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  • 1.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Private Consultant Engineering, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan, H awler, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Badush Dam: A Unique Case of Flood WaveRetention Dams Uncertain Future and Problematic Geology2019Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 189-205Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Badush Dam is a partially completed dam and a unique case of flood reten- tion dams. Its intended main function is to perform flood protection once in its lifetime; that is if Mosul Dam would collapse. In such a case, the Badush dam would temporarily store the whole flood wave and route it safely to the downstream. For this end, the bulk of the reservoir is left dry, while the re- maining  volume  at  the  lower  part  which  is  intended  for  power  eneration does  not  give  an  economic  justification  for  building  the  full  height  of  the dam. The short duration of the intended use as a protection dam has led to relaxing many design assumptions which have raised concerns over the dam integrity.  The  current  controversy  rages  now  over  whether  to  continue  the construction of the dam as it was first designed or to change all that in view of the similar site geology of Mosul Dam. Mosul dam foundations suffer at the moment from the severe continuous dissolution of the soluble materials in its foundation  leading  to  continued  maintenance  grouting  of  that  foundation. This paper gives an overview of the history of Badush dam, its current design and what new equirements which are needed if it is to replace Mosul Damitself.

  • 2.
    Pusch, Roland
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Kasbohm, Jörn
    Greifswald University, Germany .
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hoang-Minh, Thao
    Greifswald University, Germany .
    Nguyen-Thanh, Lan
    Technical University of Darmstadt, Germany.
    Disposal of Low- and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste2019Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 237-272Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As for isolation of high-level radioactive waste by use of smectite clay it serves very well also for hindering radionuclides from low- and intermediate-level waste to contaminate groundwater. It can be used for minimizing groundwater flow through and along waste packages and for providing them with ductile embedment for eliminating the risk of damage caused by displacements in host rock or concrete vaults. The clay can have the form of liners placed and compacted on site over vaults constructed on the ground surface, or consist of compacted blocks of clay granules that are tightly placed around waste packages in underground drifts and rooms. In either case the initially incompletely water saturated clay will swell in conjunction with water uptake until tight contact with the confining medium has been established. The clay seals must be sufficiently dense to fulfill criteria set with respect to hydraulic conductivity and swelling capacity, paying due attention to the salt content in the porewater. Their physical and chemical stabilities must be acceptable in short- and long-term perspectives, which is a few hundred years for most low-level wastes up to tens of thousands of years for long-lived waste. 

  • 3.
    Toromanovic, Jasmina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mattsson, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    En icke-destruktiv metod för bestämning av värden på materialparametrar i fyllningsdammar2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 4.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Groundwater Directorate of Sulaimani, Kurdistan,Iraq.
    Ali, Salahalddin S.
    Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani,Kurdistan, Iraq. Komar University of Science and Technology, Iraqi Kurdistan , Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hydrogeochemical Evaluation of Groundwater and Its Suitability for Domestic Uses in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq2019Ingår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 4, artikel-id 690Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation of the hydrogeochemical characteristics and groundwater suitability for domestic use was conducted in the Halabja Saidsadiq Basin in the northeastern part of Iraq. The total studied area is about 1278 km 2 with a specific Mediterranean-type continental interior climate, which is cold in winter and hot in summer. To conduct the required laboratory chemical analysis for groundwater samples in the studied basin, 78 groundwater samples, in total, were collected from 39 water wells in the dry and wet seasons in 2014 and analyzed for major cations and anions, and the results were compared with the permitted limits for drinking water. An examination of the chemical concentrations of the World Health Organization drinking water norms demonstrate that a large portion of the groundwater samples is suitable for drinking, and a preponderance of groundwater samples situated in the class of hard and very hard water types for both seasons. Suitability of groundwater for drinking use was additionally assessed according to the water quality index classification. This showed that more than 98% of groundwater samples have good water quality in the dry and wet seasons. Conversely, the classification of groundwater samples based on Piper’s diagram designates that the groundwater type is alkaline water, with existing bicarbonate along with sulfate and chloride. However, water–ock exchange processes and groundwater flow have been responsible for the dominant water type of Ca–g–CO3.

  • 5.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Environment Engineering, college of Engineering, U niversity of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq. .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hazim, Anwer
    Koya university, Koya, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Landfill Sites Selection Using MCDM and Comparing Method of Change Detection for Babylon Governorate, Iraq2019Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill site`s selection represents a complicated process due to the large number of variables to be adopted. In this study, an arid area (Babylon Governorate as a case study) was selected. It is located in the middle region of Iraq. In this area, the  landfills do not satisfy the required  international criteria.  Fifteen  of the  most significant criterion were selected for this purpose. For suitable weight for each criterion, the multi criteria decision making (MCDM) methods were applied. These methods are AHP and RSW. In the GIS software 10.5, the raster maps of the chosen criterion were arranged and analysed. The method of change detection was implemented to determine the matching pixels and non-matching pixels. The final results showed that there are two candidate locations for landfills for each district in the governorate (ten sites). The areas of the selected sites were sufficient to contain the cumulative quantity of solid waste from 2020 until 2030.

  • 6.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Private Consultant Engineering, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG, Iraq. Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mosul Dam: Geology and Safety Concerns2019Ingår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. 151-177Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul Dam is an earth fill dam located on the River Tigris northern part of Iraq. The capacity of its reservoir is 11.11 billion cubic meters which makes it the fourth biggest dam in the Middle East. From geological perspective, the dam is located on double plunging anticlines. The rocks of the site are mainly composed of highly jointed and karistified alternating beds of limestones, gysum and marls, since the impoundment of the reservoir seepage of water was recognized under the foundation of the dam. To stop or minimize the seepage, intensive grouting operations were conducted. Recent investigations and evaluation of the conditions of the dam indicate that it is in a critical situation. In this paper, consequences of the dam failure are discussed and possible solutions are given.

  • 7.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    University of Kurdistan, Hewler, KRG, Iraq and Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Siting of Landfills for Hazardous Waste in Iraq from a Geological Perspective2019Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 295-311Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq has been involved with two major wars in 1991 and 2003 (Gulf war I and II), which resulted in leaving large amounts of wrecked tanks, vehicles, weapons and ammunition. A considerable amount of the military waste contains depleted uranium (DU), which is a by-product of the enrichment of natural uranium for nuclear reactor-grade or nuclear weapons-grade uranium. DU used during the second Gulf war is more than 1100 to 2000 tons. This has serious effects on humans in Iraq and the environment. There is no national or international program for cleaning Iraq of DU wastes. To protect humans and the environment, three locations for disposals were suggested according to the geological conditions. These locations fulfill the requirements so that radioactive waste does not affect human life and the environment. To use these sites there should be proper design for the landfills so that it can perform for long period of time.

  • 8.
    Ali, Ammar A.
    et al.
    College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Suhail, Qusay
    College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Spatial total load rating curve for a large river: A Case study of the Tigris River at Baghdad2019Ingår i: International Journal of River Basin Management, ISSN 1571-5124, E-ISSN 1814-2060Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Tigris River in Baghdad is a large sand-bed river, supply-limited because of the implementation of a water flow regulation scheme comprising a series of reservoirs and barrages.  The significant reduction in the water discharge has affected the hydraulic performance of the river and turned it into an under-fit river of complicated morphology where many islands and bank deposits have been showed up across an 18km reach in addition to the essential sinuosity. Measuring sediment load at individual cross-sections in the river gives misleading estimates and the corresponding sediment rating curve has a locally limited using. A spatially sediment rating by investigating sediment loads over the complicated reach is required to overcome the local limitations. Sediment transport rates have been investigated at 16 cross-sections along the study reach by collecting suspended load, bed load and bed material samples. Velocity profiles were measured at the sampling stations using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). The measurement results indicated that the suspended load is the dominant mode of transport (93.5%). However, bedloads were considered in determining the total loads. A spatial total load rating curve in the form of a power function was established and examined against the sediment measurements. Twenty-two previously published total load formulae where applied at the same sections and of these the Colby1964 formula gave the closest fit to the measured loads. Based on the results from this study a recommended procedure is established for using a spatial total load rating curve to estimate sediment transport rates for similar morphologically complicated rivers. Average annual transport rates during the period 2009-13 was estimated at 3.21 million tons.

  • 9.
    Hoang-Minh, Thao
    et al.
    VNU University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi.
    Kasbohm, Jörn
    Greifswald University, Greifswald, Germany.
    Nguyen-Thanh, Lan
    Institute of Applied Geosciences, Technical University of Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany.
    Nga, Pham Thi
    VNU University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Lai, Le Thi
    Institute of Geological Sciences, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Vietnam.
    Duong, Nguyen Thuy
    VNU University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Thanh, Nguyen Duc
    Advance Technology Transfer and Consultancy Co., Hanoi , Vietnam.
    Thuyet, Nguyen Thi Minh
    VNU University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Anh, Dao Duy
    National Institute of Mining – Metallurgy Science and Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mählmann, Rafael Ferreiro
    Institute of Applied Geosciences, Technical University of Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany.
    Use of TEM-EDX for structural formula identification of clay minerals: a case study of Di Linh bentonite, Vietnam2019Ingår i: Journal of applied crystallography, ISSN 0021-8898, E-ISSN 1600-5767, Vol. 52, nr 1, s. 133-147Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Transmission electron microscopy linked with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDX) was applied to characterize mineralogical signals ofweathering processes in the Di Linh bentonite deposit (Vietnam) and to visualize the effects of Na activation on the smectitic phases. Modelling of X ray diffraction patterns (oriented mount) was applied in order to refine the computed structural formula. X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) methods were also applied to verify the TEM-EDX results. An Excel-based routine has been developed in this research to allow fast computation of structural formulae and classification of the investigated clay particles. This routine supports the acquirement of 100 300 TEM-EDX analyses as a representative set of individual particles for each sample. The Excel-based routine involves end members of different clay mineral groups and interstratifications with two or three members (e.g. illite smectite interstratifications – IS-ml; dioctahedral vermiculite–smectite interstratifications – diVS-ml; and kaolinite–montmorillonite–dioctahedral vermiculite interstratifications – KSV-ml). The routine is now freely available. According to the identification procedure, the <2 mm fraction of the Di Linh bentonite (Vietnam) is composed mainly of K- and charge-deficient illite smectite interstratifications (or diVS-ml): montmorillonite-rich randomly ordered (R0) type and illite-rich regularly ordered (R1) type. Additionally, Fe-poor KSV-ml was identified.Industrial Na activation of the Di Linh bentonite resulted in an increase of theR1 diVS-ml portion and dissolution of a large part of the smectite-rich phases.The TEM-EDX approach also gave analytical proof of a sedimentary processfor Di Linh smectite. The parent muscovite was altered in two different environments: (i) K-leaching and layer-wise alteration into kaolinite (weathering), and (ii) further edge-controlled alteration of mica into lath-like montmorillonite particles associated with a dissolution of kaolinite layers from the former kaolinite–mica intergrowths by heat impact (basalt flow).

  • 10.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    et al.
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG. Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Elagely, Malik
    Private consultant, Baghdad, Iraq.
    A Comparative Study of Mosul and Haditha Dams, Iraq: Geological conditions2018Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 35-52Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul and Haditha Dams are the largest dams on the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in Iraq, respectively. Both dams are of earthfill type and constructed on sedimentary rocks, but have different geological conditions. Both of them suffer from karstification problems. The former; however, suffers from intense karstification, which has endangered the stability of the dam and possible failure. The karstification in both sites is of different origins, types, shapes, sizes and depths, as well as in different rocks and geological formations. In Mosul Dam site, the highly dissolved gypsum beds of the Fatha Formation has formed solution type sinkholes with cavities of different shapes and sizes at different depth; attaining to about 250 m upon which the foundations of the dam are located. In Haditha Dam site, the karstification occur in the limestone beds of the Euphrates Formation, the developed sinkholes are of collapse type with regular shapes; either circular or oval apertures. The thickness of the karstified sequence in the foundations is not more 50 m. This research work is to highlight the role of the geological conditions, especially when the karstification in the safety of both dams is concerned and its effect on the foundations of the dams.

  • 11.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Alkaradaghi, Karwan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Kurdistan Institution for Strategic Studies and Scientific Research, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Application of the HELP Model for Landfill Design in AridAreas: Case Study Babylon Governorate, Iraq2018Ingår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 12, nr 12, s. 848-879Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The landfill design is necessary to be implemented in various regions to protect public human health and the factors ofenvironment. The suggested design of landfill was performed in the arid areas, where that Babylon Governorate, Iraq was selected as a case study. Babylon overnorate is located in the middle of Iraq. The suggested design for the selected sites for landfill in the arid areas was consisted of the base liner and final cover systems. The HELP 3.95D model was applied on both systems to check if there is any leakage by leachate from the suggested soil layers of landfill base on the water balance in Babylon Governorate for the years 2005-2016. The suggested design of final cover system was implemented based on weather parameters in the arid areas through storing water that coming from the surface within upper layers that have fine particles and over the top barrier without leakage into the waste body, thereby preventing leachate generation. This is  allowing to the stored water to evaporate from the surface of soil or transpire through vegetation due to the high temperature during the most months in the study area. The results showed there was no percolation of leachate through the base liner system. The design of final cover system was acted to reduce the runoff on the surface and increase theactual evaporation.

  • 12.
    O. Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Groundwater Directorate of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
    S. Ali, Salahalddin
    Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq;Komar University of Science and Technology, Sulaimani, Iraqi Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Assessment of Groundwater Vulnerability to Pollution Using VLDA and COP Models in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq2018Ingår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 12, nr 11, s. 798-809, artikel-id 003Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater aquifer in the Halabja and Saidsadiq Basin considered being one of the most important aquifers in terms of water supplying in Kurdistan Region, NE of Iraq. The growing of economics, irrigation and agricultural activities inside the basin makes it of the main essentials to the region. Therefore, pollution of groundwater is of specific worry as groundwater resources are the principal source of water for drinking, agriculture, irrigation and industrial activities. Thus, the best and practical arrangement is to keep the pollution of groundwater through. The current study aims the evaluation of the vulnerability of groundwater aquifers of the study area. Two models were applied, to be specific VLDA and COP to develop maps of groundwater vulnerability for contamination. The VLDA model classified the area into four classes of vulnerability with each covered area: low (2%), moderate (44%), high (53%) and very high (1%). While four vulnerability classes were accomplished dependent on COP model including very low, low, moderate and high vulnerability classes with coverage areas of (1%, 37%, 2% and 60%) respectively. To confirm the suitability of each map for assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the area, it required to be validated of the theoretical sympathetic of current hydrogeological conditions. In this study, groundwater age evaluated utilizing tritium isotopes investigation and applied it to validate the vulnerability results. Based on this validation, the outcome exhibits that the vulnerability classes acquired utilizing VLDA model are more predictable contrasted with the COP model.

  • 13. Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan, Hewler, KRG. Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Badush Dam: Controversy and Future Possibilities2018Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 17-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Badush Dam is believed to be the first dam in the world which is designed to protect from the flood wave which could result from the collapse of another dam; in this case Mosul Dam.  Badush Dam construction was started in 1988 but it was stopped two years later due to unexpected reasons. From that time on many attempts were made to resume construction without success. Its value was stressed in a multitude of studies and technical reports amid conflict of opinions on how to do this.  The original design of the dam as a protection dam was intended to have a large part of the reservoir empty to accommodate the volume of the expected flood wave for only a few months during which time it’s content are released in a controlled and safe way to the downstream. The lower part of Badush Dam which has a limited height continues before and after this event to act as a low head power generation facility. Among the later studies on the dam, there were suggestions to introduce changes to the design of the unfinished dam which covered the foundation treatment and also asked for constructing a diaphragm in the dam. A long controversy is still going on with many possibilities but with no hope to reach a final solution soon. Any rational solution must consider both Badush Dam and Mosul Dam together as the safety issue involves both of them. This paper may be seen in six paragraphs. The first three describe in brief the history, the outline design and foundation treatment of the dam, therefore, setting the background to follow the conflicting views over its purpose and future which is discussed in the following two paragraphs. The final paragraph is devoted to discussion and our conclusions.

  • 14.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    et al.
    University of Kurdistan, Hewler, KRG. Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Badush Dam, NW Iraq: A Geological Study2018Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 1-15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The river Tigris flows from Turkey towards Iraq in its northwestern part dissecting the whole Iraqi territory. During 1981– 1986 a very large earth fill dam was constructed, which is Mosul Dam impounding the flow of the Tigris River. It is the largest dam in Iraq and one of the largest in the Middle East. The geological conditions of the dam site and surroundings, however, are not suitable due to thick exposures of the Fatha Formation, which consists of marl, clay, limestone and gypsum. The gypsum and limestone beds are highly karstified causing severe problems to the dam foundation. Mosul dam suffers from serious problems due to the presence of karstified rocks; therefore, the Ministry of Irrigation in Baghdad, decided to construct a protection dam downstream of Mosul Dam; it is called Badush Dam. The geological conditions at Badush Dam site are the same as those at Mosul Dam site, which means the foundations of the dam are located on karstified rocks. Therefore, grouting works were planned and designed and it was partly performed from the beginning of the construction in 1988. The construction of the dam; however, stopped in 1991 due to the consequences of the First Gulf War. The constructed parts of the dam are (30 – 40) %. In this study, we have presented the main problems, which will cause real danger to Badush Dam, if its construction is re-started, and we have suggested many requirements to avoid any hazard that may cause the collapse of Badush Dam.

  • 15.
    Knutsson, Roger
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Viklander, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Benefits of Advanced Constitutive Modeling when Estimating Deformations in a Tailings Dam2018Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 1-19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavior of tailings dams are often controlled in dam surveillance programs where horizontal deformation is one of the key aspects. When evaluating field data, there is a necessity for comparison with anticipated deformations in order to relate field behavior to dam stability. With numerical modeling, these predictions can be made. This paper presents a case where horizontal deformations in a tailings dam have been simulated for a six-year period, using two-dimensional finite element modeling. Yearly dam raises have been simulated as staged constructions according to activities at site. Tailings materials have been simulated with an elasto-plastic constitutive model with isotropic hardening, called Hardening Soil and the conventional linear-elastic, perfectly plastic Mohr-Coulomb model. Soil parameters used for input were calibrated to laboratory data. Results from simulations were compared with data obtained in situ by a slope inclinometer. Results obtained by the Hardening Soil model indicate good agreement with respect to field measurements. However, this was not reached with the Mohr-Coulomb model. The results presented indicate benefits by using an advanced constitutive model for tailings in order to estimate in situ deformations in a tailings dam. The methodology presented can be used for prediction of future deformations, in order to relate the dam behavior to its stability. This is important in dam safety assessment, and will lead to a better understanding of the dam safety, being of great importance for the dam owner and the society in general.

  • 16.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG, Iraq and Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq .
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Climate Change: Consequences on Iraq’s Environment2018Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 43-58Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq as a country is now suffering from Climate Change Impacts in similar or even worse ways than many other countries of the world. The manifestations of these climate changes are being felt in global warming, changes to weather driving elements and sea level rise. Increasing temperatures, declining precipitation rates and changed distribution patterns together with increasing evaporation are causing water stress in Iraq. However, they trigger other changes in a sort of chain reaction; such as droughts, desertification and sand storms. Iraq is not even safe from the consequences of sea level rise where the southern part of the Tigris- Euphrates delta is threatened by inundation and Iraq’s ports and sea coast line are endangered by such projected rise. So far the agricultural sector in Iraq has been hit very badly by the reduced water availability for arable lands; whether rain fed lands as in the northern part, or irrigated lands using the declining discharges of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers as in the southern and middle parts. These discharges have already been additionally strained by the unfair sharing practiced by Turkey from which most of the two rivers’ water resources originate. The present negative climate change trends seem to be continuing in the future as it is obvious from all projections and studies being performed so far. Loss of cultivable land to desertification, recurrent droughts and sand storms and declining agriculture are the pattern of change in Iraq’s already fragile environment; and this will result inevitably in much more distress for the population in the future and will lead to social unrest. These will add to the great pressures facing all future governments unless the government takes protective planning and solutions.

  • 17.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Climate Change: The Uncertain Future of Tigris River Tributaries’ Basins2018Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 75-93Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Global warming is hitting all parts of the world for the last fifty years due to Global Climate Change and it is expected to continue in the future in an increasing trend unless the present mode of CO2 emission is limited or reversed. This is manifested in the rising temperature over land and the changes induced in the general weather circulation patterns over land and oceans. The Tigris River catchment as most of other parts in the world is suffering from increased temperatures and reduced precipitation contributing to reduced water resources elements all over it and reduction of the river stream flow itself. Studies using the soil and water assessment tool SWAT were performed on the five Tigris River tributaries basins in Iraq in order to assess these impacts. This paper summarizes the results of those studies, the characteristics of each of the five basins, and illustrates the application of SWAT as a tool for future predictions. Moreover, it explains in more details the work done on one of the basins as an example, summarizes the results of the five studies and then analyzes these results and discusses the expected future outcomes. The final conclusion which can be drawn is that severe shortage in all water resources elements will occur over the five basins and the Tigris River stream flow will suffer a considerable decline. This situation demands that policy makers in Iraq should take steps immediately to improve water and soil management practices to try and reduce as much as possible the expected damage that will hit all water using sectors.

  • 18. Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG. Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Elagely, Malik
    Private consultant, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Comparative Study of Mosul and Haditha Dams in Iraq: Different Construction Materials Contribute to Different designs2018Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 71-89Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul and Haditha Dams are built on relatively weak foundations. Both of these foundations suffer from extensive karsts which had demanded intensive foundation treatment works among other design precautions. The karst forms; however, are of different origins, activities, nature and shapes. The foundation treatment in both dams was done mainly by constructing deep grout curtains along with other secondary grouting works. Reducing uplift pressure under the dam and cutting down on seepage losses were the major considerations in these works. An additional important requirement in Mosul Dam was to reduce the permeability of the rock formation in the foundations to such a low limit that it can stop the dissolution of gypsum beds present there. This objective; unfortunately, failed due to the lithological composition of this foundation and the presence of many brecciated gypsum beds, which could not be treated successfully. This had resulted in a comprehensive grouting maintenance program which continuous up to date with the everlasting danger of dam failure. On the other hand, in Haditha dam no such complication occurs as the dam had its foundations mainly in limestone. Proper investigation and good planning and performance of the grouting works in this dam contributed highly to its success. Selecting the deep grout curtain as anti-seepage measure in Mosul Dam was not a very wise decision and constructing a positive cutoff in the form of diaphragm wall could have been the proper choice. Good and deep understanding of all geological data can contribute to the success of a dam design or, otherwise it may lead to unsafe one.

  • 19. Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan, Hewler. Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Elagely, Malik
    Private consultant, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Comparative Study of Mosul and Haditha Dams, Iraq: Foundation Treatments in the Two Dams2018Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 53-70Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul and Haditha Dams are built on relatively weak foundations. Both of these foundations suffer from extensive karsts which had demanded intensive foundation treatment works among other design precautions. The karst forms; however, are of different origins, activities, nature and shapes. The foundation treatment in both dams was done mainly by constructing deep grout curtains along with other secondary grouting works. Reducing uplift pressure under the dam and cutting down on seepage losses were the major considerations in these works. An additional important requirement in Mosul Dam was to reduce the permeability of the rock formation in the foundations to such a low limit that it can stop the dissolution of gypsum beds present there. This objective; unfortunately, failed due to the lithological composition of this foundation and the presence of many brecciated gypsum beds, which could not be treated successfully. This had resulted in a comprehensive grouting maintenance program which continuous up to date with the everlasting danger of dam failure. On the other hand, in Haditha dam no such complication occurs as the dam had its foundations mainly in limestone. Proper investigation and good planning and performance of the grouting works in this dam contributed highly to its success. Selecting the deep grout curtain as anti-seepage measure in Mosul Dam was not a very wise decision and constructing a positive cutoff in the form of diaphragm wall could have been the proper choice. Good and deep understanding of all geological data can contribute to the success of a dam design or, otherwise it may lead to unsafe one.

  • 20.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    University of Kurdistan, Iraq.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Geological and Geotechnical Study of Badush Dam, Iraq2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Badush Dam is a combined earthfill and concrete buttress dam; uncompleted, it is planned to be a protection dam downstream of Mosul Dam, which impounds the Tigris River. Mosul Dam is also an earthfill dam; it is the largest dam in Iraq. The safety of Mosul Dam is a matter of debate since its commissioning in 1986. This is attributed to the geological conditions at the dam site are not suitable due to thick exposures of karstified gypsum rocks, which extend

    , deep down, into the foundations. Therefore, Badush Dam was planned and designed to protect the population and present infrastructures downstream of Mosul Dam, if the latter would collapse. The geological conditions at Badush Dam site are similar to those at Mosul Dam site, which means; the foundations of the dam, are located on karstified gypsum beds also. Grouting works were planned and designed, and they were partly performed simultaneously with the beginning of the construction of Badush Dam in 1988 and continued until the suspension of the construction in 1991. The constructed parts attained about (30 – 40)% of the work items. The design of the Badush Dam indicates clearly the temporary nature of its use, which is reflected in the thin inclined clay core and other embankment details. The basic design considerations of the dam were to have a dam, which is high enough to contain the full volume of Mosul Dam wave of 10 X 109 m3 when routed through its reservoir, and to limit at the same time the released discharge within the capacity across the downstream reach of the river without causing flooding. In this study, we have presented and discussed the geological and engineering geological conditions; whether Badush Dam can function as a protection dam or can it be remodeled to become a normal storage dam to replace Mosul Dam.

  • 21.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    et al.
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG, Iraq and Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    LTU team.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Geology of the Euphrates River with Emphasize on the Iraqi Part2018Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 167-185Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Euphrates River is one of the longest rivers in Iraq with five main tributaries along its course. But without any tributary inside Iraq. The river flows from eastern highlands of Turkey then through Syria and enters into the Iraqi territory from central western part and runs westwards to the central part of Iraq and then meets with the Tigris River in the southern part. The geology of the Euphrates River’s basin is presented with emphasize on the Iraqi part. Besides, the stratigraphy of the basin, the tectonic style, main geomorphological features and minerals’ resources are presented within the basin too. Wide range of rocks; age wise are exposed in the basin, with different economic potentials at different parts of the basin. This study is a unique one, which deals with the geology of the Euphrates River’s basin. It is conducted using the most relevant updated geological data.

  • 22.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    et al.
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG, Iraq and Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG, Iraq and Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    LTU team.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Geology of the Tigris River with Emphasize on the Iraqi Part2018Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 145-166Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Tigris River is the longest river in Iraq with 5 main tributaries inside Iraq. The river flows from the Eastern highlands of Turkey then crosses the Iraqi territory from extreme north-western part to the central part then meets with the Euphrates River in the southern part. The geology of the Tigris River’s basin is presented with emphasize on the Iraqi part. Besides, the stratigraphy of the basin, the tectonic style, main geomorphological features and minerals’ resources are presented within the basin too. Wide range of rocks; age wise, are exposed in the basin, with different economic potentials at different parts of the basin. This study is a unique one, which deals with the geology of the Tigris River’s basin. It is conducted using the most relevant updated geological data.

  • 23.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    LTU team.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Geopolitics of the Tigris and Euphrates Basins2018Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 187-222Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Euphrates and Tigris Rivers are the longest Rivers in southwest Asia. The main utilizers of the water of these rivers and tributaries are Turkey, Syria, Iran and Iraq. The two rivers rise in Turkey, which makes it the riparian hegemon. Some of the tributaries of the Tigris and Shat Al-Arab Rivers rise in Iran, which makes it the riparian hegemon for these rivers. Iraq and Syria are the lower countries in the basin and for this reason, they always to ensure the quantity of water required to satisfy their requirements. All these countries are in the Middle East, which characterized by its shortage of water resources. Since the 1970s conflict between riparian counties were noticed due to population growth rates, food security, energy needs, economic and technological development, political fragmentation, international water laws, water and management availability and public awareness. These caused tensions, which sometimes escalated to the verge of war. To solve this conflict a mediator is required that has the capability to bring all countries concerned to the negotiation table. Syria and Iraq are to give Turkey and Iran some incentives to cooperate. Furthermore, all counties are to adopt prudent strategic plan based on comprehensive resources development to ensure good water management and minimum water loses and waste. This due to the fact that modeling studies of the future suggest that water shortage problem will intensify.

  • 24.
    Knutsson, Roger
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Viklander, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Geothermal study to explain man-made permafrost in tailings with raised surface2018Ingår i: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 77, nr 7, artikel-id 288Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Deposition of mine tailings in a cold climate requires precautions as temporary sub-zero temperatures can imply considerable consequences to the storage due to creation of permafrost. The risk of creating man-made permafrost lenses due to tailings deposition exists even in regions with no natural permafrost, as material being frozen during winter might not fully thaw by the following summer. When such frozen layers thaw during later longer warmer periods, excess pore water pressure and large settlements might develop. Such implications close to the dam structure have to be avoided and therefore the risk of generating permafrost should be reduced. This paper describes a geothermal model for one-dimensional heat conduction analysis. The model is able to simulate the temperature profile in tailings where the surface elevation is constantly increased due to deposition. At the tailings surface, the boundary condition is the air temperature changing over time during the year. Air temperatures, tailings deposition schedule and tailings properties are given as input to the model and can easily be changed and applied to specific facilities. The model can be used for tailings facilities in cold regions, where the effects of tailings deposition on the temperature regime are of interest. Findings can improve tailings management by explaining man-made permafrost generation. The model can also aid in setting up appropriate deposition schedules and to prevent generation of permafrost layers.

  • 25.
    AlJawad, Sadeq
    et al.
    Expert and Consultant Hydrogeologists, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Expert and Consultant Hydrogeologists, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    LTU team.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG, Iraq and Private Con sultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Groundwater Quality and Their Uses in Iraq2018Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 123-144Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquifers are porous media with various physical criteria and hydraulic conditions that largely affect the quality of water they contain. When an aquifer is a sedimentary rock, its depositional environment draws along with its present recharge condition and the footprint of its groundwater quality. The geologic setting of Iraq consists of a sedimentary cover 4 – 13 km thick with a sequence of alternating pervious and impervious sedimentary rock beds of coarse clastics and fractured carbonates with fine clastics and hard rock carbonate. This succession has developed a successive multi aquifer systems. The present study has recognized the major formations that so far have been explored and sampled using available data to identify the probability of their water quality which might be obtained when drilling a well through any of the formations. From among tens of thousands of wells drilled to produce water from whatever horizons they encounter, only those wells which penetrate a single formation were considered. The results show that groundwater quality expressed as total dissolved solids in the explored 17 aquifers or aquifer systems are highly variable. Nevertheless, an indicative medium range value can be deduced for each. In principle, lower salinity values and carbonate water type associate with the unconfined aquifers that receive active contemporary recharge as in the case of the exposed aquifers in the High, and to less extend the Low Folded Zones. Even in the Stable Shelf where present recharge is limited, unconfined part of the aquifers is differentiated by their lower salinity and water type. On the other hand, a partial displacement of sea water in the marine deposit carbonates has as well occurred due to previous recharge periods. This was possible to the karstified carbonates of the Stable Shelf due to their high porosity. The finer marine deposits in the Mesopotamia Basin maintained their high groundwater salinity and marine water type. Water suitability for human drinking can be found in most of the aquifers especially aquifers in the High and Low Folded Zones. In the Stable Shelf, Al-Jazira, and even in the Mesopotamian Plain, recharge boundary conditions of the aquifer in the selected drilling spot should be carefully examined. The high variations of water quality in the aquifers in the latter zones requires an evaluation of water suitability well by well. However, most of the groundwater derived from the northern parts of the Stable Shelf and Al-Jazira Zones aquifers are suitable for agriculture, while that those of the southern parts and the Mesopotamian Plain are questionable or unsuitable.

  • 26.
    Knutsson, Roger
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Viklander, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    How to avoid permafrost while depositing tailings in cold climate2018Ingår i: Cold Regions Science and Technology, ISSN 0165-232X, E-ISSN 1872-7441, Vol. 153, s. 86-96Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing tailings deposition in cold climate requires specific measures not to create permafrost. The risk of generating permafrost due to tailings deposition exists even in regions where permafrost would naturally not occur. Material being frozen during winter might not fully thaw in the following summer due to added height of the tailings on the surface. Such embedded layers of permafrost should be avoided especially close to tailing dams. Main reasons are to prevent impermeable layers in tailings facilities, and to reduce the risk of having implications if such layers thaw during warmer summers causing increase in pore water pressure, reduced effective stress, and increased water content.

    This paper presents a numerical study on the effects of tailings deposition in cold regions in relation to the potential formation of permafrost. Various deposition rates, schedules and tailings properties were evaluated. One-dimensional heat conduction analyses were performed with a temperature scenario representing a mine district in northern Sweden. Results show, that the thickness of permafrost layers increase with increased deposition rate and with increased water content. It was also shown that wet and loose tailings must be deposited in short periods during summer to avoid permafrost generation. In the case of dry and dense tailings more time is available for deposition in order not to cause aggradation of permafrost in the deposit.

    These findings can help mining operation to set up deposition schedules for tailings facilities in cold climate. For known tailings properties, results can be used to identify periods of the year when, and how much, tailings can be deposited in critical areas of a deposit in order to avoid permafrost formation.

  • 27.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Environment Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Alkaradaghi, Karwan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Kurdistan Institution for strategic studies and scientific Research, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq.
    Al-Rawabdeh, Abdulla Mustafa Muhamed
    Abdullah Mustafa Muhamed Al-Rawabdeh, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain Musa
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq; Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Landfill Final Cover Systems Design for Arid Areas Using the HELP Model: A Case Study in the Babylon Governorate, Iraq2018Ingår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, nr 12, artikel-id 4568Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of selecting proper designs for landfills is to accommodate quantities of waste without having a negative effect on the surrounding environment and human health. The Babylon Governorate (province) in Iraq was taken as an example of an arid area with very shallow groundwater and where irregular waste disposal sites had developed that had not been subject to international standards when they were selected for landfill use. In the current study, the suggested design for landfills is a base liner and final cover system. In this suggested design, the final cover system allows for three scenarios. The first scenario considers an evapotranspiration soil cover (ET) (capillary barriers type), the second scenario is a modified cover design of “RCRA Subtitle D”, and the third scenario is a combination of the first and second scenarios. The HELP 3.95 D model was applied to the selected landfill sites in the governorate to check if there was any penetration of the leachate that might in future percolate from the landfill’s bottom barrier layer in arid areas. The results from the suggested landfill design showed that there was no leachate percolation from the bottom barrier layer using the second and third scenarios. For the first scenario, however, there was a small amount of leachate through the bottom barrier layer in the years 2013 and 2014.

  • 28.
    Bhanbhro, Riaz
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Roger
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Edeskär, Tommy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mechanical Properties of Soft Tailings from different Depths of a Swedish Tailings Dam: Results from Triaxial tests2018Ingår i: Scientia Iranica. International Journal of Science and Technology, ISSN 1026-3098, E-ISSN 2345-3605, Vol. 25, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Construction of tailings dams is done in stages by raising it layer by layer depending on production rate of a mine. These layered dams may possess different strengths and materials properties in each layer i.e. strength parameters, behavior with loading. Tailings dams may have loose layers in subsequent layers, which upon further loading may be susceptible to stability issues. Identification of material properties and behavior is important to know for safety of dam with further raising and long term perspective modeling. This paper presents the results from drained Triaxial compression tests conducted on samples collected from loose layers, from different vertical depths of a tailings dam. The results indicated that depth did not show much influence on strength parameters determined by drained triaxial tests. The different confining pressures influenced the strain-stress behavior, high confining pressures stress-strain curve showed tendency to formulate straighten line of stress-strain curve, with contractant volume behavior along axial strains. The influence of void ratio on effective stress ratio was observed.

  • 29.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    et al.
    Faculty of Geology, University of Kurdistan, Erbil .
    Abdul Ahad, Ayda
    Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Neotectonic Activity from the Upper Reaches of the Arabian Gulf and Possibilities of New Oil Fields12018Ingår i: Geotectonics, ISSN 0016-8521, E-ISSN 1556-1976, Vol. 52, nr 2, s. 240-250Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Upper reaches of the Arabian Gulf consist of different types of fine sediments including the vast Mes-opotamia Plain sediments, tidal f lat sediments and estuarine sabkha sediments. The height of the plain startsfrom zero meter and increases northwards to three meters with extremely gentle gradient. The vast plain to thenorth of the Arabian Gulf is drained by Shat Al-Arab (Shat means river in Iraqi slang language) and KhorAl-Zubair (Khor means estuary). The former drains the extreme eastern part of the plain; whereas, the latterdrains the western part. Shat Al-Arab is the resultant of conf luence of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers nearAl-Qurna town; about 160 km north of the Arabian Gulf mouth at Al-Fao town; whereas, the length of KhorAl-Zubair is about 50 km; as measured from Um Qasir Harbor. The drainage system around Khor Al-Zubair isextremely fine dendritic; whereas around Shat Al-Arab is almost parallel running from both sides of the rivertowards the river; almost perpendicularly. The fine dendritic drainage around Khor Al-Zubair shows clearrecent erosional activity, beside water divides, abandoned irrigation channels and dislocated irrigational chan-nels and estuarine distributaries; all are good indication for a Neotectonic activity in the region. These may indi-cate the presence of subsurface anticlines, which may represent oil fields; since tens of subsurface anticlinesoccur in near surroundings, which are oil fields.

  • 30.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    Department of Geology, University of Sulaiman.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Possibility of Groundwater Pollution in Halabja Saidsadiq Hydrogeological Basin, Iraq Using Modified DRASTIC Model Based on AHP andTritium Isotopes2018Ingår i: Geosciences, ISSN 2076-3263, Vol. 8, nr 7, artikel-id 236Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An anthropogenic activity is one of the most severe environmental causes for groundwatercontamination in the urban area. Groundwater thought to be one of the principal sources of water supply in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, and therefore its vulnerability evaluation to define areas that are more vulnerable to pollution is incredibly vital.  The objectives of this paper are to reveal weight modified of DRASTIC model based on the Analytical Hierarchical Process to estimate the proportional likelihood of groundwater resources pollution. Tritium isotopes analysis was chosen and applied as a pollution marker to confirm the result of this adjustment. Based on this modification, vulnerability classes that were achieved for the studied basin were alienated into five classes, including very low, low, medium, high, and very high, with vulnerability index value of (<100, >100–125, >125–150,>150–200, and >200), respectively.

  • 31.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Bernander, Stig
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Knutsson, Sven (Författare till förord, introducerande material, etc.)
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Response to and Comments on “Geotechnical Peer Review of Dr. S. Bernander’s Reports and Analysis of the North Spur”2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The concerns regarding the stability of the North Spur can be summarized in three points:

    (1) None of the most critical inclined failure surfaces have been studied by Muskrat Falls Corporation. These failure surfaces may be initiated on the upstream side of the dam containment. Here the effects of the deformations, caused by the pressure of the rising water level, have to be resisted by the metastable soil layers in the North Spur. A local failure may occur progressing downwards towards the downstream side of the Spur. A catastrophic dam breach would follow. The GPRP further categorically overlooks the fact that horizontal failure planes cannot possibly represent the highest risk of instability irrespective of whether the analysis is based on the Limit Equilibrium Mode (LEM) or on the Progressive Failure Mode.

    (2) The stress/strain deformation properties of the porous soils in the North Spur have not been made available. Only strength properties, related to fully drained conditions, have been given. How stresses relate to simultaneous deformations under undrained (or partially undrained) conditions have not been defined in any way. Such relationships are crucially essential for any up-to-date analysis of slope stability.

    (3) A high risk of North Spur instability has been found related to impoundment.  A series of investigatory calculations have been made, based on deformation properties from similar landslides and on a wide variety of assumed input data for possible critical failure surfaces. The results of these analyses indicated a safety factor far below 1.

    The peer review does not address the above three points. It gives a good view of the general conditions but also contains misconceptions, erroneous considerations and refutable comments indicating that the earlier reports by Bernander have not been fully understood by the panel members.

    As no up-to-date analysis of the stability of the North Spur has been provided, our conclusion is that an independent group of experts, appointed by government, should be entrusted with this important task.

  • 32.
    Lintzén, Nina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Snow storage: modelling, theory and some new research2018Ingår i: Cold Regions Science and Technology, ISSN 0165-232X, E-ISSN 1872-7441, Vol. 153, s. 45-54Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The arrival of natural snow is often delayed nowadays due to global warming. This causes problems for ski resorts and other places where winter activities in different forms take place. Storing snow provides one solution for the winter business industry to deal with this problem. However, there is so far very little research concerning this question. In this paper a review of current knowledge of snow storage and experiences from mainly Scandinavian snow storages is presented. New results concerning melting losses of stored snow from a trial experiment in the north of Sweden are presented. These results are compared to theoretical calculations. The model used for the calculations is shown to be useful for estimating melting losses of insulated piles of snow. Thus the calculations can serve as an important background when designing an insulated snow depot. The model can also be used to compare different insulating materials and to determine properties such as thickness of the insulating layer needed to sufficiently insulate the snow. By minimizing the surface area of insulated snow depots, melt rate due to heat from the air, sun and sky, which constitute the largest part of the total melt, can be reduced. The quality of insulating materials used will be subject to annual observation. Commonly used insulating materials such as bark, wood chips, cutter shavings and sawdust deteriorate.

  • 33.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The Future of the Tigris and Euphrates Water Resources in view of Climate Change2018Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 59-74Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate Change which results from global warming is affecting the Tigris and Euphrates River basins in similar ways to all other parts of the Middle East and the East Mediterranean region. This contains also what is historically known as the “Fertile Crescent”, which is threatened in the same way as the other parts and may disappear altogether. The climate change is manifested in increased temperatures, reduced precipitation in addition to erratic weather patterns and decreased annual stream flow of the two rivers. These phenomena have been markedly noticed during the last decades of the last century. Studies show that these changes are linked also to the variations of North Atlantic Pressure Oscillation (NAO) induced by Global Climate Change. Modeling studies on the future trends, in trying to define the magnitude of the changes to be anticipated, reveal clearly that these negative impacts are continuous in the future. But, the widely ranging projections and interpretations of different sources depict an uncertain future for the basin’s climatic conditions and indicate theneed for further modeling studies to reach more definitive conclusions. These studies show however, a drastic decline of the Euphrates and Tigris water resources at the end of this century by something like (30 to 70) %; as compared to their resources in the last three decades of the previous century. The wide variations in the projections emphasize the need of further future work on this matter. All in all, these studies should bring alarm to all responsible governments in the region to resort to long range planning by adopting rational policies in soils and water resources management to mitigate the adverse impacts that could hit human societies in these events.

  • 34.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Tjälproblem i lerterrass2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 35.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Environment Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon, Babylon 51001, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ezz-Aldeen, Mohammad
    Department of Dams and Water Resources Engineering, University of Mosul, Mosul 41001, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain Musa
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Kufa 51001, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Two Scenarios for Landfills Design in Special Conditions Using the HELP Model: A Case Study in Babylon Governorate, Iraq2018Ingår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikel-id 125Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The sound design of landfills is essential in order to protect human health and the environment (air, water, and soil). The study area, Babylon Governorate, is situated in the middle of Iraq, and is distinguished by a hot climate and shallow groundwater. The governorate did not have landfill sites that meet international criteria; in addition, the groundwater depth in Babylon Governorate is commonly shallow. Previously, the most important criteria for the study area and GIS software were used to select the best sites for locating landfills in the major cities of the governorate. In this study, the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP 3.95D) model was applied in order to ensure that there was no leakage of the leachate that results from the waste in the selected landfill sites. It is the most commonly utilized model for landfill design, and it is used to estimate water inflow through the soil layers. For the present study, to avoid groundwater pollution by leachate from a landfill site due to the shallow groundwater depth, compacted waste was placed on the surface using two height scenarios (2 m and 4 m). This design was developed using the soil properties of the selected sites coupled with the weather parameters in Babylon Governorate (precipitation, temperature, solar, and evapotranspiration) for a 12-year period covering 2005 to 2016. The results from both of the suggested landfill designs showed an absence of leachate from the bottom liner.

  • 36.
    Toromanovic, Jasmina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mattsson, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Utvärdering av dammars tillstånd2018Ingår i: SwedCOLD Nyhetsbrev, nr 2, s. 14-15Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 37.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    AlJawad, Sadeq
    Expert and Consultant Hydrogeologists, Baghdad, Iraq .
    Adamo, Nasrat
    LTU team.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG, Iraq and Private Con sultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water Quality within the Tigris and Euphrates Catchments2018Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 95-121Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Euphrates and Tigris Rivers are the longest two rivers in southwest Asia. The Basins of these rivers cover an area of 917 103 km2 which is occupied by about 46 million inhabitants. Four countries (Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Syria) share the basin area of the Tigris River and the other four (Turkey, Syria, Iraq and Saudi Arabia) share the catchment area of the Euphrates River. The flow of the two rivers is decreasing with time due to construction of dams in the upstream part of the basins and climate change. This has impacted the water quality of the two rivers. Iraq is highly affected followed by Syria. The salinity of Tigris Rivers has become alarming downstream Baghdad while the Euphrates water quality deteriorates before entering the Iraqi border. To overcome water quality deterioration, international, regional and national cooperation is required to reach prudent planning for water resources management of the two basins.

  • 38.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    LTU Team.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water Resources of the Euphrates River Catchment2018Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 1-20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The River Euphrates is the longest River in southwest Asia. Its length reaches 2786 km and drains an area of about 440000 km2, which is occupied by 23 million inhabitants. The Euphrates basin is shared by 5 countries (Iraq 47%, Turkey 28%, Syria 22%, Saudi Arabia 2.97%, Jordan 0.03%) where the first three countries are the main riparian. Climate change and construction of dams in the upper parts of the basin has reduced the flow downstream with time. The flow was about 30.6 BCM in Hit (Iraq) before 1974, and now it is about 4 BCM. Syria and Iraq are facing water shortage and quality deterioration problems, which require national, regional and international cooperation to overcome these problems.

  • 39.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water Resources of the Tigris River Catchment2018Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 21-42Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Tigris River is one of the longest rivers in western Asia. Its length is about 1800 km. It drains a catchment area of 473103 km2 divided in 4 countries (Turkey, Syria, Iran and Iraq). About 23 million people live within this catchment. The flow of the River Tigris is decreasing with time due to the construction of dams and climate change. The discharge of the Tigris River at Baghdad was 1,207 m3/s for the period 1931-1960 and since 2000 onward it is 522m3/s. Riparian countries (mainly Iraq and Iran) are facing water shortage problems. This requires prudent regional and national cooperation and management to overcome this problem.

  • 40.
    Ezz-Aldeen, Mohammad
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hassan, Rebwar
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ali, Ammar
    Department of Water Resources Engineering, Baghdad Universi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Watershed Sediment and Its Effect on Storage Capacity: Case Study of Dokan Dam Reservoir2018Ingår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, nr 7, artikel-id 858Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dokan is a multipurpose dam located on the Lesser Zab River in the Iraq/Kurdistan region. The dam has operated since 1959, and it drains an area of 11,690 km2. All reservoirs in the world suffer from sediment deposition. It is one of the main problems for reservoir life sustainability. Sustainable reservoir sediment-management practices enable the reservoir to function for a longer period of time by reducing reservoir sedimentation. This study aims to assess the annual runoff and sediment loads of the Dokan Dam watershed using the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model to evaluate the relative contributions in comparison with the total values delivered from both watershed and Lesser Zab River and to identify the basins with a high sediment load per unit area. These help in the process of developing a plan and strategy to manage sediment inflow and deposition. The SUFI-2 program was applied for a model calibrated based on the available field measurements of the adjacent Derbendekhan Dam watershed, which has similar geological formations, characteristics and weather. For the calibration period (1961–1968), the considered statistical criteria of determination coefficients and Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency were 0.75 and 0.64 for runoff while the coefficients were 0.65 and 0.63 for sediment load, respectively. The regionalization technique for parameter transformation from Derbendekhan to Dokan watershed was applied. Furthermore, the model was validated based on transformed parameters and the available observed flow at the Dokan watershed for the period (1961–1964); they gave reasonable results for the determination coefficients and Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency, which were 0.68 and 0.64, respectively. The results of SWAT project simulation for Dokan watershed for the period (1959–2014) indicated that the average annual runoff volume which entered the reservoir was about 2100 million cubic meters (MCM). The total sediment delivered to the reservoir was about 72 MCM over the 56 years of dam life, which is equivalent to 10% of the reservoir dead storage. Two regression formulas were presented to correlate the annual runoff volume and sediment load with annual rain depth for the studied area. In addition, a spatial distribution of average annual sediment load was constructed to identify the sub basin of the high contribution of sediment load.

  • 41.
    Pusch, Roland
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Warr, Laurence N.
    Department of Geography and Geology, University of Greifswald.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Yang, Ting
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    A review of cementitious sealants for Deep Boreholes with HLW2017Ingår i: Engineering Geology, ISSN 0013-7952, E-ISSN 1872-6917Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cement-based materials for use as sealants in underground waste storages must be erosion-resistant and chemically stable. Placement of highly radioactive waste (HLW) in boreholes may require that the rock is cement-grouted and stabilized by constructing concrete plugs. Where smectitic clay seals are in contact with concrete there is mutual degradation, and low-pH cement with inorganic superplasticizers, like talc, are recommended for preparing the concrete. This paper reviews our current state-of-knowledge concerning the grout and concrete sealing very deep boreholes (VDH) for purpose of high-level radioactive waste disposal.  In this concept, the lower 2 km section of 4 km deep holes bored in crystalline rock could host waste-containers while the upper parts are sealed by dense clay and concrete. The parts of a VDH that intersect fracture-poor rock are sealed with dense expandable clay while concrete is cast where fracture zones are intersected. The paper summarizes the available experimental results concerning the performance of grouts and concrete with talc as superplasticizer in contact with smectitic clay.

  • 42.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Erbil, Iraq.
    Sidiq, Sakar A.
    University of Kurdistan, Hawler, Erbil.
    Haris, Gowar H.
    University of Kurdistan, Hawler, Erbil.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Age Estimation of Qara Chattan Landslide, Using Exposure Dating Method, Sulaimaniyah, Northeast Iraq2017Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 1-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The northeastern part of Iraq; the Kurdistan Region is a mountainous area with rough topography that increases in relief differences and roughness towards north and northeast. Among those mountains is Pera Magroon with highest peak at elevation of 2773 m (a.s.l.) and relief difference with the southern plain of about 1000 m. Pera Magroon Mountain represents a double plunging anticline trending NW – SE; with many minor complications on both limbs. The oldest exposed rocks in the anticline belong to Late Jurassic, whereas the rocks of the Qamchuqa Formation form the carapace of the mountain. The southwestern limb is steeper than the northeastern one; almost being vertical. A very old and large landslide had occurred along the southwestern limb of Pera Magroon anticline ended near Qara Chattan village; therefore, it is called “Qara Chattan Landslide”. The landslide is a rock slide type with rectangular tongue-shaped and crescent-like toe area. The slid blocks belong to Qamchuqa Formation, range in size up to 3 m3; but the average size is about 1 m3. The Qara Chattan Slide had happened; most probably above an area that was originally an old alluvial fan. The slid mass has swiped the alluvial fan sediments as the large blocks were moving in very high speed down the slope during the sliding. However, on both sides of the landslide the remnant of the alluvial fan sediments can be seen in form of longitudinal and narrow masses; like embankments. To estimate the age of Qara Cahttan Landslide, the exposure dating method is used depending on the size, depth and length of the existing valleys, the age of the nearby landslide and alluvial fans, and historical data acquired from archaeological site. Accordingly, the age of the landslide is estimated to be few thousand years; during the Holocene.

  • 43.
    Toromanovic, Jasmina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Assessment of Arching and Cracking Potential by Numerical Modelling: A Case Study of the Mornos Dam2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 44.
    Hassan, Rebwar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ali, Ammar A.
    College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Ali, Salahalddin S.
    Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Bathymetry and siltation rate for Dokan Reservoir, Iraq2017Ingår i: Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management, ISSN 1320-5331, E-ISSN 1440-1770, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 179-189Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Dokan Reservoir dam is a concrete cylindrical arch with gravity abutments, located on the Lesser Zab River about 60 km from the city of Sulaimani in north-eastern Iraq. A bathymetric survey was conducted in November 2014 for a period of 10 days, using an echo sounder of 200-kHz single beam. The survey results indicated an annual average sediment deposition of 3.8 million m3. Thirty-two sediment samples were collected from the reservoir bed. The ratio of gravel, sand, silt and clay was 15:14:48:23, respectively. The reservoir bed is covered mainly with silt. The sediments are composed of silty clay (77.6%), silty sandy clay (10%), sandy gravely silty clay (1.2%) and gravely sandy silty clay (1%).

  • 45.
    Forsberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Yang, Ting
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Borehole seals of expandable clay with desired water content by use of “dry water”2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Seoul 2017, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dense clay can be used for sealing of boreholes and isolation of waste containers. Expansion of the clay to fill the space between containers and confining rock takes place by uptake of water of the clay, which thereby provides effective isolation. The issue is to prepare clay inserts with properly selected water content. The paper describes preparation of clay seals by mixing air-dry clay powder with nanoparticles of water droplets coated with very thin shells of a hydrophobic silicious substance (“dry water”). It behaves as dry powder and is easily mixed with dry clay. On compaction to the desired density the shells break into microscopic fragments while water becomes homogeneously distributed in the mass. Laboratory tests verify that the properties of clay prepared in this way are the same, or better, than of commonly saturated clay.

  • 46.
    Forsberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Yang, Ting
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Borehole seals of expandable clay with desired water content by use of “dry water”2017Ingår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dense clay can be used for sealing of boreholes. Keeping the clay confined in perforated tubes it can be inserted in boreholes of nearly any length and diameter. Expansion of the clay to fill the borehole takes place by uptake of water and migration of clay through the perforation. The clay thereby exerts a swelling pressure on the confining rock causing effective sealing. For shallow boreholes to be sealed a very low initial degree of water saturation of the clay may be valuable since this makes the clay expand and seal the hole quickly, but for certain cases the clay should have a higher degree of water saturation. This can be required for moderating the rate of clay densification that may otherwise give too high wall friction for placement in very long holes. Sealing of very deep holes and holes containing highly radioactive waste makes temperature important: the heat-induced expansion of initially fully saturated clay can fracture the confining rock. The issue is therefore to prepare the clay inserts withproperly selected water content. The paper describes preparation of clay seals by mixing air-dry clay powder with nanoparticles of water droplets coated with very thin shells of a hydrophobic silicious substance (“dry water”). It behaves as dry powder and is easily mixed with dry clay. On compaction to the desired density the shells break into aggregates of minute fragments while water becomes homogeneously distributed in the mass. Laboratory and bench-scale testing verify that the properties of clay prepared in this way are the same as of clay saturated by sorbing water through a filter, a process that can take hundreds of years for big samples. Keywords:borehole sealing, clay blocks, degree of saturation, density, “dry water”, water content1. IntroductionSeveral concepts for sealing of boreholes and disposal of radioactive waste make use of dense

  • 47.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Erbil, Iraq.
    Capigian, Arsen O.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Characters and Types of Alluvial Fans in the Middleand Eastern Parts of Iraq2017Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 115-140Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hundreds of alluvial fans are developed and still under development in thecentral and eastern parts of Iraq. The fans are of different sizes, types, shapes   andstages, laid down by rivers, permanent streams and valleys. The composition of  the sediments of the fans differs widely depending on the source of the sediments, the depositional area, size and type of the fan. Some of the alluvial fans have typical fan forms; others are hardly recognized, especially in the field; in nature; and more specifically when the fan areas are occupied as agricultural fields and/ or are very large with very gentle gradient that hinder their occurrences.Majority of the studied alluvial fans in the studied area are not presented on geological maps. This is attributed to the fact that they are not presented on the base geological maps because they are unrecognizable in the field, mainly because they have lost their fan shapes. Others; however, are presented even on the geological map of Iraq at scale of 1:1000000.In this study, the main alluvial fans are presented and described with the reason and form of their deposition. Accordingly, different types of alluvial fans are presented and described including their coverage areas, types, number of stages, shape and constituents. This is performed through interpretation of different types of satellite images, documented field data and the experience of theauthors with their long careers and expertize in the field.

  • 48.
    Forsberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Yang, Ting
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Clay/water mixture by use of nano-sized water droplets "dry-water"2017Ingår i: ICSMGE 2017: 19th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 19th ICSMGE Secretariat , 2017, s. 2367-2370Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dense clay can be used for sealing of boreholes and isolation of waste containers. Expansion of the clay to fill the space between containers and confining rock takes place by uptake of water of the clay, which thereby provides effective isolation. The issue is to prepare clay inserts with properly selected water content. The paper describes preparation of clay seals by mixing air-dry clay powder with nanoparticles of water droplets coated with very thin shells of a hydrophobic silicious substance ("dry water"). It behaves as dry powder and is easily mixed with dry clay. On compaction to the desired density the shells break into microscopic fragments while water becomes homogeneously distributed in the mass. Laboratory tests verify that the properties of clay prepared in this way are the same, or better, than of commonly saturated clay. © 2017 19th ICSMGE Secretariat. All rights reserved.

  • 49.
    Osman, Yasin
    et al.
    University of Bolton.
    Abdellatif, Mawada
    Liverpool JM University.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Jawad, Sadeq
    Iraqi Government, Prime Minister Advisory Commission.
    Climate Change and Future Precipitation in Arid Environment of Middle East: Case study of Iraq2017Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 25, s. 1-18, artikel-id 3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper impact of climate change on precipitation in the arid environment of Iraq is examined.  LARS-WG weather generator was applied to 5 representative regions to model current and future precipitation under climate change. Seven Global Climate Models (GCMs) have been employed to account for any uncertainty on future projection for three selected periods, 2011-2030, 2046-2065 and 2080-2099. Performance of LARS-WG in each site was first evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical test for fitting wet/dry days in each site, as well as comparison of the mean and standard deviation between the observed and simulated precipitation. The developed LARS-WG models were found to perform well and skilful in simulating precipitation in the arid regions of Iraq as evidenced by the tests carried and the comparison made. The precipitation models were then used to obtain future projections for precipitation using the IPCC scenario SRES A2. Future precipitation results show that most of the Iraq regions are projected to suffer a reduction in annual mean precipitation, especially by the end of the 21st century, while on a seasonal basis most of the regions are anticipated to be wetter in autumn and winter.

     

  • 50.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Environment Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain Musa
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Combining GIS Applications and Method of Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (AHP) for Landfill Siting in Al-Hashimiyah Qadhaa, Babylon, Iraq2017Ingår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, nr 11, artikel-id 1932Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill siting is a complex process. It is one of the major problems in waste management, where many factors should be taken into consideration when selecting a suitable site for landfill in any given area. At the present time, there are many random waste disposal sites distributed throughout Al-Hashimiyah Qadhaa in Iraq. In this study, the Geographic Information System (GIS) and the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) were used to select the best sites for landfill. The process of selecting sites for landfill in Al-Hashimiyah Qadhaa comprised two steps. First, fifteen different criteria were mapped and incorporated into overlay analyses within GIS software to produce the final suitability index map for the site. The second step comprises the exclusion of unsuitable areas from the final map to simplify identification of the candidate sites for landfill in the study area. The weightings of criteria were identified using AHP, and the weightings of the sub-criteria of each criterion were determined based on multiple factors. In order to accommodate solid waste from 2020 until 2030, two suitable candidate landfill sites were determined which fulfill the required area of 1.013 km2 with areas of 1.374 km2 and 1.288 km2 respectively.

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