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  • 1.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Volker, Leentje
    Department of Civil Engineering, University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands.
    Kadefors, Anna
    Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm. Chalmers University Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Lingegård, Sofia
    Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering (SEED), School of Architecture and the Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Rosander, Lilly
    Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Collaborative Procurement Strategies for Infrastructure Projects: A Multiple Case Study2019In: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Management, procurement and law, ISSN 1751-4304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the announcement to tender a project, several strategic decisions are made that have significant impact on the innovation and efficiency potential of a project. The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare how different types of integrative and collaborative procurement strategies may enhance the opportunities for improved efficiency and innovation in infrastructure projects. Hence, it contributes to the scientific debate on buyer-supplier relationships in relation to project performance. Furthermore, it guides public client organizations in steering explicitly for integration and innovation in their projects. Interview-based case studies of ten public infrastructure projects procured based on four different types of collaborative procurement strategies in Sweden and the Netherlands were conducted. The findings indicate that the duration of the collaboration is fundamental in setting the limits for innovation, and that early involvement as well as long-term commitments in maintenance open up for more innovation. Naturally, the potential for increased efficiency is higher than for innovation, and also occurs in collaborations with limited duration. The findings confirm the importance of a learning perspective on procurement strategies for public client organizations and show the importance of explicit considerations on incentives and project governance issues in the front-end phase of a project.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Szentes, Henrik
    Lund University.
    Reactive Problem Solving and Proactive Development in Infrastructure Projects2019In: Current Trends in Civil & Structural Engineering, ISSN 2643-6876, Vol. 3, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Järvenpää, Anna-Therése
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    The Transition from Design-Bid-Build Contracts to Design-Build2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose–For a number of years, the construction industry has seen an ongoing shift from design-bid-buildto design-build contracts. This transition in contract type entails changes for both the organizations and theindividuals involved. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how the client manages thetransition between the different contract types from an organizational change perspective in a project-ledorganization.

    Design/Methodology/Approach–A multiple case study of six infrastructure projects with DBcontracts, all managed by the Swedish Transport Administration, was conducted. The major source of data issemi-structured interviews with respondents from both the client and the contractors.

    Findings–Results suggest that the transition has resulted in a mix of design-bid-build and design-build ascontract type owing to issues when changing in a project-led organization. A change in vision also requires aconcomitant change in culture, systems and roles.

    Research Limitations/Implications–The study only includes cases from the Swedish transportinfrastructure sector, which limits the generalizability. Thefindings are also indicative owing to the smallnumber of cases.

    Practical Implications–Thefindings further our understanding of managing change in complexprojects, which might help practitioners to manage change in a more integrated way.

    Originality/Value–Thefindings enrich our understanding of the systemic change that a switch incontract types can have in inter-organizational complex projects such as transport infrastructure projects.Furthermore, it emphasizes the intricate task of change management in project-led organizations and itseffects on roles and responsibilities.

  • 4.
    Volker, Leentje
    et al.
    Department of Management in the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Kadefors, Anna
    Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    A case based comparison of the efficiency and innovation potential of integrative and collaborative procurement strategies2018In: Proceeding of the 34th Annual ARCOM Conference, ARCOM 2018 / [ed] Gorse, C. & Neilson, C.J., Association of Researchers in Construction Management (ARCOM), 2018, p. 515-524Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate and compare in what ways different types of integrative and collaborative procurement strategies may enhance efficiency and innovation in public infrastructure projects. Further, implementation challenges are identified and discussed. Interview-based case studies were performed of ten infrastructure projects in Sweden and the Netherlands. The projects involve four types of collaborative procurement strategies - collaborative Design-Build (DB) contracts, Early Contractor Involvement (ECI) agreements, Design-Build-Maintain (DBM) contracts and Design-Build-Finance-Maintain (DBFM) contracts. The findings indicate that the duration of the collaboration is fundamental in setting the limits for innovation and that early involvement as well as long-term commitments open up for more innovation. Naturally, the potential for increased efficiency is higher than for innovation and also occurs in collaborations with limited duration. These integrated project approaches, however, still appear to be in an early stage of learning. For a public repeat client to realise the full potential of a new strategy, it is important to have a long-term perspective and capabilities to analyse and learn from the experiences.

  • 5.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Role of Performance Feedback on Process Performance in Construction Projects: Client and Contractor Perspectives2018In: Journal of Management in Engineering, ISSN 0742-597X, E-ISSN 1943-5479, Vol. 34, no 4, article id 04018023Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addressed a perceived research gap by examining the role of performance feedback in construction process performance from both client and contractor perspectives using a database of unprecedented scale, with 2,175 sets of observations (expressed views of 579 clients and 1,596 contractors involved in diverse Swedish construction projects). Following validation of latent concepts by multigroup assessment of responses across the two groups (clients and contractors), using confirmatory factor analysis, this enabled robust tests of evidence of structural paths (potentially causal or mediating relationships) embedded in both groups’ responses. The results confirmed, with unprecedented clarity, that performance feedback has significant, direct positive effects on construction process performance, and that performance feedback mediates (i.e., strengthens) effects of learning and collaboration on process performance.

  • 6.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    The importance of hard project management and team motivation for construction project performance2018In: International Journal of Managing Projects in Business/Emerald, ISSN 1753-8378, E-ISSN 1753-8386, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 275-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Hard project management practices, based on strict planning and control, are traditionally applied in construction projects, although research frequently promotes the importance of teams for various project outcomes. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to examine the importance of hard project management and team motivation for process performance in construction projects. A hypothesis tested is that hard project management can impair process performance if team motivation is not promoted.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The paper presents and empirically tests a structural equation model, with and without a mediating link between hard project management and process performance, based on data from a survey of 2,175 respondents, representing contractors and clients involved in 109 Swedish construction projects.

    Findings

    The results confirm that hard project management is best conveyed through teams to enhance process performance. “Path analysis,” using the model with the mediating link, confirms that neglecting team motivation can significantly impair process performance.

    Research limitations/implications

    The data set provides unusually high representation of views of contractors and clients involved in diverse Swedish construction projects. Thus, the results have likely relevance in other project-based industries and/or national settings, but this possibility requires further investigation.

    Originality/value

    The findings show that team motivation is a key process performance factor; hard project management may indeed be important, but its effects will be enhanced by (and partially mediated through) team motivation. Thus, the findings have important theoretical and practical implications for the development of project management practices.

  • 7.
    Hedborg Bengtsson, Susanna
    et al.
    KTH, Stockholm.
    Karrbom Gustavsson, Tina
    KTH, Stockholm.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Users’ influence on inter-organizational innovation: mapping the receptive context2018In: Construction Innovation, ISSN 1471-4175, E-ISSN 1477-0857, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 488-504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Innovation is constantly present in the construction industry, however, mainly on a single project level. Initiating and implementing inter-organizational innovation in a multi-project context such as in urban development entails large complexity, for example, because of the many interdependent projects and users of innovation. The users’ influence on inter-organizational innovation in a multi-project context has not been fully explored. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to discuss how users influence inter-organizational innovation in multi-project contexts by mapping the receptiveness for change.

    Design/methodology/approach

    A single case study approach was used, where empirical material including semi-structured interviews in combination with meeting observations, document studies and participative workshops were gathered. The rich empirical material, studying inter-organizational innovation in an urban development context, was mapped based on the receptive context for change framework.

    Findings

    A receptive context for change was not present in the studied multi-project context. Communication to develop and implement inter-organizational innovation was not sufficient and the clients’ procurement strategies were to a large extent not developed to facilitate inter-organizational innovation. Findings show differences in users’ possibility and aim to implement inter-organizational innovation.

    Originality/value

    The mapping of the receptive context to influence inter-organizational innovation widens the knowledge base and provides valuable insights on how inter-organizational innovation may be implemented in the loosely coupled construction industry. Furthermore, the findings broaden the discussion on clients as innovation supporters, and contribute to the debate on clients as innovation supporters, by highlighting the importance of distinguishing between different types of clients.

  • 8.
    Gustavsson Kärrbom, Tina
    et al.
    KTH, Depteartment of Real Estate & Construction Management.
    Bengtsson Hedborg, Susanna
    KTH, Depteartment of Real Estate & Construction Management.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    A program perspective on partnering as supply chain integration2017In: Proceedings of the 9th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organization / [ed] Buser, M; Lindahl, G; Raisanen, C, Lyngby: Polyteknisk Boghandel og Forlag, 2017, p. 253-261Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Major complex urban development projects are challenging and put pressure on coordination, cooperation and integration between a multitude of various interdependent construction projects and supply chains. While prior studies on supply chain integration mostly concern continuous exchanges in manufacturing industries, there is less research on discontinuous exchanges in project-based supply chains. This knowledge gap has resulted in an increased interest for partnering as supply chain integration in project-based supply chains and there is a conceptual and practical framework developed for understanding partnering as a multidimensional construct including four dimensions of supply chain integration: strength, scope, duration and depth of integration. This framework is useful for investigating separate projects but fails to acknowledge the program perspective including inter-project coordination and the interdependence between different projects and supply chains in the same program. The purpose of this study is to investigate how SCI may be achieved across projects within the same program. Findings are drawn from a case study of Stockholm Royal Seaport. Each stage of Stockholm Royal Seaport can be studied as a program including a multitude of interdependent and parallel projects performed within a limited timeframe and a limited area. The findings suggest that supply chain integration between projects is as important as within projects and the theoretical implications suggest an additional dimension to the multidimensional partnering framework when taking a program perspective. Partnering as supply chain integration has a width dimension on program management level that is more challenging to manage since formal procurement and contracting mechanisms are put in place mainly at the project level, not the program level.

  • 9.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Managing complex projects in the infrastructure sector: A structural equation model for flexibility-focused project management2017In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 1512-1523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex construction projects in the infrastructure sector are often beset with delays, which cause benefit shortfalls and increased costs. Prior project management literature and practice have mostly adopted a traditional control-focused approach, but recent research suggests that complex projects need more flexible practices to manage inevitable project change. Thus, the objectives of this study were to develop and empirically test a model for flexibility-focused project management practices to improve time performance in complex projects in the infrastructure sector. Based on empirical data from 138 construction projects procured and managed by the Swedish Transport Administration, the structural equation model shows that complexity and collaboration drive explorative learning, which improves adaptation and thereby improves time performance. Hence, the empirical test verifies that flexibility-focused project management practices based on collaboration, explorative learning, and adaptation enhance time performance in complex projects in the infrastructure sector.

  • 10.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Szentes, Henrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Managing the tensions between exploration and exploitation in large construction projects2017In: Construction Innovation, ISSN 1471-4175, E-ISSN 1477-0857, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 492-510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Prior studies highlight the importance of building ambidextrous capabilities to achieve both exploitation of current knowledge and technologies to make profits today, and exploration of new knowledge and technologies to adapt to and prepare for tomorrow's demands. In spite of its theoretical and practical importance, research on organizational ambidexterity in project-based organizations is scarce. Thus, the purpose of the paper is to study how ambidexterity may be managed and how exploration and exploitation may be achieved in construction projects. The research identifies some drivers and barriers to exploration and exploitation and also sheds light on how various management approaches interact and affect exploration and exploitation activities. Design/methodology/approach – The empirical material is drawn from 40 semi-structured interviews with managers representing the client, the contractor and the designer involved in each of the seven large construction projects in the sample. Findings – In contrast to prior literature in high-tech industries where exploitation focuses on continuous development, exploitation in construction projects often involves adopting conventional methods and solutions based on existing knowledge without any development efforts at all. This may enhance short-term efficiency and lower risk at the project level but increase risk at the firm level. Tight time schedules hinder both radical innovations and incremental developments, and the findings also reveal that to invest in efforts on explorative solutions, it must be possible to exploit the solutions in the same project. Research limitations/implications – In this empirical context, the traditional structural and sequential ambidexterity solutions are not sufficient. In construction projects, contextual ambidexterity solutions in which key project actors collaborate in developing systemic innovations and fine-tuning solutions across projects are more effective. Practical implications – Sufficient project size and/or long-term contracts over a series of projects enhance both investments in explorative activities and exploitation through continuous developments from project to project. In design-bid-build contracts, the client and consultant often miss opportunities to explore new technical solutions that rely on contractor competencies. Early procurement of contractors (e.g. in collaborative design-build contracts) thereby enables the achievement of both exploration and exploitation. Originality/value – This study provides important input to the authors' understanding of how exploration and exploitation may be managed in project-based industries, which has been scarcely studied in previous ambidexterity literature.

  • 11.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Procurement strategies for enhancing exploration and exploitation in construction projects2017In: Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction, ISSN 1366-4387, E-ISSN 1759-8443, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 211-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how procurement strategies may be designed to facilitate exploration and exploitation in construction projects.

    Design/methodology/approach

    This paper is based on a literature review of organizational research and construction management literature together with a brief interview study of Swedish clients and contractors.

    Findings

    The theoretical and empirical findings propose that small and simple projects with low uncertainty and scarce resources may focus on exploitation to enhance short-term efficiency through traditional procurement strategies including delivery systems that separate the actors and their activities (i.e. pure design-build- or design-bid-build-contracts), fixed price payment and price focus in bid evaluation. Large complex projects with high uncertainty and customization benefit from combining exploration and exploitation to enhance sustainable performance. This requires collaborative procurement strategies including joint specification through early contractor involvement, cost reimbursement coupled with incentive-based payment, bid evaluation based on multiple criteria and collaborative tools and activities in partnering arrangements.

    Research limitations/implications

    This paper contributes to organizational learning literature by pinpointing the need for integrating procurement strategies that enhance combination of exploration and exploitation. The main contribution to the construction management literature involves the investigation of how procurement strategies may affect exploration and exploitation, as identified and articulated in the propositions developed in this paper.

    Practical implications

    From a practical perspective, the findings highlight the importance of tailoring procurement strategies to project characteristics to enhance a suitable balance between exploration and exploitation in construction projects.

    Originality/value

    The explicit focus on the operational project-level is uncommon but relevant in organizational learning literature.

  • 12.
    Aldenlöv, Jens
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Söderholm, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Gustavsson Kärrbom, Tina
    KTH, Depteartment of Real Estate & Construction Management.
    Public procurement of railway infrastructure maintenance: a literature review2017In: Proceedings of the 9th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organization / [ed] Buser, M; Lindahl, G; Raisanen, C, Lyngby: Polyteknisk Boghandel og Forlag, 2017, p. 10-21Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The maintenance of railway infrastructure has in several instances been changed from government-based to being based on public procurement, with varying degrees of flexibility for the contractor to design their maintenance work. The purpose of-giving contractors a larger freedom of choice of how to perform maintenance is to stimulate them to innovate and develop their maintenance processes. Since the contracts differ in between and there are changes in government policies over time that affects both existing and new contracts, a comparison between different contracts becomes challenging. A literature review has been conducted to understand the change in procurement strategy and how to encourage contractors to innovate. The research questions include: What procurement strategies are there? How is maintenance evaluated? How does procurement affect the innovation opportunities for entrepreneurs? The literature review focuses on railway maintenance and contract design between client and contractor. In total, 17 articles matched the search criteria and were selected for the review. To have successful maintenance service, five articles suggested partnering as a strategy with common goals in combination with good communication during the entirety of the contract. When selecting incentive plan, four articles mentions that a focus on performance-based incentives in combination with risk management is better rather than actual payment schemes. The reason being that payment is often the main cause of conflicts between client and contractor. The scientific literature suggests that improvement in incentives improves quality of maintenance, decreases delays and technical failures. The conclusion from the literature review is that partnering in railway maintenance is considered successful. With accurate knowledge about railway assets the incentive plan becomes accurate which reduces costs. The literature review is a part of a research project with an overall goal to develop a model to guide the selection of appropriate type of procurement strategy, contract and control of maintenance for a more sustainable railway system.

  • 13.
    Aldenlöv, Jens
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Söderholm, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Karrbom Gustavsson, Tina
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Real Estate and Construction Management .
    Public procurement of railway infrastructuremaintenance: a literature review2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The maintenance of railway infrastructure has in several instances been changed from government-based to being based on public procurement, with varying degrees of flexibility for the contractor to design their maintenance work. The purpose of-giving contractors a larger freedom of choice of how to perform maintenance is to stimulate them to innovate and develop their maintenance processes. Since the contracts differ in between and there are changes in government policies over time that affects both existing and new contracts, a comparison between different contracts becomes challenging. A literature review has been conducted to understand the change in procurement strategy and how to encourage contractors to innovate. The research questions include: What procurement strategies are there? How is maintenance evaluated? How does procurement affect the innovation opportunities for entrepreneurs?

    The literature review focuses on railway maintenance and contract design between client and contractor. In total, 17 articles matched the search criteria and were selected for the review. To have successful maintenance service, five articles suggested partnering as a strategy with common goals in combination with good communication during the entirety of the contract. When selecting incentive plan, four articles mentions that a focus on performance-based incentives in combination with riskmanagement is better rather than actual payment schemes. The reason being that payment is often themain cause of conflicts between client and contractor. The scientific literature suggests that improvement in incentives improves quality of maintenance, decreases delays and technical failures. The conclusion from the literature review is that partnering in railway maintenance is considered successful. With accurate knowledge about railway assets the incentive plan becomes accurate which reduces costs.

    The literature review is a part of a research project with an overall goal to develop a model to guide the selection of appropriate type of procurement strategy, contract and control of maintenance for a moresustainable railway system.

  • 14.
    Bengtsson Hedborg, Susanna
    et al.
    KTH, Depteartment of Real Estate & Construction Management.
    Gustavsson Kärrbom, Tina
    KTH, Depteartment of Real Estate & Construction Management.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    The influence of construction project actors' motivation on externally initiated systemic innovation2017In: Proceedings of the 9th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organization / [ed] Buser, M; Lindahl, G; Raisanen, C, Lyngby: Polyteknisk Boghandel og Forlag, 2017, p. 208-219Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanization and climate change are central challenges for urban development today, why a need for substantial innovation, e.g. systemic innovation, can be identified. The large amount of interdependent actors and their fragmented processes are among the key factors that hamper innovation in the construction industry. Two key actors in the industry, property developers and contractors, can be identified as important when developing innovation, due to their central roles in the construction project process. Therefore, it should be important to make them dedicated towards innovation, i.e. create motivation. This is in line with research on successful innovation development highlighting the importance of commitment and collaboration. A need seems to be present to create motivation towards innovation for key actors in the industry. Based on this, the purpose of this paper is to explore how motivation of key actors can influence development for systemic innovation in the construction industry. To explore this, a case study of the urban development project Stockholm Royal Seaport and its developed building logistic center was analyzed, adopting a model for receptive change context. Tentative findings suggest that actors' motivation for innovation is important for the development. Developers' possibility to influence through procurement strategies, to increase awareness and collaboration, can be used to create motivation for contractors.

  • 15.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Leiringer, Roine
    University of Hong Kong, Department of Real Estate & Construction.
    Szentes, Henrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    The Role of Co-creation in Enhancing Explorative and Exploitative Learning in Project-Based Settings2017In: Project Management Journal, ISSN 8756-9728, E-ISSN 1938-9507, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 22-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study how co-creation practices influence explorative and exploitative learning in five collaborative construction projects with partnering arrangements. Drawing on a longitudinal case study, our findings reveal two different types of explorative learning processes (i.e., adaptation and radical development) and three different exploitative learning processes (i.e., incremental development, knowledge sharing, and innovation diffusion). Furthermore, co-creation practices enhance adaptation, radical development, and incremental development, which are typical intra-project learning processes. Co-creation practices do not, however, enhance knowledge sharing and innovation diffusion across projects. These findings concur with previous insights that the temporary and one-off nature of projects makes inter-project learning problematic.

  • 16.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Simonsson, Peter
    Swedish Transport Administration Luleå.
    Erratum for “Leadership in Civil Engineering: Effects of Project Managers’ Leadership Styles on Project Performance” by Johan Larsson, Per Erik Eriksson, Thomas Olofsson, and Peter Simonsson2016In: Journal of Management in Engineering, ISSN 0742-597X, E-ISSN 1943-5479, Vol. 32, no 4, article id 8216001Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Patel, Pankaj C.
    Villanova University, Villanova School of Business.
    Rönnberg Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Managing Interorganizational Innovation Projects: Mitigating the Negative Effects of Equivocality Through Knowledge Search Strategies2016In: Long range planning, ISSN 0024-6301, E-ISSN 1873-1872, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 691-705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Equivocality, or divergent interpretations and understandings of tasks and knowledge, has negative effects on performance because it increases conflicts and creates communication and coordination challenges in inter-organizational innovation projects. However, equivocality may also stimulate team members to discuss beliefs and interpretations in ways that provide improved understanding of knowledge and tasks. We theorize that mitigation of negative effects of equivocality on project performance is conditional on explorative or exploitative knowledge search mode. Exploitative search (increasing search depth) allows for rapid learning based on the partners' existing knowledge, but it also limits a team's ability to interpret and combine diverse knowledge. Explorative search (increasing search breadth), on the other hand, allows for novel combinations of diverse knowledge and thereby alleviates the negative effect of equivocality on performance. Based on quantitative data from 251 respondents in 52 heavy-engineering innovation projects in four multinational corporations based in Sweden and from their 29 collaborating partner firms worldwide, we find that equivocality reduces project performance, but that joint explorative search mitigates the negative effect of equivocality on project performance. However, we do not find support for the moderation effect of exploitative search on the relationship between equivocality and project performance. Theoretical and managerial contributions as well as limitations and suggestions for future research are presented

  • 18.
    Sjödin, David Rönnberg
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Managing uncertainty and equivocality in joint process development projects2016In: Journal of engineering and technology management, ISSN 0923-4748, E-ISSN 1879-1719, Vol. 39, p. 13-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Process development is key to competitiveness in process industries. However, budget overruns frequently plague process development projects which span organizational boundaries to involve both buyers and suppliers. We identify uncertainty and equivocality as key antecedents causing such negative effects, and investigate the reduction and performance implications of these two variables. An empirical survey of 52 joint process development projects show that project teams reduce uncertainty through early end-user involvement, whereas equivocality can be reduced by joint problem-solving activities among buyers and suppliers.

  • 19.
    Szentes, Henrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Paradoxical Organizational Tensions between Control and Flexibility When Managing Large Infrastructure Projects2016In: Journal of construction engineering and management, ISSN 0733-9364, E-ISSN 1943-7862, Vol. 142, no 4, article id 5015017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent socioeconomic changes have created and intensified paradoxical organizational tensions that companies in numerous industries, including the construction sector, need to address when organizing and managing their activities. The nature of these tensions has not been sufficiently explored in the existing construction management literature. Thus, this study analyzes tensions between control and flexibility at different organizational interfaces, as perceived by the managers of three large infrastructure projects that were parts of two different megaprojects in Sweden. The empirical findings highlight several tensions within three types of interfaces, that is, external, intraorganizational, and interorganizational tensions, that are important for both project managers and project owners to understand. This paper contributes to the project and construction management literature by illustrating the importance of a systemic paradox perspective, which is obtained by combining the paradox literature and principal–agent theory. A systemic paradox perspective is required to understand how tensions between control and flexibility are interpreted by different parties and how tensions in different organizational interfaces are interrelated and may be addressed to avoid suboptimization

  • 20.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Lind, Hans
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Strategies for Reducing Moral Hazard in Construction Procurement: A Conceptual Framework2016In: Journal of Self-Governance and Management Economics, ISSN 2329-4175, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 7-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Moral hazard and opportunism is an inherent part of contracting and procurement strategies, especially in complex transactions that require co-creation, which is often the case in the construction industry. This paper clarifies the meaning of moral hazard in the context of construction procurement. Typically there is a double moral hazard problem, as not only the supplier, but also the client can "misbehave" in a number of ways. It is also important to note that both internal moral hazard (within the client and contractor organizations) and external moral hazard (between client and contractor) must be handled. The aim of this conceptual paper is to give an overview of strategies to reduce the risk of moral hazard. Eight different strategies are identified: 1) "the shadow of the future," promises of future work if effort is high 2) selection mechanism for contractor/employee, 3) length of contract, length of warranties, 4) level of detail in the contract, 5) payment systems, 6) monitoring intensity, 7) social norms, and 8) relation specific investments. These can be grouped into two ideal types; hard/formal and soft/informal strategies, of which the first is most suitable in simple and standardized projects, whereas soft/informal strategies are better in complex and uncertain projects.

  • 21.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Leiringer, Roine
    Hong Kong University.
    Explorative and exploitative learning in project-based organizations: improving knowledge governance through a project management office?2015In: Engineering Project Organisation Journal, ISSN 2157-3727, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 160-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational learning, in terms of both explorative learning within projects and exploitative learning across projects, is of strategic importance for project-based organizations (PBOs) in industries involving production of complex product systems (CoPS). In this conceptual article, we discuss and reflect on how organizational learning may be addressed in PBOs by the establishment of formal knowledge governance mechanisms in a project management office (PMO). Prior literature on PMOs has discussed a broad and diverse range of PMO functions, without conceptually reflecting on their interdependencies. Here, we synthesize the literature into seven main functions. From an organizational learning perspective, we identify significant synergies among the functions of Developing and maintaining a lessons-learnt database, Developing and maintaining project management standards and methods, Consulting and education, and Strategic management. We reflect on how a PBO may establish a centralized PMO utilizing these four systemic learning-related functions as knowledge governance mechanisms, in order to facilitate explorative and exploitative learning through articulation and codification of knowledge. There are also synergies among the three remaining functions, project resource management, monitoring and control, and project portfolio management. These three functions are, however, control related and could be detrimental to place within a centralized PMO focusing on organizational learning

  • 22.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Simonsson, Peter
    Swedish Transport Administration Luleå.
    Leadership in Civil Engineering: Effects of Project Managers’ Leadership Styles on Project Performance2015In: Journal of Management in Engineering, ISSN 0742-597X, E-ISSN 1943-5479, Vol. 31, no 6, article id 4015011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful completion of a construction project requires the ability to coordinate activities of numerous individuals participating in tasks that often have high levels of complexity and uncertainty. Thus, the project manager plays crucial roles, often setting the ground rules and fostering a collective approach that strongly influence project performance. However, there are uncertainties regarding various aspects of project managers’ influence, particularly related to their leadership style. Thus, the research reported in this paper explores the degrees to which leadership styles affect project outcome and specific leadership styles are appropriate in specific types of situations. The analysis is based on a questionnaire survey of views of 162 project managers employed by the largest public infrastructure client in Sweden. The results indicate that project performance (in terms of cost, time, and quality) is affected by leadership, suggesting that the project manager’s leadership style is a significant project success factor. Further, the results show that certain styles are appropriate in different situations, highlighting the importance of a contingency perspective

  • 23.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Partnering in engineering projects: Four dimensions of supply chain integration2015In: Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, ISSN 1478-4092, E-ISSN 1873-6505, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 38-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the interest of partnering and supply chain integration (SCI) has increased in various industries, there is still a lack of comprehensive conceptual and practical frameworks that enable both a detailed and systemic understanding of integration in project-based supply chains. In this paper a theoretical framework is developed, based on general SCI literature, but adapted to a project-based context. Integration in project-based supply chains is a multi-dimensional construct, including the four dimensions strength, scope, duration, and depth of integration. Empirical findings from a multiple case study of four engineering projects indicate that these four dimensions are critical when conceptualizing and implementing partnering in engineering projects. The results show that there are strong interdependencies among the four dimensions, suggesting that it is crucial to manage them simultaneously and systemically rather than in isolation. Consequently, it is not enough to decide on the extent to which suitable integrative activities and technologies should be implemented to strengthen integration in project-based supply chains. The integrative activities and technologies must also be implemented together with the right companies (scope), at the right time (duration), and with the right people in the companies (depth).

  • 24.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Söderholm, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Karrbom Gustavsson, Tina
    Arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad, KTH, Sverige.
    Projekt: Offentlig upphandling av järnvägsunderhåll2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Simonsson, Peter
    Swedish Transport Administration Luleå.
    Industrialized construction in the Swedish infrastructure sector: core elements and barriers2014In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 32, no 1-2, p. 83-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving productivity and innovation is a central challenge in all industries, but particularly in construction where improvements have been slow. To meet this challenge, a recent investigation into the actions of Swedish government clients has recognized needs to improve planning during project procurement phases, increase numbers of turnkey contracts and raise industrialization of the sector. In response, the Swedish Transportation Administration has launched a research and innovation programme to foster an industrial approach and identify ways to increase the standardization of products and processes. However, increasing industrialization has been difficult to achieve in the project-based construction industry except in the process-based housing sector. Further, there has been little research on the concept of industrialized infrastructure construction and barriers to its implementation. Opinions and attitudes of clients, consultants and contractors in the infrastructure sector were investigated in relation to the core elements of industrialized construction, and the barriers hindering its development. Opportunities and obstacles related to both product and process standardization for continuous improvements and the relationships between clients and contractors are revealed. Hence, the implementation of industrialized construction requires tightly focused governance at the outset of projects and profound changes to established attitudes, norms and regulations

  • 26.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Olander, Stefan
    Department of Construction Management, Lund University.
    Szentes, Henrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Widén, Kristian
    Department of Construction Management, Lund University.
    Managing short-term efficiency and long-term development through industrialized construction2014In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 32, no 1-2, p. 97-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a strong need for a productive and innovative infrastructure sector because of its monetary value and importance for the development of a sustainable society. An increased level of industrialization is often proposed as a way to improve efficiency and productivity in construction projects. In prior literature on industrialized construction, there are however neither many studies addressing more long-term aspects of innovation and sustainability nor studies within the infrastructure context. Organizational theory suggests that firms need to be ambidextrous and focus on both long-term exploration of new knowledge and technologies and short-term exploitation of current knowledge and technologies, in order to achieve sustainable development. Therefore, an investigation of how both short-term exploitative performance objectives and long-term explorative development can be addressed when implementing industrialized construction in infrastructure projects was conducted. A case study consisting of four infrastructure projects shows that the main drivers for increased industrialization are of an exploitative nature, focusing on cost savings and increased productivity through more efficient processes. The main barriers to increased industrialization are however related to both explorative and exploitative activities. Hence, by managing the identified barriers and explicitly addressing both exploitation and exploration, industrialized construction can improve both short-term efficiency and long-term innovation and sustainability.

  • 27.
    Szentes, Henrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Organisering och ledning av stora byggprojekt: Slutrapport för SBUF-projektet: 124512014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning vid LTU.Flera stora byggprojekt pågår och planeras i Sverige, varav flera är skattefinansierade. Det ligger därför i både samhällets och byggbranschens parters intresse att utveckla kunskapen kring hur stora byggprojekt organiseras och leds, aktat de många samhällsförändringar som Sverige genomgått de senaste decennierna. Denna studie har följaktligen studerat hur olika samhällsförändringar påverkat förutsättningarna för stora byggprojekt, samt hur organisering och ledning såväl som utvecklingsfrågor påverkats.Ett specifikt utvecklingsområde som studerats är industriellt byggande i anläggningsbranschen. Resultaten visar på att samhällsförändringar såsom globalisering, urbanisering och teknologiska framsteg i många avseenden har ändrat förutsättningarna för stora byggprojekt, till exempel att fler intressenter måste hanteras, att tempot ökat samt att kraven på öppenhet och flexibilitet har ökat. Dessa nya förutsättningar har ibland skapat spänningar och konflikter mellan olika aspekter av att organisera och leda projekt. Ett exempel på konflikt är att rätt människor i organisationen är mer avgörande än någonsin samtidigt som LoU försvårar tillsättandet av en bra organisation samt att förekomsten av Megaprojekt leder till lokal resursbrist.Studien visar också på vikten men också utmaningarna med att skapa en organisatorisk förmåga att hantera både utnyttjandet av befintliga resurser för kortsiktig effektivitet och utforskande av långsiktiga innovationsmöjligheter. Befintliga kunskaper och metoder används ofta precis som de är utan finjusteringar, medan både ständiga förbättringar och mer radikala utvecklingsinsatser är mer ovanliga. Större utvecklingsfokus och ökad förmåga att hantera både kortsiktigt resursutnyttjande och långsiktigt utforskande kan främjas genom till exempel mer innovationsfokuserade beställare som uppmuntrar och möjliggör utveckling, incitamentsbaserade ersättningsformer samt långa och tillräckligt stora kontrakt som möjliggör upprepning, lärande och innovationsspridning mellan projekt.

  • 28.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Szentes, Henrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Organizational ambidexterity in construction projects2014In: 2014 IEEE International Conference on Management of Innovation and Technology: ICMIT 2014, Singapore; 23 - 25 September 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, p. 81-86, article id 6942405Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most organizations need to be ambidextrous by exploiting current knowledge to make profits today as well as exploring new knowledge to prepare for tomorrow's demands. The capacity to achieve both exploration and exploitation is especially problematic in project based organizations due to projects' discontinuous nature. In this study we investigate how exploration and exploitation is managed in inter-organizational projects, through a multiple case study of seven construction projects. Tentative findings show that project actors focus more on exploitation than on exploration and that exploitation often involves adopting conventional methods and solutions without any development efforts. The findings also reveal that investment in explorative innovations must be possible to exploit in the current project, since exploitation in future projects is uncertain.

  • 29.
    Osipova, Ekaterina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Samarbete ger färre risker i byggande2014In: Samhällsbyggaren, ISSN 2000-2408, no 5, p. 38-40Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I ett byggprojekt finns många risker som kan innebära oväntade kostnader i slutskedet. Men om samtliga aktörer samarbetar på ett genomtänkt sätt så kan man undvika obehagliga överraskningar. Vår studie visar att samverkansinriktad upphandling, balans mellan kontroll och flexibilitet samt fokus på relationer främjar gemensam riskhantering.

  • 30.
    Szentes, Henrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Samhällsutveckling innebär nya förutsättningar för stora byggprojekt2014In: Samhällsbyggaren, ISSN 2000-2408, Vol. 2014, no 3, p. 38-40Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Inte sällan beskrivs byggbranschen som konservativ och motvillig till förändringar, både av folk i branschen, av forskare samt av folk i allmänhet. Likväl har byggbranschen under årens lopp genomgått ett antal förändringar, ofta som reaktioner på nya förutsättningar skapade av förändringar i det omgivande samhället. Den här artikeln redovisar hur ett antal projektledare i stora byggprojekt uppfattar att förutsättningarna för deras roll har förändrats de senaste åren, samt hur branschens självbild påverkar utvecklingen.

  • 31.
    Osipova, Ekaterina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Balancing control and flexibility in joint risk management: Lessons learned from two construction projects2013In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 391-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Joint risk management (JRM) is an approach that highlights the importance of collaboration between the project actors in managing risk that cannot be identified at the outset of the project. Despite the recognition of the concept in the literature, the use of JRM in practice seems to be rare. Based on contingency theory, we investigate how mechanistic (control-oriented) and organic (flexibility-oriented) management systems influence the implementation of JRM in two construction projects. In the first project, the actors managed to achieve a balance between control and flexibility, which paved the way for successful JRM. The extensive use of control in the second project hampered flexibility and constrained the use of JRM. We conclude that JRM requires both control for managing risk that has been identified and flexibility for dealing with unforeseen events. When a mechanistic approach is dominant, risk management remains a formal process carried out individually rather than collaboratively.

  • 32.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Department of Entrepreneurship, Management and Organization, Hanken School of Economics, Vasa.
    Buyer-supplier integration in project-based industries2013In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 29-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of the study is to propose and test a buyer-supplier integration model, based on clients’ collaborative purchasing practices, in a project-based industry.Design/methodology/approach - A two-stage survey study of client-contractor relationships in the Swedish construction industry was conducted. The survey rounds in 2006 and 2009 obtained 87 and 106 responses respectively. The proposed model was empirically tested using structural equation modeling techniques. Findings - The empirical results support our proposed model: incentive-based payment and partner selection based on multiple criteria enhance buyer-supplier integration, in terms of joint action. Furthermore, incentive-based payment increases the use of partner selection based on multiple criteria.Research limitations/implications - A useful theoretical contribution is that incentive-based payment is an important type of incentive structure that enhances buyer-supplier integration in project contexts.Practical implications - We also found that the occurrence of joint action has been increasing from 2006 to 2009. Especially, incentive-based payment plays a more important role for establishing joint action in 2009 than in 2006. The recent economic downturn and a recently completed training program targeting the survey population may explain some of the unexpected findings.Originality/value - The paper addresses an identified gap in the relationship marketing literature, that is, the lack of quantitative studies of relationship marketing aspects in project-based industries.

  • 33. Vennström, Anders
    et al.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Exploitation of exploratory knowledge: A multiple case study of knowledge diffusion from demonstration projects2013In: Proceedings for 7th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organisation / [ed] Ole Jonny Klakegg, Trondheim: Akademika forlag, 2013, p. 335-345Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research in various industrial contexts has shown that companies needs to achieve both exploitation of current knowledge, and exploration of new knowledge to be successful in changing conditions. In the construction sector exploration activities are sometimes conducted in demonstration projects. The project based nature of the sector is, however, argued to be one common obstacle to exploitation and diffusion of knowledge and innovation. In Sweden, the government has financed different demonstration projects, through The National Board of Housing, Building and Planning, in order to facilitate development and diffusion of new knowledge. This paper sets out to compile the results of a previous study of 11 conducted demonstration projects and establish a framework and research questions for a follow up study of the demonstration projects six years after their completion in order to assess the extent of knowledge diffusion. The previous study is based on interviews with the clients’ project managers and document studies of reports published from the demonstration projects. The tentative findings show that the projects involved product, process, organizational/contractual and financial/revenue innovations. The result also shows that the investigated projects were reported as successful and therefore could serve as base for diffusion of new knowledge. In the second step the study will investigate if and how knowledge was diffused from the demonstration projects among the involved actors.

  • 34.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Exploration and exploitation in project-based organizations: Development and diffusion of knowledge at different organizational levels in construction companies2013In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 333-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Management studies highlight the importance of an organization's capability to both exploit existing knowledge and technologies for short-term profits and also explore new knowledge and technologies to enhance long-term innovation. Although this paradox recently has received escalating interest in management research, studies dealing with project-levels and project-based organizations (PBOs) are scarce. This conceptual paper discusses how PBOs in the construction industry can manage the exploration/exploitation paradox at different organizational levels. Short-term project focus and decentralization inhibits learning from one point in time and space to another, making it easier to reap the benefits of exploitation than of exploration. Current structural and sequential separation of exploration and exploitation activities at business unit, project portfolio, and project levels do not solve the paradox, due to lack of integrating mechanisms. Hence, PBOs in the construction industry may suffer from inadequate extent of exploration, while the extent of exploitation is not reaching its potential. Cooperative procurement procedures can serve as a basis for facilitating both exploration and exploitation of knowledge and technologies in construction projects.

  • 35.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Szentes, Henrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Managing exploration and exploitation in construction projects2013In: Proceedings for 7th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organisation / [ed] Ole Jonny Klakegg, Trondheim: Akademika forlag, 2013, p. 451-460Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research has shown that companies in various industrial contexts need to achieve both exploitation of current knowledge and technologies to make profits today, and exploration of new knowledge and technologies to adapt to changing conditions and prepare for tomorrow’s demands. The capacity to achieve both exploration and exploitation is especially problematic in project based organizations due to projects’ discontinuous nature. In spite of its theoretical and practical importance, research on exploration and exploitation in projects and project-based organizations is scarce. The purpose of this study is to investigate how exploration and exploitation is managed in construction projects. Empirical data was collected through a multiple case study involving interviews with the client’s project manager, the contractor’s project manager, and the design manager in seven construction projects. Tentative findings show that the project actors often focus more on exploitation than on exploration although they acknowledge the importance of exploration too. However, exploitation often involves adopting conventional methods and solutions based on existing knowledge without any development efforts. Time constraints in tight schedules are hindering both radical innovations and continuous developments. The findings also reveal that explorative solutions must be possible to exploit in the same project. Sufficient project size and/or long-term contracts over a series of projects therefore enhance both investments in explorative activities and exploitation through continuous developments from project to project. Exploration activities are mostly performed in early stages while the focus on exploitation strengthens as the project proceeds. Exploration is often conducted by the contractor or by the client, consultant and contractor together. Hence, in design-bid-build contracts the client and consultant often miss opportunities to explore new technical solutions. Early contractor involvement, (e.g. in Design-build contracts) thereby enable the achievement of both exploration and exploitation

  • 36.
    Sjödin, David Rönnberg
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Managing Joint Process Development: study of buyer-supplier collaboration at the project level2013In: IAMOT 2013: conference proceedings, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Excessive project budget overruns is a serious problem that may endanger long-term competitive advantage and financial viability of firms engaged with process development together with equipment suppliers. Joint development of new process technology often span organizational boundaries and are frequently described as both uncertain and equivocal. With the aim to propose better management methods for such projects, we combine case study research with a multi-wave, multiple informant survey study of 52 collaborative process development projects. Our results show that joint problem solving is the key to reduce equivocality, whereas early end-user involvement allows project participants to reduce uncertainty. Uncertainty has a clear negative effect on budget performance, whereas mixed results were obtained for equivocality. These findings provide important implications for both theory development and operations management practice.

  • 37.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Leiringer, Roine
    Hong Kong University.
    Organizational learning in project-based organizations: Facilitating exploration and exploitation through project management offices?2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Sjödin, David Rönnberg
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Osäkerhet och tvetydighet: problem i investeringsprojekt2013In: Process Nordic, ISSN 1652-0114, p. 8-8Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 39.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Sjödin, David Rönnberg
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Processinnovation över företagsgränserna: Varför tidig brukarinvolvering och gemensam problemlösning skapar framgångsrika projekt2013In: Management of Innovation and Technology, ISSN 2001-208X, no 2, p. 4-5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Processutvecklingsprojekt mellan företag är ofta komplexa och riskfyllda, och resulterar inte sällan i oönskade projektavvikelser i tid, kostnad och kvalitet. Vår studie av 52 sådana projekt visar att tidig brukarinvolvering och gemensam problemlösning är nyckelaktiviteterna som möjliggör för medverkande parter att reducera osäkerhet och tvetydighet, och därmed skapar bättre förutsättningar för framgångsrika projekt.

  • 40.
    Szentes, Henrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Societal changes and new conditions for the management of large construction projects2013In: Open Construction & Building Technology Journal, ISSN 1874-8368, Vol. 7, p. 182-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is often described as mature, conservative and resistant to change in research studies, governmental reports as well as in media. Both scholars and policy makers thereby find it critical to encourage innovation, development, and change within the construction industry. This study takes on a different perspective by investigating changes that have actually taken place. The aim is to increase the understanding of both backgrounds of changes which occurred, as well as how the changes have entailed new conditions for the management of large construction projects in Sweden. People working as clients' project manager, contractors' project manager or design manager were interviewed to obtain their perceived views on changes influencing the execution of large construction projects. Substantial changes have taken place creating new conditions for the management of large construction projects and a better understanding of these new conditions is important when planning for new projects. Changes within the field are often reactions to societal changes, and thus often implemented in an uncoordinated way creating sub-optimization and problems for the personnel. It seems as if the reputation of the construction industry being conservative has become an institution it-self amongst many professionals within the industry, potentially creating a self-fulfilling prophecy

  • 41.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Szentes, Henrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Lagerqvist, Ove
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Hinder och drivkrafter för industriellt anläggningsbyggande: Underlagsrapport till Produktivitetskommittén, Näringsdepartementet2012Report (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Långsiktig utveckling och kortsiktig effektivitet: organisatorisk tvåhänthet genom att utforska och utnyttja2012In: Bygginnovationers förutsättningar och effekter, Vinnova , 2012, p. 45-50Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Sjödin, David Rönnberg
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Procurement procedures for supplier integration and open innovation in process development projects2012In: Perspectives on Supplier Innovation: Theories, Concepts and Empirical Insights on Open Innovation and the Integration of Suppliers, Imperial College Press, 2012, p. 405-442Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Effects of cooperative procurement procedures on construction project performance: a conceptual framework2011In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 197-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we develop a testable holistic procurement framework that examines how a broad range of procurement related factors affects project performance criteria. Based on a comprehensive literature review, we put forward propositions suggesting that cooperative procurement procedures (joint specification, selected tendering, soft parameters in bid evaluation, joint subcontractor selection, incentive-based payment, collaborative tools, and contractor self-control) generally have a positive influence on project performance (cost, time, quality, environmental impact, work environment, and innovation). We additionally propose that these relationships are moderated or mediated by the collaborative climate (i.e. the trust and commitment among partners) in the project and moderated by the overall project characteristics (i.e. how challenging the project is in terms of complexity, customization, uncertainty, value/size, and time pressure). Based on our contribution, future research can test the framework empirically to further increase the knowledge about how procurement factors may influence project performance.

  • 45.
    Dehlin, Stefan
    et al.
    NCC.
    Heikkilä, Katarina
    NCC.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Schade, Jutta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Racz, Tamas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Effektive projektering av lågenergihus2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggbranschen står inför stora miljö- som affärsmässiga utmaningar med krav på att reducera energiförbrukning och miljöpåverkan. Detta projekt syftar till att bidra medkunskap hur energiprojektering kan effektiviseras vid nyproduktion avlågenergibyggnader där det övergripande målet är att stödja ett långsiktigt hållbart och lönsamt byggande. Studien har genomförts i samverkan mellan byggbransch och akademi genom fallstudier och enkätundersökningen.Resultatet visar på behovet och nyttan av att redan i tidigt planeringsskede utreda konsekvensen av olika alternativ av exempelvis byggnadsutformning ochklimatskärmens tekniska prestanda. Det spelar mindre roll vilket energiberäkningsverktyg man använder om resultatet används för att jämföra olika alternativ med varandra.Skillnaderna i krav och institutionella ramverk vad gäller energiprestanda påverkar också projektering av energieffektiva byggnader. En jämförande studie av hur man hanterar energifrågor från krav till färdig lösning mellan Tyskland och Sverige visar på ett behov av vidareutbildning i energifrågor för arkitekter och ingenjörer i Sverige som kommer in tidigt i byggprocessen. Undersökningen och jämförelsen pekar också mot ett behov av en sammanlänkande funktion, här kallad energisamordnare.Energisamordnarens roll är att föra in energikompetens in i projektet, säkerställa att krav och mål formuleras och hanteras samt aktivt delta i projekteringen för att guida utformningen av byggnaden mot en effektiv och låg energiförbrukning.Vi kan konstatera att det är marknadskrafter och engagemang från byggare, beställare och lokala myndigheter snarare än nationella krav som driverenergieffektivisering framåt i Sverige idag. Det kan emellertid leda till en situation där krav på energieffektivitet blir lokalt satta vilket kan leda till svårigheter för utvecklare av olika typer av byggnadssystem för bostäder och lokaler. Därför är det önskvärt att utvecklingen av byggnadstekniken som skett de senaste åren också följs upp av Boverket i form av krav som ligger i framkant snarare än minimikrav för att förhindra att en flora av lokala krav uppstår som kan verka som "handelshinder" för den fortsatta utvecklingen av det industriella byggandet i Sverige.Vi ser också ett tydligt behov för ökad samverkan och integration för att kunna driva energieffektiviseringen framåt men samtidigt också ett tydligt behov av att utveckla upphandlings- och samverkansformer för att möjliggöra detta. Upphandlingen, till exempel, bör utformas så att lämpliga aktörer väljs utifrån mjuka parametrar och involveras tidigt under projekteringsskedet samt ges ekonomiska incitamentkopplade till projektets mål, ekonomi och tidplan.Projektet har också undersökt hur man skall åstadkomma en mer integreradprojekteringsprocess genom att: Skapa en struktur för att samla, uttrycka och klargöra mål och krav ochutveckla dessa mot funktionskrav och tekniska lösningar. Genomföra en modellbaserad projektering som detaljerar tekniska lösningarallteftersom de utvecklas.Införa beslutsstöd för energifrågor i projektutveckling där produktensprestanda successivt jämförs mot funktionskrav med hjälp av alltmerdetaljerade prestandaanalyser.I projektet har också ett nyutvecklat formellt beslutsstöd exemplifierats där fleraalternativa lösningar kan utvärderas mot olika kriterier (MADM) vilka kanorganiseras och viktas hierarkiskt utifrån projektets mål och krav.I projektets har en prototyp, en så kallad energikonfigurator, utvecklats för atteffektivisera produkt och projektutveckling av s.k. konceptbyggande. Användandet har demonstrerats på NCC:s koncept P303 där man optimerat konfigureringen i produkt och projektutveckling efter både subjektiva och objektiva kriterier som tänkas efterlikna ett visst kundsegment. Hundratals alternativa utformningar kan utvärderas på några minuter i jämförelse med dagar och veckor om samma analyser skulle göras för hand med hjälp av energiberäkningsprogram med manuell inmatning av indata.För att effektivisera projekteringen mot ett energieffektivt byggande rekommenderar projektet att:Man tidigt upphandlar och involverar de viktigaste aktörerna så att man tidigtkan inkludera energiaspekter i utformning av koncept. Beställaren aktivt deltar i kravformuleringen och i analys- ochbeslutsprocessen. Dels för att säkerställa val mot uppställda krav och behovoch dels för att tillgodose de praktiska behov som uppstår i och med enintegrerad och modellbaserad projekteringsprocess. Utse en energisamordnare som skall säkerställa att formulerade energikravoch mål hanteras optimalt för att guida utformningen av byggnaden mot eneffektiv och låg energiförbrukning. Använda en modellbaserad projekteringsprocess för utformning, simuleringoch analys av konceptlösningar gentemot energirelaterade aspekter. Energianalyser som görs i tidigt skede används för att jämföra olikaalternativa utformningar. När detaljeringsnivån ökar bör man användadynamiska verktyg och för att beräkna energiförbrukning och inneklimat pårumsnivå. Man bör tidigt inkludera utformning av t ex ventilation ocheventuella maskinrum då de kan ha stor inverkan på energiförbrukningen. Man utför prestandaanalyser av energi och inneklimat innan man fryserdesign av klimatskärm och VVS så att resultatet kan guida konstruktörer ochinstallatörer i den slutliga utformningen av systemhandlingarna. Man i driftfasen utför en mer automatisk och kontinuerlig jämförelse mellansimulerad och verklig energiförbrukning för att bekräfta att byggnadenuppfyller initiala krav samt för att inhämta data och erfarenheter för vidareoptimering eller andra framtida projektFörändring sker i och med att beställaren möjliggör en miljö som initierar ochstödjer en hög grad av samverkan och integration mellan inblandade aktörer, därtyngden på beslutsfattandet flyttas till ett tidigare skede, där rätt kompetenserkan komma in vid rätt tillfälle och där fokus är på slutprodukten och desslivscykel och inte på avskilda åtaganden

  • 46.
    Osipova, Ekaterina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    How procurement options influence risk management in construction projects2011In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 29, no 11, p. 1149-1158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Before proceeding with a project, a client has to choose an appropriate procurement option that facilitates an effective project organization in general and a thorough risk management process in particular. By identifying three procurement variables that have a major influence on risk management: project delivery method, form of payment, and use of collaboration or partnering arrangements, the effect of each variable is studied. An exploratory study and a series of interviews with clients, contractors and consultants involved in 11 Swedish construction projects, were performed in order to examine how risk management was carried out in each project. Irrespective of the procurement option, many projects suffered from variations in cost affecting one or more actors. Risk management was not carried out systematically throughout project phases. However, in the projects with early involvement of the actors, their participation throughout the project, and opportunities for open dialogue and collaboration, a more thorough risk management process was found. While project delivery methods define formal risk allocation, the use of incentives and collaboration or partnering arrangements help to establish a collaborative approach to risk management.

  • 47.
    Sjödin, David Rönnberg
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Leverantörssamverkan för innovation i processindustrin: Problem, möjligheter och rekommendationer2011In: Management of Innovation and Technology, ISSN 1102-5581, Vol. 2011, no 3, p. 7-9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Processutveckling genom samverkan med utrustningsleverantörer är ett viktigt sätt att uppnå konkurrensfördelar för processföretag. Men hur ska samverkan bedrivas för att gagna båda parter? Ett livscykelperspektiv för nya investeringsprojekt i processindustri ger ökad insikt om hur problem och möjligheter i olika faser hänger ihop, och effektiv ledning av samverkan främjas genom beaktande av kritiska aktiviteter under livscykelns olika faser.

  • 48.
    Osipova, Ekaterina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Managing risk together2011In: International Innovation, ISSN 2041-4552, Vol. 2, p. 62-64Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 49.
    Sjödin, David Rönnberg
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Open innovation in process industries: a lifecycle perspective on development of process equipment2011In: International Journal of Technology Management, ISSN 0267-5730, E-ISSN 1741-5276, Vol. 56, no 2-4, p. 225-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development and installation of new process equipment in production plants typically requires strong collaboration among a process firm and various equipment suppliers. While incentives to collaborate often are strong, close collaboration also poses significant problems, throughout the lifecycle of process equipment. The purpose of this article is to explore the problems and opportunities faced by process firms and their equipment suppliers throughout the lifecycle stages of collaborative development projects. This paper combines literature on open innovation, collaborative development and buyer-supplier relationships. Empirically, we draw on a large number of interviews in a dual case study of two process firms. Our results show that strong collaboration is neither positive nor negative in general. Rather, opportunities, problems, and collaboration intensity are strongly contingent on the specific stage in the lifecycle of process equipment. Our findings underscore the managerial and theoretical importance of a lifecycle perspective on the development of process equipment, since significant overlaps and interconnections exist across different stages.

  • 50.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Organizational ambidexterity for sustainable construction project performance2011In: Management and Innovation for a Sustainable Built Environment: CIB International Conference of WO55, WO65, WO89, W112, TG76, TG78, TG81, Delft: Delft university of technology , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
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