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  • 1.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Hellsmark, Hans
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mossberg, Johanna
    Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE), Division of Bioeconomy, Sweden.
    A Knowledge-based Perspective on System Weaknesses in Technological Innovation Systems2019In: Science and Public Policy, ISSN 0302-3427, E-ISSN 1471-5430, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 55-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on technological innovation systems (TIS) provides policymakers and other actors with a scheme of analysis to identify system weaknesses. In doing so, TIS analysis centres on which system weaknesses policy interventions should target to promote further development of a particular system. However, prior TIS literature has not sufficiently elaborated on what may constitute the conceptual roots of a ‘weakness’. We apply a knowledge-based perspective and propose that many—albeit not all—system weaknesses may root in four types of knowledge problems: uncertainty, complexity, equivocality, and ambiguity. Employing these as sensitizing concepts, we study system weaknesses by analysing data from a biorefinery TIS in Sweden. This analysis results in novel implications for the TIS literature and for achieving a better match between system weaknesses and the design of innovation policies.

  • 2.
    Dahlqvist, Anna
    et al.
    National Institute of Economic Research.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Industrial Energy Use, Management Practices and Price Signals: The Case of Swedish Process Industry2019In: International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, ISSN 2146-4553, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 30-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of the paper are to: (a) derive and discuss indicators of industrial companies’ decision-making and management practices on energy use; and (b) investigate whether these practices can help explain variations in energy intensities across these companies. The data were collected through telephone interviews with 101 large industrial firms in Sweden. The indicators display a significant overall increase in firms’ awareness of energy efficiency issues over time, including the attention devoted to these issues at the top management level. Still, our econometric results show that energy prices constitute the most important determinant of inter-firm differences in energy intensities. Higher energy prices over the time-period, have induced the implementation of energy-relevant management and practices, and led to more systematic decision-making processes. Finally, firms for which so-called ‘hidden’ costs, e.g., the costs of production disruptions, are a large concern, will be more energy intense than others.

  • 3.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Metal markets and recycling policies: impacts and challenges2019In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increased understanding of the existing markets for recycled (secondary) metals, including interactions with virgin material production, is essential for public decision-making processes concerning the implementation and evaluation of different categories of recycling policies. In this paper, we review the existing literature with the purpose of discussing (1) the impacts of various recycling policies on metal markets in which aggregate demand can be met by both primary and secondary production, and (2) a number of challenges that policy-makers need to confront in choosing between various types of recycling policies and policy designs. A simple partial equilibrium model is used as a pedagogical tool for shedding light on the impacts of tradable recycling credits, virgin material taxes, and recycling subsidies. In a second step, the paper identifies and discusses a few key challenges that policy-makers will need to address in recycling policy-making. These challenges include improving the functioning of secondary material markets by addressing various non-environmental market inefficiencies; identifying and designing (second-best) policy mixes due to the presence of incomplete monitoring and enforcement of waste disposal behavior, and regulating environmental impacts through price- or quantity-based policies. Throughout the analysis, we consult the empirical literature on the functioning of scrap metal markets (e.g., steel, copper, and aluminum).

  • 4.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Simon
    Sundin, Timmy
    Miljöprövningens roll för industrins utsläppsreduktion: erfarenheter från svenska pappers- och massabruk, 1981–20132019In: Miljörätten och den förhandlingsovilliga naturen: Vänbok till Gabriel Michanek / [ed] Jan Darpö, Maria Forsberg, Maria Pettersson, och Charlotta Zetterberg, Uppsala: Iustus förlag, 2019, p. 355-374Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Strunz, Sebastian
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Helmholtz Centre für Environmental Research – UFZ.
    Gawel, Erik
    Department of Economics, Helmholtz Centre für Environmental Research – UFZ.
    Lehmann, Paul
    Department Ökonomie, Helmholtz- Zentrum für Umweltforschung − UFZ, Leipzig.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Policy convergence as a multifaceted concept: the case of renewable energy policies in the European Union2019In: The European Dimension of Germany's Energy Transition: Opportunities and Conflicts, Springer, 2019, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 147-171Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on policy convergence has identified numerous facets and causal drivers of convergence. Distinguishing four dimensions of convergence (object, benchmark, drivers and directed process) helps clarify why and in what form policy convergence may occur (or not). Thus, depending on, for example, the object of analysis (policy outcome or instruments used), the same empirical case may give rise to opposing assessments. Furthermore, both economic and political drivers are necessary to account for successful policy convergence: economic convergence partly explains why countries may face similar problems, and political mechanisms explain why they might choose similar policies to solve a given problem. This article illustrates the multifaceted character of convergence for the dynamic field of renewable energy policies in the European Union. The empirical results indicate temporary convergence in the case of policy support instrument choices and conditional convergence in terms of renewable shares. However, the results suggest divergence of public R&D subsidies targeting renewables

  • 6.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Hellsmark, Hans
    Chalmers University of Technology, Environmental Systems Analysis, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Stockholm School of Economics, House of Innovation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hansson, Julia
    Chalmers University of Technology, Maritime Environmental Sciences, Gothenburg, Sweden. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mossberg, Johanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, RISE Bioeconomy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Technological development for sustainability: The role of network management in the innovation policy mix2019In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 138, p. 309-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the key role of actor networks in progressing new sustainable technologies, there is a shortage of conceptual knowledge on how policy can help strengthen collaborative practices in such networks. The objective of this paper is to analyze the roles of such policies – so-called network management – throughout the entire technological development processes. The analysis draws on the public management and sustainability transitions literatures, and discusses how various network characteristics could affect the development of sustainable technologies, including how different categories of network management strategies could be deployed to influence actor collaborations. The paper's main contribution is an analytical framework that addresses the changing roles of network management at the interface between various phases of the technological development process, illustrated with the empirical case of advanced biorefinery technology development in Sweden. Furthermore, the analysis also addresses some challenges that policy makers are likely to encounter when pursuing network management strategies, and identifies a number of negative consequences of ignoring such instruments in the innovation policy mix. The latter include inefficient actor role-taking, the emergence of small, ineffective and competing actor networks in similar technological fields, and a shortage of interpretative knowledge.

  • 7.
    Palage, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The impact of pilot and demonstration plants on innovation: The case of advanced biofuel patenting in the European Union2019In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 210, p. 42-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to investigate how pilot and demonstration plants affect innovation in the empirical context of advanced biofuel technology. Patent counts are used as a proxy for innovation; we employ data for eight EU Member States over the time-period 1980–2011, and negative binomial regression techniques. The focus is on plant investments that have received public co-funding. The results are overall robust to alternative model specifications, and show that the knowledge generated through past investments in pilot and demonstration plants has had positive effects on advanced biofuel patenting activities. This result is particularly valid for so-called experimental plants, i.e., aiming at testing the technical viability of new technology. The empirical analysis does not indicate the presence of any positive interaction between investments in experimental plants and biofuel blending policies, i.e., in the sense that more stringent blending requirements can raise the rate-of-return on additional pilot tests. Moreover, advanced biofuel innovation is also affected through knowledge spillovers across the selected EU Member States. The paper ends by outlining avenues for future research on the role of pilot and demonstration plants in technology development.

  • 8.
    Palage, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The innovation effects of renewable energy policies and their interaction: the case of solar photovoltaics2019In: Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, ISSN 1432-847X, E-ISSN 1867-383X, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 217-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to examine the innovation impacts of renewable energy support policies, and their interaction in the empirical context of solar photovoltaics (PV) technology. This is achieved using data on patent applications for 13 countries over the period 1978–2008, and unconditional negative binomial estimators. The analysis addresses one technology-push instrument, public R&D support, and two demand-pull instruments, feed-in tariffs (FIT), and renewable energy certificate (REC) schemes. The results indicate that: (a) both FIT and REC schemes induce solar PV patenting activity, but the impact of the former policy appears to be more profound; (b) public R&D support has overall been more influential than FIT and REC schemes in encouraging solar PV innovation; (c) policy interaction exists in that the impact of public R&D support on innovation is greater at the margin if it is accompanied by the use of FIT schemes for solar PV. A corresponding interaction effect is harder to detect for public R&D support and REC schemes, possibly due to the stronger technology selection pressure under the latter policy. The results following several robustness tests support the existence of a positive interaction effect between public R&D and FIT schemes.

  • 9.
    Lauf, Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, UFZ, Leipzig, Germany.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Gawel, Erik
    Department of Economics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, UFZ, Leipzig, Germany. Institute for Infrastructure and Resources Management, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
    Lehmann, Paul
    Department of Economics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, UFZ, Leipzig, Germany. Institute for Infrastructure and Resources Management, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The Regional Heterogeneity of Wind Power Deployment: An Empirical Investigation of Land-use Policies in Germany and Sweden2019In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, , p. 29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze and compare the impacts of land-use policies on wind power deployment at the regional levels in Germany and Sweden. We use data for the period 2008–2012, and an econometric approach in which the probability of having any wind power capacity additions and the actual level of increased capacity, given that it is positive, are permitted to be determined by different processes. The results confirm the importance of land-use policies, e.g., priority and exclusion areas, and interesting differences across the two countries are found. The impact of priority areas has been more profound in Germany, while the assignment of protected areas instead has constituted a more binding policy tool in Sweden. Cross-country differences in the relevance of various explanatory variables are linked to factors such as geographical patterns, design of wind power support schemes, and the allocation of decision-making power in planning processes.

  • 10.
    Lauf, Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research–UFZ, Leipzig, Germany.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Gawel, Erik
    Department of Economics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research–UFZ, Leipzig, Germany .
    Lehmann, Paul
    Department of Economics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research–UFZ, Leipzig, Germany .
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wind Power Deployment as a Stressor for Ecosystem Services: A Comparative Case Study from Germany and Sweden2019In: Atlats of Ecosystem Services: Drivers, Risks and Societal Responses / [ed] M. Schröter, A. Bonn, S. Klotz, R. Seppelt, and C. Baessler, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2019, p. 125-128Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book aims to identify, present and discuss key driving forces and pressures on ecosystem services. Ecosystem services are the contributions that ecosystems provide to human well-being. The scope of this atlas is on identifying solutions and lessons to be applied across science, policy and practice. The atlas will address different components of ecosystem services, assess risks and vulnerabilities, and outline governance and management opportunities. The atlas will therefore attract a wide audience, both from policy and practice and from different scientific disciplines. The emphasis will be on ecosystems in Europe, as the available data on service provision is best developed for this region and recognizes the strengths of the contributing authors. Ecosystems of regions outside Europe will be covered where possible.

  • 11.
    Lehmann, Paul
    et al.
    Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Can Technology-Specific Deployment Policies Be Cost-Effective?: The Case of Renewable Energy Support Schemes2018In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 71, no 2, p. 28p. 475-505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While there is relatively limited disagreement on the general need for supporting the deployment of renewable energy sources for electricity generation (RES-E), there are diverging views on whether the granted support levels should be technology-neutral or technology-specific. In this review paper we question the frequently stressed argument that technology-neutral schemes will promote RES-E deployment cost-effectively. We use a simple partial equilibrium model of the electricity sector with one representative investor as a vehicle to synthesize the existing literature, and review potential rationales for technology-specific RES-E support. The analysis addresses market failures associated with technological development, long-term risk taking, path dependencies as well as various external costs, all of which drive a wedge between the private and the social costs of RES-E deployment. Based on analytical insight and a review of empirical literature, we conclude that the relevance of these market failures is typically heterogeneous across different RES-E technologies. The paper also discusses a number of possible caveats to implementing cost-effective technology-specific support schemes in practice, including the role of various informational and politico-economic constraints. While these considerations involve important challenges, neither of them suggests an unambiguous plea for technology-neutral RES-E support policies either. We close by highlighting principles for careful RES-E policy design, and by outlining four important avenues for future research.

  • 12.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Climate and the Environment: Managing the Transition2018In: Addressing Societal Challenges / [ed] Editors Johan Frishammar Åsa Ericson, Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2018, p. 7-22Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition to a green economy likely requires a re-assessmentof the roles of the private industry and the state, respectively. Theadvent of so-called green capitalism and sustainability entrepreneurshipcan be catalysts to this process. Still, the extent of the contributionof green capitalism is uncertain; there is likely to be key roles forthe state. Policy instrument mixes, including direct support to greentechnology, will be required to address the challenges associatedwith diffuse emissions and green innovation. This is, though, in itselfa challenge to policy-making at different levels, e.g., understandinghow various policies interact and how the institutional contexts canaffect the effectiveness of various instruments. For LTU the abovesuggests that efforts aimed at green technical innovation must acknowledgethe subsequent need for new and complementing organizationaland societal innovations.

  • 13.
    Acar, Sevil
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Istanbul Kemerburgaz University, Bagcilar, Turkey.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics, Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions: implications and meta-analysis2018In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 512-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a rich empirical literature testing whether per capita carbon dioxide emissions tend to converge over time and across countries. This article provides a meta-analysis of the results from this research, and discusses how carbon emissions convergence may be understood in, for instance, the presence of international knowledge spillovers and policy convergence. The results display evidence of either divergence or persistent gaps at the global level, but convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions between richer industrialized countries. However, the results appear sensitive to the choice of data sample and choice of convergence concept, e.g. stochastic convergence versus β-convergence. Moreover, peer-reviewed studies have a higher likelihood of reporting convergence in carbon dioxide emissions compared to non-refereed work. POLICY RELEVANCE The empirical basis for an egalitarian rule of equal emissions per capita in the design of global climate agreements is not solid; this supports the need to move beyond single allocation rules, and increase knowledge about the impacts of combined scenarios. However, even in the context of the 2015 Paris Agreement with its emphasis on voluntary contributions and ‘national circumstances’, different equity-based principles could serve as useful points of reference for how the remaining carbon budget should be allocated

  • 14.
    Mossberg, Johanna
    et al.
    CIT Industriell Energi AB, Chalmers Teknikpark.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Hellsmark, Hans
    Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Nordqvist, Sofia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Crossing the biorefinery valley of death?: A role-based typology for understanding actor networks ability to overcome barriers in sustainability transitions2018In: Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, ISSN 2210-4224, E-ISSN 2210-4232, Vol. 27, p. 83-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pilot and demonstration plants (PDPs) play important roles in technological development; they represent bridges between basic knowledge generation and technological breakthroughs, on the one hand, and industrial application and commercial adoption, on the other. This paper addresses the importance of the actor networks around the PDPs at which different biorefinery technologies have been demonstrated and verified. The aim of the paper is to propose a role-based typology that can be used as an illustrative tool to facilitate a more generic analysis – and enhanced understanding – of PDP actor networks and their dynamics. For this purpose the paper investigates the barriers experienced by the actors in their joint efforts to further utilise and transform the PDPs into permanent test facilities after the initial technology verification and demonstration. To aid the analysis the actor networks surrounding four Swedish biorefinery PDPs are investigated. 

  • 15.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Larsson, Linus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Managing the 1970s energy crises in a state-owned mining company: strategies pursued by the Swedish iron ore producer LKAB2018In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 31, no 1-2, p. 179-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyze the strategies adopted by the Swedish state-owned iron ore mining producer LKAB in response to the 1970s energy crises, i.e., soaring energy input expenses in combination with stagnating demand for iron ore. The analysis builds on a unique empirical material, e.g., minutes from board meetings, over an extended time period. This permits in-depth analyses of the two main strategies pursued by LKAB at the time: (a) securing energy supplies (as well as output sales) through upstream investments in uranium and coal mining; and (b) engaging in own R&D to enable energy-saving measures and product development. While the LKAB experiences tend to support the notion that investments supporting broader societal goals, although at the expense of firm productivity, may be likely in the presence of strong state government involvement, they also show that state-owned mineral enterprises can be highly innovative and competitive following investments in internal R&D. Specifically, LKAB’s R&D contributed to significant product development and energy savings, the latter occurring both in the company’s own pelletizing process as well as in the processes of key customers (i.e., the steel companies). The paper concludes by highlighting a number of important lessons for contemporary energy transitions in the process industries.

  • 16.
    Strunz, Sebastian
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Helmholtz Centre für Environmental Research – UFZ.
    Gawel, Erik
    Department of Economics, Helmholtz Centre für Environmental Research – UFZ.
    Lehmann, Paul
    Department Ökonomie, Helmholtz- Zentrum für Umweltforschung − UFZ, Leipzig.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Policy convergence as a multifaceted concept: the case of renewable energy policies in the European Union2018In: Journal of Public Policy, ISSN 0143-814X, E-ISSN 1469-7815, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 361-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on policy convergence has identified numerous facets and causal drivers of convergence. Distinguishing four dimensions of convergence (object, benchmark, drivers and directed process) helps clarify why and in what form policy convergence may occur (or not). Thus, depending on, for example, the object of analysis (policy outcome or instruments used), the same empirical case may give rise to opposing assessments. Furthermore, both economic and political drivers are necessary to account for successful policy convergence: economic convergence partly explains why countries may face similar problems, and political mechanisms explain why they might choose similar policies to solve a given problem. This article illustrates the multifaceted character of convergence for the dynamic field of renewable energy policies in the European Union. The empirical results indicate temporary convergence in the case of policy support instrument choices and conditional convergence in terms of renewable shares. However, the results suggest divergence of public R&D subsidies targeting renewables

  • 17.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Statens roll vid grön omställning genom aktiv industripolitik2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The state plays a potentially important role in the processes of industrial renewal by adopting an active “green” industrial policy, since different types of market failures or system weaknesses can prevent the growth of new and more environmentally friendly technology. All too often, however, attempts to address such failures give rise to new problems and additional cost because the shaping of the policy fails to achieve the goals set and/or it creates unintentional repercussions in the economy. The role of the state in the development of new technology is therefore difficult and complex.

    This report discusses and reviews the role of the state in the green transition of industry whereby it adopts a so-called green industrial policy. Our purpose has been to look specifically at the role of the state in connection with sustainable capital-intensive investment, a typical example of which is the possibility of a lithium-ion battery factory in Sweden. This report is based on an analysis of the existing research on the pros and cons of green industrial policy.

    A first step is to discuss the various arguments for and against green industrial policy. One argument overriding the others in favour of such a policy is that high investment risks mean private-sector actors are not sufficiently keen to invest in new and untried technology. Their level of keenness may also be adversely affected by the fact that knowledge about new technology is a collective benefit; i.e. the knowledge developed “spills over” to other actors, which means any investment return will be lower for the private-sector actor than for the economy as a whole.

    The risks associated with green industrial policy include the fact that it could be “hijacked” by special interests which do not have the ability to develop the new technology by effective means, and the fact that the insufficient amount of information available would make it difficult for state actors to invest in the right technology. There are, moreover, difficulties associated with shaping a policy that can accurately pinpoint the most important risks and gaps in knowledge, including the risk that the different positive effects of the industrial policy will be realised outside the country’s borders.

    In a further step the report identifies and discusses the basis on which to shape green industrial policy. There needs to be clear accountability and transparency on the part of the state in the sense that there are clear visions, goals and ideas about which specific role the state ought to play in order to promote the desired development. In addition, the industrial policy ought to be based on a good understanding of the process of technological develop-ment; i.e. the stages of development, feedback mechanisms and the specific obstacles encountered by new technology in the innovation system. In the case of capital-intensive green investment with a long life it is also especially important that a consistent, far-sighted policy is in place to make the transition. Furthermore, no decisions regarding the shaping and implementing of the policy ought to be done independently of the skills and experience available in the industry in question, although this should involve making sure at all times that it does not compromise the independent standing of the state.

    Different types of specific instruments have different purposes, and as a rule what is needed is a “mix” of different instruments for implementing a green industrial policy that is fit for purpose. The report makes a distinction between technical, market-driving and system-wide instruments. In the context of this categorisation, the report concludes with a brief review of which specific instruments could be used for realising the policy chosen. The analysis here is not exhaustive, but the report provides a number of examples of how the choice of instruments can influence the conditions for implementing a green industrial policy that is fit for purpose.

  • 18.
    Hansson, Julia
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Hellsmark, Hans
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Bio4Energy.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Styrmedel för framtidens bioraffinaderier: En innovationspolitisk analys av styrmedelsmixen i utvalda länder2018Report (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Hage, Olle
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sandberg, Krister
    Transport Analysis, Stockholm.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Berglund, Christer
    Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Luleå.
    The regional heterogeneity of household recycling: a spatial-econometric analysis of Swedish plastic packing waste2018In: Letters in spatial and resource sciences, ISSN 1864-4031, E-ISSN 1864-404X, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 245-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental policy is often formulated at the national level, but the primary responsibilities for policy implementation, monitoring and compliance are often assigned to local actors (e.g., municipalities). This paper investigates the regional heterogeneity of household plastic waste collection among Swedish municipalities, and how collection rates have been influenced by local waste management policies, geographical conditions and socio-economic characteristics. This is achieved by employing spatial econometric methods and cross-sectional data for 282 Swedish municipalities. The results confirm the presence of spatial correlation. Furthermore, municipalities that employ weight-based waste management fees generally experience higher collection rates. The presence of curbside recycling and a high intensity of recycling drop-off stations, i.e., policy measures that help improve the infrastructural conditions for household recycling, also help explain why some municipalities perform better than others. However, the correlations between packaging waste collection and a number of important regional cost variables, such as the distance to the recycling industry, urbanization rate and population density, turn out both statistically and economically insignificant. An important explanation for this could be that the Swedish producer responsibility scheme has offered regionally differentiated (and fixed) monetary compensations to local collection entrepreneurs, and these have typically been higher in high-cost regions. This implies that plastic packaging waste collection in Sweden has been performed in a spatially cost-ineffective manner.

  • 20.
    Lauf, Thomas
    et al.
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Department of Economics, Leipzig, Germany.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Gawel, Erik
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Department of Economics, Leipzig, Germany; University of Leipzig, Institute for Infrastructure and Resources Management, Leipzig, Germany.
    Lehmann, Paul
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Department of Economics, Leipzig, Germany; University of Leipzig, Institute for Infrastructure and Resources Management, Leipzig, Germany.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The Regional Heterogeneity of Wind Power Deployment: An Empirical Investigation of Land-use Policies  in Germany and Sweden2018Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impacts of land-use policies on wind power deployment at the regional levels in Germany and Sweden, respectively. We use data on added wind capacity at the German district level and the Swedish municipality level over the time period 2008-2012. These data are analysed with a model specification permitting the probability of having any capacity addition (1/0) during this period to be independent of the level of the installed capacity (in MW). The results confirm that the regional variations in wind power deployment can to a significant extent be attributed to land-use policies, not least in the form of priority areas and the designation of restricted areas. The quantitative results display interesting differences across the two countries, not least concerning the role of priority areas, which is found to be much more profound in the German case. The assignment of protected areas appears instead to have constituted a more stringent policy tool in Sweden. Furthermore, cross-country differences in the relevance of various explanatory variables are also found to be related to geographical patterns, the overall extent of wind power deployment, as well as the design of the support schemes for wind power. Overall, the results highlight the need for better understanding of the critical role of land-use policies for future renewable energy development in various national and institutional contexts.

  • 21.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Berg, Charlotte
    National Institute of Economic Research (NIER), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ahlgren, Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Challenges in top-down and bottom-up soft linking: Lessons from linking a Swedish energy system model with a CGE model2017In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 141, p. 803-817Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes and discusses a soft-linking procedure between a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model and an energy system model with the aim to improve national energy policy decision-making. Significant positive and negative experiences are communicated. Specifically, the process of soft-linking the EMEC and TIMES-Sweden models is presented, and unlike previous work we rely on the use of multiple direction-specific connection points. Moreover, the proposed soft-linking methodology is applied in the context of a climate policy scenario for Sweden. The results display a partly new description of the Swedish economy, which when soft-linking, generates lower CO2-emissions in the reference scenario due to a decline in industrial energy demand. These findings point at the importance of linking bottom-up and top-down models when assessing national energy and climate policies.

  • 22.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics, Umea ̊ School of Business and Economics, Umea ̊ University, Umea ̊ .
    Karimu, Amin
    Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics, Umea ̊ School of Business and Economics, Umea ̊ University, Umea ̊.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Convergence in carbon dioxide emissions and the role of growth and institutions: a parametric and nonparametric analysis2017In: Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, ISSN 1432-847X, E-ISSN 1867-383X, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 359-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines convergence of per capita carbon dioxide (CO2) emission for a panel of 124 countries taking into account the impact of economic growth and the quality of government institutions. The analysis builds on both parametric and non-parametric panel data techniques, and we examine the β-convergence hypothesis in a neoclassical growth model setting with institutional quality as one of the independent variables influencing both emissions and output growth. The results reveal evidence in support of β-convergence of per capita CO2 emissions for the global sample, and for the sub-samples comprising OECD versus non-OECD countries and high- versus low-income countries, respectively. There is, however, heterogeneity in β-convergence and it tends to vary with the level of the initial per capita CO2 emissions. We also report evidence of a negative direct effect of institutional quality on growth in per capita CO2 emissions, especially for the global and high-income samples. However, institutional quality also promotes economic growth, thus generating a positive indirect effect on emissions growth. Overall the empirical results suggest a positive net effect of institutional quality on growth in per capita CO2 emissions in the global sample. Finally, the non-parametric approach reveals some evidence of bias in the parametric approach, in particular in the case of the estimates for the convergence parameter at either end of the distribution.

  • 23.
    Karimu, Amin
    et al.
    Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics, Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics, Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics, Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Energy Intensity and Convergence in Swedish Industry: A combined econometric and decomposition analysis2017In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 62, p. 347-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How to reduce the carbon footprint associated with energy use is still a major concern for most decision-makers. Against this background, a better understanding of energy intensity—the ratio of energy use to output and its convergence could be important in the design of policies targeting the reduction in the carbon footprint related to energy use. This paper analyzes the determinants of energy intensity and tests for energy intensity convergence across 14 Swedish industrial sectors. This analysis builds on a nonparametric regression analysis of an intensity index constructed at the industry sector level as well as indices constructed from a decomposition of this index. The latter isolates two key determinants of changes in energy intensity and convergence patterns: the efficiency channel-fundamental improvement in the use of energy and activity channel-structural shifts in the economy. The empirical analysis relies on a detailed sectorial dataset covering the period 1990–2008. The findings indicate that input prices, including the price of energy, have been significant determinants of energy intensity in the Swedish industrial sectors. This effect can primarily be attributed to the efficiency channel and with a less profound influence from the activity channel. We also find evidence of energy intensity convergence among the industrial sectors, and this primarily stems from the activity channel rather than from the efficiency channel.

  • 24.
    Hellsmark, Hans
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Innovation policies for advanced biorefinery development: key considerations and lessons from Sweden2017In: Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, ISSN 1932-104X, E-ISSN 1932-1031, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 28-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides an innovation systems perspective on the combination of policy instrumentsthat will be required to stimulate technological development in the advanced biorefi nery fi eld.We fi rst consult the established innovation policy literature, and provide a general framework that canbe used to identify the type of policy instruments needed to develop new sustainable technology. In asecond step, we illustrate how these general principles can be applied in the context of future biorefineries based on either the thermochemical or biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomassfeedstocks. We draw heavily on the experiences of biorefi nery development in Sweden. A central conclusionis that in Sweden, and elsewhere, there are few niche markets for advanced biorefi neries and alack of long-term policy instruments for the more established renewable fuels. For this reason, there isa need for innovation policy instruments that create markets for renewable fuels and green chemicals,thus supporting technology development during a niche market phase and allowing for the fi rst commercial-scale plants to be built. The aim of such a policy would be to stimulate learning, form valuechains, and experiment with various design options on a larger scale; this complements the use oftechnology-neutral policy instruments such as carbon pricing, which primarily promotes the diffusionof mature technologies. The policy instruments that are candidates for the niche market phase include,for example, public procurement and various types of price guarantees.

  • 25.
    Lehmann, Paul
    et al.
    Department Ökonomie, Helmholtz- Zentrum für Umweltforschung − UFZ, Leipzig.
    Gawel, Erik
    UFZ- Departments Ökonomie und Direktor des Instituts für Infrastruktur und Ressourcen- management der Universität Leipzig.
    Purkus, Alexandra
    UFZ-Department Ökonomie.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ist eine technologiespezifische Erneuerbaren-Förderung wirklich ineffizient?2017In: Energiewirtschaftliche Tagesfragen, ISSN 0720-6240, Vol. 67, no 5, p. 19-24Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Grafström, Jonas
    et al.
    Ratio Institute.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Gawel, Erik
    Department of Economics, Helmholtz Centre für Environmental Research – UFZ.
    Lehmann, Paul
    Department Ökonomie, Helmholtz- Zentrum für Umweltforschung − UFZ, Leipzig.
    Strunz, Sebastian
    Department of Economics, Helmholtz Centre für Environmental Research – UFZ.
    Knowledge Accumulation fromPublic Renewable Energy R&D in the European Union: Converging or Diverging Trends?2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bottom-up processes of policy convergence are increasingly discussed as a substitute for the absence of supranational energy policy coordination and harmonization in the EU. The overall objective of this paper is to analyse the development of government support to renewable energy R&D across EU countries over time: does the empirical evidence suggest bottom-up convergence? In order to answer this question, we first construct country-specific R&D-based knowledge stocks, and then investigate whether the developments of these stocks tend to converge or diverge across EU countries. A data set covering 12 EU Member States over the time period 1990-2012 is employed to test for the presence of conditional β-convergence using a bias-corrected dynamic panel data estimator. The empirical results are overall robust and suggest divergence in terms of public R&D-based knowledge build-up in renewable energy technology. This finding is consistent with free-riding behavior on the part of some Member States, and the presence of industrial policy motives in other States in combination with agglomeration effects in the renewable energy sector. Energy import dependence and electricity regulation are found to influence the growth of the R&D-based knowledge stock, and the deregulation of the EU electricity markets has tended to contribute to a lower speed of divergence.

  • 27.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Möjligheter och hinder för en grön energiomställning: erfarenheter från andra regioner med lärdomar för Norrbotten2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report has been prepared for the project Green energy investments, which has been funded by the European Regional Development Fund, the County Council of Norrbotten, the County Administrative Board of Norrbotten, and the Swedish Energy Agency. The project has been managed by North Sweden Energy Agency in collaboration with Luleå University of Technology (Energy Technology, Economics, and Entrepreneurship and Innovation) and Företagarna Norrbotten.

    The objectives of the report are to: (a) increase knowledge about the potential regional and benefits of a green energy transition and the obstacles to such a transition; and (b) identify and discuss various strategies, policy instruments and business models that can contribute to the realization of new green energy solutions. This is achieved by consulting and synthesizing relevant experiences from earlier energy transition processes, as well as by discussing the prerequisites for such a transition in the county of Norrbotten specifically.

    The report contains three main parts. The first part is generic and based on experiences and lessons from other regions and countries. Here we first discuss obstacles to green energy projects, with a focus on financing opportunities, conditions for the development of new technology and obstacles in the form of social constructions such as stereotypical conceptions about gender, ethnicity etc. In a case study of the obstacles to increased use of excess heat we highlight a number of factors that are important to address in several types of energy projects involving actor collaborations. The first part of the report also contains a discussion of how green energy projects can promote regional economic development, and pin-points factors that determine the magnitude of these effects. A key lesson is that these positive effects do not always occur automatically; various measures and strategies may often be needed. For this reason we also discuss a number of such strategies, e.g., regional funds, local ownership, crowdfunding, as well as strategies that aim at explicitly strengthening the actor networks that need to be established around the new energy projects.

    The second part of the report focuses on Norrbotten, and discusses the prerequisites for a green energy transition with significant economic development can be achieved in the county. These prerequisites are described with reference to the existing strategies that are there to promote regional economic growth; a common denominator for these is that they all point to the possibilities to combined regional growth objectives and a sustainable energy transition. We also discuss the regional prospects for inclusive, not least gender equal, innovation in the county of Norrbotten.

    In the third and final part of the report the most significant lessons are summarized. Here we clarify the relevance of earlier experiences for the regional context, and we discuss, based on interviews with project owners, the experiences concerning obstacles and strategies from seven different energy projects that form part of the project Green energy investments. In a final chapter we highlight a number of important lessons and recommendations for future efforts aimed at promoting the energy transition processes in Norrbotten.

  • 28.
    Newell, David
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Network management and renewable energy development: An analytical framework with empirical illustrations2017In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 23, p. 199-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The promotion of renewable energy is an essential component of energy and climate policies, but it is increasingly recognized that the transition toward an increased use of renewable energy sources constitutes a complex socio-political process. Policy is manifested in multi-actor networks beyond formal hierarchies and must therefore build on a comprehensive empirical understanding of the local collaboration processes that make investments in renewable energy projects possible. The objectives of this article are to: (a) propose an analytical framework within which the local development processes leading to renewable energy investments can be understood, in particular emphasizing the management of the relevant actor networks; and (b) provide empirical illustrations of the framework based on existing research. The article argues that, based on network management theory, some network structures can be expected to be more successful than others in facilitating renewable energy development, and we recognize the ways in which networks and their structure tend to be placed within certain institutional contexts of rules. By consulting selected research on wind power development at the local level we illustrate the added value of the proposed framework, and outline the seeds of a future research agenda.

  • 29.
    Gawel, Erik
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Helmholtz Centre für Environmental Research – UFZ.
    Lehmann, Paul
    Department Ökonomie, Helmholtz- Zentrum für Umweltforschung − UFZ, Leipzig.
    Purkus, Alexandra
    UFZ-Department Ökonomie.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Strunz, Sebastian
    Department of Economics, Helmholtz Centre für Environmental Research – UFZ.
    Political Economy of Safe-guarding Security of Supply with High Shares of Renewables: Review of Existing Research and Lessons from Germany2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing shares of wind power and solar PV in the European electricity markets have raised concerns about security of supply being jeopardized. The objective of this report is to synthesize the economic research on the nature and extent of intermittency problems in electricity markets, and not least discuss how to deal with these in the electricity market design. Particular attention is devoted to German experiences, and on identifying key lessons for Swedish market design.

    Specifically, we first discuss how security of supply can be defined, and why real-world so-called energy-only markets, i.e., markets without any pricing of capacity

    per se, may not provide an efficient level of security of supply. The latter includes a broad set of various market and policy failures. Furthermore, the report identifies and evaluates different regulatory options for addressing security of supply issues in the electricity system. These include three categories of options: measures to strengthen the energy-only market (e.g., removing price caps, strengthening the balancing market, etc.); the introduction of various forms of capacity mechanisms (i.e., focused, comprehensive, and decentralized capacity markets and strategic reserves); and various energy policy reforms (e.g., flexible renewable energy feed-in, improving demand-side management, adjusting network regulation, etc.).

    Unlike many previous economic studies, we also analyze the drivers of the policy debate on security of supply in Germany, and not least the extent to which the knowledge gained through previous research has penetrated this debate. This political economy perspective permits better understanding of the rationale behind the actual outcomes of the policy processes, i.e., in Germany’s case a strengthening of the energy-only market and the installation of a strategic reserve.

    A number of generic lessons from the German policy debate are highlighted: (a) all actors in the electricity supply system can in various ways contribute to security of supply; (b) underinvestment in security of supply most often have multiple causes, and should preferably be addressed through a portfolio of context-specific measures rather than through the use of single capacity mechanisms; (c) the energy transition taking place in, e.g., Germany, does not fundamentally question security of supply; (d) the measures implemented to safeguard security of supply should include an international perspective as well as consider the risks of potential institutional lock-in; and (e) the policy decision-making process needs to build on credible long-term commitments and transparent consultations with stakeholders.

    In terms of lessons for the Swedish market design, our conclusions are in line with earlier studies arguing for a wait, see and evaluate strategy. We contend, though, that policy should abstain from making early, future commitments regarding the introduction of quantitative measures and more extended capacity mechanisms. Quantitative measures of security of supply are far from straightforward to define, monitor and evaluate; there is a risk that such measures become too constraining and leads to an exaggerated focus on security-of-supply. A portfolio of measures that strengthen the existing Swedish market design (e.g., removing price caps, reduced trading intervals etc.) should help address the causes of security of supply concerns in a more targeted and cost-effective manner.

  • 30.
    Gawel, Erik
    et al.
    Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig.
    Lehmann, Paul
    Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig.
    Purkus, Alexandra
    Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Witte, Katherina
    Leipzig University, Institute for Infrastructure and Resources Management.
    Rationales for technology-specific RES support and their relevance for German policy2017In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 102, p. 22p. 16-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to achieve cost-effective RES-E deployment it is often argued that technology-neutral support schemes for renewables are indispensable. Against this background, RES-E support policies making widely use of technology differentiation in remuneration settings, e.g. across the EU, are frequently criticized from a theoretical point of view. However, in this paper we provide a systematic critique of the technology neutrality concept as a foundation for designing policy support schemes in the RES-E technology field. Specifically, the main objective of the paper is to scrutinize the arguments for technology-neutrality, and discuss three conceptual arguments for why technology-specific support schemes could in fact help minimize the societal costs of reaching future RES-E targets. We also briefly address different political economy concerns, which could constrain the choice of cost-effective policy support schemes, and that have to be taken into account for economic policy advice. For empirical illustration of the key arguments we refer to the case of German RES-E policy-making. The central conclusion from this paper is that technology-specific RES-E support schemes may generate significant economic benefits, particularly if technology markets work imperfectly and in second-best policy settings with additional non-internalized market failures.

  • 31.
    Moritz, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The local employment impacts of mining: an econometric analysis of job multipliers in northern Sweden2017In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 53-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The way in which mining contributes to job opportunities in the region where it takes place has become increasingly important for the industry’s relations to the local community. The employment impacts of mining are however far from straightforward to assess. Considering these uncertainties about real-life job impacts, it is vital that there are sound assessments of these employment effects. The purpose of this paper is to apply a novel econometric approach to assess mining-induced job multipliers in the empirical context of northern Sweden. This analysis employs data on the number of employees in selected non-mining sectors and in the mining sector, respectively, and covering the relatively recent mining boom period (2003-2013). We also highlight differences across the two main mining counties in northern Sweden. The results show a positive statistical relationship between increases in the number of employees in the mining sector and changes in the number of employees in other sectors. The private services sector is particularly affected, while the industrial sector also benefits in the specific case of mining municipalities. The results also indicate relatively large inter-county differences, in turn highlighting the importance of addressing the context-specific circumstances when estimating the employment effects of mining.

  • 32.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The transition to chlorine free pulp revisited: Nordic heterogeneity in environmental regulation and R&D collaboration2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 165, p. 1328-1339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the development paths leading to the transition to cleaner bleaching technologies in the pulp industry. It devotes particular attention to the key features of the Swedish transition, but also compares this to the Finnish experiences. The empirical investigation builds on an analytical framework highlighting the conditions under which pollution regulations can provide efficient incentives for deep emission reductions at industrial plants. Existing and new archive material, including not least comprehensive license trial acts for Swedish pulp mills over an extended time period, are studied. Based on this historical analysis our findings contradict previous literature, the latter emphasizing that pressures from consumers and the public were the most significant driving forces behind the adoption of–and innovation in–alternative bleaching technologies during the late 1980s. Instead, this paper asserts, the green pulp transition was characterized by regulation-induced technological change and was made possible by long history of industry-wide cooperation in environmental R&D. Furthermore, while previous research has emphasized the leading role of the Nordic countries in green pulp innovation, we identify a number of profound differences between Finland and Sweden. These emerge from various national contexts in terms of, for instance, industry structures and strategies, political cultures, and regulatory styles. Finally, at a more general level the paper provides a few policy implications for supporting the ongoing transition towards a forest-based bioeconomy

  • 33.
    Lehmann, Paul
    et al.
    Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Can Technology-Specific Deployment Policies Be Cost-Effective?: The Case of Renewable Energy Support Schemes2016Report (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Karimu, Amin
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Energy Intensity and Convergence in Swedish Industry: A Combined Econometric and Decomposition Analysis2016In: Meeting Sweden's current and future energy challenges, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Framtidens Norrbotten: Fem scenariobeskrivningar över länets utveckling2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande rapport utgör en framåtriktad analys av de regionala förutsättningar som rapporterats inom projektet Regional förnyelse, som finansierats av Länsstyrelsen i Norrbottens län och Luleå tekniska universitet (LTU). Utifrån de studier och rapporter som bidragit till en ökad förståelse kring länets möjligheter och utmaningar resonerar vi i den här studien om möjliga framtidsscenarier för Norrbotten. Vår målsättning är inte att förutspå den regionala utvecklingen utan att i stället lyfta fram ett antal scenarier som det regionala utvecklingsarbetet kan leda till. Syftet blir att skapa ett diskussionsunderlag som kan vara till nytta för framtida utveckling av regionala strategier såsom exempelvis den regionala utvecklingsstrategin och den regionala innovationsstrategin. Regionala strategierDen regionala utvecklingsstrategin ingår i EU:s och Sveriges strategier för hållbar tillväxt och är styrande för de mer operativa programmen i länet. Strategin binder samman planeringsprocesser som har betydelse för en hållbar tillväxt och kan därigenom underlätta samverkan inom och mellan länen. Strategin utgör och ett strategiskt underlag i förhandlingar mellan länet och regeringen och även vid överläggningar på EU-nivå.Den regionala analysen av Norrbottens förutsättningar för utveckling och potential för tillväxt resulterade i fem strategiska områden där ett antal prioriterade åtgärder anges. De största utmaningarna är den demografiska utvecklingen och den framtida kompetensförsörjningen. Avgörande för regionens tillväxt är att det finns arbetskraft och kompetens som matchar arbetslivets behov. Med en allt äldre befolkning ökar försörjningsbördan och det blir allt svårare att upprätthålla välfärden med minskade skatteunderlag.Regionala analyserEtt flertal rapporter och studier har författats inom ramarna för projektet Regional förnyelse. Näringslivsanalyser och analyser av internationell handel stödjer att det finns goda förutsättningar för tillväxt inom länets företag. Företagarna beskriver kompetensförsörjning som en av de största utmaningarna för att uppnå planerad tillväxttakt. Regionala scenarierUtifrån de regionala analyserna har fem scenarier, i form av framtidsbilder, målats upp. Avsikten med scenarierna är att beskriva hur regionala insatser och utveckling kan skapa alternativa framtider för Norrbotten. Avsikten med scenarierna är således inte att förutspå regionens framtida utveckling utan snarare peka på hur olika typer av regional utveckling kan skapa olika förutsättningar. De scenarios som diskuteras i denna rapport är:— Scenario I: Basindustriregionen— Scenario II: Kunskap, kreativitet och kommunikation som regional drivkraft— Scenario III: Förändrat globalt klimat med nya möjligheter— Scenario IV: Smart specialisering baserad på relaterad variation— Scenario V: Diversifiering efter en nationell genomsnittsmodell

  • 36.
    Hellsmark, Hans
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Mossberg, Johanna
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Chalmers Industriteknik.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Innovation System Strengths and Weaknesses in Progressing Sustainable Technology: The Case of Swedish Biorefinery Development2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 131, p. 702-715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the combination of economic challenges and uncertain policy conditions in the United States, European Union, and elsewhere, the development of advanced biorefineries has progressed slower than anticipated. This has delayed the transition to a more sustainable and less carbon-intensive economy. In this article, we adopt the technological innovation system (TIS) approach to analyze advanced biorefinery development in Sweden, a front-runner country in current development. The analysis highlights a number of system strengths (e.g., long-term research funding; significant research infrastructure; strong actor networks) that have contributed to developing the Swedish TIS, but also important system weaknesses (e.g., weak coordination among ministries; lack of industrial absorptive capacity; unclear roles) inhibiting it. The article highlights a combination of four policy measures that build on the system strengths to address the system weaknesses: (a) the implementation of a deployment policy for creating domestic niche markets; (b) improved policy timing and more structured coordination among different governmental agencies; (c) the provision of stronger incentives for mature industries to invest in R&D and improve their absorptive capacity; and (d) improved organization and financing of existing research infrastructure. In addition to the empirical contribution, the article contributes with novel insights into the TIS framework by highlighting the dynamics between system strengths and weaknesses, and suggests that system strengths should be better emphasized in future TIS studies

  • 37.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Miljöprövning och konkurrenskraft i gruvindustrin: Lärdomar från Sverige, Finland, Australien och Kanada2016Report (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Nej, företagen väljer inte SD:s politik2016In: Norrbottenskuriren, ISSN 1103-9760Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 39.
    Stage, Jesper
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Christiernsson, Anna
    Projekt: Utvärdering av åtgärder i havs- och vattenmiljöförvaltningen2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskargruppen ska genom analyser och synteser identifiera styrkor och brister i de utvärderingar som görs av styrmedel i fiskeri- och havsmiljöförvaltningen, samt utifrån detta föreslå åtgärder som skulle kunna förbättra framtida utvärderingar. Arbetet kommer att resultera i övergripande syntes av hur olika typer av samhällsekonomiska analyser kan användas för att utvärdera styrmedel inom området (med hänvisning till tidigare utvärderingar), samt en fördjupad analys av tidigare utvärderingar av styrmedlet överförbara kvoter inom det pelagiska området.

  • 40.
    Hellsmark, Hans
    et al.
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Styrmedel och innovationspolitik för framtidens bioraffinaderier2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 41.
    Stage, Jesper
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Christiernsson, Anna
    Havsmiljöinstitutet.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The economics of the Swedish individual transferable quota system: Experiences and policy implications2016In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 66, p. 15-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden and other European Union countries are currently carrying out extensive work aimed at improving the marine and freshwater environment. The adaptive management approaches typically used for this require the development of new policy instruments and measures when needed, but also evaluations of instruments and measures already in use or under way. This paper reports on a study of the Swedish individual transferable quota system introduced in 2009 for the pelagic fishery. The new system was motivated mainly by economic arguments and, thus, the need to get incentives right. Despite this, the design of the Swedish system weakened the intended incentive effects in several ways, compared with the foreign systems that served as models. Moreover, the information needed for future evaluations was not collected, even though the need for future evaluations had been expressed explicitly and the data needs for this could be identified at the time that the system was introduced.

  • 42.
    Gawel, Erik
    et al.
    Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig.
    Lehmann, Paul
    Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig.
    Purkus, Alexandra
    Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Witte, Katherina
    Leipzig University, Institute for Infrastructure and Resources Management.
    The Rationales for Technology-Specific Renewable Energy Support: Conceptual Arguments and their Relevance for Germany2016Report (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Hellsmark, Hans
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Division of Environmental Systems Analysis.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    The Role of Pilot and Demonstration Plants in Technology Development and Innovation Policy2016In: Research Policy, ISSN 0048-7333, E-ISSN 1873-7625, Vol. 45, no 9, p. 1743-1761Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pilot- and demonstration plants (PDPs) represent bridges between generating basic knowledge and technological breakthroughs on the one hand, and industrial applications and commercial adoption on the other. This paper reports on a longitudinal study of how two technological fields that received significant public funding evolved—biochemical conversion of biomass and thermal conversion of black liquor. In doing so, this study makes two contributions. First, it provides a framework for analyzing the roles of various types of PDPs in developing new technology. The framework highlights the learning processes taking place at and around these plants and how they contribute to reducing different types of risks. It also elaborates on the importance of actor networks and institutional preconditions, and how both network performance and institutions can be influenced through various strategies. Second, the article contributes with new insights into the challenges of innovation policy in a PDP context. A policy mix is often required because policy cannot be considered meaningfully at a single level of government and will therefore be influenced heavily by limited foresight and politics (both nationally and locally). Therefore, policy must address both the need for parallel and iterative public funding of R&D and different types of plants, as well as attempts to directly influence collaborative processes in actor networks.

  • 44.
    Lindman, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wind energy and green economy in Europe: Measuring policy-induced innovation using patent data2016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 179, p. 1351-1359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The green economy policy discourse has devoted a lot of attention to the design of public policy addressing low-carbon technologies. In this paper we examine the impacts of public R&D support and feed-in tariff schemes on innovation in the wind energy sector. The analysis is conducted using patent application data for four western European countries over the period 1977–2009. Different model specifications are tested, and the analysis highlights important policy interaction effects. The results indicate that both public R&D support and feed-in tariffs have positively affected patent application counts in the wind power sector. The (marginal) impact on patent applications of increases in feed-tariffs has also become more profound as the wind power technology has matured. There is also some evidence of policy interaction effects in that the impact of public R&D support to wind power is greater at the margin if it is accompanied by the use of feed-in tariff schemes. These results support the notion that technological innovation requires both R&D and learning-by-doing, and for this reason public R&D programs should typically not be designed in isolation from practical applications. The paper ends by outlining some important avenues for future research.

  • 45.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Berg, Charlotte
    Konjunkturinstitutet.
    Ahlgren, Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    2030 Climate Targets in Sweden: An Integrated BU and TD Approach2015In: Our Common Future under Climate Change: International Scientific Conference - Abstract book, 2015, article id P-3322-08Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Att utvärdera kvotpliktssystem för energieffektvitet: En granskning av Energimyndighetens rapport ER 2015:112015Report (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Att åstadkomma ökad styreffekt i den svenska kväveoxidavgiften: En granskning av Naturvårdsverkets rapport 66472015Report (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE), Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE), Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Convergence of carbon dioxide performance across Swedish industrial sectors: an environmental index approach2015In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 51, p. 227-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall objective of the paper is to analyze convergence of CO2 emission intensity across manufacturing sectors in Sweden. Our approach differs from previous work on carbon convergence in that it employs a theoretical framework to construct a CO2 performance index, which explicitly takes into account that industrial firms produce good as well as bad outputs. This index is then used as the dependent variable in a growth-type regression equation. We employ a data set covering 14 industrial sectors over the time period 1990–2008. The results suggest the presence of conditional β-convergence in CO2 performance among the industrial sectors in Sweden. Moreover, the speed of convergence varies significantly in the sense that the higher the capital intensity is, the lower is the convergence rate to the different steady states. This is likely to reflect the importance of – and in part the costs associated with – capital turnover to achieve a transition towards lower CO2 emission paths.

  • 49.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Helenius, Heidi
    University of Lapland, Rovaniemi.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wiklund, Roine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Masloboev, Vladimir
    Institute of Industrial Ecology Problems in the North, Kola Science Center.
    Mingaleva, Tatiana
    Institute of Industrial Ecology Problems in the North, Kola Science Center.
    Patrov, Viktor
    Institute of Industrial Ecology Problems in the North, Kola Science Center.
    Environmental Regulation and Competitiveness in the Mining Industry: Permitting Processes in Finland, Sweden and Russia2015In: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 43, p. 130-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates to what extent and under what circumstances environmental regulation can be designed and implemented to jointly achieve positive environmental outcomes and sustained competitive strength in the mining industry. First the paper provides a conceptual analysis of the impacts of environmental regulations on mining competitiveness, including a discussion of how the environmental-competitiveness trade-off can be affected by various regulatory design and implementation strategies. Methodologically we distinguish between the flexibility, predictability and stringency of the regulations, and in a second step these analytical concepts are illustrated in the empirical context of the environmental permitting processes in Finland, Sweden and Russia. An important result is that in these countries there has been a lack of timeliness and predictability in the environmental regulations (e.g., uncertainty about the interpretation of the legislation, delays due to appeals etc.). These problems can in part be addressed by, for instance: (a) allocating more resources to the regulatory authorities; (b) establishing more consensus-based regulatory interactions between the mining industry and the authorities; and (c) introducing more standardized procedures and road maps for environmental impact assessments, permit applications and not the least for how to interpret specific legal rules in the context of mining.

  • 50.
    Hellsmark, Hans
    et al.
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energiteknik.
    Mossberg, Johanna
    Chalmers Industriteknik.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Innovation System Strengths and Weaknesses in Progressing Sustainable Technology: The Case of Swedish Biorefinery Development2015Conference paper (Refereed)
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