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  • 1.
    Huikkola, Tuomas
    et al.
    University of Vaasa.
    Kohtamäki, Marko
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. University of Vaasa, Vaasa, Finland. USN Business School, Notodden, Norway.
    Agile New Solution Development in Manufacturing Companies2020In: Technology Innovation Management Review, ISSN 1927-0321, E-ISSN 1927-0321, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 16-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This conceptual paper proposes a new agile solution development model for technology and manufacturing companies. The flexible model consists of five key phases: 1) new idea screening, 2) idea nurturing, 3) conversion of ideas into "good enough" solutions, 4) solution productization, and 5) solution revamping. These phases are iterative by nature and follow partial stage model logic, hence combining elements of both the waterfall and agile methods. For technology and manufacturing companies, the new model presents a new way to consider ideas related to new product, service, process, and business model development. It is framed in contrast with older models that are typically product oriented, which potentially restrict companies in the ability to strategically renew themselves fast enough in turbulent product-service markets.

  • 2.
    Kuivalainen, Janne
    et al.
    Danfoss Corporation.
    Kunttu, Iivari
    Häme University of Applied Sciences.
    Kohtamäki, Marko
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design. University of Vaasa. USN Business School.
    Agile Product Development Practices for Coping with Learning Paradox in R&D Offshore Units2020In: Technology Innovation Management Review, ISSN 1927-0321, E-ISSN 1927-0321, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 70-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    R&D offshoring involves the relocation of in-house R&D activities to subsidiary units located in other countries, often associated with low-cost engineering work, to meet global operational requirements. The main motivation behind R&D offshoring by global technology companies is usually to utilize local resources, knowledge, and competencies provided by geographically dispersed subsidiaries in the most effective manner, which in most cases involves high expectations for project performance. However, offshore units often have their own local interests, such as developing their activities to compete with the company's other global R&D units, by not only building their project performance, but also demonstrating learning and innovativeness. This causes a learning paradox in which the R&D unit is expected to possess capabilities for innovation and learning, while at the same time demonstrating a high product development performance. This paper presents a qualitative case study that analyzes how R&D managers in the offshore units of a global technology company can cope with conflicting tensions between learning and performance. The results present a variety of coping practices that are based on developing local innovation strategies, constant learning, and supporting local innovation culture. The results also underline the meaning of agile working models in facilitating local innovation activities.

  • 3.
    Sjödin, David
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. University of South Eastern Norway, USN Business School, Norway.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. University of South Eastern Norway, USN Business School, Norway. Networked Value Systems University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Kohtamäki, Marko
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design. University of South Eastern Norway, USN Business School, Norway. Networked Value Systems University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Entrepreneurship and Management at Hanken School of Economics, Finland. Entrepreneurship and Innovation at University of St.Gallen Global Center Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Institute of Technology Management, Switzerland.
    An agile co-creation process for digital servitization: A micro-service innovation approach2020In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 112, p. 478-491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we explore how manufacturing firms and their customers co-create digital service innovations in an attempt to address the digitalization paradox. We present empirical insights from a case study of four manufacturers and their customer relationships. The results suggest that value co-creation in digital servitization is best managed through an agile micro-service innovation approach. Such an approach requires incremental micro-service investments, sprint-based micro-service development, and micro-service learning by doing to ensure customized and scalable digital service offerings. The proposed agile co-creation model provides insight into the phases, activities, and organizational principles of a micro-service innovation approach. Relational teams that pool knowledge from providers’ and customers’ strategic, technological, and operational areas are crucial to ensure successful cooperation and governance for agile co-creation. This paper offers insight into how companies engage in agile co-creation processes, with important recommendations for innovation in manufacturing firms in the era of digitalization.

  • 4.
    Kolagar, Milad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Shahrood University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Hassan
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Shahrood University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Felegari, Ramin
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Shahrood University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Developing a new BWM-based GMAFMA approach for evaluation of potential risks and failure modes in production processes2020In: International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, ISSN 0265-671X, E-ISSN 1758-6682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Nowadays, the risk assessment and reliability engineering of various production processes have become an inevitable necessity. Because if these risks are not going to be evaluated and no solution is going to be taken for their prevention, managing them would be really hard and costly in case of their occurrence. The importance of this issue is much higher in producing healthcare products due to their quality's direct impact on the health of individuals and society.

    Design/methodology/approach

    One of the most common approaches of risk assessment is the failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), which is facing some limitations in practice. In this research, a new generalized multi-attribute failure mode analysis approach has been proposed by utilizing the best–worst method and linguistic 2-tuple representation in order to evaluate the production process of hemodialysis solution in a case of Tehran, Iran.

    Findings

    According to the results, entry of waste to the mixing tanker, impurity of raw materials and ingredients and fracture of the mixer screw have been identified as the most important potential failures. At last, the results of this research have been compared with the previous studies.

    Originality/value

    Some reinforcement attributes have been added to the traditional FMEA attributes in order to improve the results. Also, the problems of identical weights for attributes, inaccuracy in experts' opinions and the uncertainties in prioritizing the potential failures were improved. Furthermore, in addition to the need for less comparative data, the proposed approach is more accurate and comprehensive in its results.

  • 5.
    Shepherd, Dean A.
    et al.
    Mendoza College of Business, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, USA.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland. Global Center Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Institute of Technology Management, University of St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Entrepreneurship and Poverty Alleviation: The Importance of Health and Children’s Education for Slum Entrepreneurs2020In: Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, ISSN 1042-2587, E-ISSN 1540-6520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has focused on the role of entrepreneurial action in alleviating poverty. However, there is a gap between individuals’ short-term outcomes from entrepreneurship overcoming immediate resource concerns and the large-scale impact of entrepreneurship on institutional and system change. Therefore, in this study, we explore entrepreneurs’ beliefs about how entrepreneurial action can alleviate poverty. To do so, we conducted a qualitative study of entrepreneurs of businesses located in Indian slums and identified the impact of expectations, role models, and the subjective value of their children’s education in attempts to alleviate poverty.

  • 6.
    Kohtamäki, Marko
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design. University of Vaasa, School of Management, PO Box 700, FI-65101, Vaasa, Finland. University of South-Eastern Norway, USN Business School, PO Box 700, FI-65101, Vaasa, Finland.
    Einola, Suvi
    University of Vaasa, School of Management, PO Box 700, FI-65101, Vaasa, Finland.
    Rabetino, Rodrigo
    University of Vaasa, School of Management, PO Box 700, FI-65101, Vaasa, Finland.
    Exploring servitization through the paradox lens: Coping practices in servitization2020In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, article id 107619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study analyzes the coping practices that emerge when a manufacturer of standardized products and add-on services expands to provide customized solutions. Based on a comparative case study methodology conducted across four case companies, and an analysis of extensive documentary data, the study challenges the dichotomous ‘either-or thinking’ in servitization research and highlights ‘both-and thinking’ by identifying both paradoxes and coping practices. The study extends the literature by identifying four paradoxes in servitization: 1) effectiveness in the customization of solutions vs. efficiency in product manufacturing, 2) building a customer orientation vs. maintaining an engineering mindset, 3) organizing product and service integration vs. separated services and product organizations, and 4) exploratory innovation in solutions vs. exploitative innovation in product manufacturing. Moreover, the study identifies nine practices that manufacturing companies apply when coping with the paradoxical challenges that emerge during servitization. The findings may help manufacturing companies understand, accept, and address paradoxical challenges and balance tensions, as not all tensions can be resolved. The identification of these paradoxes allows us to understand the difficulties that manufacturing companies face during the servitization process and may help explain the servitization-deservitization trend among some manufacturing companies that some recent studies have identified.

  • 7.
    Malmström, Malin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Wesemann, Henrik
    University of St. Gallen.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Hanken School of Economics. University of St. Gallen.
    How Women Can Improve Their Venture Pitch Outcomes2020In: MIT Sloan Management Review, ISSN 1532-9194, E-ISSN 1532-8937, Vol. 61, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Successful entrepreneurs are aware of potentially biased responses to their pitches and take control of the conversation.

  • 8.
    Sköld, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics, House of Innovation & Scania Research Center, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Freij, Åke
    Stockholm School of Economics, House of Innovation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    New entrant or incumbent advantage in light of regulatory change: A multiple case study of the Swedish life insurance industry2020In: European Management Review, ISSN 1740-4754, E-ISSN 1740-4762, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 209-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When an industry is disrupted, the predominant view is that new entrants benefit at the expense of incumbents, who are pictured as slow‐moving, inert, and incapable to change. Based on a longitudinal multiple case study with data over a 15‐year period, we challenge this view. By studying the action responses of three incumbent firms and three new entrants to a major regulatory change in the life insurance industry, we find that both incumbents and new entrants can succeed if complementary assets are correctly managed. In particular, firms need to acquire and refine certain key assets needed for exploiting new business opportunities and, subsequently, need to enhance the value of their complementary assets by transforming them from generic to specialized and on to co‐specialized stages. These findings have theoretical implications for the literature on strategy and innovation management. In addition, we outline important managerial implications to transform complementary assets to stages with higher value.

  • 9.
    Talaoui, Yassine
    et al.
    School of Management, University of Vaasa, Vaasa, Finland.
    Kohtamäki, Marko
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. School of Management, University of Vaasa, Vaasa, Finland. USN Business School, University of South-Eastern Norway, Kongsberg, Norway. .
    Of BI research: a tale of two communities2020In: Management Research Review, ISSN 2040-8269, E-ISSN 2040-8277Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The business intelligence (BI) literature is in a flux, yet the knowledge about its varying theoretical roots remains elusive. This state of affairs draws from two different scientific communities (informatics and business) that have generated multiple research streams, which duplicate research, neglect each other’s contributions and overlook important research gaps. In response, the authors structure the BI scientific landscape and map its evolution to offer scholars a clear view of where research on BI stands and the way forward. For this endeavor, the authors systematically review articles published in top-tier ABS journals and identify 120 articles covering 35 years of scientific research on BI. The authors then run a co-citation analysis of selected articles and their reference lists. This yields the structuring of BI scholarly community around six research clusters: environmental scanning (ES), competitive intelligence (CI), market intelligence (MI), decision support (DS), analytical technologies (AT) and analytical capabilities (AC). The co-citation network exposed overlapping and divergent theoretical roots across the six clusters and permitted mapping the evolution of BI research following two pendulum swings. This study aims to contribute by structuring the theoretical landscape of BI research, deciphering the theoretical roots of BI literature, mapping the evolution of BI scholarly community and suggesting an agenda for future research.

    Design/methodology/approach

    This paper follows a systematic methodology to isolate peer-reviewed papers on BI published in top-tier ABS journals.

    Findings

    The authors present the structuring of BI scholarly community around six research clusters: ES, CI, MI, DS, AT and AC. The authors also expose overlapping and divergent theoretical roots across the six clusters and map the evolution of BI following two pendulum swings. In light of the structure and evolution of the BI research, the authors offer a future research agenda for BI research.

    Originality/value

    This study contributes by elucidating the theoretical underpinnings of the BI literature and shedding light upon the evolution, the contributions, and the research gaps for each of the six clusters composing the BI body of knowledge.

  • 10.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Performance outcomes from reciprocal altruism: a multi-level model2020In: Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 0827-6331, E-ISSN 2169-2610, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 227-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, many small- and medium-sized firms have joined formal strategic networks in an effort to enhance firm performance. We set out to examine how altruistic behavior by these firms affected their performance at different levels of altruistic norms within their network. Using a multi-level analytic approach and data from a population of Swedish strategic networks, we found significant cross-level moderating effects that explained variance in firm-level performance. The results showed that firms participating in strategic networks benefit more from being altruistic when other network members generally display high levels of altruism. Apparently, altruistic behaviors are rewarded relative to a general network norm. The potential to perform well thus depends on aligning a firm’s altruistic behavior with the general level of altruism in its network.

  • 11.
    Vesalainen, J.
    et al.
    University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Rajala, A.
    University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Hanken School of Economics, University of St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Purchasers as boundary spanners: Mapping purchasing agents' persuasive orientations2020In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 84, p. 224-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study introduces a framework of persuasive communication that is central to understanding how individual purchasers behave as boundary spanners to manage customer–supplier relationships. Drawing on the institutional theory and multiple governance approach, we assume authoritarian, competitive, and relational behavioral orientations reflect institutional logics at an individual level. Purchasers' boundary-spanner behavior thus manifests itself as individual purchasers' rhetorical orientations. In a sample of 349 purchasers, we find support for the existence of four configurations of orientations: competitive/authoritarian, relational, comprehensive, and neutral. A subsequent follow-up study of 20 interviews with the most typical representatives of each group suggests storylines that reflect the background and logic of different persuasive styles. The findings highlight purchaser persuasive orientation as one facet of a purchaser capability set making it possible to cope with the transactional versus relational paradox in buyer–seller relationship contexts. 

  • 12.
    Shepherd, Dean A.
    et al.
    Mendoza College of Business, University of Notre Dame Notre Dame, IN, USA.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Malmström, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Hanken School of Economics, University of St.Gallen.
    Rallying the Troops and Defending against Sanctions: A Government Body Breaking Decision‐Making Rules to Fund Entrepreneurial Ventures2020In: Journal of Management Studies, ISSN 0022-2380, E-ISSN 1467-6486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical to top management’s organizing efforts are the formal rules for how organizational members are to make decisions. However, employees can break top management’s decision‐making rules. Although scholars have investigated rule breaking at the individual and group levels of analysis, research is needed into how members come together as a group to break an organization’s decision‐making rules, and how groups’ rule breaking persists. To address this important research gap, we draw from a real‐time qualitative investigation of both the breaking and following of decision‐making rules to develop a group model that: (1) explains how an individual can trigger his or her group to break decision‐making rules to generate perceived benefits for the group and/or others external to the organization, (2) provides insights into the mechanisms by which rule breaking persists, and (3) highlights the norms of developing and perpetuating groups’ breaking decision‐making rules.

  • 13.
    Partanen, Jukka
    et al.
    University of Vaasa, Department of Management, Helsinki, Finland. IE Business School, Madrid, Spain.
    Kohtamäki, Marko
    University of Vaasa, School of Management / University of South-Eastern Norway, USN Business School , Vaasa, Finland.
    Patel, Pankaj C.
    Villanova School of Business, Villanova University, Villanova, PA, USA.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. School of Management, University of Vaasa, Vaasa, Finland.
    Supply chain ambidexterity and manufacturing SME performance: The moderating roles of network capability and strategic information flow2020In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 221, article id 107470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational ambidexterity is the simultaneous act of exploiting existing competences and exploring new opportunities. Prior studies suggest that resource-constrained SMEs cannot successfully pursue simultaneous interorganizational ambidexterity but need to rely on functionally separated alliances (i.e., alliances based on their value chain function such as explorative R&D alliances or exploitative commercialization alliances) to achieve ambidexterity. Yet, others propose that ambidexterity can occur within the functional domain of a supply chain. We investigate the relationships among supply chain ambidexterity, network capabilities, strategic information flow, and firm performance. In a sample of manufacturing SMEs in Sweden, we hypothesize the direct association between supply chain ambidexterity and performance and the moderating effect of network capabilities and strategic information flow. By testing our hypotheses in a sample of 200 manufacturing SMEs, we show that supply chain ambidexterity decreases firm performance; however, network capabilities and strategic information flow with their supply chain partners help mitigate this negative relationship. The present study advances understanding of ambidextrous interorganizational collaboration and alliances in general and supply chain ambidexterity of manufacturing SMEs in particular. In contexts where supply chain ambidexterity is negatively associated with performance, network capabilities and strategic information flow may be necessary to lower the negative effects.

  • 14.
    Palmié, Maximilian
    et al.
    University of St.Gallen, St.Gallen, Switzerland.
    Wincent, Joakim
    University of St.Gallen/Hanken, School of Economics, Entrepreneurship and Management, St.Gallen/Helsinki, Switzerland/Finland.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. University of Vaasa, School of Management, Vaasa, Finland.
    Caglar, Umur
    Innovalogy Capital Management, Tampere, Finland.
    The evolution of the financial technology ecosystem: An introduction and agenda for future research on disruptive innovations in ecosystems2020In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 151, article id 119779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At a time when many mature industries have been fundamentally transformed by disruptive innovations, prominent examples such as Apple and Uber reflect how disruptive innovations often originate at the ecosystem or system level rather than in individual firms. Unfortunately, the academic literature has paid little attention to the role of ecosystem development and evolution in relation to disruptive innovations. To overcome this oversight, our study defines disruptive innovation ecosystems and illustrates the impact that the financial technology (FinTech) ecosystem has had on disrupting the financial services industry. We offer an agenda for future research on disruptive innovations and ecosystems and discuss the evolution of the FinTech ecosystem. Our study shows that disruptive innovation ecosystems are not only in need of but also deserving of further attention.

  • 15.
    Kohtamäki, Marko
    et al.
    University of Vaasa, School of Management / University of South-Eastern Norway, USN Business School, Vaasa, Finland.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. University of Vaasa, School of Management / University of South-Eastern Norway, USN Business School, Vaasa, Finland.
    Patel, Pankaj C.
    Villanova School of Business, Villanova University, Villanova, PA, USA.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    The relationship between digitalization and servitization: The role of servitization in capturing the financial potential of digitalization2020In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 151, article id 119804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the effect of the interaction between digitalization and servitization on the financial performance of manufacturing companies. We challenge the simple linear assumption between digitalization and financial performance with a sample of 131 manufacturing firms and hypothesize a nonlinear U-shaped interaction effect between digitalization and servitization on financial performance. From low to moderate levels of digitalization, the interaction effect between digitalization and high servitization on company financial performance is negative and significant. From moderate to high levels of digitalization, the interplay between digitalization and high servitization becomes positive and significant, improving companies’ financial performance. The results demonstrate the need for an effective interplay between digitalization and servitization, the digital servitization. Without this interplay, a manufacturing company may face the paradox of digitalization. For managers of manufacturing companies, the study provides insights into the complex relationship between digitalization and financial performance, emphasizing the value of servitization in driving financial performance from digitalization. Thus, the study demonstrates how manufacturing companies can become data-driven by advancing servitization.

  • 16.
    Shepherd, Dean A.
    et al.
    University of Notre Dame.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. The University of Vaasa.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Hanken School of Economics.
    The Surprising Duality of Jugaad: Low Firm Growth and High Inclusive Growth2020In: Journal of Management Studies, ISSN 0022-2380, E-ISSN 1467-6486, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 87-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Western theories on creativity emphasize the importance of access to resources and the generation of innovations as a source of sustainable competitive advantage for firms. However, perhaps the emphasis on slack resources and the firm as the level of analysis may be less appropriate for understanding the benefits of individual creative problem solving in resource‐poor environments of the east; focusing solely on the firm is not sufficiently inclusive and may underestimate the benefits of creative problem solving under resource scarcity. Through an inductive interpretive case study of 12 problem solvers in the highly resource‐poor environment of rural India, we identified the antecedents, dimensions and duality of outcomes for an Indian cultural source of creative problem solving called jugaad. Jugaad relies on assertive defiance, trial‐and‐error experiential learning and the recombination of available resources to improvise a frugal quick‐fix solution. Our inductive framework provides new insights into the dual outcomes of creative problem solving from an eastern perspective; jugaad is unlikely to be a source of competitive advantage for firm growth but represents a source of enhanced wellbeing for inclusive growth.

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  • 17.
    Sirén, Charlotta
    et al.
    The University of Queensland, UQ Business School, Australia.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. University of Vaasa, School of Management, Finland.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Stockholm School of Economics, House of Innovation, Sweden.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Hanken School of Economics, Finland. University of St. Gallen, Global Center Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Institute of Technology Management, Switzerland.
    Time and time-based organizing of innovation: Influence of temporality on entrepreneurial firms’ performance2020In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 112, p. 23-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time is a crucial yet scarce resource in innovation management. However, the way in which entrepreneurial enterprises (SMEs) allocate temporal resources in innovation remains largely unexplored. We propose a conceptualization of innovation polychronicity, which is defined as the extent to which a firm’s innovation culture promotes simultaneous engagement in multiple innovation activities. Based on this conceptualization, we propose that either low or high levels of innovation polychronicity lead to better firm performance. Analysis of data gathered from a survey of 127 SMEs and archival sources provides support for the proposed U-shaped relationship. We further find that innovation synchronization moderates this relationship. The findings contribute to the broader literature on innovation and temporality in organizations.

  • 18.
    Kamalaldin, Anmar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Sundén, Lina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. School of Management, University of Vaasa, Vaasa, Finland.
    Transforming provider-customer relationships in digital servitization: A relational view on digitalization2020In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization is viewed as a source of future competitiveness due to its potential for unlocking new value-creation and revenue-generation opportunities. To profit from digitalization, providers and customers tend to move away from transactional product-centric model to relational service-oriented engagement. This relational transformation is brought about through digital servitization. However, current knowledge about how providers and customers transform their relationship to achieve benefits from digital servitization is lacking. This paper addresses that knowledge gap by applying the relational view theory to a study of four provider-customer relationships engaged in digital servitization. The results provide evidence for four relational components – complementary digitalization capabilities, relation-specific digital assets, digitally enabled knowledge-sharing routines, and partnership governance – that enable providers and customers to profit from digital servitization. A key contribution is the development of a relational transformation framework for digital servitization that provides an overview of how the four relational components evolve as the relationship progresses. In doing so, we contribute to the emerging servitization literature by offering key relational insights into the interdependence of activities throughout the transformation phases of provider-customer relationships in digital servitization.

  • 19.
    Sjödin, David
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Univ South Eastern Norway, Entrepreneurship & Innovat, Notodden, Norway.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Univ South Eastern Norway, Entrepreneurship & Innovat, Notodden, Norway.
    Jovanovic, Marin
    Copenhagen Business School, Denmark. ESADE Business Sch, Barcelona, Spain. University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England.
    Visnjic, Ivanka
    ESADE Business School, Spain.
    Value Creation and Value Capture Alignment in Business Model Innovation: A Process View on Outcome‐Based Business Models2020In: The Journal of product innovation management, ISSN 0737-6782, E-ISSN 1540-5885, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 158-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial manufacturers are innovating their business models by shifting from selling products to selling outcome‐based services, where the provider (manufacturer) guarantees to deliver the performance outcomes of the products and services. This form of business model innovation requires a profound yet little understood shift in how value is created, delivered, and captured. To address this research gap, our study examines two successful and four unsuccessful cases of this shift. We find that effectiveness in business model innovation hinges on the three process phases that unfold in collaboration with the customers: value proposition definition, value provision design, and value‐in‐use delivery. We also find that that success is determined by the alignment of specific value creation and value capture activities in each phase: identifying value creation opportunities—agreeing on value distribution in value proposition definition, designing the value offering—deciding on the profit formula in the value provision design, and finally refining value creation processes—regulating incentive structures in the value‐in‐use delivery. Our process model contributes to the literature and practice on business model innovation by providing a thorough understanding of how alignment of value creation and value capture processes is ensured, whilst paying special attention to their interdependence and the interactions between provider and customer.

  • 20.
    Malmström, Malin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Voitkane, Aija
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. School of Business, Engineering and Science, Halmstad University, SE-971 87, Luleå, Sweden.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Department of Management and Organisation, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland. University of St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    What do they think and what do they say?: Gender bias, entrepreneurial attitude in writing and venture capitalists’ funding decisions2020In: Journal of Business Venturing Insights, ISSN 2352-6734, Vol. 13, article id e00154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study shows that women may be at a disadvantage when signaling that they are “entrepreneurial” to venture capitalists. We demonstrate how gender-based disadvantages may arise from role incongruence in entrepreneurship by analyzing multi-source data from 131 venture capital applications, venture capitalists’ cognitions, and their funding decisions. Our analysis indicates that women who signal an entrepreneurial attitude are more likely to elicit prevention considerations from venture capitalists, whereas men who signal such an attitude are more likely to elicit promotion considerations. We also find that promotion considerations increase the amount of financing, whereas prevention considerations decrease the amount of financing. Our study increases knowledge about the gendered cognitions that underlie implicit bias among investors and knowledge about the effects of regulatory focus on funding outcomes by exploring the interaction between gender and entrepreneurial attitude.

  • 21.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Hellsmark, Hans
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mossberg, Johanna
    Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE), Division of Bioeconomy, Sweden.
    A Knowledge-based Perspective on System Weaknesses in Technological Innovation Systems2019In: Science and Public Policy, ISSN 0302-3427, E-ISSN 1471-5430, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 55-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on technological innovation systems (TIS) provides policymakers and other actors with a scheme of analysis to identify system weaknesses. In doing so, TIS analysis centres on which system weaknesses policy interventions should target to promote further development of a particular system. However, prior TIS literature has not sufficiently elaborated on what may constitute the conceptual roots of a ‘weakness’. We apply a knowledge-based perspective and propose that many—albeit not all—system weaknesses may root in four types of knowledge problems: uncertainty, complexity, equivocality, and ambiguity. Employing these as sensitizing concepts, we study system weaknesses by analysing data from a biorefinery TIS in Sweden. This analysis results in novel implications for the TIS literature and for achieving a better match between system weaknesses and the design of innovation policies.

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    Article
  • 22.
    Kamalaldin, Anmar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Luleå University of Technology.
    Sundén, Lina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. University of Vaasa.
    A Relational View on Digital Servitization: Empirical Insights from Provider-Customer Relationships2019In: Proceedings of the Spring Servitization Conference: Delivering Services Growth in the Digital Era / [ed] Bigdeli, A.,Kowalkowski, C., Kindström, D., & Baines, T., Birmingham, UK, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Providers are increasingly leveraging digitalization and offering their industrial customers more advanced services which are enabled by digital technologies such as the internet of things, remote monitoring, big data analytics, and artificial intelligence. This trend is referred to as digital servitization, and it is enabling significant changes in how value is created and captured in industrial relationships. In order to fully benefit from digital servitization, providers and customers need to transform their relationships. However, there is limited knowledge on how a provider and a customer govern their dyad relationship in the context of digital servitization. To address this gap, this paper applies the relational view theory as a lens for the purpose of studying how dyad relationships in digital servitization can be successfully governed by parties involved. To that end, research was conducted based on multiple case study of four dyad relationships between Swedish providers and customers that are actively involved in digital servitization. In total, 40 respondents from seven companies were interviewed, and data was analyzed based on thematic analysis approach to identify relevant themes and patterns. Although data collection followed an inductive approach, data aligned with the four determinants of interogranizational competitive advantage suggested by the relational view: complementary resources and capabilities, relation-specific assets, knowledge-sharing routines, and effective governance. The results of this study demonstrate that these determinants have great influence for governing relationships between the provider and customer in digital servitization. This paper provides theoretical contribution to servitization literature by highlighting the importance of relationship governance, and how this is gradually transformed as the relationship develops. This transformation is illustrated in a stepwise framework that can also guide managers in prioritizing activities and investments, and developing governance mechanisms to advance their business relationships in digital servitization context.

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  • 23.
    Kamalaldin, Anmar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Linde, Lina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. University of Vaasa, Finland.
    A Relational View on Industry 4.0: Governing Relationships in Digital Servitization2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the light of industry 4.0, providers are increasingly offering their industrial customers more advanced services enabled by digital technologies such as the internet of things, remote monitoring, and artificial intelligence. This trend is referred to as digital servitization, and it is enabling significant changes in how value is created and captured in industrial relationships. In order to fully benefit from digital servitization, providers and customers need to transform their relationships. However, there is limited knowledge on how a provider and a customer govern their relationship in the context of digital servitization. To address this gap, this paper applies the relational view theory as a lens for studying how dyad relationships in digital servitization can be successfully governed and transformed. To that end, research was conducted based on multiple case study of four dyadic relationships between providers and customers. In total, 40 respondents from both sides were interviewed, and data was analyzed based on thematic analysis approach to identify relevant themes and patterns. The results identify four components – complementary digitalization capabilities, relation-specific digital assets, digitally enabled knowledge-sharing routines, and partnership governance – that enable providers and customers to profit from digital servitization. The main contribution is the development of a relational governance framework for digital servitization. In doing so, we provide contribute to the servitization literature, as we advance understanding of the central role of relationship governance in digital servitization, and provide insights into the transformation of provider-customer relationships.

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    sammanfattning
  • 24.
    Cenamor, Javier
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design. Department of Management, University of Vaasa, Vaasa, Finland.
    Oghazi, Pejvak
    School of Social Sciences, Södertörn University, Södertörn, Sweden.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design. Entrepreneurship and Management, Hanken School of Economics, Finland.
    Addressing dual embeddedness: The roles of absorptive capacity and appropriabilitymechanisms in subsidiary performance2019In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 78, p. 239-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how subsidiaries can manage dual embeddedness with both local partners and a multinational enterprise. Specifically, we examine the role of absorptive capacity and appropriability mechanisms on subsidiary performance. We analyse how absorptive capacity and appropriability enable subsidiaries to successfully address knowledge challenges related to internal and external networks. We conducted an empirical analysis on a sample of 165 subsidiaries. Our results suggest that absorptive capacity has a direct, positive effect on subsidiary performance, which is greater in emerging countries. The study also found an indirect effect of absorptive capacity on subsidiary performance, which is mediated through appropriability mechanisms. These findings extend the literature on international networks, dual embeddedness and absorptive capacity.

  • 25.
    Kibler, Ewald
    et al.
    Aalto University School of Business, Finland.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Kautonen, Teemu
    Aalto University School of Business, Finland;Universidad del Desarrollo, Chile.
    Cacciotti, Gabriella
    University of Warwick, Business School, UK.
    Obschonka, Martin
    Queensland University of Technology, QUT Business School, Australia.
    Can prosocial motivation harm entrepreneurs' subjective well-being?2019In: Journal of Business Venturing, ISSN 0883-9026, E-ISSN 1873-2003, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 608-624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship research on prosocial motivation has outlined its positive impact on well-being, but still little is known about its power, which may have deleterious personal consequences under certain conditions. In this study, we ask whether prosocial motivation can harm entrepreneurs' subjective well-being when they run a commercial venture. Embedded within a contingency perspective informed by self-determination theory, we build on longitudinal survey data to explain the effect of prosocial motivation on entrepreneurs' overall life satisfaction. Our analysis demonstrates that prosocial motivation has a negative effect on entrepreneurs' life satisfaction due to increased levels of stress. However, our findings show that the negative effect of prosocial motivation dissipates when perceived autonomy at work is high compared to when it is low. Overall, our research raises questions on the role of prosocial motivation for entrepreneurs' subjective well-being and, in particular, discusses its potential “dark side” in the context of commercial entrepreneurship.

    Executive summary

    Can there be a “dark side” in helping others? If so, how can we better understand under what conditions it emerges? Entrepreneurship research conventionally presents prosocial motivation as a positive driver for social venture creation and entrepreneurs' well-being. However, we have little knowledge about the consequences of prosocial motivation when we move outside the social entrepreneurship context. When prosocially motivated entrepreneurs lead a commercial venture, they face the difficult task of balancing the desire to help others with the financial requirements of the business. The challenge of simultaneously accomplishing commercial and prosocial goals can result in a stressful experience that is detrimental to the entrepreneur's well-being. In this study, we ask whether and under what circumstances prosocial motivation can harm entrepreneurs' well-being.

    Embedded in a contingency perspective informed by self-determination theory, this article expands our knowledge on the effects of prosocial motivation in the context of commercial entrepreneurship. We draw from original longitudinal survey data on 186 entrepreneurs in the United Kingdom to demonstrate that prosocial motivation causes entrepreneurs stress and through that stress has a negative effect on their life satisfaction. We also show that the negative effect of prosocial motivation diminishes when the degree of autonomy entrepreneurs perceive in the pursuit of daily work tasks is high. To explore the uniqueness of the entrepreneurial context, we run a comparative analysis with a sample of 544 employees. This analysis confirms that stress fully mediates the negative relationship between prosocial motivation and subjective well-being, but for employees, this negative effect disappears when their level of intrinsic motivation—the desire to expend effort based on enjoyment of the work itself—is high.

    Building on our findings, we generate several important contributions. First, we help develop an understanding of the “dark side” of prosocial motivation by demonstrating that under certain circumstances, the desire to help others can be detrimental to entrepreneurs' subjective well-being. Second, we expand knowledge about the link between prosocial motivation and well-being by considering the boundary conditions (perceived autonomy and intrinsic motivation) that influence the dynamics of their relationship. Third, we set the stage for further investigations that aim to clarify the relationship between motivation and perceived autonomy and its effect on personal outcomes across different work domains.

    The key insight of the study is that prosocial motivation creates a dilemma for entrepreneurs when operating a commercial business such that the desire to help others outside the context of immediate work tasks can harm their personal well-being. We also find that the perception of autonomy is key for commercial entrepreneurs to be able to realize their prosocial motivation without creating stressful situations. Extending our understanding of the conditions that shape the relationship between prosocial motivation and well-being among entrepreneurs would help in developing a more holistic notion of prosocial business venturing, one that includes the role of both commercial and social enterprising activities in contributing to personal and societal well-being.

  • 26.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. House of Innovation, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences. University of Vaasa, Vaasa, Finland.
    Circular business model transformation: A roadmap for incumbent firms2019In: California Management Review, ISSN 0008-1256, E-ISSN 2162-8564, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 5-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve positive economic, environmental, and social benefits, many incumbent manufacturing firms attempt to apply circular economy principles to their business practices. However, these firms often struggle to change their existing linear business models to circular models because the steps required for successful transformation are still poorly understood. Based on a multiple case study of eight business model transformation journeys, this article proposes a roadmap for circular business model transformation. It provides a step-by-step process to enable circular transition, allowing companies to meet environmental, social, and financial objectives and proactively address sustainability.

  • 27.
    Reim, Wiebke
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Department of Management, University of Vaasa, Vaasa, Finland.
    Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Circular Business Models for the Bio-Economy: A Review and New Directions for Future Research2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 9, article id 2558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Circular and bio-economy represents a political and industrial initiative to ensure that our society can rely on renewable biological sources while achieving economic growth. However, there is a need to critical review how realistic and feasible such initiatives are towards fulfilling the promised benefits of this economy. The literature on bio-economy often discusses the importance of innovative business models and their role in a successful shift to a bio-economy. Still, much of the discussion that is related to circular business models is fragmented and immature. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic literature review of circular business model activities and the barriers to a bio-economy. Further, this review provides future research directions for a shift to a bio-economy. This study is based on a systematic review of 42 scientific journal articles and book chapters on a forest-based bio-economy. The business model canvas is used to provide a structured aggregation of the existing circular business models activities being used by the forestry sector. In addition, we develop a framework that describes the barriers to bio-economy-based circular business models and suggest new directions for future research. The study highlights the need for alignment among the elements of a business model as a key condition for its successful implementation in a bio-economy

  • 28.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Volker, Leentje
    Department of Civil Engineering, University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands.
    Kadefors, Anna
    Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm. Chalmers University Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Lingegård, Sofia
    Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering (SEED), School of Architecture and the Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Rosander, Lilly
    Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Collaborative Procurement Strategies for Infrastructure Projects: A Multiple Case Study2019In: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Management, procurement and law, ISSN 1751-4304, Vol. 172, no 5, p. 197-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the announcement to tender a project, several strategic decisions are made that have significant impact on the innovation and efficiency potential of a project. The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare how different types of integrative and collaborative procurement strategies may enhance the opportunities for improved efficiency and innovation in infrastructure projects. Hence, it contributes to the scientific debate on buyer-supplier relationships in relation to project performance. Furthermore, it guides public client organizations in steering explicitly for integration and innovation in their projects. Interview-based case studies of ten public infrastructure projects procured based on four different types of collaborative procurement strategies in Sweden and the Netherlands were conducted. The findings indicate that the duration of the collaboration is fundamental in setting the limits for innovation, and that early involvement as well as long-term commitments in maintenance open up for more innovation. Naturally, the potential for increased efficiency is higher than for innovation, and also occurs in collaborations with limited duration. The findings confirm the importance of a learning perspective on procurement strategies for public client organizations and show the importance of explicit considerations on incentives and project governance issues in the front-end phase of a project.

  • 29.
    Sjöö, Karolin
    et al.
    Innovation & Green Transitions, The Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis, Östersund, Sweden.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Demonstration projects in sustainable technology: The road to fulfillment of project goals2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 228, p. 331-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Publicly funded demonstration projects represent a critical intermediate step between basic R&D on the one hand, and large-scale commercialization of new sustainable technology on the other. However, these projects often suffer from various technical and nontechnical difficulties, frequently fail to meet objectives, and sometimes stall despite the best intentions of their facilitators. This paper reports on a multiple case study of 21 demonstration projects in the area of sustainable technology set in Sweden and offers two contributions. First, it maps the project-internal and external factors that allow or prohibit demonstration projects to reach their goals. Second, it suggests a process model outlining the key activities for setting up a new demonstration project. By doing so, the paper provides important implications for the process of developing and commercializing sustainable technologies. The escalating environmental crisis in particular underscores the need for new knowledge about how cleaner and more sustainable technologies can be applied.

  • 30.
    Laur, Inessa
    et al.
    Centre for Municipality Studies, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture (ISAK), Linköping University, CKS, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Helix Competence Centre and PIE, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, IEI, Linköping, Sweden.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, IEI, Linköping, Sweden.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Development of European cluster initiatives: stakeholders' contribution and enrolment2019In: Global Business and Economics Review (GBER), ISSN 1097-4954, E-ISSN 1745-1329, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 685-711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated how cluster initiatives' members contribute to cluster initiatives concerning tasks as well as what dependency patterns exist between maturation level and enrolment of members in these organisations. The content of the work is considered as crucial for organisational functioning and development. The findings are based on survey responses from 136 (53% response rate) cluster initiatives from eight European countries. The results show that, first, all members contribute to initiatives' development by performing strategic, operational tasks, and provision of resources. Each member tends to focus more on one task than the others that are delegated. Second, two factors influence enrolment of new members in cluster initiatives: age and presence of other influential members. The more mature cluster initiatives become the more networks and established organisational attributes it will have. This reflects longevity of the initiative and good-quality, intermediary assistance, which are attractive for potential members.

  • 31.
    Kohtamäki, Marko
    et al.
    University of Vaasa, School of Management,Vaasa, Finland. University of South-Eastern Norway, USN Business School, Norway.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. University of Vaasa, School of Management, Finland.
    Oghazi, Pejvak
    School of Social Sciences, Sodertorn University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    Data Mining and Value Creation, Fraunhofer IMW, Leipzig, Germany. International and Strategic Management, Linköping University, Sweden. Bosch IoT-Lab, University St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Baines, Tim
    Operations Strategy, Advanced Services Group, Aston Business School, Aston University, Birmingham, UK.
    Digital servitization business models in ecosystems: A theory of the firm2019In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 104, p. 380-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study extends the discussion of digital servitization business models by adopting the perspective of the theory of the firm. We use four theories of the firm (industrial organization, the resource-based view, organizational identity, and the transaction cost approach) to understand digital servitization business models of firms in the context of ecosystems. Digitalization transforms the business models of solution providers and shapes their firm boundary decisions as they develop digital solutions across organizational boundaries within ecosystems such as harbors, mines, and airports. Thus, digitalization not only affects individual firms' business models but also requires the alignment of the business models of other firms within the ecosystem. Hence, business models in digital servitization should be viewed from an ecosystem perspective. Based on a rigorous literature review, we provide suggestions for future research on digital servitization business models within ecosystems.

  • 32.
    Sundén, Lina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Ecosystem Business Models for Smart City Platforms2019In: Ecosystem Business Models for Smart City Platforms / [ed] Bigdeli, A., Kowalkowski, C., Kindström, D., Baines, T., 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Initiative towards “smart cities”, where digital technologies enable infrastructure, companies and inhabitants to interact and co-create value are increasing as a consequence of urbanization and digitalization. Indeed emphasis on smart cities has attracted considerable attention in research during the last decade and traditional B2B companies are increasingly providing smart city offerings. In most cases this includes investing in a digital platform where companies can share data with ecosystem actors, such as municipalities, infrastructure owners and utility companies, and build new value-adding services for diverse categories of customers. However, many companies are uncertain about their new role and ability to offer new service business models that would create, deliver and capture value from the digital platform. Research so far provide limited insights in on how actors develop new business models and their relationship with ecosystem partners in the smart city context. Thus, this study builds on platform theory with the purpose to enhance understanding how firms aligns ecosystem actor roles for smart city business models through digital platform. 

     

    The research adopted an exploratory multiple case study design to capture insights from two industrial ecosystems in the housing and utility industries. To enhance understanding about how actors collaborate to develop smart city platforms, 35 semi-structured interviews were performed with different ecosystem actors, and were analysed using MAXQDA software. The preliminary findings reveal answers to questions like: what challenges are connected to smart city business models? And what value do different actors generate through digital platforms and how do they capture and distribute value? Further, we develop a framework connecting actor roles, to the design of the digital platform and associated business models contributing to the smart city. Thus, this study provides valuable insights to both academia and practitioners related to business models enabled by digital platforms in the smart city context. 

  • 33.
    Shir, Nadav
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden. Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Nikolaev, Boris N.
    Hankamer School of Business, Baylor University, Waco, TX, United States.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Hanken School of Economics.
    Entrepreneurship and well-being: The role of psychological autonomy, competence, and relatedness2019In: Journal of Business Venturing, ISSN 0883-9026, E-ISSN 1873-2003, Vol. 34, no 5, article id 105875Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing upon the self-determination theory, we develop a two-stage multi-path mediation model in which psychological autonomy mediates the relationship between active engagement in entrepreneurship and well-being partially through its effect on psychological competence and relatedness. We test this model on a representative sample of 1837 working individuals (251 early-stage entrepreneurs) from Sweden. We find active engagement in entrepreneurial work tasks to be strongly associated with well-being relative to non-entrepreneurial work. Thus, we highlight the importance of individual self-organization—with autonomy at its core—which makes entrepreneurial work more beneficial in terms of basic psychological needs compared to other work alternatives

  • 34.
    Reim, Wiebke
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Centre for Management of Innovation and Technology in Process Industry, Promote. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    GLOBAL IMPLEMENTATION OF CIRCULAR BUSIENSS MODELS – DECISION SUPPORT2019In: Spring Servitization Conference, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Circular business models have a huge potential to lead to economic, social and environmental benefits. But in order to archive this it is crucial to reach global implementation. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how firms can assess the potential and criteria for implementing circular business models in different global markets.

    Design/Methodology/Approach: To reach the stated purpose, we have adopted a quantitative research approach and undertaken 25 explorative interviews in three large Swedish manufacturing companies and their global service network.

    Findings: In this paper, a decision support tool to choose the appropriate circular business model for global implementation has been developed that facilitates the first steps towards circular business models implementation. It identifies eleven criteria that should be analysed to decide the appropriate circular business model.

    Originality/Value: Circular business models have not yet reached wide implementation. One reason is that they are often presented as one fits all solutions but this is not appropriate for global implementation. Therefore, the decision tree that is developed in this paper helps companies to choose the circular business model that is most appropriate for a specific product in a specific market.

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    fulltext
  • 35.
    Thorgren, Sara
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Handbok för examensarbeten2019Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 36.
    Cenamor, Javier
    et al.
    Lund University, Department of Business Administration, School of Economics and Management, Lund, Sweden.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. University of Vaasa, School of Management, Vaasa, Finland.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Hanken School of Economics, Entrepreneurship and Management, Helsinki, Finland.University of St. Gallen, Global Center Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Institute of Technology Management, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    How entrepreneurial SMEs compete through digital platforms: The roles of digital platform capability, network capability and ambidexterity2019In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 100, p. 196-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization offers unprecedented opportunities for entrepreneurial small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). However, many entrepreneurial SMEs lack resources and capabilities or suffer from inertia, which hampers these opportunities. This study investigates how entrepreneurial SMEs can enhance performance through digital platforms. Specifically, the study examines the effect of digital platform capability and network capability on entrepreneurial SMEs’ financial performance. The study also examines how exploitation and exploration orientations moderate this relationship. Based on analysis of 230 entrepreneurial SMEs, the results indicate that digital platform capability has a positive indirect effect on entrepreneurial SMEs’ performance via network capability. The study also shows that exploitation and exploration orientations negatively and positively moderate this effect, respectively. The results suggest that entrepreneurial SMEs can enhance their performance through digital platform capability by aligning this capability with their orientation. These findings thereby enrich the literature on entrepreneurial SMEs and capabilities. 

  • 37.
    Sjödin, David
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Centre for Management of Innovation and Technology in Process Industry, Promote. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    How Firms Co-CreateValue In Digital Servitization: A Process View On Digitalization Relationships2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Digitalization is a fundamental disruptive force of Industry 4.0, which is revolutionizing the way business is conducted within industrial value chains. However, many firms are not prepared to benefit from the promise digitalization holds. A radical shift in the innovation process is required entailing increased emphasis on agility and co-creation of value through design, customization and delivery of increasingly intangible digital offerings in cooperation with their customers. Yet, literature on this topic is scarce. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how firms can co-create digital innovations with their customers to avoid the digital paradox.

    Design/Methodology/Approach: The present research is based on an empirical study of four providers and their customers in manufacturing industries.

    Findings: The results showcase the importance of aligning roles in co-creation and presents a detailed process model of ideation, development and implementation. Notably, we identify how forming dedicated joint teams at the strategic, managerial and operational levels are key to ensure appropriate cooperation and governance of co-creation engagements. We further detail how key activities for the joint teams vary over the phases of the innovation process.

    Originality/Value: This study contributes to the growing body of literature on value co-creation in digital servitization by providing an in-depth account of how value co-creation processes for leveraging digitalization unfolds between provider and customer. This study offers four contributions. First, this study shows that value co-creation require openness and resource dedication from both provider and customer. Second, results show that value co-creation processes are interdependent and both parties perspective should be considered in parallel to ensure alignment throughout the process. Third, value co-creation is best managed through an agile approach which requires continuous innovation over time especially in the delivery phase. Finally, using the value co-creation lens provides novel insights into the digital paradox and how to profit from complex digitally enabled advanced services.

  • 38.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Center for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Malmström, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Entrepreneurship, Management and Organisation, Hanken School of Business, Helsinki, Finland. Entrepreneurship & Innovation, St Gallen University, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. School of Management, University of Vaasa, Vaasa, Finland.
    How individual cognitions overshadow regulations and group norms: a study of government venture capital decisions2019In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how government venture capitalists approve or reject financing applications. Based on longitudinal observations, complemented by interviews, documentation, and secondary data, the findings show the limited influence of the regulative and normative logics (e.g., formal guidelines and accepted behavior) on government venture capitalists’ decisions. Instead, individual decisions are observed to be largely overshadowed by cognitions and heuristics, which dominate formal regulations and socially constructed group-level norms. Although official decision communications state that regulations have been followed, the evidence suggests that the cognitive logic dominates the funding decision-making process through a set of overshadowing forces that restrict the influence of the normative and regulative logics on funding decisions. This research has implications for venture financing and highlights the importance of cognitions in shaping venture capital decisions.

  • 39.
    Sjödin, David
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    How Individuals Engage in the Absorption of New External Knowledge: A Process Model of Absorptive Capacity2019In: The Journal of product innovation management, ISSN 0737-6782, E-ISSN 1540-5885, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 356-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper offers a process model of how individuals engage in the absorption of new external knowledge. Data collection is centered on the experiences of knowledge workers in recognizing, assimilating, and applying external knowledge. The process model delineates how individuals engage in the absorptive capacity (AC) process through: (1) valuing knowledge potential by assessing the motivation to assimilate knowledge and by evaluating technological feasibility, which together constitute the recognition of value; (2) corroborating knowledge value by ensuring legitimacy and demonstrating a shared understanding of the business value in achieving knowledge assimilation; and (3) championing knowledge integration by lobbying for support and securing resources in order to integrate and apply the knowledge within the organization, ultimately ensuring that knowledge is exploited. The process model clarifies how an individual’s proficiency in external knowledge absorption activities can result in three possible outcomes: knowledge is exploited, knowledge is terminated, or knowledge gets “stuck” in limbo. These findings contribute to the AC literature by underscoring the pivotal role of individual engagements in recognition, assimilation, and application of external knowledge and add new elements and a process perspective to the understanding of the path from potential to realized AC. The paper also provides insights into how individuals and firms can better manage knowledge absorption in practice.

  • 40.
    Voitkane, Aija
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. CIEL - Centre for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Malmström, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. University of St. Gallen, Institute of Technology Management, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    How much does the “same-gender effect” matter in VCs' assessments of entrepreneurs?2019In: Journal of Business Venturing Insights, ISSN 2352-6734, Vol. 12, article id e00133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our study uses cognitive mapping techniques to take into account how the same/opposite gender influences the cognitive evaluations of venture capitalists (VCs). Contrary to what has often been discussed in previous entrepreneurship literature, our results report women VCs evaluate women entrepreneurs more critically, and men VCs evaluate men entrepreneurs more critically. However, overall, the VCs' vaguer processing and lower rating of women's venturing compared to men's indicate a general structure of subordinating women's venturing compared to men's venturing. Ultimately, this contributes with an alternative view to explain what we see on the VC scene: women entrepreneurs are more likely to be rejected. We discuss implications of these results as well as implications for future study.

  • 41.
    Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Hur individer driver kunskapsabsorption— Internainnovatörer möjliggör teknologiskiften i tillverkningsindustrin2019In: Management of Innovation and TechnologyArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Svensk tillverkande industri möter ett stort omställningstryck till följd av teknologiskiften relaterade till digitalisering, automatisering och elektrifiering. Interna innovatörer har en nyckelroll i omställningen, men möter ofta motstånd när de försöker omsätta ny extern kunskap internt. Vår forskning visar hur individer kan övervinna detta motstånd kan genom att aktivt driva kunskapsabsorption genom olika faser.  

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  • 42.
    Gama, Fabio
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Idea generation and open innovation in SMEs: When does market‐based collaboration pay off most?2019In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 113-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) largely depend on proficient idea generation activities to improve their front-end innovation performance, yet the liabilities of newness and smallness often hamper SMEs’ ability to benefit from systematic idea generation. To compensate for these liabilities, many SMEs adopt an open innovation approach by collaborating with market-based partners such as customers and suppliers. This study investigates the relationship between SMEs’ systematic idea generation and front-end performance and investigates the moderating role of market-based partnership for SMEs. Drawing on a survey of 146 Swedish manufacturing SMEs, this study provides two key contributions. First, the systematic idea generation and front-end performance relationship in SMEs is non-linear. Accordingly, higher levels of front-end performance are achieved when idea generation activities are highly systematic. Second, the returns from higher levels of systematic idea generation are positively moderated by market-based partnerships. Thus, external cooperation with customers and suppliers pays off most toward front-end performance when SMEs have highly systematic idea generation processes. These results indicate a contingency perspective on the role of external partnerships. They also have implications for research into the front-end of innovation and open innovation in the context of SMEs.

  • 43.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Blomkvist, Marita
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    In the Bull's eye of Sell-Side Analysts Value Creation:: Beyond intermediation of information2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization and digitalization are two critical trends as game changers in the stock market that also expect to impact on the sell-side analysts’ role in front of  investors’. A relevant question to pose is whether financial analysts’ are a dying art of practice due to sophisticated digital analyses where geographical distance doesn’t matter anymore. The purpose of this paper is to increase the knowledge of the sell-side analysts’ value creation processes in the globalized and digital era. The article is based on an empirical study of 25 sell-side financial analysts and their work with value creation. Findings indicate that the social capital become even more important in the competitive game of finding unique investment opportunities. Financial analyst operating in highly competitive environments applies strategies beyond the role of merely acting as information intermediaries. There is more than enough information available while information and analyses needs to be selected and interpreted for becoming relevant and adding value for the investors’ decision making. Information need to be contextualized. The analysts’ role as facilitators in investment decision implies acting as enablers of information, generating of analyses, sense-making actors and co-creators in front of the investors. The art of developing social capital is central for bonding with the clients and to assure for future businesses. Valuable assets of social capital are made available through development of cognitive social capital, relational social capital and structural social capital. We find that analysts as a profession not is a dying art but instead is part of the game changing in stock market and that social capital is crucial for analysts role as facilitators in investors decision making processes.

  • 44.
    Hullova, Dusana
    et al.
    University of Portsmouth, Faculty of Business and Law, Richmond Building, Portsmouth, UK. University of Roehampton London, Roehampton Business School, London, UK.
    Laczko, Pavel
    University of Portsmouth, Faculty of Business and Law, Richmond Building, UK.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. House of Innovation, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm.
    Independent Distributors in Servitization: An Assessment of Key Internal and Ecosystem-related Problems2019In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 104, p. 422-437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Independent distributors (IDs), just as equipment manufacturers, have the potential to initiate a transition towards the provision of advanced services. However, the internal and ecosystem-related problems experienced by IDs during servitization differ due to their distinct organizational structure. The purpose of this study is therefore to uncover problems faced by servitizing IDs during transition towards provision of advanced services, a topic which is still scarcely covered in the literature. Using an abductive research approach, we identify three overarching groups of servitization problems specific to IDs: (1) conflicting interests of key stakeholders; (2) misalignment between distribution of managerial attention and servitization strategy; and (3) ineffective knowledge management within the ecosystem. To diagnose these problems, we propose a servitization-readiness decision tree that allows IDs to pinpoint hindering factors before embarking on a servitization journey. In so doing, we provide a starting point for identifying and describing criteria for assessing IDs' servitization readiness.

  • 45.
    Anokhin, Sergey
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Department of Management and Entrepreneurship, St. Cloud State University, St. Cloud, United States;Department of Management, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russian Federation.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland;University of St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Södertörn university, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Chistyakova, Natalia
    Department of Management, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russian Federation.
    Oghazi, Pejvak
    Södertörn university, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Industrial clusters, flagship enterprises and regional innovation2019In: Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, ISSN 1042-2587, E-ISSN 1540-6520, Vol. 31, no 1-2, p. 104-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For a sample of all 88 counties in the State of Ohio over a 5-year period, this study documents the effect of flagship enterprises and concentrated industrial clusters on regional innovation. Consistent with the agglomeration arguments and the knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship, both appear to affect regional innovation positively. Additionally, regional educational attainment positively moderates the effect of industrial clusters on innovation. At the same time, flagship enterprises primarily affect regional innovation in regions with low education levels. Results are obtained with the help of conservative econometric techniques and are robust to the choice of alternative dependent variables and estimators. The findings have major policy implications and provide insights into alternative routes to encouraging regional innovation.

  • 46.
    Morgan, T.
    et al.
    Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI, United States.
    Anokhin, S.A.
    St. Cloud State University, St. Cloud, MN, United States; Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russian Federation.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland; University of St.Gallen, St.Gallen, Switzerland.
    Influence of market orientation on performance: the moderating roles of customer participation breadth and depth in new product development2019In: Industry and Innovation, ISSN 1366-2716, E-ISSN 1469-8390, Vol. 26, no 9, p. 1103-1120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With a greater number of B2B firms integrating customers into the new product development (NPD) process, how to utilize customer involvement in NPD is an important decision because it may be a double-edged sword carrying both bright and dark sides. Utilizing a sample of 193 B2B firms across various industries, we validate previous research that suggests market orientation positively influences NPD performance and subsequently examine how this relationship may either be enhanced or diminished contingent upon how customers are utilized in the NPD process. The results show that the market orientation–NPD performance relationship is enhanced by having customers participate in a greater number of activities throughout NPD (customer participation breadth) and diminished when customers are involved at deeper levels (customer participation depth). This research suggests that the exact involvement of customers is a critical decision and has clear implications for the dialogues about customer involvement and management of customer relationships.

  • 47.
    Sjödin, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Knowledge processing and ecosystem co-creation for process innovation: Managing joint knowledge processing in process innovation projects2019In: The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, ISSN 1554-7191, E-ISSN 1555-1938, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 135-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Process innovation drives industrial competitiveness and sustainability but remains elusive since it requires co-creation and the sharing of idiosyncratic design knowledge in ecosystems of providers and customers of process equipment. This paper investigates how firms can manage knowledge processing through co-creation in joint process innovation projects. Analysis of cross-comparative case studies –including nine industrial ecosystem actors – identifies three types of technological challenge (complexity, novelty and customization) that creates knowledge-processing requirements (uncertainty, equivocality) during the value co-creation process. To manage these knowledge-processing requirements, this paper explains how three joint knowledge-processing strategies (joint problem solving, open communication and end-user involvement) help ecosystem partners make sense of the requirements and demands in process innovation. In this context, the procurement approach (such as contracting and relationship development) helps to facilitate higher levels of joint knowledge processing, drawing on the diverse knowledge of ecosystem actors to secure successful process-innovation outcomes. The present study contributes to the emerging literature on co-creation in process innovation by developing a framework that highlights the knowledge-processing dynamics in ecosystem relationships for process innovation. The implications for management extends to a practical tool that guides project managers in ensuring appropriate levels of joint knowledge processing among ecosystem actors.

  • 48.
    Nordqvist, Sofia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Knowledge types to progress the development of sustainable technologies: A case study of Swedish demonstration plants.2019In: The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, ISSN 1554-7191, E-ISSN 1555-1938, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 75-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge development and diffusion through demonstration plants are necessary to progress the development of sustainable technologies, yet current literature lacks detailed insights into which knowledge types are critical in facilitating this progress, and what the roles of different knowledge types are. We draw on knowledge-based theory and investigate four Swedish demonstration plants for advanced biofuels using case-study research. The findings underscore the need for and production of domain-specific, procedural and general knowledge to progress sustainable technology towards commercialization, with each type having a rather specific role and purpose. However, in the plants studied, there is a tendency to focus strongly on the generation of technical, domain-specific knowledge at the expense of procedural knowledge. This deficiency frequently creates problems since a lack of procedural knowledge on how to commoditize and commercialize technologies hinders efforts to move past the demonstration stage to large-scale commercialization. Based on these findings, the paper proposes novel approaches for dealing with these problems, and for managing knowledge more generally. 

  • 49.
    Gama, Fábio
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. School of Business, Engineering and Science, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden;Department of Business Administration, Santa Catarina State University, Florianópolis, Brazil.
    Managing collaborative ideation: The role of formal and informal appropriability mechanisms2019In: The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, ISSN 1554-7191, E-ISSN 1555-1938, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 97-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborative ideation is a key practice for innovation. Implementing suitable appropriability mechanisms during this collaborative ideation is a necessary yet difficult task. This difficulty owes to a high level of uncertainty and low level of codification because partners work on loosely defined concepts that may change during the collaboration. Firms can employ several appropriability mechanisms to protect their knowledge. Examples include patents, copyright, legal agreements, document management, lead time, secrecy and complexity. However, the best time to apply each mechanism remains unclear, and few empirical studies have explored this issue. This study is based on exploratory case studies of three manufacturing firms. The goal is to identify which appropriability mechanisms are pertinent at each phase of collaborative ideation and how they influence the effectiveness of protection. The results of the analysis lead to the development of a model describing the managerial practices that influence the effectiveness of protection. The results also lead to a set of research propositions to define when each appropriability mechanism is most likely to be used. Overall, this research contributes to the discussion of how to integrate formal and informal appropriability mechanisms for safe collaborative ideation. The paper concludes by discussing theoretical and managerial implications as well as directions for future research.

  • 50.
    Mostaghel, Rana
    et al.
    Division of Marketing and Strategy, School of Business Society and Engineering, Malardalen University, Sweden.
    Oghazi, Pejvak
    School of Social Sciences, Sodertorn University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Patel, Pankaj C.
    Villanova School of Business, Villanova University, Villanova, PA, USA.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. University of Vaasa, Department of Management, Vaasa, Finland.
    Hultman, Magnus
    University of Leeds, Leeds University Business School, Maurice Keyworth Building, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Marketing and supply chain coordination and intelligence quality: A product innovation performance perspective2019In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 101, p. 597-606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]