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  • 1.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Unit of Economic History, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Environmental Regulation in the Pulp and Paper Industry: Impacts and Challenges2019In: Current Forestry Reports, ISSN 2198-6436, Vol. 5, p. 185-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of Review

    In this article, we review existing research addressing how environmental regulations have influenced the pulp and paper industry. These regulations appear in different forms and designs and address air and water pollution as well as climate change. The paper devotes particular attention to how various regulations have affected sustainable technological change and the prospects for inducing deep emission reductions without jeopardizing industrial competitiveness and future investments.

    Recent Findings

    Experiences from key pulp and paper regions, not least the Nordic countries, suggest that gradually tightening performance standards have contributed to radical reductions in emissions, e.g., chlorine compounds and biological oxygen demanding agents, and without imposing excessive compliance costs. This outcome can largely be attributed to how the regulations have been designed—and implemented—in practice, as well as to the presence of efficient and legitimate institutions. Long-term emission reduction targets, in combination with extended compliance periods and trustful firm-regulator relationships, contributed to radical technological innovation and permitted radical emission reductions without excessive compliance costs. The development of alternative bleaching technologies is an apt example. In contrast, the impact of carbon pricing schemes, including the EU emissions trading scheme, on carbon dioxide emissions reductions and related technological change in the pulp and paper industry has however been modest. Self-regulation, certification, and community pressure have exerted relatively modest influences on the environmental performance of the industry.

    Summary

    Important avenues for future research are identified. These include the following: (a) comparative research on how policy mixes in various countries have influenced environmental compliance and innovation; processes; (b) future studies of environmental regulations, their design and implementation, in emerging pulp and paper producing countries, not least China; and (c) research on how environmental regulations can affect ongoing restructurings in the industry towards a broader palette of products in biorefineries.

  • 2.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Simon
    Sundin, Timmy
    Miljöprövningens roll för industrins utsläppsreduktion: erfarenheter från svenska pappers- och massabruk, 1981–20132019In: Miljörätten och den förhandlingsovilliga naturen: Vänbok till Gabriel Michanek / [ed] Jan Darpö, Maria Forsberg, Maria Pettersson, och Charlotta Zetterberg, Uppsala: Iustus förlag, 2019, p. 355-374Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wiklund, Roine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Policy and Business Efforts for the Reduced Impact of Mining on Nature: When Historical Studies Have Something to Offer Policy Makers2019In: Technology and culture, ISSN 0040-165X, E-ISSN 1097-3729, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 192-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we study the interaction of nature and technology in terms of policy and business activities in Sweden during the 1970s and 1980s. These activities aimed to reduce the impact of the mining industry on the natural environment while maintaining industrial competitiveness. In order to address this challenge, it was and still is important to identify ways that businesses can promote sustainable development without hazarding their continued operations and investments. Here, the design and implementation of environmental regulations are of central importance. This study relies on a rich set of documents related to 1970s and 1980s environmental licensing processes of the operations of the two largest mining companies in Sweden, Boliden AB and LKAB, both situated close to the Arctic Circle in northern Sweden. Historians have much to offer policymakers, and this article demonstrates that good examples that permit us to reflect on future pathways for policy design can not only be found in other countries' current policy, but also further back in time.

  • 4.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Larsson, Linus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Managing the 1970s energy crises in a state-owned mining company: strategies pursued by the Swedish iron ore producer LKAB2018In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 31, no 1-2, p. 179-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyze the strategies adopted by the Swedish state-owned iron ore mining producer LKAB in response to the 1970s energy crises, i.e., soaring energy input expenses in combination with stagnating demand for iron ore. The analysis builds on a unique empirical material, e.g., minutes from board meetings, over an extended time period. This permits in-depth analyses of the two main strategies pursued by LKAB at the time: (a) securing energy supplies (as well as output sales) through upstream investments in uranium and coal mining; and (b) engaging in own R&D to enable energy-saving measures and product development. While the LKAB experiences tend to support the notion that investments supporting broader societal goals, although at the expense of firm productivity, may be likely in the presence of strong state government involvement, they also show that state-owned mineral enterprises can be highly innovative and competitive following investments in internal R&D. Specifically, LKAB’s R&D contributed to significant product development and energy savings, the latter occurring both in the company’s own pelletizing process as well as in the processes of key customers (i.e., the steel companies). The paper concludes by highlighting a number of important lessons for contemporary energy transitions in the process industries.

  • 5.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pioneering industry/municipal district heating collaboration in Sweden in the 1970s2018In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 112, p. 328-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the article is to reach increased understanding of the potential obstacles and opportunities for industry/energy-company collaborations. This is achieved through exploring a pioneering collaboration regarding waste heat from a steelworks to a local district heating system in northern Sweden that was established in the 1970s. With a historical qualitative approach and focus on the long-term and dynamic explanatory factors behind the collaboration, the article complements previous studies typically focusing on barriers/drivers at the end of the process from idea to actual waste heat supplies (e.g., the allocation of costs among parties). From a long-term perspective, concerns over the actual waste heat supplies were found to be protracted and more critical. Hence, although the collaboration from start rested on firm beliefs of sufficient supplies, concerns over actual supplies remained critical throughout the 11-year long process. The article suggests that: a) market fluctuations and the industrial company's continuous strive for profit maximization tend to be underestimated in previous literature on obstacles to waste heat supplies; and b) targeted government subsidies could be an essential policy tool for promoting future waste heat collaborations, in turn resting on a mix of societal rationales (e.g., energy security, climate mitigation, regional development, etc.).

  • 6.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bildandet av Örebro Pappersbruksarbetarefackförening2017In: Nordisk pappershistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 1101-2056, Vol. 1, p. 8-9Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristijn
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Business and Green Knowledge Production in Sweden 1960s-1980s2017Report (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Söderberg, Charlotta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Resurseffektiva städer: Framgångsrika lokala energisamarbeten2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Snart sluteldat för Luleås kråkor: Förhandlingar under 1970-talet inför tillvaratagandet av stålverkets överskottsgas i det lokala fjärrvärmenätet2017Report (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The transition to chlorine free pulp revisited: Nordic heterogeneity in environmental regulation and R&D collaboration2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 165, p. 1328-1339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the development paths leading to the transition to cleaner bleaching technologies in the pulp industry. It devotes particular attention to the key features of the Swedish transition, but also compares this to the Finnish experiences. The empirical investigation builds on an analytical framework highlighting the conditions under which pollution regulations can provide efficient incentives for deep emission reductions at industrial plants. Existing and new archive material, including not least comprehensive license trial acts for Swedish pulp mills over an extended time period, are studied. Based on this historical analysis our findings contradict previous literature, the latter emphasizing that pressures from consumers and the public were the most significant driving forces behind the adoption of–and innovation in–alternative bleaching technologies during the late 1980s. Instead, this paper asserts, the green pulp transition was characterized by regulation-induced technological change and was made possible by long history of industry-wide cooperation in environmental R&D. Furthermore, while previous research has emphasized the leading role of the Nordic countries in green pulp innovation, we identify a number of profound differences between Finland and Sweden. These emerge from various national contexts in terms of, for instance, industry structures and strategies, political cultures, and regulatory styles. Finally, at a more general level the paper provides a few policy implications for supporting the ongoing transition towards a forest-based bioeconomy

  • 11.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Att uppföra ett strömslukande pappersbruk2016In: Nordisk Pappershistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 1101-2056, no 4, p. 52-53Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå university.
    Green knowledge production in-between industry and state: The institute for water and air protection 1966-19902016In: Institutes and new roles in science, technology and innovation, Routledge Mental Health, 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Miljöprövning och konkurrenskraft i gruvindustrin: Lärdomar från Sverige, Finland, Australien och Kanada2016Report (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Political Science, Linköping University.
    Striving for Sustainable Development and the Coordinating Role of the Central Government: Lessons from Swedish Housing Policy2016In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 8, no 8, article id 827Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Housing plays an important role in the development of welfare policies and also often in achieving sustainability goals. There exists, however, implementation gaps between policies and practices in urban development and housing. Here it should be possible to draw lessons from policy implementations in the past. In this article we explore the strategies of the Swedish central government in implementing a social housing policy in the mid-20th century. The policy was successfully implemented in that it resulted in the rapid expansion and modernisation of the Swedish apartment stock in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and acute housingshortages and poor housing standards were overcome. The main lesson learned from the Swedish case study is the critical role of the central government in implementation throughthe strategic coordination of policy aims, instruments, stakeholders and interests throughout the implementation process. Although the central government could have used hard, almost authoritarian policy instruments to force the realisation of the new policy, it mainly used soft policy tools and focused on coordination. In the contemporary networked governance setting, the central government, like no other player, still has the potential to guide and coordinate implementation processes for the realization of sustainable housing visions.

  • 15.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå university.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sustainable Energy Transition: The case of the Swedish Pulp and Paper Industry 1973-19902016In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 1179-1192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By employing historical case study methodology, this paper examines the transition towards renewable energy and increased energy efficiency in the Swedish pulp and paper industry (PPI) during the 1970s and 1980s. Between 1973 and 1990, CO2 emissions were cut by 80 % in this sector, and this was mainly achieved by substituting away from oil to biofuels in the form of by-products from the pulp manufacturing process. The CO2 reduction was also a result of energy efficiency improvements and increased internal production of electricity through back-pressure turbine power generation. Sweden was highly dependent on oil at the advent of the first Oil Crisis in 1973, and the increased oil prices put pressure on the Swedish government and the energy-intensive PPI to reduce this oil dependency. Of central importance for the energy transition was the highly collaborative strategy of the PPI, both internally among pulp mills as well as between the sector as a whole and the corporatist Swedish state administration. The Swedish government chose a proactive strategy by emphasizing knowledge management and collaboration with the industry along with the substitution of internal biofuels for oil. The transition was also characterized by a strong focus on unutilized potentials in the PPI; a previous waste problem now could be transformed into energy savings and improved energy efficiency. Energy taxes and fees also played an important role in Swedish energy policy during the 1970s and the 1980s. All in all, the study illustrates the central role of governments and their ability to push industrial sectors into new technological pathways through a wide palette of mutually reinforcing policy instruments. The results further point at the importance of a more holistic understanding of the interplay between different policies and their impacts in the longer run.

  • 16.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Department of Economic History, Umeå university, Ekonomisk historia, Umeå universitet, Umeå university.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Transition to cleaner technologies: the Swedish pulp and paper industry in comparative perspective2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Helenius, Heidi
    University of Lapland, Rovaniemi.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wiklund, Roine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Masloboev, Vladimir
    Institute of Industrial Ecology Problems in the North, Kola Science Center.
    Mingaleva, Tatiana
    Institute of Industrial Ecology Problems in the North, Kola Science Center.
    Patrov, Viktor
    Institute of Industrial Ecology Problems in the North, Kola Science Center.
    Environmental Regulation and Competitiveness in the Mining Industry: Permitting Processes in Finland, Sweden and Russia2015In: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 43, p. 130-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates to what extent and under what circumstances environmental regulation can be designed and implemented to jointly achieve positive environmental outcomes and sustained competitive strength in the mining industry. First the paper provides a conceptual analysis of the impacts of environmental regulations on mining competitiveness, including a discussion of how the environmental-competitiveness trade-off can be affected by various regulatory design and implementation strategies. Methodologically we distinguish between the flexibility, predictability and stringency of the regulations, and in a second step these analytical concepts are illustrated in the empirical context of the environmental permitting processes in Finland, Sweden and Russia. An important result is that in these countries there has been a lack of timeliness and predictability in the environmental regulations (e.g., uncertainty about the interpretation of the legislation, delays due to appeals etc.). These problems can in part be addressed by, for instance: (a) allocating more resources to the regulatory authorities; (b) establishing more consensus-based regulatory interactions between the mining industry and the authorities; and (c) introducing more standardized procedures and road maps for environmental impact assessments, permit applications and not the least for how to interpret specific legal rules in the context of mining.

  • 18.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    ”Olägenheterna av sulfatlukten är varken större eller mindre än lukten från vitkålsland om hösten”2015In: Nordisk Pappershistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1101-2056, no 2, p. 20-22Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköpings universitet.
    Policy for sociotechnical transition: Implications from Swedish historical case studies2015In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 452-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we analyse past sociotechnical transitions, and based on that we discuss the prospects for the central state in promoting radical transitions towards improved sustainability today. The case studies include the sociotechnical systems in Sweden providing for: (a) urban housing; (b) passenger cars as a favoured mode of transport; and (c) piped water/wastewater, all fundamentally transformed over the first seven decades of the twentieth century and especially in the 1940s up until the 1960s. The core lesson from the case studies is that the central state, by taking an active role and by coordinating the roles of different stakeholders, values and knowledge as well as different policy areas and instruments, can accomplish a coherent and effective management of such transition processes. Also in contemporary network governance settings the central state is well suited to accomplish such an active and coordinative role based on its legitimate power to design and implement different public policy instruments.

  • 20.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå university.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sustainable Energy Transition: The case of the Swedish Pulp and Paper Industry 1973-19902015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sökandet efter lösningar på miljöproblem 1906-19102015In: Nordisk Pappershistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1101-2056, no 4, p. 51-52Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå university.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The transition to cleaner technologies: the Swedish pulp and paper industry in a comparative perspective2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pulp and paper industry (PPI) has historically caused serious water pollution and offensive fumes and therefore peak the environmental agenda in virtually every nation with such production. Serious pressure on the pulp and paper industry to reduce emissions started in the late 1960s and the early 1970s, and was driven by new regulatory frameworks, public debates and changing market preferences, such as a new demand for chlorine free paper products on the European market in the 1990s. For any polluting industry technology is at the very core of the challenge of reducing the environmental impact, and this has been the case also for the PPI. Technological strategies and timing for investments have differed between countries and regions depending on the different institutional environments, organizational solutions and market demand characteristics. In the chapter we will focus on the Swedish PPI from the late 1960s until today, and discuss how the interplay between regulatory- and market/opinion pressure, technology development and environmental performance has evolved. We will also include the development of energy technology in our analysis, which before the 1990s was not distinctly connected to environmental concerns. The Swedish development will be partly contrasted to the parallel Finnish and North American development, mainly from an institutional and technology development perspective, and we will focus on explanations to the differing development paths. The chapter constitutes a synthesis of a longstanding research collaboration of Bergquist and Söderholm with focus on the environmental and energy technology strategies of the Swedish PPI. The comparative analyses of the Swedish and North American, respectively Finnish development is however previously partly unpublished. When it comes to the source materials used for these earlier publications concerning the Swedish case, we have primarily used board minutes (from individual companies as well as from industry organizations on the environment and energy), annual reports, trade journals, environmental licensing documents and interviews with representatives of the industry as well as government agencies. Concerning the comparative analyzes, including with North America and Finland, those have so far mainly been based on literature studies. The Swedish-Finnish comparison will however be supplemented by interviews.

  • 23.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Transition to greener pulp: Regulation, industry responses and path dependency2015In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 57, no 6, p. 862-884Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the dioxin alarm broke at the same time in Sweden and the US in the mid-1980s, Swedish pulp and paper (P&P) firms led the way towards the new market for low-chlorine and chlorine-free P&P products. This study explores the transition in the Swedish P&P industry and contrasts the Swedish case to the US experience. We highlight the importance of already established technological paths to deal with pollution, paths which were strongly formed by the different national environmental policies since the 1970s. Thus while US P&P firms were technologically locked-in when the dioxin alarm broke, the strategy of Swedish P&P firms to proactively collaborate in environmental research and development (R&D) together with a national policy that favoured process integrated abatement technology, helped Swedish firms take technological leadership. This article particularly stresses the implications of technological path-dependency and different national regulatory styles in understanding the evolution of different modes of corporate environmental strategies.

  • 24.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Department of Economic History, Umeå university, Ekonomisk historia, Umeå universitet, Umeå university.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Transition towards renewable energy: Co-ordination and technological strategies in the Swedish pulp and paper industry 1973-19902015Report (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Department of Economic History, Umeå university, Umeå universitet, Ekonomisk historia, Umeå universitet.
    Sabo, Josefin
    Umeå university.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Energiomställning och teknisk omvandling i svensk massa- och pappersindustri 1970-19902014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This research report examines the driving forces and strategies in the Swedish pulp and paper industry to phase-out of oil and accomplishing energy savings in the 1970s - and '80s. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of development and contribute to a further understanding of the knowledge building that took shape in the Swedish pulp and paper industry on the energy area in the awake of the oil crises. During the investigated period, the use of fossil fuels dropped with more than 70 per cent, and this was mainly achieved by substituting oil by internal biofuels. This transition started as response to the first oil crisis in 1973, but was further reinforced by the energy policy, which expanded from the mid 1970s and onwards. The replacement of oil was achieved trough short-term measures to improve the energy efficiency and to increase the use of biofuels, while the use of external electricity played a minor role. It was soon recognized that also long-term investments in R&D was needed. Collaborations between companies through trade associations and committees came to be a characteristic strategy employed by the industry to advance knowledge and new technology on the energy area. This report demonstrates the central role that the changing prices of oil had on the pulp and paper industry to explore the possibilities of a more efficient use of internal biofuels, which previously not had been utilised. In this sense, the oil crisis forced the industry sector into a more sustainable path. It also demonstrates the central role that the government played, and can play, to support and enhance the development of new technological development paths. As for the oil crises, a big part of the energy policy objectives i.e. to phase out oil from the Swedish energy system, coincided with the industry’s needs to lower the costs and risks from being dependent on oil.

  • 26.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Svahn, Nanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wiklund, Roine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Helenius, Heidi
    Environmental Regulation and Mining Sector Competitiveness2014Report (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Department of Economic History, Umeå university, Umeå universitet, Ekonomisk historia, Umeå universitet.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Industry Strategies for Energy Transition in the Wake of the Oil Crisis2014In: Business and Economic History On-Line, ISSN 0894-6825, E-ISSN 1941-7349, Vol. 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores industry strategies to accomplish energy transition in the wake of the Oil Crisis in 1973 with the Swedish pulp and paper sector in the 1970s and the 1980s as case study. Over this period the use of fossil fuels was reduced by 70 percent within the sector. The lion’s share of this reduction was achieved by the substitution of oil by biofuels. Besides cutting the costs of energy this substitution also resulted in significant environmental improvements. Substituting oil by biofuels proved to be the overall most reasonable way to decrease the use of oil, even though alternatives such as coal were considered. Initially, oil reductions and energy conservation were accomplished by relatively small measures, but there was a great need for long-term R&D to push the technology development further. Inter-firm and state-firm collaborations therefore became strategically important. The strategies for substitution further interacted strongly with institutional changes in the energy policy field, the on-going greening of the industry as well as an urgent need to enhance international competitiveness. Our study concludes that the oil crises enforced a more sustainable production in a dynamic way, where government strategies to support and push technology development further played a central role.

  • 28.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå university.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Strategies for Energy Transition: The Swedish Pulp and Paper Industry 1973-1990.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Department of Economic History, Umeå university.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Kinneryd, Hanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Department of Economic History, Umeå university.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Command-and-control revisited: environmental compliance and technological change in Swedish industry 1970-19902013In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 85, p. 6-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the issue of environmental policy instrument choice for achieving deep emission reductions in the industrial sector. Specifically, it provides: (a) a theoretical and empirical review of the conditions under which performance standards can provide efficient incentives for deep emission reductions and technology adoption; and (b) an analysis of the design and the outcomes of the standards-based regulation of industrial pollutants in Sweden during the period 1970–1990. Our empirical findings suggest that the Swedish regulatory approach comprised many key elements of an efficient policy-induced transition towards radically lower emissions in the metal smelting and pulp and paper industries. The regulation relied solely on performance standards, thus granting flexibility to firms in terms of selecting the appropriate compliance measures. These standards were implemented in combination with extended compliance periods. R&D projects and the new knowledge that was advanced incrementally in interaction between the company, the environmental authorities and research institutions provided a direct catalyst to the regulatory process. In these ways the Swedish regulatory approach provided scope for creative solutions, environmental innovation, and permitted the affected companies to coordinate pollution abatement measures with productive investments.

  • 30.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Governing socio-technical transitions: historical lessons from the implementation of centralized water and sewer systems in northern Sweden, 1900-19502013In: Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, ISSN 2210-4224, E-ISSN 2210-4232, Vol. 7, p. 37-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two historical case studies are examined which address the role of public policy with respect to an important socio-technical transition of the first half of the 20th century from a Swedish perspective, with clear implications for the environment and sustainability: the expansion of centralized public water and sewer systems (WSS). This was carried out in the presence of significant government intervention in terms of both financial, legislative and consultative means, and involved changing norms about health and welfare in the Swedish society. The analysis indicates that the cocktail of diverse governmental initiatives seems to have worked in favour for the socio-technical transition, and that this was in large due to the way government made the transition-related uncertainties and costs move from the local to the regional and national level.

  • 31.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Great visions, but who is holding the rudder?: To design the model city Kiruna again. Short paper for the: 2013 Transatlantic Policy Consortium2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå universitet.
    Greening of business: The case of Domsjö Pulp Mill 1970-19902013Report (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå universitet.
    Growing green and competitive: a case study of a Swedish pulp mill2013In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 1789-1805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The experiences of past efforts of industrial pollution control while maintaining competitiveness should be of great value to research and policy practice addressing sustainability issues today. In this article, we analyze the environmental adaptation of the Swedish pulp industry during the period 1970–1990 as illustrated by the sulfite pulp producer Domsjö mill. We investigate how this company managed to adapt to heavy transformation pressure from increasing international competition in combination with strict national environmental regulations during the 1960s to the early 1990s. In line with the so-called Porter hypothesis, the company was able to coordinate the problems that were environmental in nature with activities aiming at production efficiency goals and the development of new products. Swedish environmental agencies and legislation facilitated this “win-win” situation by a flexible but still challenging regulatory approach towards the company. From the early 1990s and onwards, the greening of the pulp industry was also a result of increased market pressure for green paper products.

  • 34.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Housing, public policy and the environment in a historical perspective: lessons from Swedish post-war society2013In: International Journal of Sustainable Society, ISSN 1756-2538, E-ISSN 1756-2546, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 24-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From a European perspective, housing-related expenses of Swedish households have increased considerably in real terms since the 1950s. Given that households through these consumption patterns contribute to a major share of the country's emissions of harmful substances and waste, e.g. through energy use, a qualitative analysis of critical explanations over time to the increase in housing-related expenses is motivated. This paper identifies and explores the emergence of a number of socio-technical structures and systems with important explanatory value in this context. It is concluded that the housing-related consumption of the average post-war Swedish household is strongly embedded in physical structures, which, to a considerable extent, can be explained by public intervention and policy traditions in the past. This opens up vital avenues for contemporary policy, aiming for behavioural change; however, a fundamental prerequisite for the government wishing to motivate more sustainable consumption must be to be conscious about its own historically determined role in this context

  • 35.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    et al.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Mediators in action: Organizing sociotechnical system change2013In: Technology in society, ISSN 0160-791X, E-ISSN 1879-3274, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 267-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To extend and deepen the roles of mediators in relation to sociotechnical change, this article first suggested an analytical approach which thereafter was used for analysing two cases illustrating two Swedish mediating organizations in different sectors at different time periods: the half state-/half industry funded Research Institute for Water and Air Protection, IVL, in the 1960s and 70s; and the Swedish Urban Network Association, SUNA, in the early years of the 21st century. We found that the associated sociotechnical systems changed through the actions of mediators and their organization of time-spatial specific settings. The mediator concept contributed to our understanding of these changes through a number of visible processes of translating rather than transferring specific knowledge, by functioning as a single entrance to knowledge, by supporting the selection processes, and sometimes by bridging knowledge in unforeseen ways. Overall, the mediating actors took on roles to promote the system and encouraged actors within the system to connect and develop both the system as such.

  • 36.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Svenska riksdagskvinnor i samförstånd och konflikt under tidigt 1990-tal2013In: Tidsskrift for kjønnsforskning, ISSN 0809-6341, E-ISSN 1891-1781, Vol. 37, no 3-4, p. 274-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med sin långa tradition av en stadigt växande andel kvinnor i politiken lämpar sig de nordiska länderna väl att studera vad gäller betydelsen av kvinnors intressen(och antal) för politikens innehåll. I detta sammanhang är det tidiga 1990-talets svenska riksdag särskilt intressant – då sjönk antalet riksdagskvinnor för första gången på många år samtidigt som det bildades ett opinionstryck på de kvarvarande kvinnorna att samarbeta mer i syfte att åstadkomma (genus)politiska förändringar. Artikeln undersöker vad riksdagskvinnorna i detta läge valde att samarbeta om.

  • 37.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Transition to chlorine free pulp!: Experiences from the Swedish pulp and paper industry in contrast to the U.S.2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköpings universitet.
    When citizen movements redirect focus from the process to the object of planning: A case study of the on-going major urban transformation of the mining town Kiruna, Sweden. Short paper for the: 2013 Transatlantic Policy Consortium2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Rönnbäck, Josefin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Women’s cross-party collaboration in the Swedish parliament in the early 1990s: Politics on gender equality?2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Cettner, Annicka
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    An adaptive stormwater culture?: historical perspectives on the status of stormwater within the Swedish urban water system2012In: The Journal of urban technology, ISSN 1063-0732, E-ISSN 1466-1853, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 25-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the article is to analyze a number of historical explanations behind the slow process of change in stormwater management in Swedish urban planning and practice. We achieve this by studying three different periods of the long-term establishment of the Swedish urban water system over the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, developments which were strongly linked to stormwater. The article recognizes the social construction of the system, i.e., how it grew out of human desires and how it grew extensively during the twentieth century due to an expansive growth of system-supporting public initiatives. These included funding opportunities as well as the establishment of different institutions and organizations. The analysis indicates that in their current efforts to transform urban stormwater management in a more sustainable direction, policymakers and implementers ought to be encouraged by an increased awareness of this social construction; what humans by their desires once built up, they should also be able to transform. Still, an important implication is also the need for such transforming efforts to determinately break away, both physically and mentally, from the traditional pipe-bound system and system culture.

  • 41.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Kinneryd, Hanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Command-and-control revisited: environmental compliance and innovation in Swedish industry 1970-19902012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the issue of environmental policy instrument choice for achieving deep emissions reductions in the industrial sector. Specifically, it provides: (a) a theoretical review of the conditions under which performance standards can provide efficient incentives for environmental compliance and innovation ; and (b) an analysis of the design and the outcomes of the standards-based regulation of industrial pollutants in Sweden during the period 1970 - 1990. The empirical findings suggest that the Swedish regulatory approach comprised many key elements of an efficient policy-induced transition towards radically lower emissions in the metal smelting and pulp and paper industries. The regulation relied heavily on performance standards, thus granting flexibility to firms in terms of selecting the appropriate compliance measures, and the standards were implemented in combination with extended probation periods. R&D projects and the new knowledge that was advanced incrementally in interaction between the company, the environmental authorities and the research institutions provided a direct catalyst to the regulatory process. As such the Swedish regulatory approach provided scope for creative solutions, environmental innovation, and permitted the affected firms to coordinate pollution prevention measures with productive investments.

  • 42.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Environmental adapation, technology development and competition: The case of Domsjö sulphite mill 1965-19902012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå universitet.
    Firm collaboration and environmental adaptation: the case of the Swedish pulp- and paper industry 1900-19902012In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 183-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the importance of research and development (R&D) collaboration for environmental adaptation in the Swedish pulp and paper industry. It reviews the collaborative efforts initiated during the first half of the twentieth century, and investigates in particular how these efforts were influenced by the advent of modern environmental legislation in the late 1960s. We find that during the early period the underlying motives for environmental R&D collaboration were related to the presence of local resistance to pollution, over time turning into increased requirements from tightening environmental regulation. When the Swedish Environmental Protection Act was implemented in 1969, the long-lasting tradition of collaborative R&D activities facilitated the development and the adaptation of cleaner technologies in the sector. The article concludes that in the case of the Swedish pulp and paper industry, the significant environmental improvements witnessed during the 1960s and onwards can only be fully comprehended by acknowledging the role of the industry-wide collaborative activities in R&D. The positive outcomes of this collaboration were in turn reinforced by an environmental regulation system, which facilitated long-term investments in environmental R&D and, in contrast to their Finnish and American counterparts, encouraged internal process changes in the industry.

  • 44.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wiklund, Roine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Infrastructural systems and technical change: Learning from the establishment of a water- and wastewater system and the electrification of a railway line in a Nordic climate at the turn of the 19th century2012In: ICON, ISSN 1361-8113, Vol. 15, p. 81-107Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Svenska skogsindustrins samarbete i miljöfrågan: en framgångssaga?2012In: Nordisk Pappershistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1101-2056, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 3-7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    When infrastructure-related risk-taking moves from the local to the national level: the planning and construction of centralized water and sewer systems in two municipalities in northern Sweden 1900-19502012Report (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Green innovation systems in Swedish industry, 1960-19892011In: Business history review, ISSN 0007-6805, E-ISSN 2044-768X, Vol. 85, no 4, p. 677-698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational networks had a strong influence on the diffusion of green knowledge within the Swedish pulp-and-paper industry from the mid-1960s to the 1980s. The environmental adaptations made by this industrial sector were not merely the result of a corporate initiative or of the response by firms or industries to environmental regulation. An examination of the innovation-system approach that was used to further the industry’s environmental goals reveals that the knowledge and technology development underpinning the project depended on a network of diverse actors. Within this network, the semi-governmental Institute for Water and Air Protection, working with a consulting company, was a critical generator and intermediary of knowledge. Thus, the success of the project was largely due to the Institute’s balanced relations with government and industry.

  • 48.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Industrins miljökrav rimliga2011In: Norrbottenskuriren, ISSN 1103-9760Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 49.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Ekonomisk historia, Umeå universitet.
    Miljöforskning i statens och industrins tjänst: Institutet för Vatten och Luftvårdsfrågor (IVL) 1960-tal till 1980-tal2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1963, two industrialists visited the government office for a meeting with the minister of finance. Their purpose was to present an outline of a new research institute focusing on industrial air- and water pollution problems. Their proposal was based on a joint financed institute, were the government and industry contributed to equal shares. Additionally, they proposed a formation of a business company closely tied to the institute and with the purpose to provide services to industry on environmental issues. Thus, in 1966, the Institute of Water and Air Protection (IVL) was established and became the first institute in Sweden focusing on industrial environmental problems. At the same time the business company, IVL AB, was formed. Due to the collaborative form of organisation – including representation of all core industries and the environmental authorities – the IVL organisation came to be unique also from an international perspective. In this paper we explore the driving forces behind the formation of IVL and IVLAB and their contribution to/function in the environmental adaptation of the Swedish industry from the 1960s to the 80s. We specifically focus on the direction of research activities since this should be particularly informative in terms of contribution and function. Moreover, we believe it reflects what the government and industry jointly defined as priority areas of concern. We find that IVL came to constitute an important basis for knowledge generation and diffusion within the Swedish environmental system, foremost during the 1960s and the 1970s. IVL contributed to the environmental adaptation of the Swedish industry essentially through applied research on the environmental effects of emissions. However, also technical measures to combat pollution problems became important. The assignments of the business company, IVLAB, were mostly focused on mapping the emissions from industrial plants, i.e. identifying discharges and their effects in the recipients. Here, the development works of IVL on the standardisation of methods of analysis and measurement instruments constituted important prerequisites. The knowledge mobilized within IVL and IVLAB on industrial air- and water pollution matters also became important to the environmental authorities in their decision making process. Generated information concerning levels and effects of discharges formed in turn an important basis in the formulating of individual emission permits for single plants. The procedure of individual permits was in turn regulated by the Environmental Protection Act, implemented in 1969). An adequate knowledge basis can in this regard be seen as a guarantee for the prioritizing of intervention-efforts where needs were greatest. Besides knowledge on the pollution problems related to the manufacturing industry, IVL obtained a role as national, and to a certain degree, international expert organisation with general competence in the environmental field. IVL competence on effects of oil spill and mercury was for example wanted outside the country. IVL services were further demanded by international organisations, such as WHO and UNESCO in the 1970s. The role and the form of IVL and IVLAB, however, came to change in the beginning of the 1980s. Now IVLAB was sold to the competing company ÅF and the research institute IVL was converted from a foundation into a company. We believe that the organizational changes reflected changing needs of industry (and of society at large) what concerns the functions of IVL and IVLAB. Much of the rough mapping- and clean-up work had been done at this time and the previous services of IVL and IVLAB had become routine work, increasingly handled by the companies themselves. And had the general "social climate" changed so that it was no longer as natural to cooperate on environmental issues?

  • 50.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Mormor, mamma och jag: svenska kvinnor och hushållens resande sedan 1940-talet2011In: Genus i norrsken, ISSN 1654-7640, no 1-2, p. 3-8Article in journal (Other academic)
12 1 - 50 of 79
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