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  • 1.
    Hage, Olle
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Sandberg, Krister
    Transport Analysis, Stockholm.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Berglund, Christer
    Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Luleå.
    The regional heterogeneity of household recycling: a spatial-econometric analysis of Swedish plastic packing waste2018Ingår i: Letters in spatial and resource sciences, ISSN 1864-4031, E-ISSN 1864-404X, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 245-267Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental policy is often formulated at the national level, but the primary responsibilities for policy implementation, monitoring and compliance are often assigned to local actors (e.g., municipalities). This paper investigates the regional heterogeneity of household plastic waste collection among Swedish municipalities, and how collection rates have been influenced by local waste management policies, geographical conditions and socio-economic characteristics. This is achieved by employing spatial econometric methods and cross-sectional data for 282 Swedish municipalities. The results confirm the presence of spatial correlation. Furthermore, municipalities that employ weight-based waste management fees generally experience higher collection rates. The presence of curbside recycling and a high intensity of recycling drop-off stations, i.e., policy measures that help improve the infrastructural conditions for household recycling, also help explain why some municipalities perform better than others. However, the correlations between packaging waste collection and a number of important regional cost variables, such as the distance to the recycling industry, urbanization rate and population density, turn out both statistically and economically insignificant. An important explanation for this could be that the Swedish producer responsibility scheme has offered regionally differentiated (and fixed) monetary compensations to local collection entrepreneurs, and these have typically been higher in high-cost regions. This implies that plastic packaging waste collection in Sweden has been performed in a spatially cost-ineffective manner.

  • 2.
    Miliute-Plepienea, Jurate
    et al.
    Lund University Centre for Sustainability Studies (LUCSUS), Lund University.
    Hage, Olle
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Plepys, Andrius
    The International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE) at Lund University.
    Reipas, Algirdas
    Alytus Region Waste Management Centre, Vilniaus.
    What motivates households recycling behaviour in recycling schemes of different maturity?: Lessons from Lithuania and Sweden2016Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 113, s. 40-52Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the determinants of household recycling behaviour in a recycling system at an early stage of development (Lithuania) and compares them with those of a more mature recycling scheme (Sweden). The analysis builds on the empirics from household surveys and focuses on four fractions of household packaging waste. Several similarities within the two recycling schemes were found, including convenience, norm-based motivators, and the interactions between such factors. The analysis tested and confirmed the so-called ABC Hypothesis of moral norms being less important as motivators to recycle when it is easy and convenient to collect packaging waste, e.g. when kerbside collection is in place. One important difference between the two schemes was that social norms were found to be important for source sorting in the early-stage recycling system but not in the mature recycling system. This suggests not only that more effort should be devoted to shaping social norms that facilitate household recycling behaviour when collection systems are launched, but also that the focus should be on moral norms when the convenience factors in waste management schemes are still underdeveloped.

  • 3.
    Hage, Olle
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Kursdesign för lärande: Hur vi motiverar studenter att arbeta hårt med rätt saker under hela kursen, individuellt och i grupp2014Ingår i: NU 2014: Umeå 8-10 oktober : abstracts, Umeå: Umeå universitet. Pedagogiska institutionen , 2014, s. 210-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Vattenfall.
    Hage, Olle
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Household recycling and the influence of norms and convenience2010Ingår i: Environmental Policy and Household Behaviour: Sustainability and Everyday Life, London: Earthscan / James & James, 2010, s. 193-209Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5. Hage, Olle
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Berglund, Christer
    Norms and economic motivation in household recycling: empirical evidence from Sweden2009Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 53, nr 3, s. 155-165Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the determinants of recycling efforts in Swedish households, and focuses on the case of packaging waste (i.e., paper, glass, plastic, and metal). The analysis builds on a theoretical framework that integrates norm-motivated behavior into a simple economic model of household choice by assuming that the individuals have preferences for maintaining a self-image as morally responsible, and thus norm-compliant, persons. A postal survey was sent out randomly to 2800 households in four different Swedish municipalities, and in the paper self-reported information on recycling rates at the household level is analyzed in an ordered probit regression framework. The results indicate that both economic and moral motives influence inter-household recycling rates. Specifically, convenience matters in the sense that property-close collection in multi-family dwelling houses leads to higher collection rates. The strength of moral (self-enforced) norms explains a large part of the variation across households, but the importance of such norms in driving recycling efforts partly diminishes if improved collection infrastructure makes it easier for households to recycle. Recycling rates at the household level are also positively influenced by the felt ability to favourably affect environmental outcomes as well as by others' recycling efforts. The paper discusses a number of policy implications that follow from the empirical results.

  • 6.
    Hage, Olle
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Viktbaserad renhållningstaxa som styrmedel2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 7. Hage, Olle
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    An econometric analysis of regional differences in household waste collection: the case of plastic packaging waste in Sweden2008Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 28, nr 10, s. 1720-1731Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish producer responsibility ordinance mandates producers to collect and recycle packaging materials. This paper investigates the main determinants of collection rates of household plastic packaging waste in Swedish municipalities. This is done by the use of a regression analysis based on cross-sectional data for 252 Swedish municipalities. The results suggest that local policies, geographic/demographic variables, socio-economic factors and environmental preferences all help explain inter-municipality collection rates. For instance, the collection rate appears to be positively affected by increases in the unemployment rate, the share of private houses, and the presence of immigrants (unless newly arrived) in the municipality. The impacts of distance to recycling industry, urbanization rate and population density on collection outcomes turn out, though, to be both statistically and economically insignificant. A reasonable explanation for this is that the monetary compensation from the material companies to the collection entrepreneurs vary depending on region and is typically higher in high-cost regions. This implies that the plastic packaging collection in Sweden may be cost ineffective. Finally, the analysis also shows that municipalities that employ weight-based waste management fees generally experience higher collection rates than those municipalities in which flat and/or volume-based fees are used.

  • 8. Hage, Olle
    et al.
    Sandberg, Krister
    SIKA.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Berglund, Christer
    Household plastic waste collection in Swedish municipalities: a spatial-econometric approach2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the main determinants of collection rates of household plastic packaging waste in Swedish municipalities. This is done by the use of spatial econometric methods based on cross-sectional data for 282 Swedish municipalities in 2005. The empirical results suggest that the collection of plastic packaging is positively related to collection in neighboring municipalities. The analysis also shows that municipalities that employ weight-based waste management fees generally experience higher collection rates than those municipalities in which volume-based fees are used. The presence of curbside recycling and a high intensity of recycling drop-off stations, both measures that facilitate recycling efforts by creating the infrastructural and logistic mechanisms that enable people to translate their motivation into recycling action, provide important explanations for why some municipalities perform better than others. Overall the impacts on collection outcomes of a number of important regional cost variables, such as distance to recycling industry, urbanization rate and population density, turn out, though, both statistically and economically insignificant. An important explanation for this is that the (fixed) monetary compensations from the material companies to the collection entrepreneurs in Sweden vary depending on region and is typically higher in high-cost regions. This implies that the plastic packaging collection in Sweden may be performed in a cost ineffective manner.

  • 9.
    Hage, Olle
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    The economics of household packaging waste: norms, effectiveness and policy design2008Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of an introduction and four self-contained papers, which all deal with the economic effectiveness of the Swedish producer responsibility for packaging materials. Paper I analyzes the determinants of household packaging recycling efforts in Sweden by employing data on households' self-reported behavior. This is analyzed in an ordered probit regression framework. Theoretically the paper draws heavily on recent developments in the literature on integrating norm-motivated behavior into neoclassical consumer theory. The results show that both economic and moral motivations are important in explaining household recycling outcomes. This indicates that recycling campaigns could be effective in increasing recycling efforts, not the least by influencing individuals' perceptions about others' (positive) contributions in the recycling field. The results also indicate that the importance of moral motivation partly diminishes if improved collection infrastructure makes it easier for house-holds to recycle. Paper II investigates the main determinants of collection rates of household plastic packaging waste across Swedish municipalities. This is done by the use of a regression analysis based on cross-sectional data for 252 Swedish municipalities. The results suggest that local policy measures, geographic/demographic variables, socio-economic factors as well as environmental preferences all help explain inter-municipality collection rates. For instance, the collection rate appears to be positively affected by increases in the unemployment rate, the share of private houses, and the presence of immigrants (unless newly arrived) in the municipality. The impacts on collection outcomes of differences in distance to recycling industry, urbanization rate and population density turn out, though, both statistically and economically insignificant. This implies that the plastic packaging collection in Sweden may be performed cost-ineffectively. Finally, the analysis also shows that municipalities that employ weight- based waste collection fees overall experience higher collection rates than those municipalities in which flat and/or volume-based fees are used. Paper III extends the analysis in Paper II primarily by: (a) adding 30 more municipalities; (b) including additional data on local policy variables; and (c) adopting spatial econometric methods. The empirical results suggest that the collection of plastic packaging is positively related to collection in neighboring municipalities. The analysis also shows that municipalities that employ weight-based waste fees generally experience higher collection rates than those municipalities in which volume-based fees are used. The presence of curbside recycling and a high intensity of recycling drop-off stations also provide important explanations for why some municipalities perform better than others. Paper III also confirm the finding from paper II that the plastic packing collection in Sweden seems to be conducted in a cost-ineffective manner. Finally, Paper IV analyzes the incentive structure and the cost-effectiveness of the Swedish producer responsibility ordinance. A secondary purpose is to discuss if the empirical evidence in any way suggests that an alternative supply chain management regime, i.e., the UCTS system, could be more effective. According to the results, both the Swedish producer responsibility scheme and the UCTS system give rise to output and input substitution effects. However, none of the systems tends to encourage enough of design for recyclability. The analysis of the transformation and transaction costs involved in the two waste management systems suggests that it is hard to a priori determine which system will minimize waste management costs. This will depend on, for instance, households' valuation of sorting efforts and the presence of economies of scale in the waste collection system. The above also suggests that different systems can be preferred in different parts of the country, and that the cost-effectiveness of the Swedish packaging collection scheme could be improved.

  • 10.
    Hage, Olle
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    The Swedish producer responsibility for paper packaging: an effective waste management policy?2007Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 51, nr 2, s. 314-344Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze the incentive structure and the effectiveness of the Swedish producer responsibility ordinance, i.e., the ability of the system to induce producers to economize with cardboard packaging and to fulfill the related environmental goals cost effectively. A secondary purpose is to discuss if the empirical evidence in any way suggests that an alternative supply chain management regime, i.e., the UCTS-system, could be more effective. According to the results, both the Swedish producer responsibility scheme and the UCTS system fulfill two important cost effectiveness criteria. The packaging fee in the present Swedish system and the packaging tax in the UCTS system provide similar incentives to an output effect. Furthermore, both systems also give rise to input substitution effects. For instance, both systems encourage the use of secondary materials at the expense of virgin materials by subsidizing collection and recycling activities. However, in the Swedish producer responsibility system, waste collection entrepreneurs in areas with high marginal costs of collection also often obtain high refunds. This implies a violation of the cost effectiveness principle. Neither of the systems tends to encourage enough of design for recyclability, but here the Swedish producer responsibility seems to be somewhat more effective than the UCTS system. Our analysis of the transformation and transaction costs involved in the two waste management systems suggests that it is hard to a priori determine which system will minimize waste management costs. It will depend on, for instance, households’ valuation of sorting efforts, and the presence of economies of scale in the waste collection system. This implies that different systems can be preferred in different parts of the country.

  • 11.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Hage, Olle
    An econometric analysis of regional differences in household waste collection: the case of plastic packaging in Sweden2006Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish producer responsibility ordinance mandates producers to collect and recycle packa-ging materials. This paper investigates the main determinants of collection rates of household plastic packaging waste in Swedish municipalities. This is done by the use of a regression analy-sis based on cross-sectional data for 252 Swedish municipalities. The results suggest that local policies, geographic/demographic variables, socio-economic factors as well as environmental preferences all help explain inter-municipality collection rates. For instance, the collection rate appears to be positively affected by increases in the unemployment rate, the share of private houses, and the presence of immigrants (unless newly arrived) in the municipality. The impacts of distance to recycling industry, urbanization rate and population density on collection outcomes turn out, though, both statistically and economically insignificant. A reasonable explanation for this is that the monetary compensations from the material companies to the collection entrepre-neurs vary depending on region and is typically higher in high-cost regions. This implies that the plastic packaging collection in Sweden may be cost ineffective. Finally, the analysis also shows that municipalities that employ weight-based waste management fees generally experience higher collection rates than those municipalities in which flat and/or volume-based fees are used.

  • 12.
    Hage, Olle
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Evaluating the Swedish producer responsibility for packaging materials: policy design and outcome2004Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades the promotion of recycling of used packaging materials has become an integral part of environmental policy. In 1994, a producer responsibility ordinance was introduced for different packaging materials in Sweden. The overall purposes of this thesis are to: (a) evaluate the design - and primarily the cost-effectiveness - of this waste management regime, and (b) attempt to explain differences in collection rate outcomes across Swedish municipalities. The thesis consists of an introductory part and two self-contained papers. Paper [1] outlines a theoretical model that is designed to link the necessary conditions for a cost effective waste management policy to specific policy designs. The main purpose of the paper is to make use of this model and analyze the incentive structure and the effectiveness of the Swedish producer responsibility ordinance in the empirical context of paper packaging. A secondary purpose is to discuss if the empirical evidence suggests that an alternative waste management regime, i.e., the so-called UCTS-system, could be more effective. According to the results, both the Swedish producer responsibility scheme and the UCTS system fulfill two important cost effectiveness conditions. The packaging fee in the present Swedish system and the packaging tax in the UCTS system provide similar incentives to an output effect. Furthermore, both systems also give rise to input substitution effects, e.g., they encourage the use of secondary materials at the expense of virgin materials by subsidizing collection and recycling activities. However, in the Swedish producer responsibility system, waste collection entrepreneurs in areas with high marginal costs of collection often obtain high refunds, a situation that is in violation with the cost effectiveness criterion. Neither of the systems tends to encourage enough of design for recyclability, although the Swedish producer responsibility seems to perform somewhat better here. Our analysis of the transformation and transaction costs involved in the two waste management systems suggests that it is hard to a priori determine which system will minimize these costs. It will depend on, for instance, households' valuation of sorting efforts, and the presence of economies of scale in the waste collection system. This implies that different systems in different parts of the country can be preferred. Paper [2] focuses on the actual outcome of the producer responsibility in the case of household plastic packaging collection. The paper investigates the main determinants of collection rates of household plastic packaging waste in Swedish municipalities. This is done by employing regression analysis based on cross-section data for 252 Swedish municipalities. The results suggest that pure cost, economic-demographic, and socio-demographic factors as well as environmental preferences all help explain inter-municipality collection rates. For instance, the collection rate appears to be positively affected by increases in the unemployment rate, the share of private houses, and the presence of immigrants (unless newly arrived) in the municipality. The impacts of distance to recycling industry, urbanization rate and population density on collection outcomes turn out, though, both statistically and economically insignificant. A reasonable explanation for this is that the compensation from the material companies varies depending on region and is likely to be higher in high-cost regions. However, if true, this also suggests that the plastic packaging collection is cost ineffective. Finally, the analysis also shows that municipalities that employ weight-based waste management fees have on average a higher collection rate than municipalities in which flat and/or volume-based fees are used. A major conclusion of the thesis is that public policy in the waste management field ought to focus more on regional cost differences in the collection and recycling of packaging materials.

  • 13.
    Hage, Olle
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Producentansvar för pappersförpackningar: ett effektivt politiskt styrmedel för rationella materialflöden?2003Ingår i: Produktionslogistik 2003: effektivt flöde från leverantör till kund / [ed] Anders Segerstedt; Torbjörn Wiberg, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2003, s. 95-112Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
1 - 13 av 13
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