peaks were observed at pH=5 and pH=11. The results show that the soil washing applying wet-sieving and particle separation method would be unfeasible since elevated Hg concentrations are distributed in all tested soil particle fractions and water solubility of Hg is very low. Chemical extraction focusing on pH 5 or pH 11 might improve the Hg removal. Geochemical modelling is being performed to understand this Hg behaviour in the studied soil.

  • 37.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Desogus, Paolo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Schulenburg, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Arenella, Mariarita
    Department of Plant, Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Florence.
    Renella, Giancarlo
    Department of Plant, Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Florence.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Utilisation of chemically stabilized arsenic-contaminated soil in a landfill cover2013In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, no 12, p. 8649-8662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to determine if an As-contaminated soil, stabilized using zerovalent iron (Fe0) and its combination with gypsum waste, coal fly ash, peat, or sewage sludge, could be used as a construction material at the top layer of the landfill cover. A reproduction of 2 m thick protection/vegetation layer of a landfill cover using a column setup was used to determine the ability of the amendments to reduce As solubility and stimulate soil functionality along the soil profile. Soil amendment with Fe0 was highly efficient in reducing As in soil porewater reaching 99 % reduction, but only at the soil surface. In the deeper soil layers (below 0.5 m), the Fe treatment had a reverse effect, As solubility increased dramatically exceeding that of the untreated soil or any other treatment by one to two orders of magnitude. A slight bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri was detected in the Fe0 treatment. Soil amendment with iron and peat showed no toxicity to bacteria and was the most efficient in reducing dissolved As in soil porewater throughout the 2 m soil profile followed by iron and gypsum treatment, most likely resulting from a low soil density and a good air diffusion to the soil. The least suitable combination of soil amendments for As immobilization was a mixture of iron with coal fly ash. An increase in all measured enzyme activities was observed in all treatments, particularly those receiving organic matter. For As to be stable in soil, a combination of amendments that can keep the soil porous and ensure the air diffusion through the entire soil layer of the landfill cover is required.

  • 38.
    Skoglund, Nils
    et al.
    Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry, Umeå University.
    Boström, Dan
    Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry, Umeå University.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Grimm, Alejandro
    Öhman, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Återvinning av fosfor och energi ur avloppsslam genom termisk behandling i fluidiserad bädd; Slutrapport NWI Dp 4, Januari 20132013Report (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Fitts, Jeffrey P.
    Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY.
    Mench, Michel
    Bordeaux 1 University.
    Arsenic fractionation in mine spoils 10 years after aided phytostabilization2012In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 166, p. 82-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aided phytostabilization using a combination of compost, zerovalent iron grit and coal fly ash (CZA) amendments and revegetation effectively promoted the biological recovery of mining spoils generated at a gold mine in Portugal. Selective dissolution of spoil samples in combination with solid phase characterization using microbeam X-ray absorption near edge structure (μXANES) spectroscopy and microbeam X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) mapping were used to assess As associations in spoils ten years after CZA treatment. The results show that As preferentially associates with poorly crystalline Fe-oxyhydroxides as opposed to crystalline Fe-(oxyhydr)oxide phases. The crystalline Fe(III)-phases dominated in the treated spoil and exceeded those of the untreated spoil three-fold, but only 2.6–6.8% of total As was associated with this fraction. Correlation maps of As:Fe reveal that As in the CZA-treated spoils is primarily contained in surface coatings as precipitates and sorbates. Arsenic binding with poorly crystalline Fe-oxyhydroxides did not inhibit As uptake by plants.

  • 40.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Xu, Jingying
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Bäckström, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Arsenic leaching in landfilled soil2012In: Abstract proceedings of 7th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium: Södra Sunderbyn, June 25th to 27th, 2012 / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2012, p. 87-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Belmonte, Carles
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Characterisation of waste material mixtures for landfill top cover application2012In: Abstract proceedings of 7th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium: Södra Sunderbyn, June 25th to 27th, 2012 / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2012, p. 54-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Immobilisation of arsenic in landfilled soil using amendments2012In: Understanding the geological and medical interface of arsenic, As2012: 4th International Congress Arsenic in the Environment, Sebel Cairns International Hotel, Cairns, Australia, 22-27 July 2012 / [ed] Jack C. Ng, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2012, p. 326-327Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to assess the leaching of Arsenic (As) from chemically stabilized soil using sulfur-containing amendments under simulated landfill conditions (anaerobic environment). Three soils from former wood impregnation plants containing 270-4590 mg/kg As were mixed either with Coal Fly Ash (CFA), Calcium Sulfate (CaSO 4) or Calcium Sulfide (CaS) (3 wt% each) and incubated for one month in an anaerobic environment. None of the soil amendments were effective to reduce As leaching in anaerobic environment to the levels that were measured in aerobic conditions

  • 43.
    Carabante, Ivan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Grahn, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Holmgren, Allan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Hedlund, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Influence of Zn(II) on the adsorption of arsenate onto ferrihydrite2012In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, no 24, p. 13152-13159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Addition of iron oxide to arsenic-contaminated soil has been proposed as a means of reducing the mobility of arsenic in the soil. Arsenic and zinc are common coexisting contaminants in soils. The presence of zinc therefore may affect the adsorption properties of arsenic on iron oxide, and may thus affect its mobility in the soil. The influence of Zn(II) on the adsorption of arsenate ions on iron oxide was studied. Batch adsorption experiments indicated that Zn(II) increased the arsenate removal from a solution by ferrihydrite at pH 8. However, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy showed that no adsorption of arsenate on a ferrihydrite film occurred at pD 8 in the presence of Zn(II). Precipitation of zinc hydroxide carbonate followed by arsenate adorption onto the precipitate was found to be a plausible mechanism explaining the arsenate removal from a solution in the presence of Zn(II) at pH/pD 8. The previously suggested mechanisms attributing the enhanced removal of arsenate from solution in the presence of Zn(II) to additional adsorption on iron oxides could not be verified under the experimental conditions studied. It was also shown that at pH/pD 4, the presence of Zn(II) in the system did not significantly affect the adsorption of arsenate on ferrihydrite.

  • 44.
    Nordmark, Desiree
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Mobility of redox sensitive elements due to organic matter in contaminated soil: bottom ash and residual waste fraction2012In: Abstract proceedings of 7th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium: Södra Sunderbyn, June 25th to 27th, 2012 / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2012, p. 100-101Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Travar, Igor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ageing of ashes in a landfill top cover2011In: SARDINIA 2011: Thirteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy; 3 - 7 October 2011 / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA Publisher, Italy , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on studies on the effects of accelerated ageing on refuse-derived-fuel (RDF) fly ashes, in experiments under controlled laboratory conditions, intended to derive models to predict the stability of RDF fly ashes used in a landfill liner and the mineralogi-cal changes that occur in them. A reduced factorial design was applied, followed by multivariate data analysis, to evaluate the effects of five factors — carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, temperature, relative air humidity (RH), time and the quality of added water — on mineral transformations within the ashes, and leaching behaviour. The pH values of these ash specimens ranged from 7.2 to 7.6, indicating advanced carbonation. Ageing decreased pH values from 12.4 to 7.2, conse-quently affecting the leaching behaviour of most chemicals measured in the leachates. Levels of Ba, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Pb, K and Na decreased over the study period while those of Mg, Zn and SO4 increased. Clay minerals could not be detected neither in fresh nor in aged ashes. However, geo-chemical modelling indicated that such minerals may precipitate.

  • 46.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Mench, Michel
    UMR BIOGECO INRA 1202, Ecology of Communities, Bordeaux 1 University.
    Bes, Clémence M.
    UMR BIOGECO INRA 1202, Ecology of Communities, Bordeaux 1 University.
    Fitts, Jeffrey P.
    Energy, Environment & National Security, Environmental Sciences Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY.
    Assessment of aided phytostabilization of copper-contaminated soil by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and chemical extractions2011In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 159, no 6, p. 1536-1542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Field plots were established at a timber treatment site to evaluate remediation of Cu contaminated topsoils with aided phytostabilization. Soil containing 2600 mg kg-1 Cu was amended with a combination of 5 wt% compost and 2 wt% iron grit, and vegetated. Sequential extraction was combined with extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy to correlate changes in Cu distribution across five fractions with changes in the predominant Cu compounds two years after treatment in parallel treated and untreated field plots. Exchangeable Cu dominated untreated soil, most likely as Cu(II) species non-specifically bound to natural organic matter. The EXAFS spectroscopic results are consistent with the sequential extraction results, which show a major shift in Cu distribution as a result of soil treatment to the fraction bound to poorly crystalline Fe oxyhydroxides forming binuclear inner-sphere complexes.

  • 47.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Robinson, Ryan
    Brännvall, Evelina
    Nordmark, Desiree
    Bjurstöm, Henrik
    ÅF-Engineering AB.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Ecke, Holger
    Carbon speciation in ash, residual waste and contaminated soil by thermal and chemical analyses2011In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 18-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon in waste can occur as inorganic (IC), organic (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) each having distinct chemical properties and possible environmental effects. In this study, carbon speciation was performed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), chemical degradation tests and the standard total organic carbon (TOC) measurement procedures in three types of waste materials (bottom ash, residual waste and contaminated soil). Over 50% of the total carbon (TC) in all studied materials (72% in ash and residual waste, and 59% in soil) was biologically non-reactive or EC as determined by thermogravimetric analyses. The speciation of TOC by chemical degradation also showed a presence of a non-degradable C fraction in all materials (60% of TOC in ash, 30% in residual waste and 13% in soil), though in smaller amounts than those determined by TGA. In principle, chemical degradation method can give an indication of the presence of potentially inert C in various waste materials, while TGA is a more precise technique for C speciation, given that waste-specific method adjustments are made. The standard TOC measurement yields exaggerated estimates of organic carbon and may therefore overestimate the potential environmental impacts (e.g. landfill gas generation) of waste materials in a landfill environment.

  • 48. Nordmark, Desiree
    et al.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Andreas, Lale
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Mobility and fractionation of arsenic, chromium and copper in thermally treated soil2011In: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 3-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal treatment is used to remediate soil co-contaminated with organic and inorganic contaminants. It destroys organic contaminants, but the remaining inorganic contaminants require further treatment. In this study the effects of thermal treatment on the mobility, speciation and chemical fractionation of As, Cr and Cu in a CCA-polluted soil were evaluated by leaching tests, As speciation assays and a sequential extraction procedure. The soil was sieved into four size fractions (<0.125, 0.125—0.250, 0.250—0.500 and 0.500—1.0 mm), each of which was treated at 800°C and analysed in comparison with the untreated soil. The leaching of As and Cr increased by factors of 18—40 and 2—23, respectively, while the mobility of Cu decreased 12—14-fold after treatment. The concentration of As(V) in pore water of the finest soil fraction increased 19-fold, whereas that of As(III) remained constant. The treatment reduced As, Cr and Cu associated with the reducible soil fraction. In addition, it increased the proportions of As and Cr (slightly) associated with the exchangeable and acid-soluble soil fractions, and the proportions of Cu and Cr (substantially) associated with the residual fraction.

  • 49.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Potential mobility of trace elements in soil as affected by organic matter and redox conditions2011In: 11th International Conference on the Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements, Florence, Italy July 3-7, 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50. Rastas Amofah, Lea
    et al.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Prosun, Bhattacharya
    Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Sverige.
    Projekt: Pilotskale utvärdering av jordtvätt för sanering av arsenik-kontaminerad jord2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Jordtvätt - en lämplig metod för behandling av CCA förorenad jord? I samband med Länsstyrelsernas kartläggning av förorenade områden har upptäckts objekt som är förorenade med arsenik. En del av objekt är så förorenade att de har negativ påverkan på miljön eller människors hälsa så att de behöver åtgärdas senast år 2010. I träimpregneringsindustrin användes kromerad koppar arsenat (CCA) som impregneringsmedel. Olika steg i impregneringsprocessen har lett till att jord förorenats med As. Deponering är idag en vanlig metod att omhänderta arsenikförorenad jord och en betydande del av efterbehandlingskostnaderna består ofta av transport- och deponeringsavgifter. Nyligen har regelverk för bedömning av avfall förändrats vilket har banat väg för nya behandlingsmetoder för förorenad jord såsom jordtvätt. Huvudsyftet med detta projekt är att bedöma om jordtvätt är en lämplig behandlingsmetod för CCA-förorenad jord. Andra syften med projektet är att hitta en lämplig kemikalietillsats för att höja metodens effektivitet samt att hitta en effektiv metod att behandla As förorenad tvättvätska. Kan man säkerställa att den behandlade jorden är stabil och inte har några negativa effekter på omgivningen kan det bidra till att etablera jordtvätt som en hållbar behandlingsmetod. Deponering av jord är varken en hållbar eller en effektiv användning av resurser. Behandling av föroreningarna och återanvändning av det behandlade jordmaterialet kan däremot leda till minskad förbrukning av jord, minskade transporter, etc.

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