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  • 1.
    Atmojo, Udayanto Dwi
    et al.
    Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Salcic, Zoran
    Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Wang, Kevin I-Kai
    The University of Auckland, 1415 Auckland, New Zealand .
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    A Service-Oriented Programming Approach for Dynamic Distributed Manufacturing Systems2020In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 150-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic reconfigurability and adaptability are crucial features of the future manufacturing systems that must be supported by adequate software technologies. Currently, they are typically achieved as add-ons to existing software tools and run-time systems, which are not based on any formal foundation such as formal model of computation (MoC). This paper presents the new programming paradigm of Service Oriented SystemJ (SOSJ), which targets dynamic distributed software systems suited for future manufacturing applications. SOSJ is built on a merger and the synergies of two programming concepts of (1) Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), to support dynamic software system composition, and (2) SystemJ programming language based on a formal MoC, which targets correct by construction design of static distributed software systems. The resulting programming paradigm allows the design and implementation of dynamic distributed software systems.

  • 2.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Dubinin, Victor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Penza, Penza region Russian Federation.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Automatic Generation of Control Flow from Requirements for Distributed Smart Grid Automation Control2020In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 403-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart grid is a Cyber-Physical System with a high level of complexity due to its de-centralized infrastructure. IEC 61850 and IEC 61499 are two industrial standards which can address the challenges introduced by the Smart Grid on the substation automation level. Development of Smart Grid automation software is very time consuming process due to the need to address many requirements and high degree of customisation in every new substation. This limits the adoption of such smart grid technologies as digital substation. This paper aims at addressing this limitation by applying a semi-formal boilerplates model of functional requirements originally presented in informal natural language. The boilerplates are then modelled formally in an ontology for MDE model transformation. The contribution of this paper is the development of the semi-formal and formal boilerplate representation in the form of ontology to formulate Smart Grid requirements and demonstrating how functional requirements can be translated to IEC 61499 control codes using MDE to auto-generate an IEC 61499 PAC control system with structure and control flow. The MDE framework augmented with the requirements models is illustrated on a case study from CIGRE representing different stages of modelling in the proposed framework.

  • 3.
    Chivilikhin, Daniil
    et al.
    Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, St. Petersburg 197101, Russia.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Chukharev, Konstantin
    Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, St. Petersburg 197101, Russia.
    Cordonnier, Anthony
    ENEDIS, Saint-Pierre-la-Palud 69210, France.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo 02150, Finland. Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, St. Petersburg 197101, Russia.
    Automatic state machine reconstruction from legacy PLC using data collection and SAT solver2020In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays an increasing number of industries are considering moving towards being Industry 4.0 compliant. But this transition is not straightforward: transfer to new system can lead to significant production downtime, resulting in delays and cost overruns. The best way is systematic seamless transition to newer and advanced technologies that Industry 4.0 offers. This paper proposes a framework based on automatic synthesis methods that learns the behavior of an existing legacy programmable logic controller (PLC) and generates state machines that can be incorporated into IEC 61499 function blocks. Proposed algorithms are based on Boolean satisfiability (SAT) solvers. The first algorithm accepts a set of noisy PLC traces and produces a set of candidate state machines that satisfy the traces. The second algorithm accepts error-free traces and synthesizes a modular controller that may be distributed across several physical devices. The toolchain architecture is exemplified on a laboratory scale Festo mechatronic system.

  • 4.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Pang, Cheng
    Googol Technology (Shenzhen) Ltd..
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Christensen, James H.
    Department of Research and Development, Holobloc Inc., Cleveland, OH.
    Guan, Xinping
    Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai.
    Discrete-Event-Based Deterministic Execution Semantics With Timestamps for Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems2020In: IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man & Cybernetics. Systems, ISSN 2168-2216, E-ISSN 1349-2543, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 851-862Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical systems (CPSs) are becoming common in the industrial automation domain. In industrial CPS, distributed programmable logic controllers collaborate to control manufacturing plants. Design and analysis of such systems require a system model that covers control, computation, and communication with physical plant dynamics. This paper focuses on execution semantics for industrial CPS with the aim of providing a deterministic and platform-independent execution environment. A discrete-event-based execution semantics augmented with timestamp mechanism is proposed for IEC 61499 to provide deterministic behavior and guarantee compliance with real-time constraints for industrial CPS. The timestamped discrete-event-based execution semantics is implemented in an IEC 61499 runtime with service-enabled features. A case study of building automation system is used to prove the proposed semantics.

  • 5.
    Cheng, Haibo
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China. Key Laboratory of Networked Control Systems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China. Institutes for Robotics and Intelligent Manufacturing, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110169, China. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, 02150 Espoo, Finland.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Zeng, Peng
    State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China. Key Laboratory of Networked Control Systems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China. Institutes for Robotics and Intelligent Manufacturing, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110169, China.
    Yu, Haibin
    State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China. Key Laboratory of Networked Control Systems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China. Institutes for Robotics and Intelligent Manufacturing, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110169, China.
    LSTM Based EFAST Global Sensitivity Analysis for Interwell Connectivity Evaluation Using Injection and Production Fluctuation Data2020In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, p. 67289-67299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In petroleum production system, interwell connectivity evaluation is a significant process to understand reservoir properties comprehensively, determine water injection rate scientifically, and enhance oil recovery effectively for oil and gas field. In this paper, a novel long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network based global sensitivity analysis (GSA) method is proposed to analyse injector-producer relationship. LSTM neural network is employed to build up the mapping relationship between production wells and surrounding injection wells using the massive historical injection and production fluctuation data of a synthetic reservoir model. Next, the extended Fourier amplitude sensitivity test (EFAST) based GSA approach is utilized to evaluate interwell connectivity on the basis of the generated LSTM model. Finally, the presented LSTM based EFAST sensitivity analysis method is applied to a benchmark test and a synthetic reservoir model. Experimental results show that the proposed technique is an efficient method for estimating interwell connectivity.

  • 6.
    Berezovskaya, Yulia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Mousavi, Arash
    IT Department, SCANIA CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, 02150 Helsinki, Finland.
    Minde, Tor Björn
    RISE SICS North, Luleå, Sweden.
    Modular Model of a Data Centre as a Tool for Improving Its Energy Efficiency2020In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, p. 46559-46573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For most modern data centres, it is of high value to select practical methods for improving energy efficiency and reducing energy waste. IT-equipment and cooling systems are the two most significant energy consumers in data centres, thus the energy efficiency of any data centre mainly relies on the energy efficiency of its computational and cooling systems. Existing techniques of optimising the energy usage of both these systems have to be compared. However, such experiments cannot be conducted in real plants as they may harm the electronic equipment. This paper proposes a modelling toolbox which enables building models of data centres of any scale and configuration with relative ease. The toolbox is implemented as a set of building blocks which model individual components of a typical data centre, such as processors, local fans, servers, units of cooling systems, it provides methods of adjusting the internal parameters of the building blocks, as well as contains constructors utilising the building blocks for building models of data centre systems of different levels from server to the server room. The data centre model is meant to accurate estimating the energy consumption as well as the evolution of the temperature of all computational nodes and the air temperature inside the data centre. The constructed model capable of substitute for the real data centre at examining the performance of different energy-saving strategies in dynamic mode: the model provides information about data centre operating states at each time point (as model outputs) and takes values of adjustable parameters as the control signals from system implementing energy-saving algorithm (as model inputs). For Module 1 of the SICS ICE data centre located in Luleå, Sweden, the model was constructed from the building blocks. After adjusting the internal parameters of the building blocks, the model demonstrated the behaviour quite close to real data from the SICS ICE data centre. Therefore the model is applicable to use as a substitute for the real data centre. Some examples of using the model for testing energy-saving strategies are presented at the end of the paper.

  • 7.
    Berezovskaya, Yulia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Mousavi, Arash
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Zhang, Xiaojing
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    A hybrid fault detection and diagnosis method in server rooms’ cooling systems2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data centers as all complex systems are prone to faults, and cost of them can be very high. This paper is focused on detecting the faults in the cooling systems, in particular on local fans level. In the paper, a hybrid approach is proposed. In the approach a model is used as substitute of the real system to generate dataset containing records of both normal and fault cases. On the generated data, machine learning algorithm or ensemble of algorithms are selected and trained to detect the faults. To demonstrate the approach, the rack model of real data center is created, and reliability of the model is shown. Using the model, the dataset with normal as well as abnormal records of data is generated. To detect faults of local fans, simple classifiers are built for all pairs: a local fan – a processor unit. Classifiers are trained on one part of generated data (training data), and then their accuracy is estimated on another part of generated data (test data). A real-time fault detection system is built based on the classifiers. The rack model is used as the substitute of the real plant to check operability of the system.

  • 8.
    Sinha, Roopak
    et al.
    IT and Software Engineering, Auckland New Zealand.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Gomes, Luis
    Fac. Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Monte de Caparica Portugal.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    A Survey of Static Formal Methods for Building Dependable Industrial Automation Systems2019In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 15, no 7, p. 3772-3783Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial automation systems need to be highly dependable; they should not merely function as expected but also do so in a reliable, safe and secure manner. Formal methods are mathematical techniques used to describe computer systems, both hardware, and software. Formal methods can greatly aid in developing dependable systems and can be used across all phases of the system development lifecycle, right from customer requirement gathering through design and implementation, verification and validation (testing), maintenance and even documentation. This state-of-the-art survey reports existing formal approaches for creating more dependable industrial automation systems, focussing on static or offline, as opposed to runtime or online, formal methods. This article categorises existing works as per the requirements engineering, design and implementation, and testing phases of the system development life cycle, allowing us to identify gaps in current research and promising future directions for each of these phases.

  • 9.
    Yli-Ojanperä, Matti
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Sierla, Seppo
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Papakonstantinou, Nikolaos
    VTT Technical Research Centre, Espoo, Finland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Adapting an agile manufacturing concept to the reference architecture model industry 4.0: A survey and case study2019In: Journal of Industrial Information Integration, ISSN 2452-414X, Vol. 15, p. 147-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry 4.0 architecture has been studied in a large number of publications in the fields of Industrial Internet of Things, Cyber Physical Production Systems, Enterprise Architectures, Enterprise Integration and Cloud Manufacturing. A large number of architectures have been proposed, but none of them has been adopted by a large number of research groups. Two major Industry 4.0 reference architectures have been developed by industry-driven initiatives, namely the German Industry 4.0 and the US-led Industrial Internet Consortium. These are the Reference Architecture Model Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet Reference Architecture, which are being standardized by the International Electrotechnical Commission and the Object Management Group, respectively. The first research goal of this article is to survey the literature on Industry 4.0 architectures in a factory context and assess awareness and compatibility with Reference Architecture Model Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet Reference Architecture. The second research goal is to adapt a previously proposed advanced manufacturing concept to Reference Architecture Model Industry 4.0. With respect to the first research goal, it was discovered that only a minority of researchers were aware of the said reference architectures and that in general authors offered no discussion about the compatibility of their proposals with any internationally standardized reference architecture for Industry 4.0. With respect to the second research goal, it was discovered that Reference Architecture Model Industry 4.0 was mature with respect to communication and information sharing in the scope of the connected world, that further standardization enabling interoperability of different vendors’ technology is still under development and that technology standardization enabling executable business processes between networked enterprises was lacking.

  • 10.
    Cheng, Haibo
    et al.
    Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Lab. of Networked Control Systems,Shenyang,China.
    Han, Xiaoning
    Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Lab. of Networked Control Systems,Shenyang,China.
    Zeng, Peng
    Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Lab. of Networked Control Systems,Shenyang,China.
    Yu, Haibin
    Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Lab. of Networked Control Systems,Shenyang,China.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    ANN based Interwell Connectivity Analysis in Cyber-Physical Petroleum Systems2019In: Proceedings: 2019 IEEE 17th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), IEEE, 2019, p. 199-205Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In cyber-physical petroleum systems (CPPS), accurate estimation of interwell connectivity is an important process to know reservoir properties comprehensively, determine water injection rate scientifically, and enhance oil recovery effectively for oil and gas (O&G) field. In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) based analysis method is proposed to estimate interwell connectivity. The generated neural network is used to define the mapping function between production wells and surrounding injection wells based on the historical water injection and liquid production data. Finally, the proposed method is applied to a synthetic reservoir model. Experimental results show that ANN based approach is an efficient method for analyzing interwell connectivity.

  • 11.
    Rantala, Miia
    et al.
    Semantum Oy, Espoo, Finland.
    Niemistö, Hannu
    Semantum Oy, Espoo, Finland.
    Karhela, Tommi
    Semantum Oy, Espoo, Finland; Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Sierla, Seppo
    Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Applying graph matching techniques to enhance reuse of plant design information2019In: Computers in industry (Print), ISSN 0166-3615, E-ISSN 1872-6194, Vol. 107, p. 81-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates how graph matching can be applied to process plant design data in order to support the reuse of previous designs. A literature review of existing graph matching algorithms is performed, and a group of algorithms is chosen for further testing. A use case from early phase plant design is presented. A methodology for addressing the use case is proposed, including graph simplification algorithms and node similarity measures, so that existing graph matching algorithms can be applied in the process plant domain. The proposed methodology is evaluated empirically on an industrial case consisting of design data from several pulp and paper plants. 

  • 12.
    Guellouz, Safa
    et al.
    School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Jinan University, Zhuhai 519070, China;Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany;Tunisia Polytechnic School, Tunis 1080, Tunisia;LISI Lab, INSAT, University of Carthage, Tunis 1080, Tunisia.
    Benzina, Adel
    LISI Lab, INSAT, University of Carthage, Tunis 1080, Tunisia;Higher Institute of Documentation, Manouba University, Manouba 2010, Tunisia.
    Khalgui, Mohamed
    School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Jinan University, Zhuhai 519070, China;National Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology, University of Carthage, Tunis 1080, Tunisia.
    Frey, Georg
    Chair of Automation and Energy Systems, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Li, Zhiwu
    nstitute of Systems Engineering, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau 999078, China;School of Electro-Mechanical Engineering, Xidian University, Xi'an 710071, China.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Designing Efficient Reconfigurable Control Systems Using IEC61499 and Symbolic Model Checking2019In: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, ISSN 1545-5955, E-ISSN 1558-3783, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 1110-1124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IEC 61499 provides a standardized approach for the development of distributed control systems. The standard introduces a component architecture, based on function blocks that are event-triggered components processing data and signals. However, it gives only limited support for the design of reconfigurable architectures. In particular, handling of several reconfiguration scenarios is quite heavy on this level since a scenario changes the execution model of the system due to requirements. To this end, a new IEC 61499-based model named reconfigurable function blocks (RFBs) is proposed. An RFB processes the reconfiguration events and switches directly to the suitable configuration using a hierarchical state machine model. The latter represents the reconfiguration model which reacts on changes in the environment in order to find an adequate reconfiguration scenario to be executed. Each scenario presents a particular sequence of algorithms, encapsulated in another execution control chart slave which represents the control model of an RFB. This hierarchy simplifies the design and separates the reconfiguration logic from control models. To verify its correctness and alleviate its state space explosion problem in model checking, this paper translates an RFB system automatically into a generalized model of reconfigurable timed net condition/event systems (GR-TNCES), a Petri net class that preserves the semantics of an RFB system. In this paper, along with verification of deterministic properties, we also propose to quantify and analyze some probabilistic properties. As a case study, we consider a smart-grid system, interpreting permanent faults in it as reconfiguration events, and we characterize them with the expected occurrence probability and the corresponding repair time. A tool chain ZiZo is developed to support the proposed approach.

  • 13.
    Chivilikhin, Daniil
    et al.
    Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia.
    Ulyantsev, Vladimir
    Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia.
    Shalyto, Anatoly
    Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Function Block Finite-State Model Identification Using SAT and CSP Solvers2019In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 15, no 8, p. 4558-4568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a two-stage exact approach for identifying finite-state models of function blocks based on given execution traces. First, a base finite-state model is inferred with a method based on translation to the Boolean satisfiability problem, and then, the base model is generalized by inferring minimal guard conditions of the state machine with a method based on translation to the constraint satisfaction problem.

  • 14.
    de Silva, D.
    et al.
    Research Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Australia.
    Pang, Z.
    ABB Corporate Research, Västeras, Sweden.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Guest Editorial: Special Section on Developments in Artificial Intelligence for Industrial Informatics2019In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 3690-3692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence of artificial intelligence (AI), empowered by robust computing infrastructure and abundance of data, maintains potential for radical transformation of human society, essentially a third phase in evolution. Numerous research endeavor, policy development, and thought-leadership are presently in progress aimed at discovering data-driven intelligent decision-making solutions for smart cities, smart grids, smart homes, and informed citizens as well as addressing potential risks posed by AI workplace automation. Joining this broad effort, this Special Section contributes six research articles that consolidate recent developments in AI for industrial informatics.

  • 15.
    Dubinin, Victor
    et al.
    Penza State University, Penza, Russian Federation.
    Voinov, Artem
    Penza State University, Penza, Russian Federation.
    Senokosov, Ilya
    Penza State University, Penza, Russian Federation.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland .
    Implementation of state transition models in IEC 61499 and its use for recognition and selection of sequences of events and objects2019In: Proceedings: 2019 IEEE 17th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), IEEE, 2019, p. 466-469Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient application of model-based software design methodologies in industrial automation requires methods and tools for automatic code generation. Formal models can be especially useful to avoid ambiguity, to verify and evaluate performance, which ultimately will improve the quality and reliability of the project and lead to lower design costs. This paper proposes methods for implementing state-transition formal models, such as finite state and pushdown automata, as well as extended Petri nets (A-nets) by means of IEC 61499 function blocks. These implementation approaches can be used in the design of industrial cyber-physical systems for monitoring, diagnostics, conformance checking, detection and selection of specified sequences of events and parameterized objects from an input stream. One of the proposed applications is illustrated using an example of an assembly process with LEGO blocks.

  • 16.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    Department of Automation Shanghai Jiao Tong University Shanghai, China .
    Nishi, Hiroaki
    Keio University, Yokohama, Japan.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Huang, Victor
    Sage Technology Resources, Cupertino, California United States.
    Shi, Yang
    Huawei Technologies Co, Ltd, China.
    Guan, Xinping
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
    Industrial Edge Computing: Enabling Embedded Intelligence2019In: IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, ISSN 1932-4529, E-ISSN 1941-0115, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 48-56, article id 8941000Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The term industrial edge computing is used to describe a distributed platform that integrates communication, computation, and storage resources for performing real-time applications that can be directly accessed from the cloud. A step toward the industrial Internet revolution, industrial edge computing is designed to facilitate agile connectivity, real-time control, and data optimization, while enabling intelligent applications, ensuring tight security, and protecting privacy. Industrial edge computing makes use of what is known as edge computing nodes (ECNs), which bridge the gap between the physical world and the digital world by acting as smart gateways for assets, services, and systems. The IEEE P2805 Standards are being developed for defining protocols for self-management, data acquisition, and machine learning through cloud-edge collaboration on ECNs.

  • 17. Jarvis, Dennis
    et al.
    Jarvis, Jaqueline
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Sinha, Roopak
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Janus: A Systems Engineering Approach to the Design of Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The benefits that arise from the adoption of a systems engineering approach to the design of engineered systems are well understood and documented. However, with software systems, different approaches are required given the changeability of requirements and the malleability of software. With the design of industrial cyber-physical systems, one is confronted with the challenge of designing engineered systems that have a significant software component. Furthermore, that software component must be able to seamlessly interact with both the enterprise’s business systems and industrial systems. In this paper, we present Janus, which together with the GORITE BDI agent framework, provides a methodology for the design of agent-based industrial cyber-physical systems. Central to the Janus approach is the development of a logical architecture as in traditional systems engineering and then the allocation of the logical requirements to a BDI (Belief Desire Intention) agent architecture which is derived from the physical architecture for the system. Janus has its origins in product manufacturing; in this paper, we apply it to the problem of Fault Location, Isolation and Service Restoration (FLISR) for power substations. 

  • 18.
    Dai, Wenbai
    et al.
    Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
    Wang, Peng
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Shenyang, China.
    Sun, Weiqi
    Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
    Wu, Xian
    Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
    Zhang, Hualiang
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Shenyang, China.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Yang, Genke
    Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
    Semantic Integration of Plug-and-Play Software Components for Industrial Edges Based on Microservices2019In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 125882-125892Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial cyber-physical system enables collaboration between distributed nodes across industrial clouds and edge devices. Flexibility and interoperability could be enhanced significantly by introducing the service-oriented architecture to industrial edge devices. From the industrial edge computing perspective, software components shall be dynamically composed across heterogeneous edge devices to perform various functionalities. In this paper, a knowledge-driven Microservice-based architecture to enable plug-and-play software components is proposed for industrial edges. These software components can be dynamically configured based on the orchestration of microservices with the support of the knowledge base and the reasoning process. These semantically enhanced plug-and-play microservices could provide rapid online reconfiguration without any programming efforts. The use of the plug-and-play software components is demonstrated by an assembly line example.

  • 19.
    Giovanelli, Christian
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Kikki, Olli
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Sierla, Seppo A.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Seilonen, Ilkka
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Task Allocation Algorithm for Energy Resources Providing Frequency Containment Reserves2019In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 677-688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The uncertainty caused by the variability in renewable energy production requires the engagement of consumer-side energy production and consumption to provide sufficient flexibility and reliability for the power grid. This study presents an algorithm for allocating tasks to distributed energy resources allowing consumers to provide flexibility for frequency containment reserves. The task allocation algorithm aims at supporting the plug and play of energy resources, and it avoids the need for hard real-time messages during the coordination of the resources. The algorithm combines a novel control strategy with an information and communication technology architecture. The main decision logic of the algorithm is defined together with the distributed control logic. A prototype implementation of the overall system for frequency control is used to evaluate the performance of the algorithm. The simulation results show that the algorithm achieves the specified objectives, and has advantages compared to the state of the art solution.

  • 20.
    Sinha, Roopak
    et al.
    Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Dowdeswell, Berry
    Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Helsinki .
    TORUS: Scalable Requirements Traceability for Large-Scale Cyber-Physical Systems2019In: ACM transactions on cyber-physicals systems, ISSN 2378-962X, Vol. 3, no 2, article id 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) contain intertwined and distributed software, hardware, and physical components to control complex physical processes. They find wide application in industrial systems, such as smart grid protection systems, which face increasingly complex communication and computation needs. Due to the scale and complexity of the interactions that occur within CPS, tracing requirements through to the system components and software code that implement them is often hard. Existing requirements management systems do not scale well, and traceability is difficult to implement and maintain in highly heterogeneous systems. However, the information trace that links provide is crucial for supporting testing and certification activities in safety-critical environments such as smart grids.

    The well-formed models of power systems provided by the IEC 61850 standard and the software design structure provided by the IEC 61499 Function Blocks standard can be leveraged to automate many traceability operations. We present Traceability of Requirements Using Splices (TORUS), a novel traceability framework for the development of large-scale safety-critical CPS. TORUS introduces splices, autonomous graph-based data structures that automatically create and manage trace links between requirements and components through the inevitable changes that occur during system development. The formal, graph-based structure of TORUS lends itself well to the development of sophisticated algorithms to automate the extraction of useful traceability information such as historical records and metrics for requirements coverage and component coupling. By capturing not only the current state of the system but also historical information, TORUS allows project teams to see a much richer view of the system and its artifacts.

    We apply TORUS to the development of a protection system for smart grid substations. In addition, through a number of experiments in splice creation, modification, and application of automated algorithms, we show that TORUS scales easily to large systems containing hundreds of thousands of requirements and system components and millions of possible trace links.

  • 21.
    Chivilikhin, Daniil
    et al.
    ITMO University,Computer Technologies Laboratory,St. Petersburg,Russia.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Cordonnier, Anthony
    INSA Strasbourg,Strasbourg,France.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Towards automatic state machine reconstruction from legacy PLC using data collection2019In: Proceedings: 2019 IEEE 17th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), IEEE, 2019, p. 147-151Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, more and more industries are considering moving towards being Industry 4.0 compliant. But this transition is not straightforward due to many reasons: in particular, transfer to new system can lead to significant production downtime and could result in delays and cost overruns. The best way is systematic seamless transition to newer and advanced technologies that Industry 4.0 offers. This paper proposes an automated synthesis framework that learns the behavior of existing legacy and often black-box programmable logic controllers and generates state machines that can be incorporated into IEC 61499 function blocks. The paper presents the toolchain architecture and exemplifies it on a laboratory scale Festo didactic mechatronic system.

  • 22.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    A case study on knowledge driven code generation for software-defined industrial cyber-physical systems2018In: IECON 2018: 44th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Automation.
    Riliskis, Laurynas
    Stanford University, Department of Computer Science.
    Wang, Peng
    Shenyang Institute of Automation, China Academy of Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Aalto University, Espoo.
    Guan, Xinping
    Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai.
    A Cloud-Based Decision Support System for Self-Healing in Distributed Automation Systems Using Fault Tree Analysis2018In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 989-1000Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Downtime is a key performance index for industrial automation systems. An industrial automation system achieves maximum productivity when its downtime is reduced to the minimum. One approach to minimize downtime is to predict system faults and recover from them automatically. A cloud-based decision support system is proposed for rapid problem identifications and to assist the self-management processes. By running multiple parallel simulations of control software with real-time inputs ahead of system time, faults could be detected and corrected automatically using autonomous industrial software agents. Fault trees, as well as control algorithms, are modeled using IEC 61499 function blocks that can be directly executed on both physical controllers and cloud services. A case study of water heating process is used to demonstrate the self-healing process supported by the cloud-based decision support system.

  • 24.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vesterlund, Mattias
    RISE SICS North, 973 47, Luleå.
    Eschmann, Sascha
    National Institute of Applied Sciences, Strasbourg, France.
    Berezovskaya, Yulia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Helsinki .
    Flieller, Damien
    National Institute of Applied Sciences, Strasbourg, France.
    A Comprehensive Model of Data Center: from CPU to Cooling Tower2018In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 6, p. 2169-3536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aiming at addressing environmental challenges, large data centers such as Facebook, Google, Yahoo, etc., are increasing share of green power in their daily energy consumption. Such trends drive research into new directions, e.g. sustainable data centers. The research often relies on expressive models that provides sufficient details however practical to re-use and expand. There is a lack of available data center models that capture internal operating states of the facility from the CPU to the cooling tower. It is a challenge to develop a model that allows to describe complete data center of any scale including its connection to the grid. This paper proposes such a model building on existing work. The challenge was to put the pieces of data center together and model behavior of each element so that interdependencies between components and parameters and operating states are captured correctly and in sufficient details. The proposed model was used in the project “Data center microgrid integration” and proven to be adequate and important to support such study.

  • 25.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    A flow-based heuristic algorithm for network operations planning in smart grids2018In: IECON 2018: 44th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Ovsiannikova, Polina
    et al.
    Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, Saint Petersburg, Russia.
    Chivilikhin, Daniil
    Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, Saint Petersburg, Russia.
    Ulyantsev, Vladimir
    Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, Saint Petersburg, Russia.
    Stankevich, Andrey
    Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, Saint Petersburg, Russia.
    Zakirzyanov, Ilya
    Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, Saint Petersburg, Russia.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, Saint Petersburg, Russia.
    Shalyto, Anatoly
    Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, Saint Petersburg, Russia.
    Active Learning of Formal Plant Models for Cyber-Physical Systems2018In: 2018 IEEE 16th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2018, p. 719-724, article id 8471924Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the world becomes more and more automated, the degree of cyber-physical systems involvement cannot be overestimated. A large part of them are safety-critical, thus, it is especially important to ensure their correctness before start of operation or reconfiguration. For this purpose the model checking approach should be used since it allows rigorously proving system correctness by checking all possible states. To ensure the compliance of controller-plant properties with system requirements, the closed-loop verification approach should be chosen, which requires not only a formal model of the controller, but also a formal model of the plant. In this paper we propose an approach for constructing formal models of context-free deterministic plants automatically using active learning algorithms. The case study shows its successful application to plant model generation for the elevator cyber-physical system.

  • 27.
    Patil, Sandeep
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Drozdov, Dmitrii
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Adapting Software Design Patterns To Develop Reusable IEC 61499 Function Block Applications2018In: 2018 IEEE 16th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), IEEE, 2018, p. 725-732Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design patterns in software engineering is a generic solution provided for repeatable problems occurring frequently in a software design. They are used a lot in the field of software engineering, especially for object-oriented software development. Different standards exist for design and development of industrial cyber-physical systems and the IEC 61499 standard is one of them. The standard presents a reference component architecture for design and development of distributed industrial cyber-physical systems. There is a lack of design patterns for application development with IEC 61499 standard and this paper address this by proposing some patterns. The design patterns presented are inspired by popular design patterns used in software engineering.

  • 28.
    Santillán Martínez, Gerardo
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Karhela, Tommi
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland .
    Ruusu, Reino
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Espoo.
    Sierla, Seppo A.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    An Integrated Implementation Methodology of a Lifecycle-Wide Tracking Simulation Architecture2018In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 6, p. 15391-15407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A tracking simulator is a decision support application in which dynamic estimation is used to continuously align the results of an online first principle simulation model with the measurements of the targeted plant. They are a holistic application where current and future plant information is available for operation support of process plants. Existing tracking simulators have focused on the application of online and offline methods for estimation of their underlying first principle models (FPMs). However, these systems have been less attractive than similar alternatives based on empirical modeling, due to the lack of systematic approaches that address challenges across the tracking simulation lifecycle, such as laborious development of FPMs and high integration costs with the process or with other systems and simulation methods. In contrast, the approach presented in this paper integrates a tracking simulation architecture and various simulation methods to address the described challenges as follows. In order to tackle time-consuming development of FPMs, a method for generating tracking simulation models from models created during design phase is proposed. The process of connecting the tracking simulator to the physical plant and initializing the tracking simulator is automated. An optimization method for tracking simulation applications is developed to overcome drawbacks of available methods. The simulation architecture developed applies the proposed methodology during the various phases of tracking simulation. Furthermore, it exploits industrial communication standards to avoid the need for point-to-point integration of various simulators and other systems used over the course of the tracking simulator lifecycle. The work is demonstrated with laboratory process equipment.

  • 29.
    Sierla, Seppo A.
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Kyrki, Ville
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Aarnio, Pekka
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Automatic assembly planning based on digital product descriptions2018In: Computers in industry (Print), ISSN 0166-3615, E-ISSN 1872-6194, Vol. 97, p. 34-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a new concept in which a digital twin derived from a digital product description will automatically perform assembly planning and orchestrate the production resources in a manufacturing cell. Thus the manufacturing cell has generic services with minimal assumptions about what kind of product will be assembled, while the digital product description is designed collaboratively between the designer at an OEM and automated services at potential manufacturers. This has several advantages. Firstly, the resulting versatile manufacturing facility can handle a broad variety of products with minimal or no reconfiguration effort, so it can cost-effectively offer its services to a large number of OEMs. Secondly, a solution is presented to the problem of performing concurrent product design and assembly planning over the organizational boundary. Thirdly, the product design at the OEM is not constrained to the capabilities of specific manufacturing facilities. The concept is presented in general terms in UML and an implementation is provided in a 3D simulation environment using Automation Markup Language for digital product descriptions. Finally, two case studies are presented and applications in a real industrial context are discussed

  • 30.
    Santillán Martínez, G.
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Helsinki .
    Sierla, S.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Helsinki .
    Karhela, T.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Helsinki .
    Lappalainen, J.
    VTT Technical Research Center of Finland Ltd, Espoo.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Helsinki .
    Automatic Generation of a High-Fidelity Dynamic Thermal-hydraulic Process Simulation Model from a 3D Plant Model2018In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 6, p. 45217-45232, article id 434288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic thermal-hydraulic simulation models have been extensively used by process industry for decision support in sectors such as power generation, mineral processing, pulp and paper, and oil and gas. Ever-growing competitiveness in the process industry forces experts to rely even more on dynamic simulation results to take decisions across the process plant lifecycle. However, time-consuming development of simulation models increases model generation costs, limiting their use in a wider number of applications. Detailed 3D plant models, developed during early plant engineering for process design, could potentially be used as a source of information to enable rapid development of high-fidelity simulation models. This paper presents a method for automatic generation of a thermal-hydraulic process simulation model from a 3D plant model. Process structure, dimensioning and component connection information included in the 3D plant model is extracted from the machine-readable export of the 3D design tool and used to automatically generate and configure a dynamic thermal-hydraulic simulation model. In particular, information about the piping dimensions and elevations is retrieved from the 3D plant model and used to calculate head loss coefficients of the pipelines and to configure the piping network model. This step, not considered in previous studies, is crucial for obtaining high-fidelity industrial process models. The proposed method is tested using a laboratory process and the results of the automatically generated model are compared with experimental data from the physical system as well as with a simulation model developed using design data utilized by existing methods on the state-of-the-art. Results show that the proposed method is able to generate high-fidelity models which are able to accurately predict the targeted system, even during operational transients.

  • 31.
    Gulzar, Kashif
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Ruusu, Reino
    VTT Technical Research Center of Finland Ltd, Espoo, Finland.
    Sierla, Seppo
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Karhela, Tommi
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Automatic Generation of a Lifecycle Analysis Model from a First Principles Industrial Process Simulation Model2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Model driven development of industrial process control systems has received extensive interest from the industrial informatics community. Another area of active interest has been the use of simulation of industrial processes in conjunction with control system design. However, the importance of sustainable development and environmental footprints are becoming increasingly important for the process industry, and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is the established technique for this purpose. LCA is currently being performed manually by a corps of engineers unaware of recent developments in industrial informatics. Thus LCA is a cumbersome process that cannot be integrated into a model driven development philosophy. This can significantly undermine the benefits from model driven development, since the outcome of LCA may result in significant change requests to the process design and consequently to the control system design. These problems could be overcome, if LCA could be brought under the scope of model driven development. This requires that the LCA model could be generated automatically into the LCA tool. This is feasible, since process designers ofter develop a first principles process simulation model that has the required information. This paper presents a methodology for automatic LCA model generation from a first-principles simulation model.

  • 32.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Automatic generation of a simulation-based digital twin of an industrial process plant2018In: IECON 2018: 44th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Mironovich, Vladimir
    et al.
    ITMO Univ, Comp Technol Lab, St Petersburg, Russia Aalto Univ, Dept Elect Engn & Automat, Espoo, Finland.
    Buzdalov, Maxim
    ITMO Univ, Comp Technol Lab, St Petersburg, Russia.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Helsinki .
    Automatic Plant-Controller Input/Output Matching using Evolutionary Algorithms2018In: 2018 IEEE 23RD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND FACTORY AUTOMATION (ETFA), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2018, p. 1043-1046Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automation of software development is an actively researched problem. Search-based software engineering aims to apply various search-based techniques to software engineering problems. Recently we proposed the method for automatic generation of function block application using evolutionary algorithms and model checking and applied it to the problem of automatic generation of data connections in distributed control system. The aim of this paper is to further study this method on the problem of matching of input and output connections in a closed-loop plant-controller system. The computed fitness function distribution shows that the evaluated method successfully determines the correct input and output connections between the controller and the plant. Additionally, we evaluate how the composition of specification requirements in the fitness function affects the performance of the (1+1) evolutionary algorithm. We show that additional liveness formulas can improve the performance of the algorithm, while the introduction of safety formulas significantly decreases it

  • 34.
    Pakonen, Antti
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Espoo, Finland.
    Buzhinsky, Igor
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Counterexample visualization and explanation for function block diagrams2018In: 2018 IEEE 16th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2018, p. 747-753, article id 8472025Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Model checking is a proven, effective method for verifying instrumentation and control system application logics. If a model of the system being verified does not satisfy a specification, the failure scenario is presented to the user as a counterexample trace. Analysis of the counterexample can be time-consuming if the trace is long, the model is large, or the specification is complex. Spurious counterexamples (“false negatives”) often exacerbate the problem. In this paper, we present a method that assists in identifying the root of the failure in both the model and the specification, by animating the model of the function block diagram as well as the LTL property. We also introduce a practical tool for visualizing LTL properties by animation and highlighting of important values based on causality. Using 43 actual design issues identified in practical nuclear industry projects, we then evaluate usefulness of the property visualization and explanation features.

  • 35.
    Chivilikhin, Daniil
    et al.
    ITMO Univ, Comp Technol Lab, St Petersburg, Russia.
    Buzhinsky, Igor
    ITMO Univ, Comp Technol Lab, St Petersburg, Russia Aalto Univ, Dept Elect Engn & Automat, Espoo, Finland.
    Ulyantsev, Vladimir
    ITMO Univ, Comp Technol Lab, St Petersburg, Russia.
    Stankevich, Andrey
    ITMO Univ, Comp Technol Lab, St Petersburg, Russia.
    Shalyto, Anatoly
    ITMO Univ, Comp Technol Lab, St Petersburg, Russia.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. ITMO Univ, Comp Technol Lab, St Petersburg, Russia Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Helsinki .
    Counterexample-guided inference of controller logic from execution traces and temporal formulas2018In: 2018 IEEE 23RD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND FACTORY AUTOMATION (ETFA), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2018, p. 91-98Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We developed an algorithm for inferring controller logic for cyber-physical systems (CPS) in the form of a state machine from given execution traces and linear temporal logic formulas. The algorithm implements an iterative counterexample-guided strategy: constraint programming is employed for constructing a minimal state machine from positive and negative traces (counterexamples) while formal verification is used for discovering new counterexamples. The proposed approach extends previous work by (1) considering a more intrinsic model of a state machine making the algorithm applicable to synthesizing CPS controller logic, and (2) using closed-loop verification which allows considering more expressive temporal properties.

  • 36.
    Atmojo, Udayanto Dwi
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Gulzar, Kashif
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Ma, Rongwei
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Hopsu, Alexander
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Makkonen, Henri
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Korhonen, Atte
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Phu, Long Tran
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Distributed control architecture for dynamic reconfiguration: Flexible assembly line case study2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the development of a distributed manufacturing case study enhanced with features that enable flexibility during the production process and the capability to continue the production process in case of fault scenarios. The approach described in this paper presents solutions to achieve the production of customized products, handle changes in product order, and minimize downtime and avoid total shutdown of the manufacturing system due to the occurrence of failures during the production process.

  • 37.
    Giovanelli, Christian
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Sierla, Seppo
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Ryutaro, Ichise
    National Institute of Informatics, Tokyo .
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Exploiting Artificial Neural Networks for the Prediction of Ancillary Energy Market Prices2018In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 115, no 7, article id 1906Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increase of distributed energy resources in the smart grid calls for new ways to profitably exploit these resources, which can participate in day-ahead ancillary energy markets by providing flexibility. Higher profits are available for resource owners that are able to anticipate price peaks and hours of low prices or zero prices, as well as to control the resource in such a way that exploits the price fluctuations. Thus, this study presents a solution in which artificial neural networks are exploited to predict the day-ahead ancillary energy market prices. The study employs the frequency containment reserve for the normal operations market as a case study and presents the methodology utilized for the prediction of the case study ancillary market prices. The relevant data sources for predicting the market prices are identified, then the frequency containment reserve market prices are analyzed and compared with the spot market prices. In addition, the methodology describes the choices behind the definition of the model validation method and the performance evaluation coefficient utilized in the study. Moreover, the empirical processes for designing an artificial neural network model are presented. The performance of the artificial neural network model is evaluated in detail by means of several experiments, showing robustness and adaptiveness to the fast-changing price behaviors. Finally, the developed artificial neural network model is shown to have better performance than two state of the art models, support vector regression and ARIMA, respectively

  • 38.
    Drozdov, Dmitrii
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Formal verification of protection functions for power distribution networks2018In: IECON 2018: 44th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Mironovich, Vladimir
    et al.
    ITMO University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
    Buzdalov, Maxim
    ITMO University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. ITMO University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia and Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    From fitness landscape analysis to designing evolutionary algorithms: the case study in automatic generation of function block applications2018In: GECCO '18: Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference Companion, New York: ACM Digital Library, 2018, p. 1902-1905Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Search-based software engineering, a discipline that often requires finding optimal solutions, can be a viable source for problems that bridge theory and practice of evolutionary computation. In this research we consider one such problem: generation of data connections in a distributed control application designed according to the IEC 61499 industry standard.

    We perform the analysis of the fitness landscape of this problem and find why exactly the simplistic (1 + 1) evolutionary algorithm is slower than expected when finding an optimal solution to this problem. To counteract, we develop a population-based algorithm that explicitly maximises diversity among the individuals in the population. We show that this measure indeed helps to improve the running times

  • 40.
    Prähofer, Herbert
    et al.
    Johannes Kepler University Linz, Linz, Austria.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Zoitl, Alois
    Johannes Kepler University Linz, Linz, Austria.
    Guest Editorial Information Technology in Automation2018In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 2745-2747Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The papers in this special section focus on information technology in industrial automation applications. Information technologies play a crucial role in the current and future developments of industrial automation. There are numerous strategic agendas on future manufacturing that have appeared recently worldwide and all of them emphasize the role of information technologies in automation in shaping up the future of production industries. For example, according to the German development agenda Industrie 4.0, the main driving force of the new industrial revolution is the Internet of things (IoT) and Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). The IoT concept is becoming a major driver for many industrial applications. In manufacturing, it leads to flattening of the control pyramid, thus, increasing flexibility and enabling unprecedented level of production flexibility and adaptability, making it possible and feasible to produce products in smaller amounts, with shorter time to markets and higher economic efficiency. In the manufacturing environment, CPS comprise smart machines, storage systems, and production facilities capable of autonomously exchanging information, triggering actions, and controlling each other independently. The research community effort has been focusing on systems interoperability, performance, and efficiency of the design process, as well as assurance in the correctness of systems behavior.

  • 41.
    Kleyko, Denis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Papakonstantinou, Nikolaos
    VTT Technical Research Center of Finland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Finland.
    Hyperdimensional computing in industrial systems: the use-case of distributed fault isolation in a power plant2018In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 6, p. 30766-30777Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an approach for distributed fault isolation in a generic system of systems. The proposed approach is based on the principles of hyperdimensional computing. In particular, the recently proposed method called Holographic Graph Neuron is used. We present a distributed version of Holographic Graph Neuron and evaluate its performance on the problem of fault isolation in a complex power plant model. Compared to conventional machine learning methods applied in the context of the same scenario the proposed approach shows comparable performance while being distributed and requiring simple binary operations, which allow for a fast and efficient implementation in hardware.

  • 42.
    Dubinin, Victor
    et al.
    Penza State University, Penza, Russian Federation.
    Voinov, Artem
    Penza State University, Penza, Russian Federation.
    Senokosov, Ilya
    Penza State University, Penza, Russian Federation.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Implementation of distributed semaphores in IEC 61499 with consensus protocols2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An approach is proposed for the implementation of distributed semaphores in the IEC 61499 architecture on the basis of protocols for solving consensus in a network of unreliable processes that allows developing function blockbased control applications with complex types of interactions using the resources sharing. The models of distributed semaphores (in the form of coloured Petri nets) based on Paxos and Raft protocols for solving consensus are developed, simulation experiments are performed in the CPN Tools, comparative analysis and recommendations are given.

  • 43. Kalachev, Andrei
    et al.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Intelligent mechatronic system with decentralised control and multi-agent planning2018In: IECON 2018: 44th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Sorouri, Majid
    et al.
    Faculty of Engineering, Science and Research Branch Islamic Azad University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia. Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Intelligent product and mechatronic software components enabling mass customisation in advanced production systems2018In: Service Oriented Computing and Applications, ISSN 1863-2386, E-ISSN 1863-2394, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 73-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Up to the present time, the control software design of production systems has been developed to produce a certain number of goods, in a centralised manner and through a case-by-case, timely and costly process. Therefore, the current control design approaches hinder factories in their pursuit to acquire the essential capabilities needed in order to survive in this customer-driven and highly competitive market. Some of these vital production competencies include mass customisation, fault tolerance reconfigurability, handling complexity, scalability and agility. The intention of this research is to propose a uniform architecture for control software design of collaborative manufacturing systems. It introduces software components named as modular, intelligent, and real-time agents (MIRAs) that represent both intelligent products as clients (C-MIRA) and machines or robots as operators (O-MIRAs) in a production system. C-MIRAs are in constant interaction with customers and operators through human machine interfaces, and are responsible for transforming products from concepts up to full realisation of them with the least possible human intervention. This architecture is built upon the IEC 61499 standard which is recognised for facilitating the distributed control design of automation systems; however, it also takes into account the intelligent product concept and envisages the machines’ control to be composed of a set of modular software components with standardised interfaces. This approach makes the software components intuitive and easy to install, to create the desired behaviour for collaborative manufacturing systems and ultimately paves the way towards mass customisation. A simplified food production case study, whose control is synthesised using the proposed approach, is chosen as an illustrative example for the proposed methodology.

  • 45.
    Nefedov, Evgeny
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Sierla, Seppo
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Internet of Energy Approach for Sustainable Use of Electric Vehicles as Energy Storage of Prosumer Buildings2018In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, no 8, article id 2165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle-to-building (V2B) technology permits bypassing the power grid in order to supply power to a building from electric vehicle (EV) batteries in the parking lot. This paper investigates the hypothesis stating that the increasing number of EVs on our roads can be also beneficial for making buildings sustainably greener on account of using V2B technology in conjunction with local photovoltaic (PV) generation. It is assumed that there is no local battery storage other than EVs and that the EV batteries are fully available for driving, so that the EVs batteries must be at the intended state of charge at the departure time announced by the EV driver. Our goal is to exploit the potential of the EV batteries capacity as much as possible in order to permit a large area of solar panels, so that even on sunny days all PV power can be used to supply the building needs or the EV charging at the parking lot. A system architecture and collaboration protocols that account for uncertainties in EV behaviour are proposed. The proposed approach is proven in simulation covering one year period for three locations in different climatic regions of the US, resulting in the electricity bill reductions of 15.8%, 9.1% and 4.9% for California, New Jersey and Alaska, respectively. These results are compared to state-of-the-art research in combining V2B with PV or wind power generation. It is concluded that the achieved electricity bill reductions are superior to the state-of-the-art, because previous work is based on problem formulations that exploit only a part of the potential EV battery capacity

  • 46.
    Dai, Wenbin
    et al.
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China.
    Song, Yineng
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China.
    Zhang, Zhijie
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China.
    Wang, Peng
    Chinese Academy of Science, Shenyang Institute of Automation.
    Pang, Cheng
    Zhuxi Wisdom Valley, Jiangmen Goobotics Research Institute, Jiangmen, China.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Modelling Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems using IEC 61499 and OPC UA2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems (iCPS) are considered as the enabling technology for achieve Industry 4.0. One main characteristic of the iCPS is the information transparency to allow interoperability among various devices and systems. The OPC UA provides a common information model for connecting Industry 4.0 components. On the other hand, the IEC 61499 is commonly used as an executable modeling language for iCPS. The IEC 61499 function block network provides an abstract view of the system configuration. By combining IEC 61499 and OPC UA, a visual executable model for iCPS is completed. In this paper, the mapping between two standards are provided and a case study of the proposed mapping is given.

  • 47.
    Buzhinsky, Igor
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Modular Plant Model Synthesis from Behavior Traces and Temporal Properties2018In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA), Piscataway, Nj: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, Vol. F134116Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliability of industrial automation software, which is usually ensured with testing and simulation, can be improved using formal analysis and, in particular, the technique of model checking. In model checking, considering the closed loop composition of the plant model and the controller model allows checking a larger class of properties than in the more traditional open-loop case, where the model of the controller is verified alone. Constructing the formal model of the plant automatically may significantly reduce human workload and mitigate the human factor issue. Commonly, complex industrial plants and controllers have modular structure, and thus the problem of automatic construction of a modular plant model is important. This paper proposes two techniques which extend an earlier proposed method of monolithic plant model construction to the modular case.

  • 48.
    Altmojo, Udayanto Dwi
    et al.
    Aalto Univ, Dept Elect Engn & Automat, Aalto, Finland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Aalto Univ, Dept Elect Engn & Automat, Espoo, Finland.
    Salcic, Zoran
    Univ Auckland, Dept Elect & Comp Engn, Auckland, New Zealand.
    On Achieving Reliable Communication in IEC 614992018In: 2018 IEEE 23RD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND FACTORY AUTOMATION (ETFA), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2018, p. 147-154Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a novel extension for communication in the IEC 61499 standard. Inspired by the features found in the formal programming language SystemJ, the extension supports reliable and guaranteed communication in distributed execution of function block application(s)/program(s). The extension utilizes mechanisms agnostic on underlying network protocols and are based on formal semantics that guarantee data delivery. The use of proposed extension, called channel, is demonstrated in an industrial automation-type example.

  • 49.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    On automated co-simulation testing of functional requirements for distributed substation automation systems2018In: IECON 2018: 44th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Jarvis, Dennis
    et al.
    Cent Queensland Univ, Sch Engn & Technol, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    Jarvis, Jacqueline
    Cent Queensland Univ, Sch Engn & Technol, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    Kalachev, Andrei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Aalto Univ, Dept Elect Engn & Automat, Espoo, Finland.
    PROSA/G: An architecture for agent-based manufacturing execution2018In: 2018 IEEE 23RD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND FACTORY AUTOMATION (ETFA), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2018, p. 155-160Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It had always been the intention of the agent-based manufacturing community that software agents would provide a vertical integration capability for manufacturing enterprises by linking the control world with the business world. In this paper, we introduce the PROSA/G conceptual model, which extends the widely used PROSA reference architecture with a goal-based execution model that employs both BDI semantics and a business process modelling metaphor. PROSA/G is is grounded in the GORITE software framework and its efficacy is demonstrated through the implementation of an agent-based execution system for a simple manufacturing system controlled by IEC 61499 function blocks.

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