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  • 1.
    Ouraich, Ismael
    et al.
    Internationalization and Structural Transformation, Tillvaxtanalys, SE-831 40 € Ostersund, Sweden.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    A Spatial Price Determination Model for Multi-Market Heterogeneously Distributed Resources: An Application to Forestry Markets in Sweden2019In: Geographical Analysis, ISSN 0016-7363, E-ISSN 1538-4632, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 182-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spatial dimension is a key paradigm in price determination, as attested by recentstudies in the literature that highlighted the differential in market behavior between spa-tial and non-spatial pricing settings. In this paper, we develop a model of spatial pricingfor multi-market heterogeneously distributed resources, with an application to the Swed-ish forestry sector. The focus of the model is to estimate the impact of spatial interactionon the demand for resources in terms of resource allocation, competition, and pricing. Inits core, the pricing mechanism relies on a supply–demand framework. Using disaggre-gated data at the gridcell level for forest feedstock supply and harvesting costs in Sweden,we construct regional supply curves for each gridcell assuming a maximum transporta-tion distance to delimit the potential market. Demand nodes are exogenously determinedand are adjusted using a distance-decay model to assess demand pressure across loca-tions. We apply the model empirically to assess the impact on forest feedstock prices of a20 TWh increase in biofuel production.

  • 2.
    Palage, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The impact of pilot and demonstration plants on innovation: The case of advanced biofuel patenting in the European Union2019In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 210, p. 42-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to investigate how pilot and demonstration plants affect innovation in the empirical context of advanced biofuel technology. Patent counts are used as a proxy for innovation; we employ data for eight EU Member States over the time-period 1980–2011, and negative binomial regression techniques. The focus is on plant investments that have received public co-funding. The results are overall robust to alternative model specifications, and show that the knowledge generated through past investments in pilot and demonstration plants has had positive effects on advanced biofuel patenting activities. This result is particularly valid for so-called experimental plants, i.e., aiming at testing the technical viability of new technology. The empirical analysis does not indicate the presence of any positive interaction between investments in experimental plants and biofuel blending policies, i.e., in the sense that more stringent blending requirements can raise the rate-of-return on additional pilot tests. Moreover, advanced biofuel innovation is also affected through knowledge spillovers across the selected EU Member States. The paper ends by outlining avenues for future research on the role of pilot and demonstration plants in technology development.

  • 3.
    Palage, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The innovation effects of renewable energy policies and their interaction: the case of solar photovoltaics2019In: Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, ISSN 1432-847X, E-ISSN 1867-383X, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 217-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to examine the innovation impacts of renewable energy support policies, and their interaction in the empirical context of solar photovoltaics (PV) technology. This is achieved using data on patent applications for 13 countries over the period 1978–2008, and unconditional negative binomial estimators. The analysis addresses one technology-push instrument, public R&D support, and two demand-pull instruments, feed-in tariffs (FIT), and renewable energy certificate (REC) schemes. The results indicate that: (a) both FIT and REC schemes induce solar PV patenting activity, but the impact of the former policy appears to be more profound; (b) public R&D support has overall been more influential than FIT and REC schemes in encouraging solar PV innovation; (c) policy interaction exists in that the impact of public R&D support on innovation is greater at the margin if it is accompanied by the use of FIT schemes for solar PV. A corresponding interaction effect is harder to detect for public R&D support and REC schemes, possibly due to the stronger technology selection pressure under the latter policy. The results following several robustness tests support the existence of a positive interaction effect between public R&D and FIT schemes.

  • 4.
    Ouraich, Ismail
    et al.
    Tillväxtanalys, Internationalisation and Structural Change, Östersund.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. Ecosystems Services and Management, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Forsell, Nicklas
    Ecosystems Services and Management, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    A spatial-explicit price impact analysis of increased biofuel production on forest feedstock markets: a scenario analysis for Sweden2018In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 119, p. 364-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper introduces an integrated spatially explicit framework for assessing price impact on forestry markets in Sweden. The framework is based on the “soft-link” of a price determination model, the SpPDM model with the BeWhere Sweden model. The aim is to analyse the impacts of increased forest-based biofuel production for transportation within the Swedish context by 2030. To that effect, we develop scenarios analyses based on the simulations of successive biofuel production targets, under different assumptions concerning the competition intensity for forest biomass and the use of industrial by-products. The results suggest marginal impacts on the prices of forest biomass. The average across spatial-explicit prices varies from 0% to 2.8% across feedstocks and scenario types. However, the distribution of the spatial-explicit price impacts displays large variation, with price impacts reaching as high as 8.5%. We find that the pattern of spatial distribution of price impacts follows relatively well the spatial distribution of demand pressure. However, locations with the highest price impacts show a tendency of mismatch with the locations of the highest demand pressure (e.g. sawlogs). This is a counterintuitive conclusion compared to results from non-spatial economic models. The spatial-explicit structure of the framework developed, and its refined scale allows such results to be reported. Hence, from a policy-making perspective, careful analysis should be devoted to the locational linkages for forestry markets of increased biofuel production in Sweden.

  • 5.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Analysis and projection of global iron ore trade: a panel data gravity model approach2018In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 31, no 1-2, p. 191-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, an empirical model of global trade in iron ore is developed and applied. The empirical specification is based on the trade gravity theory in which the trade is determined by the income of the trading countries, the distance between the countries, and other characteristics of the countries. The model is specified allowing for country-specific effects. The estimation is performed with panel data for global bilateral iron ore trade flows from 1980 to 2016 including 121 countries and almost 14,000 observations. The results indicate a strong support of the gravity model hypotheses. On average, the trade value is projected to increase by approximately 5% per year up until 2035. The trade potential of iron ore is estimated to 410 million USD per year. Applied to forecasting and policy analysis, the results represent another worthwhile source of information providing an alternative view of the global trade in iron ore that can be helpful for decision-makers.

  • 6.
    Olofsson, Casper
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wadsten, Joel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    European trade and projections in forest-based feed-stocks2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 33, no 8, p. 809-814Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the intra EU trade value of wood products and examine the factors affecting the trade flow. A gravity model is used to estimate the factors affecting the trade flow. The study uses a panel data set, with fixed effects, on trade in two forest products between 28 EU member countries over the period 2005–2014. The forest products are woodchips and particles (HS4401) and industrial roundwood (HS4403). For HS4401, the result suggests that the GDP of both the exporting and importing countries affect the trade flow positively (0.64 and 0.36, respectively). For HS4403, the GDP of the exporting countries affect have a negative effect (−0.69), while the GDP of the importing countries have a positive effect (0.80). In a second step, the estimated parameters are used to forecast the trade up until year 2030. The forecast suggests an increase in the trade by 47 per cent. This suggests an improved efficiency in reaching the EU climate and energy targets. That is, the trade in biofuels is expected to increase due to economic growth, which in turn works towards achieving the renewable and CO2 emission targets in Europe.

  • 7.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Forsell, Nicklas
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Ouraich, Ismail
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Rise.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Large-scale implementation of biorefineries: New value chains, products and efficient biomass feedstock utilisation2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Produktion och marknad: utdrag ur Mikroekonomi2018 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Jaunky, Vishal Chandr
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Dynamics of Wood Pulp Production: Evidence from OECD Countries2017In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 170-180, article id 107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates whether shocks to pulp for paper production for 17 Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) members over the period 1980–2012 are transitory or permanent. A variety of univariate and panel data unit root tests are employed. The presence of structural breaks is taken into account when performing those tests. Based on the Narayan-Popp univariate unit root test, wood production series for approximately 64.71% of countries is found to follow a non-stationary process. However, univariate unit root tests tend to have low power when the time span is relatively short. Consequently, three generations of panel unit root tests are considered. Cross-sectional dependence is detected. The first generation of unit roots do not effectively control for cross-sectional dependence, while the second and third generations do. The third generation accounts mainly for cross-sectional co-integration. As a confirmatory analysis, both unit root tests that tests for the null of non-stationarity and stationarity are considered. Most of the panel unit root tests point towards a non-stationary process. Hence, while these shocks can be transmitted to other economic sectors, past behaviours of wood production cannot be used for forecasting purposes. Forest conservation policies can have a permanent impact on pulp for paper production.

  • 10.
    Brolund, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Effect of Environmental Regulation Stringency on the Pulp and Paper Industry2017In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 12, article id 2323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    he article investigates whether environmental regulations have affected productivity development and technological change in the European pulp and paper industry. A dynamic panel data approach is selected for analyzing a sample consisting of the pulp and paper industries in eight European countries. Industry total factor productivity for the period 1993–2009 is used as the dependent variable; it is explained by the intensities of environmental regulations for various types of pollutants, as well as by a number of other independent variables. The econometric results indicate that the regulation of nitrogen oxides is associated with productivity improvements with a one-year lag, whereas regulations regarding sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide have not had any statistically significant impact. In line with the a priori expectations, the price of pulp is connected to a negative effect, while lagged R&D expenditures have had corresponding positive impacts. However, since stationary tests are asymptotic and the data series are quite short, strong conclusions regarding the actual causal effect of environmental policy could not be drawn. The results could therefore not be viewed as a proof of the so-called strong Porter hypothesis postulating that stringent well-designed environmental regulations increase productivity growth compared to a no-policy scenario.

  • 11.
    Ouraich, Ismail
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Nicklas, Forsell
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Price Impact Analysis of Increased Biofuel Production on Forest Feedstock Markets : A Spatial Explicit Approach for Sweden2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a model of price determination to analyze the impacts of increased biofuel production on forest feedstocks markets in Sweden. The model is based on a spatially-explicit, demand-supply framework. Data on forest biomass supply and harvest cost at the gridcell level is available for Sweden for 334 0.5x0.5 degree gridcells. We use the data to construct supply curves, both at the national level and sub-national level. The supply and harvest cost data is available for four forest commodities: branch & tops, pulpwood, sawlogs and stumps. The latter are further distinguished depending on the type of harvest operation: thinning or final felling. On the demand side, the model is calibrated using data on current demand for each feedstock at gridcell level. Demand scenarios for different biofuel targets are generated from the BeWhere-Sweden model at the gridcell level, which allow us to investigate the potential impacts on market price as approximated by the harvest cost data. We run simulation scenarios for increased biofuel production from forest biomass for Sweden: a 10 and 20 terawatt hour (TWh) of biofuel by 2030. As expected, the results show that increased demand pressure on the forest biomass will tend to push prices up. The magnitudes of change are highest for pulpwood and branches & tops from final felling, where they reach 0.004% to 18.95% and 0.001% to 7.2% respectively. With respect to the spatial distribution of price change, we notice that it matches expectations as they map out with the spatial distribution of supply and demand.

  • 12.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Olofsson, Casper
    Luleå tekniska universiet.
    Joel, Wadsten
    Luleå tekniska universiet.
    Renewable energy trade in Europe: Efficient use of biofuels2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Ouraich, Ismail
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    A Geographically Explicit Approach for Price Determination of Forest Feedstock under Different Next-Generation Biofuel Production Scenarios: The Case of Sweden2016In: Meeting Sweden's current and future energy challenges, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Ouraich, Ismail
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    A Geographically Explicit Approach for Price Determination of Forest Feedstock under Different Next-Generation Biofuel Production Scenarios: The Case of Sweden2016Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    OverviewIn recent decades, the paradigm of transitioning from a fossil fuel-based economic system to a sustainable bio-based one has gained much traction in policy circles, which was motivated by a number of interlinked issues such as reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, energy security and independence, climate change, etc. A number of countries have devoted substantial resources for developing alternative biofuels, based on biomass feedstocks from a number of sources which are broadly categorized as first generation biofuels or second generation biofuels. First generation biofuels were based on agricultural crop biomass (e.g. sugar cane- and cornbased ethanol, vegetable oil-based biodiesel). However, owing to growing concerns over negative spillover effects on e.g., food security, sustainability and environmental degradation, development of second generation biofuels became a necessity, especially with new conversion technologies development. As such, forest-based biomass represents one of the major sources of feedstock for the production of second generation biofuels, which has garnered increased attention in countries with significant forest endowment.Forest-based biomass will play an important role in reaching the EU energy targets, be it at the continental scale and/or at the country level. The EU forestry sector and related industries will be directly impacted through the expected increase in demand for forest-biomass for bioenergy production, which will affect market prices, profitability, rural employment, recreation and forest ecology. Demand pressure presents also opportunities for the existing forestry sector for new investments, production and employment, such as in forest biorefineries and energy companies producing heat and power (Solberg, Hetemäki, Kallio, Moiseyev, & Sjølie, 2014). The Nordic European countries have been historically among the pioneers in terms of early adoption of renewable energy, especially from biomass and renewable waste. For example, Sweden and Finland exhibit the highest shares of renewable energy consumption in gross inland energy consumption within the EU-28 at 55.1% and 30% respectively in 2013 (Routa, Asikainen, Björheden, Laitila, & Röser, 2013).The mainstreaming of forest biomass into the energy mix of Sweden took shape around the concept of forest energy supply chains, in which integrated biorefineries into existing industries plays a major role. A number of studies have investigated the problem of forest energy supply chain optimization (Leduc et al., 2010; Leduc, 2009; Pettersson et al., 2015; Wetterlund, 2013). Models have been developed out of these efforts. One such model is BeWhere-Sweden, which is a techno-economic, geographically explicit optimization model to determine optimal localization of integrated biorefineries. The strength of the model consists in its explicit treatment of spatial aspects of supply and demand of forest biomass from different sectors. MethodsOne of the main limitations of models like BeWhere-Sweden is their lack of feedback loop or integration with models of market simulation. For example, BeWhere-Sweden takes as a starting point estimated harvesting costs at gridcell level in Sweden for different forest biomass feedstocks. However, it ignores the potential impact of demand pressure from increased biofuel production on the market conditions for forest biomass. In other words, it assumes that the cost of procurement of forest biomass will not change as a result. Hence, it does not take into consideration the potential impact of the price mechanism on the optimal localization of potential biorefineries.Therefore, the objective of this paper is to develop a model of price determination of forest biomass that accounts for the potential impacts of increased demand pressure on the procurement costs and soft-link it to BeWhere-Sweden. The model is based on a demand-supply framework. Data on forest biomass supply and harvest cost at the gridcell level is available for Sweden for 334 0.5x0.5 degree gridcells (Lundmark et al., 2015). We use the data to construct supply curves, both at the national level and sub-national level. The supply and harvest cost data is available for four forest commodities: branch & tops, pulpwood, sawlogs and stumps. The latter are further distinguished depending on the type of harvest operation: thinning or final felling.On the demand side, the model is calibrated using data on current demand at gridcell level. By taking data from BeWhere-Sweden simulation runs under different biofuel production targets, we generate adjusted demand scenarios at the gridcell level, which allow us to investigate the potential impacts on market price as approximated by the harvest cost data (under the assumption that market price equals the estimated harvest cost). Hence, we are able to generate a updated matrix for harvest cost that can be fed back into BeWhere-Sweden to investigate how robust model simulations are in terms of optimal localization of biorefineries. Also, our model will help shed light on the spatial pattern of demand pressures on forest biomass resources and its impact on the spatial distribution of impacts on market conditions for the forest markets. ResultsWe run simulation scenarios for increased biofuel production from forest biomass for Sweden: 10 TWh and 20 TWh by 2030. The Table presents summary results for the scenarios. The percent change figures represent changes with respect to a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario that characterizes current production conditions. First, and as expected, increased demand pressure on the forest biomass will tend to push prices up. This is so given that biofuel production from forest biomass represents a direct competition for the traditional forest industries of Sweden. The magnitudes of change are highest for pulpwood and branches & tops from final felling, where they reach 0.93% on average (0.004% - 18.95%) and 0.45% on average (0.001% - 7.2%) respectively. Second, the spatial distribution of price change matches expectations as they map out with the spatial distribution of supply and demand. Most of the change occurs in the middle and northern parts of Sweden. Third, the results do not exhibit significant change across biofuel scenarios.ConclusionsThe simulation results are summarized as follows: Spatial distribution of price changes does not track spatial distribution of demand pressure, which holds for the 10 TWh and 20 TWh scenarios. The largest impacts are observed in the southern and middle parts of Sweden, despite large endowments of forest, and this is due to high demand clustering owing to population density, industrial cluster, etc. However, relatively large impacts can be observed in the northern regions as well, especially for biomass obtained via the thinning operation. Spatial distribution of price changes differ based on the type of harvest operation, final felling vs. thinning. Biofuel production targets (or scenarios) might affect the spatial distribution, but relatively minor.ReferencesLeduc, S. (2009). Development of an optimization model for the location of biofuel production plants, PhD Thesis. Technology. http://doi.org/ISBN 978-91-86233-48-8, ISSN 1402-1544Leduc, S., Starfelt, F., Dotzauer, E., Kindermann, G., McCallum, I., Obersteiner, M., & Lundgren, J. (2010). Optimal location of lignocellulosic ethanol refineries with polygeneration in Sweden. Energy, 35(6), 2709–2716. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2009.07.018Lundmark, R., Athanassiadis, D., & Wetterlund, E. (2015). Supply assessment of forest biomass - A bottom-up approach for Sweden. Biomass and Bioenergy, 75, 213–226. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2015.02.022Pettersson, K., Wetterlund, E., Athanassiadis, D., Lundmark, R., Ehn, C., Lundgren, J., & Berglin, N. (2015). Integration of next-generation biofuel production in the Swedish forest industry – A geographically explicit approach. Applied Energy, 154, 317–332. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.04.041Routa, J., Asikainen, A., Björheden, R., Laitila, J., & Röser, D. (2013). Forest energy procurement: State of the art in Finland and Sweden. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment, 2(6), 602–613. http://doi.org/10.1002/wene.24Wetterlund, E. (2013). Optimal Localisation of Next Generation Biofuel Production in Sweden – Part II.

  • 15.
    Olofsson, Elias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Competition in the Forest Sector: An extensive review2016In: Meeting Sweden's current and future energy challenges, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, an extensive litrary review is conducted to examine the competitive state of the woody feedstock market. The aim is to review and assess the current state of knowledge relating to the competitive situation on feedstock markets, and how this knowledge has been implemented in forest sector models. The results suggests that woody markets may be too complex to be adequately described by economic theory. That is, even though the theoretical description of the feedstock market suggest that it may be at risk for noncompetitive behavior, the simultaneous and continuous decisions made by the market actors may reduce the probability of this outcome. However, studies that have found noncompetitive feedstock markets indicate that the degree of market power exerted will vary over time. This may signal unstable collusive carell or that forest industries are only able to exert market power over feedstock markets during economic recessions. The review also indicates that a majority of forest sector models examined do not reflect upon the competitive situation on feedstock markets. However, some exceptions are noted. Finally, an alternative description of how to view the competitive situation on forest markets is presented, together with some general findings and policies implications.

  • 16.
    Nolander, Carl
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ecosystem services in forest sector models: A review2016In: Meeting Sweden's current and future energy challenges, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Jaunky, Vishal
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Forest products exports and economic growth: Evidence from rich countries2016In: The Journal of developing areas, ISSN 0022-037X, E-ISSN 1548-2278, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 443-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The forest sector contributes a significant share to national income. The existence and magnitude of causal relationships between forest product exports and economic growth is thus important to understand not least for policy issues. It has vital implications for policy-makers enacting proper development strategies. This causality is usually analyzed using the export-led economic growth hypothesis. International trade is affecting economic growth through enhanced competition and specialization. Export, more specifically, foster economic growth via the accumulation of foreign exchange, by stimulating efficient investments in the right sectors and by allowing for improved economies of scale. Surprisingly, practically no studies have been done analyzing the forest products export-led economic growth hypothesis. Thus, the current study fills an important gap in the literature. The study attempts to test the forest product export-led growth hypothesis for 22 economies over the period 1970 to 2011. Various generations of panel unit root and cointegration tests are applied. The time frame and the selection of countries are purely dictated by the availability of data and the amount of existing productive forest area. The econometric tests are based on augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root and cointegration tests. These tests are necessary before assessing the impact of forest product exports on GDP. The connection between economic growth and forest products exportation is analyzed using an error correction model (ECM) based panel causality test structure. The ECM is subsequently used to estimate short- and long-run elasticities. The series are found to be integrated of order one and cointegrated, especially when applying the third-generation tests. Uni-directional causality running from forest product exports to economic growth is uncovered in the both the short-run and the long-run. Moreover, forest products exportation is found to positively affect economic growth. The short-run elasticity reveals positive and significant income elasticity. A 1% increase in forest product exports will lead to a 0.022% increase in economic growth in the short-run and 0.002% in the long-run. The regional dummy is also significant and positive, implying that countries with significant forest land coverage are bound to experience higher economic growth. The findings will help policymakers in their projections and implementing natural resource and forest policies. Unidirectional causality implies forest product exports can be used to predict economic growth in both short-run and long-run but not vice versa. In general, the results support the ELG hypothesis. Promotion of forest product exportations can lead to a multiplier effect.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Stefan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Integrating empirical evidence on forest landowner behavior in forest sector models: a literature review and synthesis2016In: Meeting Sweden's current and future energy challenges, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Ouraich, Ismail
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bryngemark, Elina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Zetterholm, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Olofsson, Elias
    Nolander, Carl
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Sverige.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Sverige.
    Ahlström, Johan
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Andersson, Stefan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Projekt: En hållbar omställning av energisystemet mot en ökad andel bioenergi2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    3 PhD projects: Markets and price formulation (LTU, economics); Technologies and value chains (Chalmers) and; Location and industrial change (LTU, energy engineering). The general system perspective has its starting point in the importance of biomass and bioenergy in the transition to a long-run sustainable energy system and to an efficient spatial resource utilization and production with increased value chains. Focus is on biorefineries. A spatial approach will be applied in combination with national energy system modelling in connection with technological development potentials and industrial applications is linked to the feed-stock supply as well as market and policy issues.

  • 20.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ouraich, Ismail
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Nolander, Carl
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Andersson, Stefan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Olofsson, Elias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bryngemark, Elina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Österrike.
    Forsell, Nicklas
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Österrike.
    Kindermann, Georg
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Österrike.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chamlers tekniska högskola.
    Projekt: Storskalig utbyggnad av bioraffinaderier: Nya värdekedjor, produkter och effektivt utnyttjande av skoglig biomassa2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Utvecklingen av kommersiella bioraffinaderikoncept är av strategisk betydelse för Sveriges utveckling till en biobaserad ekonomi. Bioraffinaderier bidrar till att ersätta fossila med biobaserade råvaror. Dessutom bidrar de till en smartare användning av biomassa, ökat förädlingsvärde samt utvecklingspotentialen av nya bioprodukter. Tekniska potentialer och industriella tillämpningar sammanlänkas med råvaruförsörjning samt marknads-, innovations- och policyaspekter. Projektet är tvärvetenskapligt och omfattar integration av modeller som kan redogöra för samspelet mellan olika sektorer, som inkluderar geografiska variationer av utbud och efterfrågan av skoglig biomassa, och som kan fånga effekterna av förändrade marknadsvillkor och styrmedel. För modellintegrationen kommer verktyg tas fram för att underlätta kommunikation och återkoppling mellan de ingående modellerna. Projektet syftar till att generera ny kunskap och ett modellramverk för avancerade systemanalyser relaterade till (i) den svenska biomassa och dess roll i ett hållbart energisystem och (ii) industriell omvandling av processindustrin i riktning mot ett framtida bioraffinaderi branschen. Genomförandefasen bygger på tre uppgiftsområden.

  • 21.
    Jaunky, Vishal Chandr
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Are Shocks to Wood Fuel Production Permanent? Evidence from the EU2015In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 8, no 11, p. 12718-12728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates whether shocks (economic effects) to wood fuel production for 18 countries of the European Union (EU) over the period 1961–2012 are temporary or persistent. A variety of time-series and panel data unit root tests are employed. The presence of structural breaks is taken into account when performing those tests. Wood production in approximately 78% of the countries is found to follow a non-stationary process supported by the result that most of the panel unit root tests also point towards a non-stationary process. This indicates that the economic effect will tend to be persistent and suggests that policies affecting wood fuel production, implicitly or explicitly, will have enduring effects. For instance, forest conservation policies will persistently reduce the wood fuel production level.

  • 22.
    Börjesson, Martin
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Athanassiadis, Dimitris
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ahlgren, Erik O.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Bioenergy futures in Sweden: system effects of CO2 reduction and fossil fuel phase-out policies2015In: Global Change Biology Bioenergy, ISSN 1757-1693, E-ISSN 1757-1707, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 1118-1135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioenergy could contribute both to the reduction of greenhouse gases and to increased energy security, but the extent of this contribution strongly depends on the cost and potential of biomass resources. For Sweden, this study investigates how the implementation of policies for CO2 reduction and for phase out of fossil fuels in road transport affect the future utilization of biomass, in the stationary energy system and in the transport sector, and its price. The analysis is based on the bottom-up, optimization MARKAL_Sweden model, which includes a comprehensive representation of the national energy system. For the analysis, the biomass supply representation of MARKAL_Sweden is updated and improved by the use of, e.g., forestry forecasting modeling and through construction of detailed biomass supply curves. A time horizon up to 2050 is applied. The results indicate a potential for significantly higher use of bioenergy. In the main analysis scenario, in which CO2 reduction of 80% by 2050 is imposed on the Swedish energy system, the total bioenergy utilization increases by 63% by 2050 compared to 2010. The largest increase occurs in the transport sector, which by 2050 accounts for 43% of the total primary bioenergy use. The high demand and strong competition significantly increase biomass prices and lead to the utilization of higher cost biomass sources such as stumps and cultivated energy forest, as well as use of pulpwood resources for energy purposes.

  • 23.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bäckström, Kristoffer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bioenergy innovation and energy policy2015In: Economics of Innovation and New Technology, ISSN 1043-8599, E-ISSN 1476-8364, Vol. 24, no 8, p. 755-775Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using panel data on 13 OECD countries between 1979 and 2008 this paper examines the affect climate and energy policies have had on the rate of biotechnology innovations. The explanatory variables include a vector of important determinants of patenting activity for biotechnologies (e.g. specific and general research and development expenditures, energy consumption, energy prices and total number of registered patents). Fixed effects are employed to capture unobservable country-specific heterogeneity using a negative binomial model. The empirical results indicate that policies are important for stimulating innovations in biotechnologies. The development of feed-in-tariffs (FITs) and the implementation of tradable green certificates have had a positive and statistically significant impact on patent activity. The economic impact of green certificates is found to be larger than that of FITs. In addition, R&D activities have also had a positive and statistically significant effect on innovation.

  • 24.
    Jaunky, Vishal Chandr
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Dynamics of Timber Market Integration in Sweden2015In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 6, no 12, p. 4617-4633, article id 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the performance of the timber markets (Scots pine, Pinus silvestris L. and Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karst.) by evaluating the order of market integration in three Swedish regions (Central, Northern, and Southern). Quarterly data of delivery prices are employed over the period 1999Q1–2012Q4. Various unit root and cointegration tests have been computed. The results indicate that the variables are integrated of first order and co-integrated, especially after controlling for structural breaks. This supports the law-of-one-price hypothesis (LOP). However, the effects of structural shocks on forestry are arguably significant and these are controlled for while performing a vector error-correction mechanism (VECM)-based Granger-causality test. Bi-directional causality between the Northern and central markets is uncovered in the short-run. In the long-run, a similar causal effect is detected between Northern and Southern markets while the central market emerges as the price leader. Further investigation is carried out using variance decompositions and impulse response functions and these approaches also tend to confirm the existence of a single market well, as price interdependence between markets.

  • 25.
    Bohlin, Rolf
    et al.
    Kammarrätten Stockholm.
    Buht, Karl-Henrik
    Finansdepartementet.
    Lundgren, Jens
    Energimarknadsinspektionen.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Energiskatt på el: En översyn av det nuvarande systemet : Betänkande från Utredningen om sektorsneutral och konkurrenskraftig energiskatt på el2015Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Olsson, Anna
    Factor substitution and procurement competition for forest resources in Sweden2015In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 169, p. 99-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The utilisation of forest resources in the energy sector has been increasing, partly caused by economic policies introduced to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. This in turn has led to an increase in the procurement competition between the forest industries and the energy sector. A translog cost function approach is used to analyse the factor substitution in the sawmill industry, the pulp and paper industry and the heating industry in Sweden over the period 1970–2008. The estimated parameters are used to calculate the Allen and Morishima elasticities of substitution as well as the price elasticities of input demand. The results indicate that it is easier for the heating industry to substitutes between by-products and logging residues than it is for the pulp and paper industry to substitute between by-products and roundwood. This suggests that the pulp and paper industry could suffer from an increase in the procurement competition. However, overall the substitutions elasticities estimated in our study are relatively low. This indicates that substitution possibilities could be rather limited due to rigidities in input prices. This result suggests that competition of forest resources also might be relatively limited.

  • 27.
    Pettersson, Karin
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Heat and Power Technology , Chalmers University of Technology.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Athanassiadis, Dimitris
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ehn, Christian
    Innventia AB, SE-114 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Berglin, Niklas
    Innventia AB, SE-114 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Integration of next-generation biofuel production in the Swedish forest industry – A geographically explicit approach2015In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 154, p. 317-332Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Heat and Power Technology , Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Optimal localisation of next-generation biofuel production integrated in Swedish forest industry2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Athanassiadis, Dimitris
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Supply assessment of forest biomass: A bottom-up approach for Sweden2015In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 75, p. 213-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As there is increasing interest in the use of biomass for energy in Sweden, the potential availability and harvesting costs of forest roundwood, harvesting residues and stumps were estimated up to the year 2069 in 10-year intervals, using a high spatial resolution GIS. In each individual forest area, an average harvesting cost per forest assortment was estimated, based on the geographic and other properties of the area. Using cost structure and resource availability, marginal cost curves were constructed to allow analyses of the effects of changing market conditions and different policy frameworks. Based on geographically explicit data, the results indicated that the average harvesting costs would be 21–24 € m−3 for roundwood, depending on the type of harvesting and extraction operation. The corresponding cost estimate for harvesting residues was 23–25 € m−3 and 35 € m−3 for stumps. The harvesting cost estimates lie on the steeper part of the marginal cost curve, suggesting that increases in the supply of woody biomass can only occur at significantly higher harvesting costs. From a policy perspective, this suggests that subsidies aimed at reducing the harvesting costs will only have limited success in increasing the harvested volumes, given current technology. Therefore, for future development in the supply of forest assortments for energy generation, it is important to consider not only the supply potential, but also the integration of improvements in harvesting and transportation systems.

  • 30.
    Jaunky, Vishal Chandr
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Are Shocks to Wood Fuel Production Permanent? Evidence from the EU2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Brolund, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bioenergy innovations and their determinants: A negative binominal count data analysis2014In: Drewno, ISSN 1644-3985, Vol. 57, no 192, p. 41-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research employed a negative binominal count data model approach to analyse the determinants of bioenergy innovations with a special focus on the effect of energy and climate policies. A panel of 14 OECD countries were analysed using patent counts for the period 1978-2009 as a proxy for innovations. The policies examined were feed-in tariffs, quota obligations and different types of investment support schemes. The study found that feed-in tariffs affected innovation positively but quota obligations did not. The results regarding investment support programs were ambiguous since the dummy variable representing strong investment policies was statistically significant whereas the continuous variable for investment support schemes was not. Another finding was that electricity prices seemed to be an important determinant of innovation and that the accumulated stock of knowledge in the bioenergy sector also had a positive impact on bioenergy innovation.

  • 32.
    Börjesson, Martin
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Ahlgren, Erik O.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Athanassiadis, Dimitris
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Biofuel futures in road transport: A modeling analysis for Sweden2014In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 32, p. 239-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    First and second generation biofuels are among few low-carbon alternatives for road transport that currently are commercially available or in an early commercialization phase. They are thus potential options for meeting climate targets in the medium term. For the case of Sweden, we investigate cost-efficient use of biofuels in road transport under system-wide CO2 reduction targets to 2050, and the effects of implementation of targets for an almost fossil-free road transport sector to 2030. We apply the bottom-up, optimization MARKAL_Sweden model, which covers the entire Swedish energy system including the transport sector. For CO2 reductions of 80% to 2050 in the Swedish energy system as a whole, the results of the main scenario show an annual growth rate for road transport biofuels of about 6% from 2010 to 2050, with biofuels accounting for 78% of road transport final energy use in 2050. The preferred biofuel choices are methanol and biomethane. When introducing additional fossil fuel phase-out policies in road transport (−80% to 2030), a doubling of the growth rate to 2030 is required and system CO2 abatement costs increases by 6% for the main scenario. Results imply that second generation biofuels, along with energy-efficient vehicle technologies such as plug-in hybrids, can be an important part of optimized system solutions meeting stringent medium-term climate targets.

  • 33.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Energy Price Volatility: The Link between Fossil Energy and Woody Bioenergy2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Börjesson, Martin
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Ahlgren, Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Athanassiadis, Dimitris
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Future bioenergy scenarios under carbon constraints: A model analysis for Sweden2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35. Mansikkasalo, Anna
    et al.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Market behavior and policy in the recycled paper industry: a critical survey of price elasticity research2014In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 38, p. 17-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this paper are to: (a) provide a critical survey of existing econometric analyses of supply and demand elasticities in recycled paper markets and (b) discuss a number of implications of the results from this work. Specifically, the survey adds to our understanding of the functioning of recycled paper markets, points towards some important policy lessons, and identifies gaps in the economic literature on recycled paper market behavior. The analysis builds on the scope, methodology and data used by 21 previous studies, which all estimate the own-price elasticities of recycled paper demand and/or supply. One key finding is that the own-price elasticity of recycled paper supply is positive but low (around 0.20–0.30). This helps explain the often high price volatility in recycled paper markets, and carries important implications for the impacts of, and the choice between, price- and quantity-based waste management policies. Finally, the analysis also suggests that future research should devote increased attention to different non-environmental market imperfections (e.g., market power, information asymmetries) that could discourage the uptake of recycled materials in the market place. A stronger research focus on recycled paper use in developing countries, not the least China, is also needed.

  • 36. Olsson, Anna
    et al.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Modelling the Competition for Forest Resources: The Case of Sweden2014In: Journal of energy and natural resources, ISSN 2330-7366, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 11-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Past decades increasing shares of forest resources have been diverted from the forest sector to the energy sector. The increasing utilization of forest fuel is, to a large extent, caused by economic policies introduced to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. Since the energy sector is believed to continue to increase its use of forest fuel in the energy production in Sweden, it is of interest to investigate the effects of this. The purpose of this study is to analyses the extent and degree of forest resources competition in the presence of climate policy by accounting for the inter-linkages of forest resources utilization between the energy sector and the forest industries. A partial equilibrium model was thus constructed and applied to the Swedish forest sector and energy sector. A baseline scenario is calibrated using the GAMS software. Four scenarios with alternative development paths are then simulated and compared to the baseline scenario. The results indicate that the impacts on the procurement competition between the forest sector and the energy sector are relatively moderate also in situations of expanding production in the forest industries. An increase in the competition between industries in the energy sector can however be observed

  • 37.
    Börjesson, Martin
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Ahlgren, Erik O.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Athanassiadis, Dimitris
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Oil Phase Out in the Transportation Sector of Sweden: Costs and Consequences2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Bäckström, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Public Policies and Solar PV Innovation: An Empirical Study Based on Patent Data2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to examine the innovation impacts of different renewable energy support policies and their interaction in the empirical context of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. This is achieved using data on patent applications for 13 countries over the time period 1978-2008. Three policies are included in the analysis: public R&D support to solar PV, fixed feed-in tariffs (FIT), and renewable energy certificate (REC) schemes. The results are overall robust to alternative model specifications, and indicate that: (a) both FIT schemes and REC schemes induce more solar PV patenting activity even though the impact of the former policy appears to be more profound; (b) (lagged) public R&D support has an important impact on solar PV innovation; and (c) policy interaction exists in that the impact of public R&D support on innovation is greater at the margin if it is accompanied by the use of FIT schemes for solar PV. A corresponding interaction effect does not emerge in the case of public R&D and the use of REC schemes, possibly due to the relatively strong technology selection pressure under the latter policy.

  • 39.
    Bohlin, Rolf
    et al.
    Kammarrätten Stockholm.
    Ärlebrant, Åsa
    Kammarrätten Sundsvall.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Beskattning av mikroproducerad el m.m.2013Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 40.
    Jaunky, Vishal
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Dynamics of Spruce and Pine Market Integration in Sweden2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Jaunky, Vishal
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Forest Products Exports and Economic Growth: Evidence from Rich Countries2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Brolund, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Induced Innovation and Renewable Energy Policies for Bioenergy: An Econometric Analysis2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Mikroekonomi: Teori och tillämpning2013 (ed. 2)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 44.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Mossberg, Johanna
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Torén, Johan
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Hoffstedt, Christian
    Innventia AB, SE-114 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schenck, Anna von
    Innventia AB, SE-114 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berglin, Niklas
    Innventia AB, SE-114 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kindermann, Georg
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Optimal localisation of next generation biofuel production in Sweden2013Report (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Athanassiadis, Dimitris
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Mossberg, Johanna
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Torén, Johan
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Schenck, Anna von
    Innventia AB, SE-114 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berglin, Niklas
    Innventia AB, SE-114 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Optimal localisation of next generation biofuel production in Sweden - part II2013Report (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Hoffstedt, Christian
    Innventia AB, SE-114 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Torén, Johan
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Kindermann, Georg
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University.
    Optimal localisation of second generation biofuel production: the role of process integration in system studies2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Börjesson, Martin
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Ahlgren, Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Athanassiadis, Dimitris
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundström, Anders
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Scenarios for large-scale integration of renewable fuels in the Swedish road transport sector2013Report (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Henriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Structural changes in industrial electricity use: the case of the pulp and paper industry in Sweden2013In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 305-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse altering energy demand patterns and energy factor substitution possibilities over time in the pulp and paper industry in order to increase our understanding of suitable policy options for increasing energy efficiency. The investigation employs a flexible translog cost function and an unbalanced panel data set covering 32 pulp and paper mills over the time period 1974-2005 in Sweden. Specifically, we test whether energy factor demand patterns in the industry for the period 1974-1990 differ from those during the latter period, 1991-2005. The empirical results reveal that even though the Swedish pulp and paper industry is relatively insensitive to changes in energy factor input prices in the short run, we find evidence of significant changes over time. According to the results, the own-price sensitivity of fuel has increased since the 1970s and the 1980s, thus indicating that fuel demand has become more sensitive to short-run changes in relative prices. The estimated cross-price elasticities between electricity and fuel also support the hypothesis of increased substitutability over time. However, the null hypothesis of an equal own-price elasticity of electricity demand across the two time periods cannot be rejected

  • 49.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Shahrammehr, Shima
    Armington elasticities and induced industrial roundwood specialization in Europe2012In: Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research, ISSN 1939-0459, E-ISSN 1939-0467, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 161-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate Armington elasticities for industrial roundwood in eight European countries for the period 1961–2007, and analyze how the estimated elasticities change over time. Results indicate increasing differentiation between domestic and imported volumes during the first half of the time period. However, for the latter half, a decreasing degree of specialization is observed. A plausible explanation is the removal of trade barriers during development of the internal European market. This trend of decreasing specialization is arguably going to continue in the future. For instance, the technical feasibility of using more heterogeneous feed-stock in the paper industry is increasing. Moreover, energy and climate policy is stimulating the use of wood as fuel in the energy sector. These changes in technology and new uses might further decrease the differentiation between domestic and imported industrial roundwood.

  • 50.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Avfallspolitiken måste fokusera på rätt saker2012In: Goeteborgs Fria Tidning, ISSN 1651-1190, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 8-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
123 1 - 50 of 103
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