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  • 1.
    Das, Oisik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, China.
    Neisiany, Rasoul Esmaeely
    Department of Materials and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran.
    Capezza, Antonio Jose
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Department of Plant Breeding, SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Xu, Qiang
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, 210094 Nanjing, China.
    Jiang, Lin
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, China.
    Ji, Dongxiao
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
    Ramakrishna, Seeram
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
    The need for fully bio-based facemasks to counter coronavirus outbreaks: A perspective2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 736, article id 139611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The onset of coronavirus pandemic has sparked a shortage of facemasks in almost all nations. Without this personal protective equipment, healthcare providers, essential workers, and the general public are exposed to the risk of infection. In light of the aforementioned, it is critical to balance the supply and demand for masks. COVID-19 will also ensure that masks are always considered as an essential commodity in future pandemic preparedness. Moreover, billions of facemasks are produced from petrochemicals derived raw materials, which are non-degradable upon disposal after their single use, thus causing environmental pollution and damage. The sustainable way forward is to utilise raw materials that are side-stream products of local industries to develop facemasks having equal or better efficiency than the conventional ones. In this regard, wheat gluten biopolymer, which is a by-product or co-product of cereal industries, can be electrospun into nanofibre membranes and subsequently carbonised at over 700 °C to form a network structure, which can simultaneously act as the filter media and reinforcement for gluten-based masks. In parallel, the same gluten material can be processed into cohesive thin films using plasticiser and hot press. Additionally, lanosol, a naturally-occurring substance, imparts fire (V-0 rating in vertical burn test), and microbe resistance in gluten plastics. Thus, thin films of flexible gluten with very low amounts of lanosol (<10 wt%) can be bonded together with the carbonised mat and shaped by thermoforming to create the facemasks. The carbon mat acting as the filter can be attached to the masks through adapters that can also be made from injection moulded gluten. The creation of these masks could simultaneously be effective in reducing the transmittance of infectious diseases and pave the way for environmentally benign sustainable products.

  • 2.
    Khalili, Pooria
    et al.
    Material and Computational Mechanics, Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Blinzler, Brina
    Material and Computational Mechanics, Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kádár, Roland
    Division of Engineering Materials, Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bisschop, Roeland
    Division Safety and Transport/Safety/Fire Research, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Division Safety and Transport/Safety/Fire Research, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Per
    Division Safety and Transport/Safety/Fire Research, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Flammability, Smoke, Mechanical Behaviours and Morphology of Flame Retarded Natural Fibre/Elium®Composite2019In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 17, article id 2648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The work involves fabrication of natural fibre/Elium® composites using resin infusion technique. The jute fabrics were treated using phosphorus-carbon based flame retardant (FR) agent, a phosphonate solution and graphene nano-platelet (GnP), followed by resin infusion, to produce FR and graphene-based composites. The properties of these composites were compared with those of the Control (jute fabric/Elium®). As obtained from the cone calorimeter and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the peak heat release rate reduced significantly after the FR and GnP treatments of fabrics whereas total smoke release and quantity of carbon monoxide increased with the incorporation of FR. The addition of GnP had almost no effect on carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide yield. Dynamic mechanical analysis demonstrated that coating jute fabrics with GnP particles led to an enhanced glass transition temperature by 14%. Scanning electron microscopy showed fibre pull-out locations in the tensile fracture surface of the laminates after incorporation of both fillers, which resulted in reduced tensile properties.

  • 3.
    Ochoterena, Raúl
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    The effect of thermochromic coatings of VO2 on the fire performance of windows2018In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 42, no 7, p. 873-876Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of thermochromic coatings of vanadium dioxide (VO2) on the fire performance of windows was experimentally tested. Prototypes were subjected to radiant heat and the radiation transmitted through the specimens was measured as a function of time. The results indicate that windows coated with VO2 can reduce radiative heat transfer from fires and thereby also reduce or prevent fire spread. The results clearly show that VO2 coatings on BK7 substrates hinder approximately 30% of the transmission of radiation from fire sources when compared with the performance of uncoated windows. It is expected that VO2 will not be solely implemented for the purpose of increasing fire performance of windows, but it will rather provide a secondary positive effect if such windows are realized for energy‐saving purposes.

  • 4.
    Girardin, Bertrand
    et al.
    R2Fire/UMET − UMR CNRS 8207, ENSCL, Avenue Dimitri Mendeleïev - Bât. C7a, CS 90108, 59652, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France.
    Fontaine, Gaëlle
    R2Fire/UMET − UMR CNRS 8207, ENSCL, Avenue Dimitri Mendeleïev - Bât. C7a, CS 90108, 59652, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France.
    Duquesne, Sophie
    R2Fire/UMET − UMR CNRS 8207, ENSCL, Avenue Dimitri Mendeleïev - Bât. C7a, CS 90108, 59652, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. SP Fire Research, SP Technical Resesarch Institute of Sweden.
    Bourbigot, Serge
    R2Fire/UMET − UMR CNRS 8207, ENSCL, Avenue Dimitri Mendeleïev - Bât. C7a, CS 90108, 59652, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France.
    Measurement of kinetics and thermodynamics of the thermal degradation for flame retarded materials: application to EVA/ATH/NC2017In: Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, ISSN 0165-2370, E-ISSN 1873-250X, Vol. 124, p. 130-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The modelling of the behavior of a material exposed to fire is very complex and needs the coupling of fluid dynamics, combustion, heat and mass transfer, kinetics and so forth. A growing amount of studies and numerical models are reported in this field since the last decade. The aim of these models is to predict the fire behavior of wood, charring or non-charring polymers and even intumescent materials. However, these studies are seldom applied to formulated materials and especially flame retarded materials. In this study, an ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer was formulated with a flame retardant (aluminum tri-hydroxide) and a synergist (nanoclays). A systematic approach for the characterization of the thermo-physical properties of the material as well as of its optical properties and the heat capacity of the decomposition gases is proposed and applied in this study. It is shown that it is possible to evaluate the input data required for pyrolysis modelling, even for multi decomposition steps materials. It is also shown that the diffusion of the gases inside the material had to be considered on the opposite of the classical assumption found in other studies. Indeed, using low mass diffusivity was the sole way to predict in the same time the temperature distribution and the mass loss rate of the material in a gasification experiments.

  • 5.
    Lindström, Johan
    et al.
    SP Fire Research, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Försth, Michael
    SP Fire Research, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Fire Test of Profile Plank for Transformer Pit Fire Protection2016In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 309-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In general it is recommended to fill a transformer pit with rock ballast to extinguish the fire if there is a leakage of burning transformer oil. There is a lack of technology-neutral performance requirements for the design of solutions for fire extinguishment in transformer pit fires. This hampers the introduction of alternatives to the traditional method of filling the pit with rocks. Therefore we have conducted quantitative tests where temperatures and concentrations of CO, CO2, and O2 were measured at different position in a transformer pit subjected to burning oil simulating an accidental rupture and leakage. The tests were conducted to investigate the extinguishing capacity of one specific alternative solution, i.e. a profile plank layer over the pit. Three tests were performed with 90°C and 140°C pre-heated transformer oil. In the second test, a 19 cm water bed was used to examine the impact of rain water in the pit. The result showed that the profile plank extinguished the flames in a few seconds and that the water level did not have any significant effect on the result. The measurements showed that the temperatures peaked at 600–800°C 50 cm above the profile plank in all tests but dropped to under 100°C in 14–16 s. Furthermore the O2-concentration dropped to 3–5 vol% below the plank, which contributed to the rapid extinction of the burning oil.

  • 6.
    Försth, Michael
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Sjöström, Johan
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Brandteknik.
    Wickström, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Andersson, Petra
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås.
    Girardin, Bertrand
    R2Fire Group/UMET-UMR CNRS 8207, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Lille.
    Characterization of the thermal exposure in the en 50399 cable test apparatus2015In: Fire and Materials 2015, 2-4 Feb 2015, San Francisco, USA: proceedings, Interscience Communications, 2015, p. 23-37Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EN 50399 cable test is used for classification of cables within the European construction products regulation. Means to predict a cables performance in this test, based on material data and small scale test results is of great value for the development of new cable materials. A first step in developing a prediction tool should be to understand the heat exposure on the cables in the EN 50399 test apparatus. The heat load in e.g. the cone calorimeter is very well characterized whereas for EN 50399 only the burner power (20.5 kW) is known. In the cone calorimeter the heating is solely by radiation, whereas for the EN 50399 test a large fraction of the heat exposure depends on feed-back from the cable fire. This paper presents a measuring method for characterizing the thermal exposure inside the EN 50399 cable test apparatus without cables and with a cable rated Euroclass Dca. A new instrument for measuring thermal exposure simultaneously in several directions was developed for the purpose, and thereby the non-isotropic exposure on the cables at different position on the ladder could be investigated

  • 7.
    Girardin, Bertrand
    et al.
    R2Fire Group/UMET-UMR CNRS 8207, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Lille, Unité Matériaux et Transformations (UMET), École Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Lille, University of Lille.
    Fontaine, Geêlle
    R2Fire / UMET – UMR CNRS 8207, ENSCL, Avenue Dimitri Mendeleïev – Bât. C7a, CS 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq, Unité Matériaux et Transformations (UMET), École Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Lille, University of Lille.
    Duquesne, Sophie
    R2Fire / UMET – UMR CNRS 8207, ENSCL, Avenue Dimitri Mendeleïev – Bât. C7a, CS 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq, Unité Matériaux et Transformations (UMET), École Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Lille, University of Lille.
    Bourbignot, Serge
    R2Fire / UMET – UMR CNRS 8207, ENSCL, Avenue Dimitri Mendeleïev – Bât. C7a, CS 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq, Unité Matériaux et Transformations (UMET), École Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Lille, University of Lille.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Characterization of thermo-physical properties of EVA/ATH: Application to gasification experiments and pyrolysis modeling2015In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 8, no 11, p. 7837-7863Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pyrolysis of solid polymeric materials is a complex process that involves both chemical and physical phenomena such as phase transitions, chemical reactions, heat transfer, and mass transport of gaseous components. For modeling purposes, it is important to characterize and to quantify the properties driving those phenomena, especially in the case of flame-retarded materials. In this study, protocols have been developed to characterize the thermal conductivity and the heat capacity of an ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) flame retarded with aluminum tri-hydroxide (ATH). These properties were measured for the various species identified across the decomposition of the material. Namely, the thermal conductivity was found to decrease as a function of temperature before decomposition whereas the ceramic residue obtained after the decomposition at the steady state exhibits a thermal conductivity as low as 0.2 W/m/K. The heat capacity of the material was also investigated using both isothermal modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and the standard method (ASTM E1269). It was shown that the final residue exhibits a similar behavior to alumina, which is consistent with the decomposition pathway of EVA/ATH. Besides, the two experimental approaches give similar results over the whole range of temperatures. Moreover, the optical properties before decomposition and the heat capacity of the decomposition gases were also analyzed. Those properties were then used as input data for a pyrolysis model in order to predict gasification experiments. Mass losses of gasification experiments were well predicted, thus validating the characterization of the thermo-physical properties of the material

  • 8.
    Witkowski, Artur
    et al.
    Centre for Fire and Hazards Science, University of Central Lancashire.
    Girdin, Bertrand
    R2Fire / UMET – UMR CNRS 8207, ENSCL, Avenue Dimitri Mendeleïev – Bât. C7a, CS 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Hewitt, Fiona
    Centre for Fire and Hazards Science, University of Central Lancashire.
    Fontaine, Geêlle
    R2Fire / UMET – UMR CNRS 8207, ENSCL, Avenue Dimitri Mendeleïev – Bât. C7a, CS 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq.
    Duquesne, Sophie
    R2Fire / UMET – UMR CNRS 8207, ENSCL, Avenue Dimitri Mendeleïev – Bât. C7a, CS 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq.
    Bourbignot, Serge
    R2Fire / UMET – UMR CNRS 8207, ENSCL, Avenue Dimitri Mendeleïev – Bât. C7a, CS 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq.
    Hull, T. Richard
    Centre for Fire and Hazards Science, University of Central Lancashire.
    Development of an Anaerobic Pyrolysis Model for Fire Retardant Cable Sheathing Materials2015In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 113, p. 208-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wire and cable coverings are potentially a major cause of fire in buildings and other installations. As they need to breach fire walls and are frequently located in vertical ducting, they have significant potential to increase the fire hazard. It is therefore important to understand the ignition and burning characteristics of cables by developing a model capable of predicting their burning behaviour for a range of scenarios. The fire performance of electrical cables is usually dominated by the fire performance of the sheathing materials. The complexity of the problem increases when cable sheathing incorporates fire retardants. One-dimensional pyrolysis models have been constructed for cable sheathing materials, based on milligram-scale and bench-scale test data by comparing the performance of three different software tools (ThermaKin, Comsol Multiphysics and FDS, version 6.0.1). Thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were conducted on powdered cable coatings to determine the thermal degradation mechanism, the enthalpy of decomposition reactions, and the heat capacities of all apparent species. The emissivity and the in-depth absorption coefficient were determined using reflectance and transmittance measurements, with dispersive and non-dispersive spectrometers and integrating spheres. Bench-scale tests were conducted with a mass loss calorimeter flushed with nitrogen on samples in a horizontal orientation, for comparison with the pyrolysis model of non-flaming decomposition at an external heat flux of 50 kW m-2. The parameters determined through analysis of the milligram-scale data were used to construct a pyrolysis model that predicted the total mass loss from calorimeter tests in anaerobic conditions. A condensed phase pyrolysis model that accurately predicts in-depth temperature profiles of a solid fuel, and the mass flux of volatiles evolved during degradation of the fuel, is an essential component of a comprehensive fire model, which when coupled to a computational fluid dynamics code can be used to predict the burning processes in a fire scenario. Pyrolysis models vary considerably in complexity based on the assumptions incorporated into the development of the model.

  • 9.
    Svensson, Robert
    et al.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Low emissivity surfaces for improved fire performance2015In: Fire and Materials 2015, 2-4 Feb 2015, San Francisco, USA: proceedings, Interscience Communications, 2015, p. 464-477Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiative heat transfer accounts for around one third of the heat released from fires, and this is the most important mode of heat transfer for example at long distances and from a hot smoke gas layer to lower objects, such as to a floor for example. The possibility for reducing the absorptivity of surfaces in the infrared part of the spectrum has been discussed for several decades, mainly for energy saving purposes. Such surfaces are called low emissivity surfaces, or low emissivity coatings, and much focus has been on the spectral absorptivity up to wavelengths around 2.5 μm, e.g for solar reflective paints. Spectra from fires are distributed to longer wavelengths and this paper concerns the absorptivity for paints and thin coatings over the full spectral range where radiation from fires is important. The correlation between absorptivity and time to ignition in the cone calorimeter is also investigated

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