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  • 1.
    Olofsson, Linus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Holistic-Subjective Automatic Grading of Sawn Timber: Sensitivity to Systematic Changes2019Ingår i: International Wood Machining Seminar, 2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Holistic-subjective automatic grading of sawn timber by a partial least squares (PLS) regression model required training of the model. This study tests the sensitivity towards systematic changes of a specialized PLS model, trained on a selected type of material suitable for a specific paneling product, when used to grade sawn timber systematically different than the material it was trained on. A sawmills automatic scanning system used cameras to measure knot and bark features on 900 planks. Each plank was split into three boards, and each board was shaped into an indoor paneling product and manually graded as desirable or undesirable at a planing mill. The plank grade was decided as the majority of the board-grade outcome. The knot and bark measurements were used to create a large set of feature variables for each plank that was correlated to the plank’s grade by PLS regression. Of the 900 available planks, 434 planks sawn from top logs were used as a class-balanced specialistic training set, with half of the planks resulting in a majority of desirable boards. The regression model trained on the class-balanced specialistic training set was used to grade a test set of 282 planks, containing 64 planks that by manual classification of automatically captured images were determined to be sawn from butt logs and were systematically different from the training material. The PLS model’s grading accuracy of the planks sawn from top logs was 76%, compared to 70% for the plank sawn from butt logs. The grading outcome resulted in a higher proportion of both delivered planks from the sawmill and received desirable planks by the planing mill when grading planks from top logs as compared to planks from butt logs. The results indicated that a specialistic PLS model should not be used for a generalistic use-case.

  • 2.
    Olofsson, Linus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Holistic-subjective automatic grading of sawn timber: Sensitivity to systematic changes.2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the 24th International Wood Machining Seminar, IWMS 24. / [ed] Schajer, G, Corvallis: Oregon State University (OSU) , 2019, s. 154-167Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 3.
    Olofsson, Linus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Skog, Johan
    RISE Bioeconomy, Research Institutes of Sweden, Skellefteå, Sweden.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Multivariate product adapted grading of Scots pine sawn timber for an industrial customer, part 1: Method development2019Ingår i: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 14, nr 6, s. 428-436Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Rule-based automatic grading (RBAG) of sawn timber is a common type of sorting system used in sawmills, which is intricate to customise for specific customers. This study further develops an automatic grading method to grade sawn timber according to a customer’s resulting product quality. A sawmill’s automatic sorting system used cameras to scan the 308 planks included in the study. Each plank was split at a planing mill into three boards, each planed, milled, and manually graded as desirable or not. The plank grade was correlated by multivariate partial least squares regression to aggregated variables, created from the sorting system’s measurements at the sawmill. Grading models were trained and tested independently using 5-fold cross-validation to evaluate the grading accuracy of the holistic-subjective automatic grading (HSAG), and compared with a resubstitution test. Results showed that using the HSAG method at the sawmill graded on average 74% of planks correctly, while 83% of desirable planks were correctly identified. Results implied that a sawmill sorting station could grade planks according to a customer’s product quality grade with similar accuracy to HSAG conforming with manual grading of standardised sorting classes, even when the customer is processing the planks further.

  • 4.
    Olofsson, Linus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Skog, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Multivariate Product Adapted Grading of Scots Pine Sawn Timber for an Industrial Customer, Part 2: Robustness to Disturbances2019Ingår i: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 14, nr 6, s. 420-427Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Holistic-subjective automatic grading (HSAG) of sawn timber by an industrial customer's product outcome is possible through the use of multivariate partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), shown by part one of this two-part study. This second part of the study aimed at testing the robustness to disturbances of such an HSAG system when grading Scots Pine sawn timber partially covered in dust. The set of 308 clean planks from part one of this study, and a set of 310 dusty planks, that by being stored inside a sawmill accumulated a layer of dust, were used. Cameras scanned each plank in a sawmill's automatic sorting system that detected selected feature variables. The planks were then split and processed at a planing mill, and the product grade was correlated to the measured feature variables by partial least squares regression. Prediction models were tested using 5-fold cross-validation in four tests and compared to the reference result of part one of this study. The tests showed that the product adapted HSAG could grade dusty planks with similar or lower grading accuracy compared to grading clean planks. In tests grading dusty planks, the disturbing effect of the dust was difficult to capture through training.

  • 5.
    Olofsson, Linus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Möller, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University.
    Wendel, Charlotta
    Umeå Universitet.
    Oja, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik. Norra Timber.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    New possibilities with CT scanning in the forest value chain2019Ingår i: 21st International Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Wood Symposium, 2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanners have recently been installed at several sawmills worldwide for the description of roundwood interior features and external log shape. These CT scanners represent a technological advancement for sawmill businesses that open a way to higher volume and value yields and new production planning strategies. This paper will present an indicative study of innovative use of non-destructive CT log data in a Swedish softwood sawmill, linking high-quality information of the wood material along the wood-value chain. Sawn timber was observed throughout the sawmill process line, i.e. from the log yard through the sawmill process until grading after the timber was dried. Before sawing, the CT scanner scanned the logs and calculated knot measurements from the 3D CT log data of simulated value-optimized center yield. A corresponding set of knot measurements were later calculated from the camera-based grading of the dried timber. Only considering knots from the two sets of measurements, the sawn timber was automatically given a quality assessment based on CT data, by camera-based scanning data, and by manual visual grading for reference. Partial least squares regression was used to create prediction models by correlating the two sets of knot measurements with the automatically determined grade from the dry-sorting. The prediction models tested increased the grading consistency between the grading based on CT data of virtual planks and based on camera data of the same planks. Furthermore, a traceability algorithm was tested as a tool to generate large data sets for future studies.

  • 6.
    Olofsson, Linus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Skog, Johan
    RISE Bioeconomy, Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Customer adapted grading of Scots pine sawn timber: a multivariate method approach2017Ingår i: 23rd International wood machining seminar: proceedings : 28. - 31. 5. 2017, Warsaw, Poland / [ed] Zbiec M & Orlowski K, Warsaw: Warsaw university of life sciences , 2017, s. 360-361Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    At Scandinavian softwood sawmills, the most common system for grading of sawn timber in dry conditions is optical scanning equipment together with a rule-based automatic grading system (RBAG). The procedure to define new grading rules towards a customer with specified requirements is a time-consuming work for sawmills and is rarely implemented in a satisfactory way neither for the customer nor for the sawmill. An important consequence is that sawmills will, in general, not be able to deliver products that utilize the full potential of the quality distribution of the sawn timber produced at the sawmill. Their customers will get products with mismatch in desired and delivered quality grades. Thus, there is a need for a methodology that facilitates time and cost effective grading toward specific customers’ needs. The objective of the study was to further develop and validate a method that complements the RBAG by a holistic-subjective automatic grading (HSAG) approach - using multivariate regression models.In the study, 790 Scots pine boards with cross-section dimensions of 38×150 mm and length between 3.4 m and 5.6 m were manually graded according to the preferences of a large-volume customer, and also scanned and graded by an RBAG system calibrated for the same customer. Multivariate models for prediction of board grade, based on aggregated knot variables obtained from the scanning, were calibrated using partial least squares regression. The results show that prediction of board grades by the multivariate models were more correct than the grading by the RBAG system. The prediction of board grades based on multivariate models resulted in 84% of the boards graded correctly, according to the manual grading, while the corresponding number was 64% for the RBAG system. In a follow up grading test the accuracy of the two systems were 95% and 81%, respectively.

  • 7.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Factors Affecting Volume Yield in a Forestry-Wood Value Chain: A Simulation Study Based on CT Scanning2017Ingår i: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 540-548Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents the results of a simulation study, where log models based on CT scanned logs of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was used as input material to a computer simulation model of a generic value chain involving sawing, drying, crosscutting and finger jointing. The aim was to investigate which factors that affect the volume yield in the value chain, be it forestal, log-, process- or quality-related factors. The results show that factors related to growth conditions and log size have a large impact on the volume yield in the studied value chain, together with quality requirements on knots. Factors such as sawing positioning and log quality had a much smaller impact. It can be concluded that it is possible to model a forestry-wood value chain, while assessing which input variables affect the result in terms of volume yield, using CT scanning of logs and subsequent computer simulation of the production processes.

  • 8.
    Ah Shenga, Pedro
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Bomark, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Log sawing positioning optimization and log bucking of tropical hardwood species to increase the volume yield2017Ingår i: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 257-262Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The sawmill industry is a very important link in the Mozambique forest products value chain, but the industry is characterized by undeveloped processing technology and high-volume export of almost unrefined logs. The low volume yield of sawn timber has been identified as a critical gap in the technological development of the industry. To improve the profitability of the industry, there is thus a need to develop methods and techniques that improve the yield. In this paper, different positioning of logs prior to sawing and the possibility of increasing the volume yield of crooked logs by bucking the logs before sawing have been studied. A computer simulation was used to study the cant-sawing and through-and-through sawing of the logs to determine the volume yield of sawn timber from the jambirre (Millettia stuhlmannii Taub.) and umbila (Pterocarpus angolensis DC.) species. The optimal position, i.e. the position of the log before sawing that gives the highest volume yield of sawn timber for a given sawing pattern when the positioning parameters, offset, skew and rotation, are considered gave a considerable higher volume yield than the horns-down position. By bucking very crooked logs and using the horns-down positioning before sawing, the volume yield can be of the same magnitude as that obtained by optimal positioning on full-length (un-bucked) logs. The bucking reduces the crook of the logs and hence increases the volume yield of sawn timber.

  • 9.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    The Use of CT-Scanning Technology in Wood Value-Chain Research and in Wood Industry: A State of The Art2017Ingår i: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 533-539Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a powerful tool for the non-destructive  measurement  of  dynamic  processes in wood. After more than 25 years of research at Luleå University of Technology in the field of CT-scanning of wood material, the first industrial CT-scanners are now installed in sawmill production for the in-situ measurement of internal  log features to steer of the sawmill process with the help of this information.This  paper  provides  an  overview  of  the  potential  of  CT-scanning in wood-material  research  and  how  this data can be used for the modelling and simulation of the wood value chain. A database of CT-images of trees  is  used  to  create  a  log  model  including  the  outer  shape  of  the  logs  and  their  internal  knot  structure.  Simulation software is used to saw these virtual logs in different positions relative to the sawblade, and also for the crosscutting of the sawn timber to components. The output is dimensions and grades of sawn timber, volume yield as well as an economic result based on real economic conditions. A specially designed climate chamber  for  CT  studies  of  the  drying  of  sawn  timber  is  used  to  increase  the  knowledge  of  how  the  drying  affects the response from the sawn timber during seasoning.

  • 10.
    Manuel, A.
    et al.
    Albert Ludwigs Univ Freiburg, Forstbenutzung, Freiburg, Germany.
    Leonhart, R.
    Albert Ludwigs Univ Freiburg, Inst Psychol, Freiburg, Germany.
    Broman, O.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Becker, G.
    Albert Ludwigs Univ Freiburg, Forstbenutzung, Freiburg, Germany.
    Visual perception and verbal assessment of wood surfaces by consumers: Relevant expressions on floors of pine wood boards as an example2017Ingår i: Allgemeine Forst und Jagdzeitung, ISSN 0002-5852, Vol. 188, nr 9-10, s. 186-196Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Interior design and flooring from wood are highly appreciated by consumers. Today's wood industries use mostly technical parameters to identify wood quality, whereas knowledge about consumer preferences is rarely taken into account. The exploration of terms consumers use in their day-to-day language characterising wood surfaces (Picture 1) can help to direct and focus the production and marketing of high valuable wood products according to consumers' appreciation and preferences. This study aims at (1) identifying relevant items which consumers use when assessing wood surfaces. (2) Relevant items are examined with regard to the construction of a practically feasible set of different Items and factors. The final number of items and factors should comprise the whole range of diverse aspects of the consumer's visual assessment of wood surfaces. A questionnaire in German language was used (1) to collect relevant terms and criteria in an open question. (2) A Set of 39 pre-set items, which have been found to be meaningful in earlier studies (in English language) was translated into German and offered to consumers (n = 102) to test their relevance in German language. This set of items was analysed in an exploratory factor analysis on the base of 96 answers. Two other questions requested terms (3) that were missing and (4) which were the most relevant. Out of the answers to the questions 1 and 4, objective and subjective Items (Table 1) were categorised. Based on the answers to question 2, the Kaiser-Gutttman criterion suggested a solution based on 12 factors, but further analysis revealed four factors the most appropriate solution (Table 2). Meaning and interpretation of the items and factors from this study need to be set in the context of the people's socio-demographic environment and so results cannot be generalised. The adjustment and validation of the items and factors identified in this study is recommended with regard to different panels of consumer groups and wood products, for which this study suggests adequate methods and tools for questionnaire design and data analysis. This may help to direct production and marketing of valuable wood products more effectively towards consumer's preferences with positive effects for a more efficient use of the raw material and added value.

  • 11.
    Manuel, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Freiburg.
    Leonhart, Rainer
    University of Freiburg, Institute of Psychology, University of Freiburg, Department of Social Psychology and Methodology, University of Freiburg, Breisgau.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Becker, Gero
    Institute of Forest Sciences, University of Freiburg.
    How do consumers express their appreciation of wood surfaces?: Norway spruce floors in Germany as an example2016Ingår i: Annals of Forest Science, ISSN 1286-4560, E-ISSN 1297-966X, Vol. 73, nr 3, s. 703-712Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Key Message: A variety of visually different floor sam- ples are presented online to consumers. Based on their individual verbal judgements of appreciation for visual surface characteristics, four distinct groups of floor sur- faces were identified. This allows directing design and marketing efforts more precisely towards consumers’ expectations.Context: For high-end wood products, appearance is a key factor. Traditionally, manufacturers grade wood considering technical parameters and industrial customers’ requirements. In contrast, knowing the consumers’ verbal items would be of advantage for both producers and buyers.Aims: Three research questions are identified exploring pos- sibilities to utilize consumers’ appreciations. (1) Is it possible to establish a consistent characterization with verbal items? (2) Can appreciation be linked to visual wood properties? (3) Can the great natural variety of wood surfaces be assigned to de- sirable product groups?Methods: Out of 57 spruce logs, 810 floor boards were pro- duced and sorted into 15 ‘visual classes’ (VC). Images were retrieved and virtual floors composed from each VC. Consumers evaluated selected floor samples in an online sur- vey using a set of 7 items. Hierarchical cluster analysis and discriminant analysis are applied to analyze the answers.Results: Only 4 out of the 7 items (‘vividness’, ‘evenness’, ‘contrast’ and ‘stripes’) were sufficient to allocate the VCs to four groups which represent different consumer appreciations. Inverse assessments of different product groups support a more differentiated marketing.Conclusion: The results indicate that verbal judgements of high-end wood surfaces can hold advantages directing production and marketing efforts more towards consumers’ preferences and thus increasing satisfaction and added value

  • 12.
    Ah Shenga, Pedro
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Bomark, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    The Effect of Log Position Accuracy on the Volume Yield in Sawmilling of Tropical Hardwood2016Ingår i: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 9560-9571Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effect of the positioning of the log before sawing on the volume yield of sawn timber from tropical hardwood species. Three positioning parameters were studied, the offset, skew, and rotation, combined with two sawing patterns of cant-sawing and through-and-through sawing. A database consisting of two tropical hardwood species with very different outer shapes, jambirre (Millettia stuhllmannii Taub.) and umbila (Pterocarpus angolensis DC.), was used to simulate the sawing process. The result of the simulation revealed that, according to the combined effect of offset, skew, and rotation positioning, the positioning of the log before sawing is extremely important to achieve a high volume yield of sawn timber. The positioning parameter that has the highest effect on the volume yield is the rotation, and the variation in the volume yield associated with a deviation in the positioning can reduce the volume yield of sawn timber by between 7.7% and 12.5%.

  • 13.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Bomark, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Grönlund, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    A trapeze edging method for cross laminated timber panel production2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 22nd International Wood Machining Seminar / [ed] Roger Hernández; Claudia Cáceres, Quebec city, Kanada: Universite Laval , 2015, s. 323-332Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 14.
    Breinig, Lorenz
    et al.
    Forest Research Institute of Baden-Württemberg, 79100 Freiburg.
    Leonhart, Rainer
    Institute of Psychology, University of Freiburg.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Manuel, Andreas
    University of Freiburg, Institute of Forest Sciences, University of Freiburg.
    Brüchert, Franka
    Forest Research Institute of Baden-Württemberg, 79100 Freiburg.
    Becker, Gero
    Institute of Forest Sciences, University of Freiburg.
    Classification of wood surfaces according to visual appearance by multivariate analysis of wood feature data2015Ingår i: Journal of Wood Science, ISSN 1435-0211, E-ISSN 1611-4663, Vol. 61, nr 2, s. 89-112Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Its natural aesthetics make wood an attractivematerial for construction and design. However, there is nodetailed understanding of the relationships between humanperception of the appearance and measurable features ofwood surfaces that could be used for controlling sawntimber production. This study investigated whether woodsurfaces can be classified according to their visualappearance on the basis of wood feature measurements.Cluster analysis was used to discover a classification basedon a set of feature pattern variables in a sample of 300softwood floorboards. A finely graded visual appearancesorting provided a reference. Discriminant analysis wasapplied to identify the relevant variables from the tested setand to assess predictability of the classification. The resultsindicated that visual appearance sorting could be approximatedquite well by the variable-based classification afterpregrouping according to board position in the log.Ambivalent results were obtained for group predictionwithin the validation sample. While for boards from somegroups prediction was mostly or entirely correct, boardsfrom other groups were largely misclassified. An effect ofthe available sample was one of the surmised causes,making repetition of the analysis based on a larger sample adesirable focus of further research.

  • 15.
    Manuel, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Freiburg, Chair of Forest Utilization, Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Freiburg.
    Leonhart, Rainer
    University of Freiburg, Institute of Psychology, University of Freiburg, Social Psychology and Methodology, Institute of Psychology, University of Freiburg.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Becker, Gero
    Institute of Forest Sciences, University of Freiburg, Chair of Forest Utilization, Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Freiburg.
    Consumers’ perceptions and preference profiles for wood surfaces tested with pairwise comparison in Germany2015Ingår i: Annals of Forest Science, ISSN 1286-4560, E-ISSN 1297-966X, Vol. 72, nr 6, s. 741-751Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Key message Visual aspects of wood are appreciated in interior design and many other high-end applications. This study focuses on consumer preferences which are examined regarding visually different spruce floor samples. Results indicate specific market segments according to different consumer preference groups.Context Wood for interior use is attractive to many consumers for aesthetic and ecological reasons. Visual attractiveness can be decisive for high added value. Industrial wood grading based on technical parameters is a common practice, but little is known about consumer preferences which could direct the production chain from the tree to the final product presented to the consumer.Aims In this study, two objectives are addressed: (1) reducing the complexity of wood appearances based on consumers’ perceptions and (2) aggregating diverging preferences to consumer groups.Methods Four hundred twenty-five boards from spruce logs were classified on the basis of their visual appearance. Fifteen visual classes of these boards were identified. From each of these classes, a representative floor sample was made with dimensions of 2 m × 1 m and a high-resolution image taken of it. These 15 images were then evaluated by consumers and grouped using multidimensional scaling. Finally, consumer preference profiles were analysed on the basis of latent class analysis.Results The first main result is that from the initial 15 classes which arose from the visual board sorting, consumers could objectively only distinguish seven from each other. The second main result is that among these seven classes, five of them were identified as the most liked.Conclusion This contribution provides an objective methodology for the assessment of the visual preference of wooden products that may pave the avenue to more efficient allocation of the selected end products to the targeted groups of consumers.

  • 16.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Oja, Johan
    Grönlund, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Customer adapted grading of Scots pine sawn timber using a multivariate method2015Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 87-97Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To define new grading rules, or to customize the ones in use in a rule-based automatic grading system of boards, is a time-consuming job for a sawmill engineer. This has the effect that changes are rarely made. The objective of this study was to continue the development of a method that replaces the calibration of grading rule settings by a holistic-subjective automatic grading, using multivariate models. The objective was also to investigate if this approach can improve sawmill profitability and at the same time have a satisfied customer. For the study, 323 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) boards were manually graded according to preferences of an important customer. That is, a customer that regularly purchases significant volumes of sawn timber. This manual grading was seen as reference grading in this work. The same boards were also scanned and graded by a rule-based automatic grading system, calibrated for the same customer. Multivariate models for prediction of board grade based on aggregated knot variables, obtained from the scanning, were calibrated using partial least squares regression. The results show that prediction of board grades by the multivariate models were more correct, with respect to the manual grading, than the grading by the rule-based automatic grading system. The prediction of board grades based on multivariate models resulted in 76-87% of the boards graded correctly, according to the manual grading, while the corresponding number was 63% for the rule-based automatic grading system.

  • 17.
    Broman, Olof
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik.
    Effect of Raw Material on Yield in a Furniture Production Process2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 22nd International Wood Machining Seminar, June 14-17, 2015 Qebec City, Canada / [ed] Roger Hernández; Claudia Cáceres, Quebec City: Universite Laval , 2015, s. 311-322Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In the process of wood manufacturing, each step affects the material utilization and the cost efficiency. Wood has got high diversity in its inherent features and the different manufacturing steps must be able to handle this. In most end products the proportion of the raw material cost is high. Thus, material utilization and cost efficient processes are of great importance. The overall aim of this project was to study the potential in a manufacturing production process in terms of material utilization efficiency. A production process of finger-jointed furniture components was chosen as a study case. Its chain of production units consists of: a sawmill, a finger-joint plant producing components and finally a furniture company that produce the end product. The aim of this article is to describe the impact of different raw material (log type and board quality) and what wood features affect the total yield of a manufactured product.In total 105 logs of three different types were tested: butt, intermediate and top logs. The logs were sawn with two different sawing patterns, 3X- and 2X-log. The quality of the wood material was measured by aid of 3D-scanning and X-ray (logs), manual grading (boards), and WoodEye (boards/components) and manual inspection of the final products. With a data collection with traceability the quality of the test material was followed through all steps in the manufacturing chain.The result show differences between log types in down-grade causes, reject volume and the final yield of accepted products. Different ways of improving the raw material efficiency of the studied chain of operations are also discussed.

  • 18.
    Ah Shenga, Pedro António
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Bomark, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    External Log Scanning for Optimizing Primary Breakdown of Tropical Hardwood Species2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The sawing of tropical hardwood species is a big challenge for sawmills in developing countries. In order to investigate sawing strategies and volume recovery of tropical hardwood species, a log shape database was created using a portable 3D laser scanner. The data were collected in Mozambique, where twelve Jambirre (Millettia stuhlmannii Taub.) and five Umbila (Pterocarpus angolensis DC) logs were scanned. The logs were selected among the most commercialized species and the crook was the main selection parameter. In addition, straight logs were incorporated as reference. A saw simulation Matlab algorithm that combines skew and rotation was developed. The results show that point cloud data from the 3D scanner provide detailed models of the external log geometry and accurately describe the log shapes and volumes. Preliminary results from breakdown simulation revealed that the through-and-through sawing pattern yields more than the cant saw pattern and that the increase in yield was almost the same for both species.

  • 19.
    Breinig, Lorenz
    et al.
    Forest Research Institute of Baden-Württemberg, 79100 Freiburg.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Brüchert, Franka
    Forest Research Institute of Baden-Württemberg, 79100 Freiburg.
    Becker, Gero
    Institute of Forest Sciences, University of Freiburg.
    Optimization potential for perception-oriented appearance classification by simulated sawing of computed tomography-scanned logs of Norway spruce2015Ingår i: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 319-334Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood, as a natural material, has favourable properties in both technical and aesthetic aspects. Due to its inherent variability,production of high-quality sawn timber demands adequate control of log conversion, which is feasible with computedtomography (CT) log scanning. Existing appearance grading rules for sawn timber might not fully reflect people’s visualperception of wood surfaces, and therefore, an alternative, more perception-oriented appearance classification could bebeneficial. An appearance classification of sawn timber based on partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) ofknot-pattern variables was developed and tested. Knot-pattern variables derived from images of board faces were used intraining PLS-DA models against an initial classification of the board faces previously established by aid of cluster analysis.Virtual board faces obtained from simulated breakdown of 57 CT-scanned Norway spruce logs were graded according tothe developed classification. Visual assessment of the grading results indicated that the classification was largely consistentwith human perception of board appearance. An initial estimation of the potential to optimize log rotation, based on CTdata, for the established appearance grades was derived from the simulations. Considerable potential to increase the yield ofa desired appearance grade, compared to conventional log positioning, was observed.

  • 20.
    Ah Shenga, Pedro António
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Bomark, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Simulated Breakdown of Two Tropical Hardwood Species2015Ingår i: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 450-456Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A simulation study has been performed on a small log database of tropical hardwoods consisting of 10 Jambirre (Millettia stuhlmannii Taub.) and 5 Umbila (Pterocarpus angolensis D.C.) logs. The outer log shape was acquired by a 3D laser scanner before sawing and the heartwood content was estimated by measurement on images of the centre slabs after through-and-through sawing. Yield and value recovery using different sawing techniques and different sawing patterns, together with rotational and skew positioning errors, are presented. The results show that through-and-through sawing in the best rotation and skew positions tested improves the yield of Umbila logs by an average of 4.5 percentage points and Jambirre logs by 3.6 percentage points compared to cant sawing. It can be concluded that positioning and sawing patterns have a great influence on the yield and value recovery of these species and that log grade and species have an impact on the sawing pattern that should be used.

  • 21.
    Ah Shenga, Pedro António
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Bomark, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Simulation of Tropical Hardwood Processing: Sawing Methods, Log Positioning, and Outer Shape2015Ingår i: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 7640-7652Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To increase understanding of breakdown strategies for Mozambican timber, simulations were carried out using different sawing patterns that can be alternatives to the low degree of refinement performed for export today. For the simulations, 3D models of 10 Jambirre and 5 Umbila logs were used. The log shape was described as a point cloud and was acquired by 3D-laser scanning of real logs. Three sawing patterns (cant-sawing, through-and-through sawing, and square-sawing) were studied in combination with the log positioning variables skew and rotation. The results showed that both positioning and choice of sawing pattern had a great influence on the volume yield. The results also showed that the log grade had an impact on the sawing pattern that should be used for a high volume yield. The volume yield could be increased by 3 percentage points by choosing alternative sawing patterns for fairly straight logs and by 6 percentage points for crooked logs, compared to the worst choice of sawing pattern.

  • 22.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Bomark, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Grönlund, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Using Small Diameter Logs for Cross Laminated Timber Production2015Ingår i: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 1477-1486Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sawing small diameter logs results in lower yield compared to sawing large diameter logs. This is due to geometry; fitting rectangular blocks inside an approximately cylindrical shape is more difficult for small than for large diameters. If small diameter logs were sawn in a way that follows the outer shape, yield would increase. The present study considers whether this can be done by sawing flitches into trapeze shapes. These can be glued together into rectangular products. Cross laminated timber (CLT) products are suitable for this. The study was based on 4,860 softwood logs that where scanned, and the scanning data was used for sawing simulation. The log top diameters ranged from 92 to 434 mm. The volume yield of CLT production using trapeze edging was compared to cant sawing of boards. The trapeze edging and CLT production process improved yield compared to cant sawing by 17.4 percent units, for logs of a top diameter smaller than 185 mm. For all logs, the yield decreased using the trapeze edging method. To conclude, a trapeze edging method shows promise in terms of increasing volume yield for small diameter logs, if boards can be properly taken care of in a CLT production process

  • 23.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Berglund, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Validating a crosscutting simulation program based on computed tomography scanning of logs2015Ingår i: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 73, nr 2, s. 143-150Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood scanners and software for calculating crosscutting positions have been used in the wood industry for some years now. The scanners are used to detect biological and geometrical deviations on the sawn timber, which makes it possible to remove undesired defects using crosscut saws. Yield calculations for crosscutting have not been investigated to the same extent as sawing yield calculations for primary breakdown of logs, especially if the whole chain from log to end product is considered. The objective of this study was to validate the result of a computer program developed for simulating crosscutting of boards. The crosscut simulations were performed with respect to knot characteristics on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) board surfaces. Validating a crosscutting simulation program would mean that it can be used to investigate how raw material and customization of quality rules affect the yield in a wood production chain from log to crosscut end product. The validation showed that crosscutting yield for boards could be predicted with a root mean square error of 13 percentage points, and the technique can be used to identify unsuitable logs for a certain product at an early stage of production.

  • 24.
    Ah Shenga, Pedro
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Bomark, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Hagman, Olle
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    3D Phase-shift Laser Scanning of Log Shape2014Ingår i: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 7593-7605Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a portable scanner to determine the 3D shape of logs was evaluated and compared with the measurement result of a computer tomography scanner. Focus was on the accuracy of the shape geometry representation. The objective is to find a feasible method to use for future data collection in Mozambique in order to build up a database of logs of tropical species for sawing simulations. The method chosen here was a 3D phase-shift laser scanner. Two logs, a birch log with bark and a Scots pine log without bark, were scanned, resulting in 450 cross sectional “images” of the pine log and 300 of the birch log. The areas of each point cloud cross section were calculated and compared to that of the corresponding computer tomography cross section. The average area difference between the two methods was 2.23% and 3.73%, with standard deviations of 1.54 and 0.91, for the Scots pine and birch logs, respectively. The differences in results between the two logs are discussed and had mainly to do with presence of bark and mantle surface evenness. Results show that the shape measurements derived from these methods were well correlated, which indicates the applicability of a 3D phase-shift laser scanning technology for gathering log data.

  • 25.
    Hagman, Olle
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Popovic, Djordje
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Optimizing the cross cutting operation using research design metod2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 26.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Persson, Fredrik
    SP Trä.
    Axelsson, Ann
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Ah Shenga, Pedro
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Rotational Position of Curved Saw Logs and Warp of the Sawn Timber2014Ingår i: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 31-39Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With the development of scanning technology in sawmills, it is possible to optimise log rotational position when sawing. However, choosing a different rotational position than horns down might be detrimental for the board shape after drying, especially for curved logs. Thus, there is a need to investigate at what level of log curve it is possible to freely rotate logs without causing board warp. This study was carried out through a test sawing that was conducted at a sawmill situated in the middle of Sweden. The tests were made on 177 Norway spruce logs, with varying amount of curve. Half of the logs were sawn in the horns-down position, half were sawn rotated perpendicular to horns down. Log shape and warp of the dried boards were measured. The results indicated a relationship between board spring, log curve and choice of rotational position. Furthermore, board bow was related to log curve but not rotational position. It can be concluded that for straight logs, with a bow height of less than 15 mm, an unconventional rotational position does not cause excess spring in the boards. Bow and twist are not affected by the rotational position at all.

  • 27.
    Ah Shenga, Pedro
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Cristovao, Luis
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    A review of Mozambican wood exploitation: map of the processing chain2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the 21th International Wood Machining Semina: August 4th – 7th, Tsukuba International Congress Center, Japan, 2013, s. 293-301Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 28.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Grönlund, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Improved log rotation using information from a computed tomography scanner2013Ingår i: Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, ISSN 0168-1699, E-ISSN 1872-7107, Vol. 90, s. 152-158Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of an industrial computed tomography scanner for the sawmilling industry raises the question of how to find a production strategy that uses a computed tomography scanner in the sawmill production line to its full potential. This study was focused on a Scandinavian sawmill processing Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies). The potential value increase when allowing an alternative log rotation other than the horns down position was investigated using a log breakdown simulation. The resulting data was analysed with respect to the size of the log rotational step, an introduced rotational error of the sawing machine and different price differences between the quality grades. It was also of interest to define the outer log properties that characterise the logs sawn for the greatest profit return close to the horns down position compared to logs sawn for a greater profit return in a different log rotation. Such characteristics can be used to reduce the number of degrees of freedom in an optimisation and consider instead other parameters, such as positioning and sawing pattern. Other defects such as pitch pockets, splits and rot are also of interest. The results shows that there is a potential value increase when applying the log rotation that maximises the value for each log instead of processing all logs in the horns down position. However, the potential value increase depends on the rotational error of the used sawing machine and the price differences between the quality grades. The log properties that differ between logs sawn for the greatest profit return close to the horns down position compared to a different log rotation are the bow height and the log taper. Unfortunately, predictability of log rotation for greatest profit return based on the outer properties of logs is poor. It is not possible to differentiate logs which would be sawn for the greatest profit return close to the horns down position from those where a different log rotation results in the greatest profit return, based only on their outer properties.

  • 29. Cristovao, Luis
    et al.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Grönlund, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik.
    Ekevad, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik.
    Sitoe, Rui
    Main cutting force models for two species of tropical wood2012Ingår i: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 143-149Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the main cutting force for two species of tropical Mozambican wood and to develop predictive models. Cutting these hardwoods is difficult. Determination of cutting parameters is required to optimize cutting processes, machines and tools in the cutting operations. This determination would enable the forestry and wood sector to achieve higher financial results. Samples of a lesser-known wood species Pseudolachnostylis maprounaefolia (ntholo) and a well-known wood species Swartzia madagascariensis (ironwood) were machined in a test apparatus. A standard single saw tooth mounted on a piezoelectric load cell was used to evaluate the main cutting force. Data were captured using an A/D converter integrated with National Instruments LabVIEW software. The measured signals were recorded at a sampling frequency of 25 kHz. The experimental set-up used response surface methodology for developing predictive models. The experimental clearly determined the relationship between the main cutting force and edge radius, wood density, rake angle, chip thickness, moisture content (MC) and cutting direction (CD). Among the studied variables, chip thickness and CD had the highest effect on the main cutting force level while wood density, MC and rake angle had the lowest effect.

  • 30. Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Grönlund, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Project: CT-Pro2012Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet är finansierat av WoodWisdom-Net, VINNOVA, Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e. V. och medverkande företag. Syftet med projektet är att visa att det är möjligt att extrahera ut viktig och detaljerad information från en timmerstock med hjälp av en speciellt utvecklad röntgenskanner och sedan utnyttja denna information i produktionsstategier för att öka värdet i den träindustiella värdekedjan.

  • 31.
    Manuel, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Freiburg.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Leonhart, Rainer
    University of Freiburg.
    What makes wood so attractive?2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood products are the result of several stages from primary conversion and secondary processing to different kinds of design and surface treatment. Within this production chain each stage is affected by demands of different types of industrial customers in a consecutive chain of purchases and sales. Furthermore consumers` preferences have backward effects on the production. Criteria that wood processing companies, traders and consumers use may differ. Thus, there is a complex set of parameters influencing the quality requirements on products from primary conversion to the end-user. Visible wood products have features that affect consumers` buying decision. When asking people, if visible features are seen as negative defects or as parts of an aesthetical composition this question is determined by individual visual perception, preferences and experience.Companies in a wood processing chain are confronted with the challenge to measure the quality of their products aiming at their costumers` needs. They use manual grading technics and scanning technologies to handle the product quality spectra. This quality determination is the basic information source for each product to achieve the expected product value meeting specific consumer requirements. For end-users the relevance of objectively measurable wood features is probably unconsciously and emotionally affecting their choice. The composition of features e.g. knots, tree ring patterns and colour influence the aesthetic impression to people. The connection between consumers` preferences and objectively measureable features within the production chain is not well established yet. When trying to connect consumers preferences it is a challenge to link emotional terms like “warm” or “natural” or “calming” to measurable parameters as mentioned above. Therefore there is a need for finding criteria which reflect end-users requirements. The aim of this study is to find criteria which are important for people`s assessment of wooden floorings. 109 persons and 15 wood experts were interviewed in 2011. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used. The results show the most important criteria for people`s aesthetical assessment of wood floorings. This work is a base study for further investigations in the projectcalled “What makes wood so attractive? Transforming consumers` emotions into material characteristics” which is supported contract research ‘Forschungsprogramm’ of the ‘Baden-Württemberg Stiftung’.

  • 32.
    Broman, Olof
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Wood material features and technical defects that affect yield in a finger joint production process2012Ingår i: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. 167-175Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A cost efficient process is the goal of all production, and each manufacturing step affects the material utilization and cost efficiency. There is high diversity in the inherent features of wood, and manufacturing steps must be able to handle this. The overall objective was to study the potential and problems in manufacturing production processes in terms of material utilization efficiency. The production of finger jointed bed sides was chosen as a study case, where the chain of production units are the sawmill, finger joint plant and furniture plant. This article describes the impact of raw material and wood defects that could affect the total yield. A total of 177 logs of three types were tested: butt, intermediate and fresh knot logs. The test material quality was detected and measured through all steps in the manufacturing chain. The results show differences between log types in down-grade causes, reject volume and final yield. Also, the test material showed high levels of defective components with process-related defects, which suggested the need for technical improvement in the manufacturing process. The intermediate log group showed the overall best result.

  • 33.
    Cristovao, Luis
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Grönlund, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Ekevad, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Sitoe, Rui
    Eduardo Mondlane University.
    Main cutting force models for two species of tropical wood2011Ingår i: Proceedings of the 20th International Wood Machining Seminar, Skellefteå, 2011, s. 428-435Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 34.
    Broman, Olof
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Wixe, David
    LTU Skellefteå, Träteknologi.
    Grönlund, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Oja, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Råvarustyrning för materialeffektiv produktion av limfog: En studie utförd vid Norrfog AB2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Norrfog AB i Malå tillverkar limfogskivor i olika kvaliteter, bland annat till gör-det-själv- (GDS)-limfog, möbelfog och IKEAs hyllkoncept Ivar. Då Norrfog planerar att öka sin producerade volym av limfog ökar behovet av en effektiv styrning av rätt råvara till rätt slutprodukt. Samtidigt stiger råvarupriserna och det blir allt viktigare att maximera volyms- och värdeutbytet. Vid tidpunkten för studien: Norrfog AB köper klena furustockar och försorterar stockarna i diameterklasser med hjälp av en 2D-mätram. Ingen sortering sker på stocktyp och därmed blandas rotstockar, svartkviststockar och friskkviststockar. Stockarna sågas med en 2ex postning till plankor som efter torkning kapas upp till komponentlängder som därefter klyvs till färdiga lameller för limfogsproduktion. Huvudsyftet med detta projekt var att undersöka möjligheterna att styra rätt kvalitet av timmer till rätt slutprodukt; Ivarhyllan, GDS-limfog och möbelfog samt för- och nackdelar med att införa ett alternativt sågsätt – genomsågning. Inom ramen för studien fanns följande forsknings- och utvecklingsfrågor: •Stocklängdens betydelse för volymutbytet av limfog? •Stocktypens betydelse för kvaliteten på producerad limfog? •Går det att hitta rätt typ av stockar till en specifik produkt redan vid timmerplanen med hjälp av befintlig 2D-mätram och förbättrar 3D eller röntgen-skanning denna klassificering av stockar? •Finns det ett motstånd till fingerskarv bland konsumenter och vad anses vara ett önskvärt utseende på en träyta av limfog? Studien visar att den stocktyp som gav den bästa kvaliteten var friskkviststockarna, men även de stockar som sorterades som svartkvistiga visade sig innehålla mestadels friska kvistar i de aktuella timmerdimensionerna. Ett tydligt resultat var att rotstockar innehöll den lägsta kvaliteten med för många och/eller för stora svarta kvistar och det visade sig vara lämpligt att om möjligt sortera bort dessa stockar för att såga dessa separat till produkter med lägre krav på kvalitet. Sorteringsalgoritmer för olika mättekniker för timmer speciellt anpassade för att maximera utbytet kvalitet 1 i den färdiga limfogen testades. Med befintlig 2D-mätram sorterades 81 % av rotstockarna bort och med röntgenmätning ökade andelen bortsorterade rotstockar till 98 %. Ett viktigt resultat var att genomsågning gav i snitt 13 % högre volymutbyte än 2ex-sågning och att korta stockar gav ökat volymutbyte jämfört med fullängdsstockar. En separat undersökning angående skivornas utseende visar att fingerskarvade limfogskivor är något konsumenten kan tänka sig, så länge färgskiftningarna mellan lamellerna är små. Stora färgskiftningar och små svarta kvistar var det som respondenterna rankade som minst tilltalande för alla skivor oavsett fingerskarv eller inte.

  • 35.
    Broman, Olof
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Fredriksson, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik.
    Wood material features and technical defects that affect the yield in a finger joint production process2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A cost efficient process is the goal for every production process. In wood manufacturing, each step in the process may affect the material utilization and the cost efficiency. Wood as a material has got high diversity in its inherent features and the different manufacturing steps must be able to handle this. In most end products the proportion of the raw material cost is high. Thus, material utilization and cost efficient processes are of great importance. The overall aim of the project was to study the potential and problems in manufacturing production processes in terms of material utilization efficiency. A production process of finger jointed bed sides for IKEA was chosen as a study case and its chain of production units are; a sawmill for plank production, a finger joint company producing components and finally a furniture company that produce the end product. The aim of this article is to describe the impact of different raw material and what wood and technical defects that affect the total yield of a manufactured product. In total 177 logs of three different log types were tested; butt logs, intermediate logs and fresh knot logs. The quality of the wood material was detected and measured by aid of 3D-scanning and X-ray (logs), FinScan (planks), and WoodEye (planks/components) and manual inspection of the final products. With a full traceability data collection the quality of the test material was followed through all steps in the manufacturing chain. The result show differences between log types in down-grade causes, reject volume and the final yield of accepted products. Also, the test material showed high levels of reject with non-biological background which suggest the need of technical improvements in the finger joint and the furniture manufacturing process. The intermediate log group showed overall the best result.

  • 36. Nordvik, Enar
    et al.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Looking at computer-visualized interior wood: a qualitative assessment using focus groups2009Ingår i: Journal of Wood Science, ISSN 1435-0211, E-ISSN 1611-4663, Vol. 55, nr 2, s. 113-120Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to explore and gather human reactions and perceptions on computer visualizations of interior wood. The subjective qualities of such products are important because they infl uence the most critical of consumer decisions: to buy or not. To learn more about a phenomenon than quantitative data can provide, qualitative methods are needed. Here, grounded theory was used with focus groups to form a map of 14 people's experiences of wood. Six computer-generated pictures with visible wood were varied into 18 pictures, such that two-by-two comparison resulted in 3500 words. These were combined into a map that was generated earlier, which had found 2000 words. The main dimensions found were light, color, unity, and authenticity. Light is more than brightness; shadows and lighting seemed more important for the wood feeling, and color and contrast gave life and warmth to the material on the screen. Respondents wanted wood that was more "woody" and "warmer" than wood actually is, that is, a hyper-realistic picture. Perhaps smart modification rather than photorealism should be the goal. Distribution of the earlier found activity and harmony was important for most respondents. In addition, many subjects discussed the composition and/or the context or purpose of the pictures. The impact of wood is not just related to the wood itself; it is also intertwined with its surroundings.

  • 37. Nordvik, Enar
    et al.
    Schutte, Simon
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    People's perceptions of the visual appearance of wood flooring: a Kansei engineering approach2009Ingår i: Forest products journal, ISSN 0015-7473, Vol. 59, nr 11/12, s. 67-74Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluations of products based on visual stimuli are at the same time both subjective and important. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the visual properties of wood flooring and people's reactions to computer visualization of interior wood products. The research strategy involved showing digital pictures of the same room, but with different wood floorings. The impressions of potential consumers were measured by means of rating scales for each descriptive word. This was done using the method of Kansei engineering, in which statistical connections between properties and semantics (descriptions) were analyzed. The research presented here contributes to theory and practice in two important ways. First and most important, the study shows that the chosen method is suitable for measuring people's preferences on visualizations of interior wood. Second, the results indicate that certain properties are important for a floor to be judged as ‘‘good-looking'' and others for a floor to be deemed ‘‘modern'' or ‘‘vivid.''

  • 38.
    Broman, Olof
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Grönlund, Anders
    Nordvik, Enar
    Lundahl, Carl Gustav
    Estetiska kvaliteter och skillnader i preferenser för limfog: en jämförelse mellan två intervjumetoder2008Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den produktgrupp som här studerats är limfog för Gör-Det-Själv-marknaden. Limfog är en vanlig produkt som konsumenter köper styckevis och där träets estetiska blandning av träegenskaper kan vara av betydelse för ett aktivt val eller köp av kunden. Projektets övergripande mål var att studera vanliga konsumenters olika känslighet (smakprofiler) för olika utseenden på trä. Huvudmålet med studien var att jämföra två metoder för preferensmätning; dels användandet av riktiga träytor (limfog) och dels digitala bilder av desamma för rangordning av produktalternativ. För att validera användbarheten av de båda metoderna jämfördes deras rangordningsresultat. Ett delmål med studien var att studera skillnader mellan preferenser för limfog som producerats enligt alternativa produktionssätt med traditionellt producerad limfog. Femton personer intervjuades i två omgångar. I den första intervjun fick personerna rangordna 11 limfogsytor med hjälp av datorbilder och en webapplikation. I den andra intervjun två veckor senare fick samma personer rangordna samma limfogsytor fast nu med riktiga träytor. Resultaten från intervjuerna visar att de båda metoderna gav likvärdiga resultat. Det fungerade bra att använda digitala bilder och utföra preferensstudier via utvecklad web-applikation. För båda metoderna gällde att 11 stycken produktalternativ var på gränsen till för många att ta ställning till för de intervjuade personerna. Detta gällde båda intervjumetoderna. Bildernas kvalitet visade sig vara viktigt och de små skillnader i rangordningsresultat mellan de två intervjumetoderna kan till viss del förklaras av bristande återgivning av färgnyanser. Metoden att rangordna de verkliga limfogsskivorna fungerade mycket bra. Principen att välja ömsom bäst och sämst och kontinuerligt plocka bort valda produktalternativ fungerade bra. Följande estetiska kvalitetsskillnader visade sig vara viktiga för intervjupersonerna: En jämn fördelning av kvistar över ytan (limfogen) tillika blandning av kvistutseende är viktigt för helhetsintrycket. Märgstråk upplevdes starkt negativt då de ses som streck i ytan, en artefakt. Detta gäller också hög grad av randighet som upplevdes negativt. Detta kan orsakas av splint-/kärnvedsvariationer, speciellt när limfogen producerats med låg lamellbredd. Negativt var också tjurvedsstråk som orsakar randighet i en yta, vilket stör den visuella balansen och harmonin. Den limfog som producerats inom ramen för en ny högutbytesstrategi rankades högre än den traditionellt tillverkade limfogen som var inköpt. Detta kan förklaras främst av en hög grad av färska kvistar (ej svarta och eller döda kvistar), som kommer sig av valet av råvara. Råvaran utgjordes av klentimmer medan råvaran till den traditionellt tillverkade limfogen kom från plank med ursprung från osorterat timmer. Slutsatsen är att för limfog så har valet av råvara minst lika stor betydelse än produktionssätt (lamellbredd, koniska lameller etc) för det estetiska uttrycket och kundtillfredsställelse.

  • 39. Nyström, Jan
    et al.
    Oja, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Broman, Olof
    Modelling the connection between industrially measured raw material properties and end user preferences: Part 1. The simulation tool2008Ingår i: Connection between Forest Resources and Wood Quality: Modelling Approaches and Simulation Software. IUFRO Working Party 5.01.04 Wood Quality Modelling, June 8. - 14, Koli, Finland / [ed] H. Peltola, 2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 40.
    Broman, Olof
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Nyström, Jan
    Oja, Johan
    Modelling the connection between industrially measured raw material properties and end user preferences: Part 2. Results from preference studies2008Ingår i: Connection between Forest Resources and Wood Quality: Modelling Approaches and Simulation Software. IUFRO Working Party 5.01.04 Wood Quality Modelling, June 8. - 14, Koli, Finland / [ed] H. Peltola, 2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 41. Oja, Johan
    et al.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Nyström, Jan
    Modelling the connection between industrially measured raw material properties and end user preferences: Part 3. Optimizing the industrial production2008Ingår i: Connection between Forest Resources and Wood Quality: Modelling Approaches and Simulation Software. IUFRO Working Party 5.01.04 Wood Quality Modelling, June 8. - 14, Koli, Finland / [ed] H. Peltola, 2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 42. Nordvik, Enar
    et al.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Comparison of visual properties in digital wood images2007Ingår i: Forest products journal, ISSN 0015-7473, Vol. 57, nr 1/2, s. 97-102Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Communicating the advantages of the whole wood material, including visual impressions, is increasingly important. The computer can be a useful tool in this effort. The overall aim of this study was to find out whether there was an experienced difference between wood seen physically and the picture of it on a computer screen. This was done by creating a situation like a memory game wherein the respondents first studied a physical picture (photograph) and then chose among similar pictures (12) variations and one original) on a computer screen. The variations were composed from properties found in earlier qualitative studies. The properties were Shadow, Light, Scale, Contrast, Saturation and Gleam, and they were varied in a plus and a minus level (more shadow/less shadow). After a contest, six variations were compared with the original in a side-by-side comparison. The results indicate that Contrast is the most important property when visualizing wood, both for good and bad visualization. Shadows seem to be the least critical property. The study also supports the hypothesis of smart exaggeration, with only 2 top votes for the Original picture. People seem to need more than just physically correctly recaptured wood to experience wood on a computer screen as true wood.

  • 43.
    Broman, Olof
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Nyström, Jan
    Oja, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Effektiv produktion av golvprodukter med krav på estetiska egenskaper2007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trä används i många tillämpningar där träet är synligt och där råvarans estetiska egenskaper därför är mycket. Exempel på sådana tillämpningar är produkter är golv och paneler. I detta projekt har produktionsprocessen för solida furugolv studerats, det vill säga hela kedjan från sortering av stockar till slutkonsumenters preferenser. Samarbetspartners i detta FoU- projekt har varit SCA -Bollsta sågverk, Norrlands Trä AB, SP Trätek och LTU - Träteknologi, Skellefteå. Syftet med projektet har varit att demonstrera hur man med hjälp av modern marknadsanalys, modern, industriellt implementerad mätteknik och avancerade sorteringsalgoritmer kan effektivisera produktionen av kundanpassade produkter med krav på estetiska egenskaper. Ett delmål var att undersöka alternativa utseendekvaliteter till dagens produktion av golvträ. Den genomgående metoden har varit att mäta och dokumentera råvarans egenskaper genom hela processen från stock till färdig produkt. En lättanvänd interaktiv databas har utvecklats inom ramen för projektet och använts för simulering av alternativa sorteringar av råvara avsedd för golvproduktion. Kopplat till databasen har även ett visualiseringsverktyg utvecklats. Detta gör det möjligt att direkt kunna se resultatet av simuleringarna i form av digitala golvytor. Utöver resultat i form av utvecklad databasgränssnitt, visualiseringsverktyg och verktyg för konsumentudersökningar så har projektet visat på intressanta resultat vad gäller både produktions och marknad. Resultatet av databassimuleringarna visar att man genom att förändra sorteringsstrategin och sortera stockarna baserat på information från en röntgenmätram helt kan undvika utsortering i råsorteringen, minska utsorteringen i justerverket med 25% (från tolv till nio procentenheter) och ändå producera en golvråvara med samma estetiska egenskaper som tidigare. Som ett alternativ till den ursprungliga golvråvaran har även en ny golvråvara definierats. Preferensstudier i både Sverige och Norge visade att konsumenternas tyckte bättre om den nya kvaliteten än den utsprungliga. Samtidigt gjorde denna nya golvråvara det möjligt att helt undvika utsortering i både råsortering och justerverk och samtidigt öka den tillgängliga golvråvaran med 27% (från 30 till 38 procentenheter).

  • 44.
    Broman, Olof
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Nordvik, Enar
    Fjellner, Bengt-Arne
    Means for measuring people's preferences for visual wood with aid of Internet2006Ingår i: Wood resources and panel properties :: Conference Proceedings ; Valencia, Spain, 12-13. Juni 2006 / [ed] Joris Van Acker;, AIDMA , 2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is of interest to study and analyse the consumer market for visual wood so as to produce the right "look" of wood to the right product and the right group of customer. The choice of wood quality to a certain product is often decided at the production site without good information of people's sensitivity (taste profiles) for different blending of wood features. Today, regarding the issue of wood quality, there are no established techniques for detecting people's taste profiles.The aim of the work has been to develop a method for preference studies where visible wood is in focus. The aim was also to present interview results showing differences in acceptance among interviewed people just to persuade the readers about the usability of the methodology.In this investigation only wood floors of parquet type have been examined. Only one room type has been used. The interior was changed over time to study possible affect on parquet flooring preferences. About 50 persons participated in the study and they answered three times each during the development process.The interview concept is interactive and self instructive to measure preferences of different appearances of wood (in this study floor). The same room is shown but with different wood flooring and the floors is ranked with aid of paired comparison. When the ranking is completed, questions with both open and given answer alternatives are asked, just to get a description of the cause of preferences.Principal Component Analysis together with simple statistics was used to envisage the reader about the usability of the method. Perhaps the most important results of the research is that it is possible to measure what people prefer and to a certain extent why. Groups of peoples with different taste profiles can be found even if the number of interviewed people was small. The different wood species was described in words of the interviewed people, which of course from a wood producing company view, can be valuable in a market communication situation.

  • 45. Nordvik, Enar
    et al.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Om trä i media: hur interiört trä skildras i svenska inredningstidskrifter2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 46. Nordvik, Enar
    et al.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Visualizing wood interiors: a qualitative assessment of what people react to and how they describe it2005Ingår i: Forest products journal, ISSN 0015-7473, Vol. 55, nr 2, s. 81-86Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood is more than a material with technical characteristics. It is a material with aesthetic qualities and is the object of subjective appraisal. Today, it is common to use computers to show how a room or product will look when it is produced. In communicating the aesthetic properties of wood in such cases, the ways people experience wood are of interest, as are what is important to focus on and what is best avoided. The objective of this study was to explore and gather descriptions of computer-visualized wood interiors through qualitative interviews. The Grounded Theory method was used to get a map of what people react to in such images. The principle is to sort data into groups consisting of aspects of a certain property. Eighteen pictures were used in a two-by-two comparison study. Twenty-one persons were interviewed for about 20 minutes each. The results indicate that good visualization of wood should avoid erroneous details, repetitive patterns and lighting, or shadowing errors. Another result is recognition of the difference between seeing and describing. It was hard for respondents to separate what they liked/disliked from what they understood. Most respondents also reacted more to how the wood in the pictures handled shades and colors than to its textures. This could mean that photorealism is no guarantee for getting acceptance for the picture. In addition, more important than high resolution is for wood to be part of the whole picture and not stand out or appear more processed than the surroundings.

  • 47.
    Broman, Olof
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Nordvik, Enar
    Fjellner, Bengt-Arne
    Metod för mätning av människors preferenser för synligt trä med hjälp av Internet2003Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta utvecklingsarbete är finansierat av Svenskt Trä och arbetet faller inom två prioriterade FoU områden, synligt trä och marknad. Det är av intresse att studera och analysera marknaden för synligt trä för att på så sätt producera rätt träutseende till rätt produkt och till rätt kund. Val av träkvalitet till en produkt bestäms alltför ofta i produktionsledet utan god information om känslighet för olika blandningar av träegenskaper (smakprofiler) bland sina tänkta slutkunder. Det finns idag ingen etablerad teknik för och kunskap om hur man kan mäta folks preferenser för olika träutseenden. Målet har varit att utveckla en metod för preferensstudier där synligt trä står i fokus och som ska kunna användas av företag och branschorganisationer. Målet är också att presentera de skillnader i tycke och smak som råder bland de intervjuade personerna, dels för att verifiera tidigare resultat och föreslagna metoder och dels för att visa på metodens möjligheter så att den kan utvecklas vidare till att bli ett användbart verktyg för marknadsstudier. I denna undersökning har enbart utseenden på trägolv av parkettyp studerats och endast ett visningsrum har använts dock med förändring av dess utseende och möblering under studiens gång. Ett 50-tal personer har deltagit och svarat tre gånger var under utvecklingsprocessen. Frågorna har förbättrats och rummets utseende har varierats. Förbättringsarbetet fortgår och det är snart dags att offentliggöra länken så att fler har möjlighet att delta. Fler exempelprodukter kommer att studeras. Ett konkret resultat av FoU arbetet hittills är den mötesplats på nätet http://trasmak.tt.luth.se/, som utvecklats för att mäta preferenser för olika utseenden på trä. Intervjukonceptet är självinstruerande och interaktivt där de intervjuade svarar på frågor som rör deras visuella intryck och trätexturernas utseende. Det kanske viktigaste resultatet av FoU arbetet är att det går att mäta vad folk föredrar och till viss del varför. Metoden bygger på att man rangordnar bilder av ett och samma rum men med olika trägolv med hjälp av parvis jämförelse. När rangordningen är gjord ställs frågor med både öppna och fasta svarsalternativ för att få en beskrivning av orsaken till personens val. Principal Component Analysis, PCA tillsammans med enkla tabellsammanställningar har använts med framgång för att beskriva resultaten av intervjutesterna. Grupper av olika smakriktningar kan ses även om testpersonerna var få. De olika träslagens utseende har beskrivits i ord av de intervjuade vilket kan vara värdefullt för en fullgången marknadskommunikation i träförädlingskedjan.

  • 48.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    The measurement of wood features in knotty Scots pine wood surfaces and the connection with people´s preferences2003Ingår i: Developments in image processing and scanning of wood: selected and edited papers from the 4th International Conference on Image Processing and Scanning of Wood, Mountain Lake, Virginia, USA, 21 - 23 August, 2000, 2003Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 49.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Aesthetic properties in knotty wood surfaces and their connection with people's preferences2001Ingår i: Journal of Wood Science, ISSN 1435-0211, E-ISSN 1611-4663, Vol. 47, nr 3, s. 192-198Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For wood products that contain visible wood surfaces it is important to be able to describe, measure, and communicate the aesthetic properties desired. The aims of this investigation were to shed light on how people's preferences toward different wood appearances containing knots can be described and to create a better understanding of how to measure those preferences. A total of 215 persons from Sweden with different backgrounds were interviewed as to their preferences for 10 Scots pine wood surfaces containing knots. Their impressions and preferences were documented by a questionnaire with 54 questions and analyzed by a principal component analysis. A thorough description of what people see and value in a wood surface with knots is given in the body of the text. People's preferences are affected by a balance between two main properties: the degree of harmony and activity, and the importance of avoiding a state of disharmony when composing wood surfaces. When investigating people's preferences toward a knotty wood appearance, 13 of 54 questions proved to be important. Three questions detect the final assessment, and four describe the reasons for the final assessment. Finally, six questions describe the blend of wood properties in a more objective way and are to only a minor extent connected with the final assessments.

  • 50.
    Broman, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Means to measure the aesthetic properties of wood2000Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood is a biological material with inherent aesthetic properties which can give the final product a competitive advantage over other materials. In this thesis, people’s feelings and preferences for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood surfaces have been examined. The main objectives of this thesis are to develop methods for measuring people’s preferences toward different looks of wood and to connect the subjective preference data with objective measurements of wood features. It comprises both qualitative and quantitative methods for collecting preference data. Two projection methods, PCA and PLS, were used to analyze the quantitative studies. Interviews made clear that people prefer different blends of wood features. There are two qualitative differences that are of importance for people's impressions and valuations of wood: The overall blend of wood features and divergent features that mismatch in a surface. It was found that divergent features are more important than the overall mixture of features. But if there are no defects that mismatch, the overall mixture will then be the key to a person's appreciation of a wood surface. Wood surfaces should stimulate people's interest and be fresh looking. A clear surface is naturally rather harmonious, elegant and easy to look at. On the other hand, a clear surface should be stimulating to look at, should be exciting and it should not look like an imitation. Knotty surfaces usually are less harmonious. Therefore, questions about harmony, easiness to look at and balance are of importance. Just as for clear surfaces, a knotty surface should also stimulate people's interest, have a fresh look, be exciting and stimulating to look at. The quantitative studies show that it is possible to measure people’s preferences toward wood by a questionnaire technique. The results also show that there are differences in people’s judgments for surfaces with knots and for those without knots. There are stronger connections between questions regarding the overall impression and the final assessment than there are for detailed questions regarding certain wood features. Thirteen questions were pointed out as relevant to use with interviews. Two interview methods were compared. The first method used wood surfaces and the second used computer images with the same wood surfaces applied to an example product, a kitchen cabinet. The results show that the two methods are comparable and useful. It was shown that it is possible to some extent to connect subjective preference data with objective wood feature measurements. Results show that a lot of wood feature measurements are needed and that it is a multivariate problem. Concerning the measurements, it seems easier to find features that negatively affect people’s liking than to find the opposite. Among the most important variables were those that detect different kinds of feature distribution over a wood surface, and especially those variables that detect a deviation in center of gravity. Increased knowledge about people’s preferences for the aesthetic properties of wood will lead to a better understanding of which wood features should be measured and controlled in the future.

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