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  • 1.
    Hultqvist, Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Vrček, Aleks
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Prakash, Braham
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Marklund, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Influence of lubricant pressure response on sub-surface stress in elastohydrodynamically lubricated finite line contacts2019In: Journal of tribology, ISSN 0742-4787, E-ISSN 1528-8897, Vol. 141, no 3, article id 031502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to adapt to increasingly stringent CO2 regulations, the automotive industry must develop and evaluate low cost, low emission solutions in the powertrain technology. This often implies increased power density and the use of low viscosity oils, leading to additional challenges related to the durability of various machine elements. Therefore, an increased understanding of lubricated contacts becomes important where oil viscosity-pressure and compressibility-pressure behaviour have been shown to influence the film thickness and pressure distribution in EHL contacts, further influencing the durability. In this work, a finite line EHL contact is analysed with focus on the oil compressibility- and viscositypressure response, comparing two oils with relatively different behaviour and its influence on subsurface stress concentrations in the contacting bodies. Results indicate that increased pressure gradients and pressure spikes, and therefore increased localized stress concentrations, can be expected for stiffer, less compressible oils, which under transient loading conditions not only affect the outlet but also the edges of the roller

  • 2.
    Vrček, Aleks
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Hultqvist, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Baubet, Yannick
    SKF, Nieuwegein.
    Björling, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Marklund, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Micro-pitting and wear assessment of engine oils operating under boundary lubrication conditions2019In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 129, p. 338-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current state-of-the-art engine oils tend to enhance micro-pitting damage in rolling contacts under certain operating conditions. ZDDP anti-wear additive was shown to promote such behavior. However, in order to optimize an engine oil formulation for rolling contacts, further studies are needed to assess engine oils in terms of micro-pitting and wear damage. This investigation studies the micro-pitting and wear performance of a number of engine oils for rolling contacts in a ball-on-disc configuration under conditions prevalent in crankshaft roller bearing applications. Based on the results it was concluded that an engine oil containing higher blend of PAO base oil compared to the oil mixture of Group III and PAO has a lower tendency towards micro-pitting and wear.

  • 3.
    Vrček, Aleks
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Hultqvist, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Baubet, Yannick
    SKF Engineering & Research Centre, Nieuwegein, The Netherlands.
    Björling, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Marklund, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Micro-Pitting and Wear Assessment of PAO vs Mineral-Based Engine Oil Operating under Mixed Lubrication Conditions: Effects of Lambda, Roughness Lay and Sliding Direction2019In: Lubricants, E-ISSN 2075-4442, Vol. 7, no 5, article id 42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Under certain operating conditions, rolling contacts have been shown to experience some challenges when lubricated with engine oils containing zinc dialkyldithophosphate (ZDDP) anti-wear additive. In order to better understand the main damage mechanisms during various operating conditions, further studies are needed. This article studies micro-pitting and wear damages of bearing steel surfaces under mixed lubrication conditions in a ball-on-disc setup, lubricated with different engine oils. Based on the results, micro-pitting and wear damage is shown to be highly case-dependent. In general, PAO-based engine oil tends to eliminate micro-pitting damage compared to mineral-based engine oil at less severe lubricating conditions. Moreover, a critical lambda was found for both oils, where the highest micro-pitting damage was observed. 

  • 4.
    Vrček, Aleks
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Hultqvist, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Baubet, Yannick
    SKF Research and Technology Development, Nieuwegein, Netherlands.
    Marklund, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Micro-pitting Damage of Bearing Steel Surfaces under Mixed Lubrication Conditions: Effects of Roughness, Hardness and ZDDP Additive2019In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 138, p. 239-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Micro-pitting presents a failure of the rolling/sliding contact metal asperities operating under boundary/mixed lubrication conditions. The studies have shown that micro-pitting failure competes with mild wear and that lubricant additives can have either detrimental or beneficial effects on micro-pitting evolution. This article describes a methodology to investigate micro-pitting damage on bearing steels using a twin-disc machine to better represent mechanical components, i.e. bearings, crankshafts, etc. In addition, effects of roughness, hardness and the ZDDP additive are presented and discussed. A sufficient hardness difference can completely eliminate micro-pitting damage mode. Furthermore, the presence of ZDDP anti-wear additive in fully formulated engine oil was shown to protect rougher surfaces and promote wear on smoother surfaces, thus completely eliminating the micro-pitting damage mode.

  • 5.
    Hultqvist, Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Shirzadegan, Mohammad
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Vrček, Aleks
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Baubet, Yannick
    SKF, Nieuwegein.
    Prakash, Braham
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Marklund, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Elastohydrodynamic lubrication for the finite line contact under transient loading conditions2018In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 127, p. 489-499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research related to elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) has led to improved performance and durability of machine elements where non-conformal contact geometries interact. Only a relatively small portion of the EHL literature has, however, dealt with the lubricating performance of finite line contacts under non-steady conditions, commonly found in many practical applications. The purpose of this work has thus been to further understand the behaviour of finite line EHL contacts under transient conditions by studying a finite length roller subjected to a time varying load using a full-system finite element approach. The transient load was shown to initiate oscillations in the system, governed by waves of lubricant moving through the contact, affecting both pressure and film thickness throughout the contact.

  • 6.
    Hultqvist, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Elastohydrodynamically lubricated finite line contacts operating under transient conditions2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of greenhouse gas emissions contributing to the global warming is today becoming an increasingly important problem worldwide and has led to increased efforts being made on improving tribological performance of interacting surfaces in mechanical systems. Due to increasingly stringent CO2regulations, a reduced fuel consumption has become a key area of interest for the automotive industry where low cost, low emission solutions are continuously developed and where low friction alternatives to machine elements currently in use are evaluated.

    Crankshaft roller bearings have been shown to reduce the mechanical friction in internal combustion engines compared to the plain (sliding) bearings used today, further leading to a reduced fuel consumption and thereby reduced CO2emissions. However, the transition from plain (sliding) bearings into crankshaft roller bearings means new challenges with e.g. increased noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) levels and reduced durability of the bearings. Therefore, in order to optimise the crankshaft roller bearings that operate under the highly transient conditions in the engine, an increased understanding of the tribological system is required.

    Research related to elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) has led to the possibility to improve friction performance and durability of machine elements where lubricated non-conformal contact geometries interact. Traditionally, simplifications of the contacting geometries and the assumption of steady-state conditions have often been applied to the EHL analysis. The purpose of this work has thus been to develop a simulation model based on previous work done in the field and further utilise the model to simulate the contact on a detailed level, incorporating transient effects and the influence of oil behaviour using state-of-the-art modelling.

    The influence of the piezoviscous response and the compressibility-pressure behaviour of the lubricant on the sub-surface stress field were studied, showing that stiff lubricants may lead to increased stress concentrations in the vicinity of the surface, which may further influence the durability of the bearing. It was also seen that highly transient loading conditions applied to the contact initiate oscillations in the lubricated system, affecting pressure, film thickness and sub-surface stresses over time. These findings further elucidate the importance of including non-steady behaviour while analysing highly transient lubricating conditions of EHL contacts. By considering and optimising the aforementioned effects during design of crankshaft roller bearings, an improved NVH performance and an increased durability of the crankshaft roller bearing may be achieved.

  • 7.
    Häggström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Hultqvist, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Energy harvesting from raceway strain in rolling element bearingsIn: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents how strain in rolling element bearings can be utilized to power embedded systems. Mechanical strain can be converted to the electrical domain by using piezoelectric materials; here, we present how piezoelectric patches should be dimensioned and mounted to optimize power output. Previous work has not addressed how repetitive strain in bearings can be used to harvest energy. Simulation data from the SKFtool BEAST are analyzed together with linear piezoelectricity to extract the power output. In the simulated case, results show that piezoelectric patches can be used to power embedded systems and that sensory data can be extracted to monitor the bearings.

1 - 7 of 7
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