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  • 1.
    Pham, Binh Thai
    et al.
    University of Transport Technology, Hanoi, Viet Nam.
    Phong, Tran Van
    Institute of Geological Sciences, Vietnam Academy of Sciences and Technology, Dong da, Hanoi, Viet Nam.
    Nguyen, Huu Duy
    Faculty of Geography, VNU University of Science, Hanoi, Viet Nam.
    Qi, Chongchong
    School of Resources and Safety Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, China.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Amini, Ata
    Kurdistan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Ho, Lanh Si
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Tuyen, Tran Thi
    Department of Resource and Environment Management, School of Agriculture and Resources, Vinh University, Vietnam.
    Yen, Hoang Phan Hai
    Department of Geography, School of Social Education, Vinh University, Vietnam.
    Ly, Hai‐Bang
    University of Transport Technology, Hanoi, Viet Nam.
    Prakash, Indra
    Department of Science & Technology, Bhaskarcharya Institute for Space Applications and Geo-Informatics (BISAG), Government of Gujarat, Gandhinagar, India.
    Bui, Dieu Tien
    Geographic Information System group, Department of Business and IT, University of South-Eastern Norway, Notodden, Norway.
    A Comparative Study of Kernel Logistic Regression, Radial Basis Function Classifier, Multinomial Naïve Bayes, and Logistic Model Tree for Flash Flood Susceptibility Mapping2020Ingår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 1-21, artikel-id 239Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk of flash floods is currently an important problem in many parts of Vietnam. In this study, we used four machine-learning methods, namely Kernel Logistic Regression (KLR), Radial Basis Function Classifier (RBFC), Multinomial Naïve Bayes (NBM), and Logistic Model Tree (LMT) to generate flash flood susceptibility maps at the minor part of Nghe An province of the Center region (Vietnam) where recurrent flood problems are being experienced. Performance of these four methods was evaluated to select the best method for flash flood susceptibility mapping. In the model studies, ten flash flood conditioning factors, namely soil, slope, curvature, river density, flow direction, distance from rivers, elevation, aspect, land use, and geology, were chosen based on topography and geo-environmental conditions of the site. For the validation of models, the area under Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC), Area Under Curve (AUC), and various statistical indices were used. The results indicated that performance of all the models is good for generating flash flood susceptibility maps (AUC = 0.983–0.988). However, performance of LMT model is the best among the four methods (LMT: AUC = 0.988; KLR: AUC = 0.985; RBFC: AUC = 0.984; and NBM: AUC = 0.983). The present study would be useful for the construction of accurate flash flood susceptibility maps with the objectives of identifying flood-susceptible areas/zones for proper flash flood risk management.

  • 2.
    Chen, Jian
    et al.
    School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Australia.
    Orozovic, Ognjen
    School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Australia. Centre for Bulk Solids and Particulate Technologies, Newcastle Institute for Energy and Resources, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Australia.
    Kenneth, Williams
    School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Australia. Centre for Bulk Solids and Particulate Technologies, Newcastle Institute for Energy and Resources, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Australia.
    Meng, Jingjing
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Li, Chengzhi
    The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China. Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.
    A coupled DEM-SPH model for moisture migration in unsaturated granular material under oscillation2020Ingår i: International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, ISSN 0020-7403, E-ISSN 1879-2162, Vol. 169, artikel-id 105313Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Granular materials, such as mineral products, soil and chemical fertilizer, normally contain unsaturated free moisture. This unsaturated moisture could migrate in the granular material and its processing, resulting in handling and safety concerns due to a change in the material properties. In this work, a method of coupling the Discrete Element Method (DEM) and the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) was proposed to investigate moisture migration in unsaturated granular materials under oscillation. The particles and water were simulated through DEM and SPH, respectively and a python coupling framework was programmed to perform the exchange of particle-fluid interaction forces. Subsequently, experiments with plastic pellets and a coal sample were used to calibrate the models, with DEM calibrated by an angle of repose experiment and draining experiments calibrating the coupled model. Finally, the coupled model was validated by comparing the results to those of experiments involving moisture migration under oscillation. It was found that, compared to measurements, the coupled SPH-DEM model predicted the same moisture migration trend and also provided good agreement for the prediction of the mass of drained water.

  • 3.
    Bui, Dieu Tien
    et al.
    Geographic Information Science Research Group, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Faculty of Environment and Labour Safety, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Shirzadi, Ataollah
    Department of Rangeland and Watershed Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Amini, Ata
    Kurdistan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Shahabi, Himan
    Department of Geomorphology, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj , Iran. Department of Zrebar Lake Environmental Research, Kurdistan Studies Institute, University of Kurdistan.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hamidi, Shahriar
    Department of Water Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Singh, Sushant K.
    Department of Health, Insurance & Life Sciences, Data & Analytics, Virtusa Corporation, Irvington, NJ, USA.
    Pham, Binh Thai
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Ahmad, Baharin Bin
    Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Ghazvinei, Pezhman Taherei
    Department of Civil Engineering, Technical and Engineering College, Ale Taha University, Tehran, Iran.
    A Hybrid Intelligence Approach to Enhance the Prediction Accuracy of Local Scour Depth at Complex Bridge Piers2020Ingår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 1-24, artikel-id 1063Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Local scour depth at complex piers (LSCP) cause expensive costs when constructing bridges. In this study, a hybrid artificial intelligence approach of random subspace (RS) meta classifier, based on the reduced error pruning tree (REPTree) base classifier, namely RS-REPTree, was proposed to predict the LSCP. A total of 122 laboratory datasets were used and portioned into training (70%: 85 cases) and validation (30%: 37 cases) datasets for modeling and validation processes, respectively. The statistical metrics such as mean absolute error (MAE), root mean squared error (RMSE), correlation coefficient (R), and Taylor diagram were used to check the goodness-of-fit and performance of the proposed model. The capability of this model was assessed and compared with four state-of-the-art soft-computing benchmark algorithms, including artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM), M5P, and REPTree, along with two empirical models, including the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) and Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18 (HEC-18). The findings showed that machine learning algorithms had the highest goodness-of-fit and prediction accuracy (0.885 < R < 0.945) in comparison to the other models. The results of sensitivity analysis by the proposed model indicated that pile cap location (Y) was a more sensitive factor for LSCP among other factors. The result also depicted that the RS-REPTree ensemble model (R = 0.945) could well enhance the prediction power of the REPTree base classifier (R = 0.885). Therefore, the proposed model can be useful as a promising technique to predict the LSCP.

  • 4. Mohammad, Mohammad E.
    et al.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    A numerical study of pumping effects on flow velocity distributions in Mosul Dam reservoir using the HEC‐RAS model2020Ingår i: Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management, ISSN 1320-5331, E-ISSN 1440-1770Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Water flow direction and velocity affect and controls erosion, transport and deposi- tion of sediment in rivers, reservoirs and different hydraulic structures. One of the main structures affected is pumping stations within the dams wherein the velocity distribution near the station intake is disturbed. The two-dimensional (2-D) HEC-RAS 5.01 model was utilized to study, analyse and evaluate the effects of pumping rates and flow depth on the flow velocity distribution, flow stream power and their effects in the Mosul Dam reservoir. The pumping station was considered as a case study. The station is suffering from sediment accumulation around, and in, its intake and suction pipes. The main inflow sources to the reservoir are the Tigris River and run-off from the valleys within its basin. The reservoir was divided into two parts for the present study, including the upper part near the pumping station (analysed as a two-dimen- sional zone), while the lower part was analysed as a one-dimensional flow to reduce the simulation period computation time (1986–2011). Different operation plans (i.e. pumping rate and water depth) were considered. The results of the depth-averaged velocity model indicated that when the pumping station was working at a range from the designed full capacity (100% to 25% of its full capacity), the maximum flow ve- locity increased from 75 to 4 times the normal velocity when there is no pumping dependent on pumping rate and flow depth. For the same operation plans, the flow stream power varied from around zero values to 400 times at full pumping capacity and low flow depth. For sediment routing along the reservoir, the considered statisti- cal criteria indicated the model performance in estimating the total sediment load deposition and invert bed level is much better than in the case of erosion and deposition areas for different considered bed sections of the reservoir.

  • 5.
    Rothhämel, Mirja
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Rosenberg, Matthias
    Technical University Braunschweig, Germany.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Anwendbarkeit oberflächennaher Baugrundstabilisierung mit hydraulischen Bindemitteln in Schweden unter Berücksichtigung des Einflusses von Frost-Tau-Wechseln auf die Tragfähigkeit stabilisierter Tone2020Ingår i: Bauingenieur: Zeitschrift für das gesamte Bauwesen, ISSN 0005-6650, E-ISSN 1436-4867, Vol. 95, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Applicability of near-surface soil improvement with hydraulic binders in Sweden considering the influence of freeze/thaw-cycles on the strength of stabilised clay

    Fine-grained soils are often not suitable as subsoil for roads or railways or other large-scale construction because of their frost susceptibility. The engineering properties as well as the frost durability of such soils can be improved by mixing with hydraulic binder, which is used in countries with moderate climate. This paper presents a laboratory study of a Swedish clay soil stabilised with a by-product originated hydraulic binder. The procedure and interpretation of the study considers the country-specific boundary conditions of Sweden. The study contains two different binder contents (4 and 7%) and unstabilised clay, three different curing times (14, 28 and 90 days) before twelve freeze/thaw-cycles as well as a subsequent curing time (28 days). The curing conditions were adopted to cold climate, i. e. +4°C. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) was used as a measure of strength. The results show that this soil gains strength by stabilisation with this binder even at this cold curing temperature and that an increase is still remarkable after freeze/thaw-cycles. The time after freeze/thaw-cycles may allow a continued curing which is indicated by a somewhat higher strength.

  • 6.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Groundwater Directorate of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, NE, Iraq..
    Ali, Salahalddin
    Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, NE, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Komar University of Science and Technology, Sulaimani, Iraqi Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution using two different vulnerability models in Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq2020Ingår i: Groundwater for Sustainable Development, ISSN 2352-801X, Vol. 10, artikel-id 100276Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater aquifer in Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin considered as one of the most important aquifers in terms of water supplying in Kurdistan Region, NE of Iraq. The growing of economics, irrigation and agricultural activities inside the basin makes it of the main essentials to the region. Therefore, pollution of groundwater is of specific worry as groundwater resources are the principal source of water for drinking, agriculture, irrigation and industrial activities. Thus, the best and practical arrangement is to keep the pollution of groundwater through. The current study aims to evaluate of the vulnerability of groundwater aquifers of the study area. Two models were applied, to be specific VLDA and COP to develop maps of groundwater vulnerability for contamination. The VLDA model classified the area into four classes of vulnerability: low, moderate, high and very high with coverage area of (2%,44%,53% and 1%), respectively. While four vulnerability classes were accomplished dependent on COP model including very low, low, moderate and high vulnerability classes with coverage areas of (1%, 37%, 2% and 60%) respectively. To confirm the suitability of each map for assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the area, it required to be validated of the theoretical sympathetic of current hydrogeological conditions. In this study, groundwater age evaluated utilizing tritium isotopes investigation and applied it to validate the vulnerability results. Based on this validation, the outcome exhibits that the vulnerability classes acquired utilizing VLDA model are more predictable contrasted with the COP model.

  • 7.
    Ewaid, Salam Hussein
    et al.
    Technical Institute of Shatra, Southern Technical University, Basra, Iraq.
    Abed, Salwan Ali
    College of Science, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Diwaniyah, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Assessment of Main Cereal Crop Trade Impacts on Water and Land Security in Iraq2020Ingår i: Agronomy, E-ISSN 2073-4395, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 1-14, artikel-id 98Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing populations, socio-economic development, the pollution of rivers, and the withdrawal of fresh water are all signs of increasing water scarcity, and with 85% of global use, agriculture is the biggest freshwater user. The water footprint (WF) and virtual water (VW) are concepts used recently for freshwater resources assessment. The WF reflects how much, when and where the water was used whereas VW reveals the volume of water embedded in goods when traded. The first goal of this research is to determine the WF per ton and the WF of production (Mm3/yr) of wheat, barley, rice, and maize in Iraq. The second goal is estimating the quantities of the 4 main cereal crops imported into Iraq and assessing the impact on reducing WF and land savings for 10 years from 2007 to 2016. The results showed that the WF per ton was 1736, 1769, 3694, 2238 m3/ton and the WF of production was 5271, 1475, 997, 820 Mm3/yr for wheat, barley, rice, and maize, respectively. The median total VW imported was 4408 Mm3/yr, the largest volume was 3478 Mm3/yr from wheat, and Iraq saved about 2676 Mm3 of irrigated water and 1,239,539 M ha of land by importing crops every year during 2007–2016. The study revealed the significance of better irrigation management methods to decrease the WF through a selection of crops that need less water and cultivation in rain-fed areas, as well as the use of cereal import to conserve scarce water resources, which is crucial both in terms of water resource management and preservation of the environment. The results of this research could be used as a guideline for better water management practices in Iraq and can provide helpful data for both stakeholders and policymakers.

  • 8.
    Al-Jabban, Wathiq
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Briefing: Common laboratory procedures to prepare and cure stabilised soil specimens: a short review2020Ingår i: Geotechnical Research, ISSN 2052-6156, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 1-8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil stabilisation is used extensively to improve the physical and mechanical properties of soils to achieve the desired strength and durability properties. During the design process, laboratory investigation is conducted firstly to obtain an enhancement in soil strength and stiffness, in addition to the type and amount of binder required. The methods of preparing and curing specimens of soil–binder mixtures directly influence the properties of the stabilised soils. The most common laboratory protocols used for preparing and curing the specimens of stabilised soil are presented in this short review. The review focuses on several aspects such as homogenisation of the natural soil, mixing type and duration, mould type, moulding techniques and curing time and condition. This review can assist various construction projects that deal with soil improvement to choose an appropriate method for preparing and curing a soil–binder mixture to simulate the field conditions as much as possible and obtain uniform soil–binder mixtures.

  • 9.
    Pusch, Roland
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Weston, Richard
    Dep. of Production and Materials Engineering, Lund University, Sweden.
    Kasbohm, Jörn
    Geographical and Geological Dept, Greifswald University, Germany.
    Deep Boreholes for Storage of Spent Reactor Fuel and Use of the Heated Rock for Production of Electric Energy or hot fluid for heating purposes2020Ingår i: Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 127-153Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lack of energy is a serious threat to the prosperity of many developed states that have access to or plan to use nuclear power. The paper describes a concept for solving two major problems related to these conditions, namely safe disposal of spent reactor fuel and generation of electric energy or hot fluid by use of heat produced by the disposed waste. The challenge in storing spent nuclear fuel can be met with by installing such highly radioactive waste in deep boreholes with fuel rods encapsulated in canisters of copper-lined iron or titanium. Electric energy can be generated by utilizing the accumulated heat in the same rock mass by pumping up hot water or clayey mud from series of deep holes bored parallel and between corresponding holes with nuclear waste. The amounts of heat in each of the hot-water holes overlap and raise the initial rock temperature at 1,500-3,000 m depth to about 80-90oC after some 50 years and to 70-80oC in 500 years, after which the temperature in the hot-fluid holes goes down successively to the initial value 60-70oC in about 500 years. If these holes are subsequently deepened from 3,000 to 5,000 meters, utilization of the hot fluid can continue for another 500 years.

  • 10.
    Bui, Dieu Tien
    et al.
    Geographic Information Science Research Group, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Minh, Vietnam. Faculty of Environment and Labour Safety, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Minh, Vietnam.
    Asl, Dawood Talebpour
    Department of Geomorphology, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Ghanavati, Ezatolla
    Department of Geomorphology, Faculty of Geography, University of Kharazmi, Tehran, Iran.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Khezri, Saeed
    Department of Geomorphology, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Chapi, Kamran
    Department of Watershed and Rangeland Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Amini, Ata
    Kurdistan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Pham, Binh Thai
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Effects of Inter-Basin Water Transfer on Water Flow Condition of Destination Basin2020Ingår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, nr 338Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the intensification of drought and unsustainable management and use of water resources have caused a significant decline in the water level of the Urmia Lake in the northwest of Iran. This condition has affected the lake, approaching an irreversible point such that many projects have been implemented and are being implemented to save the natural condition of the Urmia Lake, among which the inter-basin water transfer (IBWT) project from the Zab River to the lake could be considered an important project. The main aim of this research is the evaluation of the IBWT project effects on the Gadar destination basin. Simulations of the geometrical properties of the river, including the bed and flow, have been performed, and the land cover and flood map were overlapped in order to specify the areas prone to flood after implementing the IBWT project. The results showed that with the implementation of this project, the discharge of the Gadar River was approximately tripled and the water level of the river rose 1 m above the average. In April, May, and June, about 952.92, 1458.36, and 731.43 ha of land adjacent to the river (floodplain) will be inundated by flood, respectively. Results also indicated that UNESCO’s criteria No. 3 (“a comprehensive environmental impact assessment must indicate that the project will not substantially degrade the environmental quality within the area of origin or the area of delivery”) and No. 5 (“the net benefits from the transfer must be shared equitably between the area of origin and the area of water delivery”) have been violated by implementing this project in the study area. The findings could help the local government and other decision-makers to better understand the effects of the IBWT projects on the physical and hydrodynamic processes of the Gadar River as a destination basin.

  • 11.
    Shahabi, Himan
    et al.
    Department of Geomorphology, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran. Board Member of Department of Zrebar Lake Environmental Research, Kurdistan Studies Institute, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Shirzadi, Ataollah
    Department of Rangeland and Watershed Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Ghaderi, Kayvan
    Department of Information Technology and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Omidvar, Ebrahim
    Department of Rangeland and Watershed Management, Faculty of Natural Resources and Earth Sciences, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Clague, John J.
    Department of Earth Sciences Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada.
    Geertsema, Marten
    British Columbia, Ministry of Forests, Lands, Natural Resource Operations and Rural Development, Prince George, BC, Canada.
    Khosravi, Khabat
    School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON , Canada.
    Amini, Ata
    Kurdistan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Bahrami, Sepideh
    Department of Hydrological Sciences, University of Nevada, Reno, NV, USA.
    Rahmati, Omid
    Kurdistan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Habibi, Kyoumars
    Department of urban and regional planning, Faculty of Art and Architecture, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Mohammadi, Ayub
    Department of Geoinformation, Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Nguyen, Hoang
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Melesse, Assefa M.
    Department of Earth and Environment, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA.
    Ahmad, Baharin Bin
    Department of Geoinformation, Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM),Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Ahmad, Anuar
    Department of Geoinformation, Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM),Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Flood Detection and Susceptibility Mapping Using Sentinel-1 Remote Sensing Data and a Machine Learning Approach: Hybrid Intelligence of Bagging Ensemble Based on K-Nearest Neighbor Classifier2020Ingår i: Remote Sensing, ISSN 2072-4292, E-ISSN 2072-4292, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 1-30, artikel-id 266Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mapping flood-prone areas is a key activity in flood disaster management. In this paper, we propose a new flood susceptibility mapping technique. We employ new ensemble models based on bagging as a meta-classifier and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) coarse, cosine, cubic, and weighted base classifiers to spatially forecast flooding in the Haraz watershed in northern Iran. We identified flood-prone areas using data from Sentinel-1 sensor. We then selected 10 conditioning factors to spatially predict floods and assess their predictive power using the Relief Attribute Evaluation (RFAE) method. Model validation was performed using two statistical error indices and the area under the curve (AUC). Our results show that the Bagging–Cubic–KNN ensemble model outperformed other ensemble models. It decreased the overfitting and variance problems in the training dataset and enhanced the prediction accuracy of the Cubic–KNN model (AUC=0.660). We therefore recommend that the Bagging–Cubic–KNN model be more widely applied for the sustainable management of flood-prone areas.

  • 12.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Engineer, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan, Hewler, KRG, Iraq.
    Global Climate Change Impacts on Tigris-Euphrates Rivers Basins2020Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 49-98Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is affecting the hydrological cycle all over the World. The effect on arid and semi-arid regions is relatively more. The Middle East and North Africa region is one of the biggest hyper-arid, semi-arid and arid zones in the world where the long-term average precipitation does not exceed 166mm per year. The Tigris and Euphrates basins are located within the northern part of the Middle East. Future projections  indicate  the  considerable  reduction  in  water  resources  as  a  result  of drought and population growth. North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is responsible for the  change  in  climate  over  the  Tigris  and  Euphrates  basins.  This  is  causing  a decrease in rainfall and a consequence decrease in the flow of the rivers. In addition, the  temperature  is  increasing.  All  these  variables  are  causing  sea  level  rise, increasing dust storms and deletion of groundwater resources. It is believed that quick actions are required to minimize the effect of climate change. This includes prudent water resources planning and good regional cooperation.

  • 13.
    Hai, Tao
    et al.
    Computer Science Department, Baoji University of Arts and Sciences, Baoji, China.
    Sharafati, Ahmad
    Department of Civil Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
    Mohammed, Achite
    Faculty of Nature and Life Sciences, Laboratory of Water and Environment, University Hassiba Benbouali Chlef, Hay Es-Salem Chlef, Algeria.
    Salih, Sinan Q.
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Deo, Ravinesh C.
    School of Agricultural, Computational and Environmental Sciences, Centre for Applied Climate Sciences, Institute of Life Sciences and Environment, University of Southern Queensland, Springfield, QLD, Australia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Global Solar Radiation Estimation and Climatic Variability Analysis Using Extreme Learning Machine Based Predictive Model2020Ingår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, s. 12026-12042Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable utilization of the freely available solar radiation as renewable energy source requires accurate predictive models to quantitatively evaluate future energy potentials. In this research, an evaluation of the preciseness of extreme learning machine (ELM) model as a fast and efficient framework for estimating global incident solar radiation (G) is undertaken. Daily meteorological datasets suitable for G estimation belongs to the northern parts of the Cheliff Basin in Northwest Algeria, is used to construct the estimation model. Cross-correlation functions are applied between the inputs and the target variable (i.e., G) where several climatological information’s are used as the predictors for surface level G estimation. The most significant model inputs are determined in accordance with highest cross-correlations considering the covariance of the predictors with the G dataset. Subsequently, seven ELM models with unique neuronal architectures in terms of their input-hidden-output neurons are developed with appropriate input combinations. The prescribed ELM model’s estimation performance over the testing phase is evaluated against multiple linear regressions (MLR), autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models and several well-established literature studies. This is done in accordance with several statistical score metrics. In quantitative terms, the root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) are dramatically lower for the optimal ELM model with RMSE and MAE = 3.28 and 2.32 Wm −2 compared to 4.24 and 3.24 Wm −2 (MLR) and 8.33 and 5.37 Wm −2 (ARIMA).

  • 14.
    Saleh, Sabbar A.
    et al.
    Department of Applied Geology, College of Science, Tikrit University.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Abdullah, Twana
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Groundwater Hydrology in Iraq2020Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 155-197Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current work, the spatial distribution of the precipitation in Iraq were reviewed, as it is considered as one of the most important parameters that controls groundwater recharging. In addition, the physiographical divisions of Iraq had been assessed as it is contributing in determining the groundwater aquifers, as well as a review of the division of the main groundwater aquifers. Subsequently, a review of the level and depths of groundwater, the regional trends of its flow, the variation of its specific quality (especially salinity), and its suitability for multipurpose, throughout of the Iraqi territory had been conducted. The characteristics of each region were highlighted separately, including the detailed aspects that relate to the groundwater recharge, quality flow of groundwater, the hydraulic characteristics of the groundwater aquifers, the problems facing the groundwater sector, and the development of recommendation in terms of the optimal investment and development of groundwater resources in each region.

  • 15.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Engineer, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan, Hewler, KRG, Iraq.
    How Dams Can Affect Freshwater Issues in the Euphrates-Tigris Basins2020Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 15-48Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The basins of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers Cover an area of 917103km2 distributed between Iraq, Turkey, Iran, Syria and Saudi Araba. The population within the basins reaches about 50 million inhabitants. The flow of the two rivers is decreasing with time. This is due to the construction of dams and irrigation projects in the upper parts of the basins and climate change. This has an impact on the quality of water within the two rivers. Iraq being the lowest riparian country is highly effected. Analysis of water quality of the water indicates that the salinity of Euphrates water is increasing with time and on the Syrian- Iraqi borders, it is of unacceptable level where it is higher than what is recommended for Irrigation. The Tigris water quality becomes alarming once the river enters Iraq and at Baghdad, it becomes unsuitable for irrigation. To overcome these problems, riparian countries must cooperate seriously to take measures to improve the quality of water within the two rivers.

     

  • 16.
    Malik, Anurag
    et al.
    Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, College of Technology, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India.
    Kumar, Anil
    Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, College of Technology, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India.
    Kim, Sungwon
    Department of Railroad Construction and Safety Engineering, Dongyang University, Yeongju, Republic of Korea.
    Kashani, Mahsa H.
    Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.
    Karim, Vahid
    Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
    Sharafati, Ahmad
    Department of Civil Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
    Ghorban, Mohammad Ali
    Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Salih, Sinan Q.
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Chau, Kwok-Wing
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China.
    Modeling monthly pan evaporation process over the Indian central Himalayas: application of multiple learning artificial intelligence model2020Ingår i: Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1994-2060, E-ISSN 1997-003X, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 323-338Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of several predictive models including multiple model-artificial neural network (MM-ANN), multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS), support vector machine (SVM), multi-gene genetic programming (MGGP), and ‘M5Tree’ were assessed to simulate the pan evaporation in monthly scale (EPm) at two stations (e.g. Ranichauri and Pantnagar) in India. Monthly climatological information were used for simulating the pan evaporation. The utmost effective input-variables for the MM-ANN, MGGP, MARS, SVM, and M5Tree were determined using the Gamma test (GT). The predictive models were compared to each other using several statistical criteria (e.g. mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), Willmott's Index of agreement (WI), root mean squared error (RMSE), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), and Legate and McCabe’s Index (LM)) and visual inspection. The results showed that the MM-ANN-1 and MGGP-1 models (NSE, WI, LM, RMSE, MAPE are 0.954, 0.988, 0.801, 0.536 mm/month, 9.988% at Pantnagar station, and 0.911, 0.975, 0.724, and 0.364 mm/month, 12.297% at Ranichauri station, respectively) with input variables equal to six were more successful than the other techniques during testing period to simulate the monthly pan evaporation at both Ranichauri and Pantnagar stations. Thus, the results of proposed MM-ANN-1 and MGGP-1 models will help to the local stakeholders in terms of water resources management.

  • 17.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    University of Kurdistan Hewler, KRG, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    Consultant Engineer, Norrköping, Sweden..
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Origins and Utilizations of the Main Natural Depressions in Iraq2020Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 15-41Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many natural depressions occur in Iraq with different origins, sizes, shapes and utilization. In this study, nine main depressions are studied and discussed, especially their origins, they are: Tharthar, Hab’baniyah, Raz’zazah, Ga’ara, Umm Chaimin, Salman, Slaibat Dukan, and Derbendikhan. The study was achieved by using satellite images of high accuracy, geological maps and reports, historical and irrigation data. All the mentioned depressions apart from Salman and Ga’ara depression are used for irrigation uses, especially for flood control others are used for electric power generation; or has no any use. The study revealed that some of the depressions are formed due to karstification, others due to tectonic activity and some due to combination of karstification and tectonic activity. However, the role of fluvial and wind erosion cannot be ignored in the development of the depressions. 

  • 18.
    Al-Madhlom, Qais
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Chabuk, Ali
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. University of Babylon, Babylon, Hilla, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Lindblom, Jenny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    University of Kufa, Kufa, Najaf, Iraq.
    Potential use of UTES in Babylon Governorate, Iraq2020Ingår i: Groundwater for Sustainable Development, ISSN 2352-801X, Vol. 10, artikel-id 100283Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a global attention that the future energy systems will be based on renewable energy like solar and wind. The large-scale utilization of renewables in space heating and cooling requires large Thermal Energy Storage TES to overcome the varying supply and demand. The process of producing the best Underground Thermal Energy Storage UTES system pass through two steps: first, finding the best type of UTES system, second, finding the best locations to install UTES system. Both of these two steps depend extremely on the site specific parameters such that the depth to the groundwater, transmissivity, type of soil, the depth to the bedrock, and seepage velocity. The purpose of this paper is to explain some of the site specific parameters that the type of UTES-system depends on and explain the suitable type of UTES systems. This study considers Babylon province (Iraq) as study area. This province has electricity deficiency due to Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning HVAC applications. The methodology of this study includes reviewing the literature that consider the study area, and using Arc Map/GIS to visualize some of the in-site parameters. The results indicate that the best type of UTES system for the considered region is either aquifer or pit type, due to the type of the soil and the depth to the crystalline bedrock. The hydraulic conductivity and the seepage velocity in the considered region are (0.0023–2.5) m/d and (1.3 × 10−6 – 3.45 × 10−3) m/d respectively. These conditions satisfy the standards which regard aquifer type.

  • 19.
    Homsi, Rajab
    et al.
    Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Shiru, Mohammed Sanusi
    Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Federal University Dutse, Dutse, Nigeria.
    Shahid, Shamsuddin
    Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Ismail, Tarmizi
    Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Harun, Sobri Bin
    Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Chau, Kwok-Wing
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, Peoples People’s Republic of China.
    Yaseen, Zaher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Precipitation projection using a CMIP5 GCM ensemble model: a regional investigation of Syria2020Ingår i: Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1994-2060, E-ISSN 1997-003X, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 90-106Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The possible changes in precipitation of Syrian due to climate change are projected in this study. The symmetrical uncertainty (SU) and multi-criteria decision-analysis (MCDA) methods are used to identify the best general circulation models (GCMs) for precipitation projections. The effectiveness of four bias correction methods, linear scaling (LS), power transformation (PT), general quantile mapping (GEQM), and gamma quantile mapping (GAQM) is assessed in downscaling GCM simulated precipitation. A random forest (RF) model is performed to generate the multi model ensemble (MME) of precipitation projections for four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5. The results showed that the best suited GCMs for climate projection of Syria are HadGEM2-AO, CSIRO-Mk3-6-0, NorESM1-M, and CESM1-CAM5. The LS demonstrated the highest capability for precipitation downscaling. Annual changes in precipitation is projected to decrease by −30 to −85.2% for RCPs 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5, while by < 0.0 to −30% for RCP 2.6. The precipitation is projected to decrease in the entire country for RCP 6.0, while increase in some parts for other RCPs during wet season. The dry season of precipitation is simulated to decrease by −12 to −93%, which indicated a drier climate for the country in the future.

  • 20.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    et al.
    School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Al-Juboor, Anas Mahmood
    Dams and Water Resources Research Center, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq;.
    Beyaztas, Ufuk
    Department of Statistics, Bartin University, Bartin, Turkey.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Chaue, Kwok-Wing
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China.
    Qi, Chongchong
    School of Resources and Safety Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province, People’s Republic of China.
    Ali, Mumtaz
    Deakin-SWU Joint Research Centre on Big Data, School of Information Technology, Deakin University, Australia.
    Salih, Sinan Q.
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Shahid, Shamsuddin
    School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Prediction of evaporation in arid and semi-arid regions: a comparative study using different machine learning models2020Ingår i: Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1994-2060, E-ISSN 1997-003X, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 70-89Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaporation, one of the fundamental components of the hydrology cycle, is differently influenced by various meteorological variables in different climatic regions. The accurate prediction of evaporation is essential for multiple water resources engineering applications, particularly in developing countries like Iraq where the meteorological stations are not sustained and operated appropriately for in situ estimations. This is where advanced methodologies such as machine learning (ML) models can make valuable contributions. In this research, evaporation is predicted at two different meteorological stations located in arid and semi-arid regions of Iraq. Four different ML models for the prediction of evaporation – the classification and regression tree (CART), the cascade correlation neural network (CCNNs), gene expression programming (GEP), and the support vector machine (SVM) – were developed and constructed using various input combinations of meteorological variables. The results reveal that the best predictions are achieved by incorporating sunshine hours, wind speed, relative humidity, rainfall, and the minimum, mean, and maximum temperatures. The SVM was found to show the best performance with wind speed, rainfall, and relative humidity as inputs at Station I (R2 = .92), and with all variables as inputs at Station II (R2 = .97). All the ML models performed well in predicting evaporation at the investigated locations.

  • 21.
    Ali, Ammar A.
    et al.
    College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Hassan, Rebwar
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Dawood, Anwar Hazim
    College of Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Koya University, Koya, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq. President of Komar University of Science and Technology, Komar University of Science and Technology, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sediment flux from Lesser Zab River in Dokan Reservoir: Implications for the sustainability of long‐term water resources in Iraq2020Ingår i: Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, ISSN 1535-1459, E-ISSN 1535-1467Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Prudent management of Iraqi water resources under climate change conditions requires plans to be based on actual figures of the storage capacity of existing reservoirs. With the absence of sediment flushing measures, the actual storage capacity of Dokan Reservoir (operated since 1959) has been affected by the amount of sediment delivered during its operational life leading to an undetermined reduction in its storage capacity. In consequence, there has not been an update on the dam's operational storage capacity curves. In this research, new operational curves were established for the reservoir based on a recent bathymetric survey undertaken in 2014. The reduction in reservoir capacity during the period between 1959 and 2014 was calculated by the mean of the difference between the designed storage capacity and the storage capacity which was concluded from the 2014 bathymetric survey. Moreover, the rate of sediment transported to the reservoir was calculated based on the overall quantities of accumulated sediment and the water discharge of the Lesser Zab River into the reservoir. The results indicate that the dam capacity is reduced by 25% due to sedimentation of an estimated volume of 367 million cubic metres at water level 480 m.a.s.l. The annual sedimentation rate was about 6.6 million cubic metres, and the sediment yield was estimated to be 701.2 t∙km−3∙year.

  • 22.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    University of Kurdistan Hewler, Erbil, Iraq Erbil, Iraq.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    Norrköping, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The Role of Geological Investigations for Dam Siting: Mosul Dam a Case Study2020Ingår i: Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, ISSN 0960-3182, E-ISSN 1573-1529, Vol. 38, s. 1-12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dams are engineering structures constructed for different purposes. They are of differentsizes, shapes and types. In all cases, many essentialstudies should be carried out before deciding thelocation, type and size of the dam. Among thosestudies is the geological investigations which shouldbe carried out to deduce the geological conditions inthe most relevant site, depth of the foundations andtheir types, cut-off depth, type of the availableconstruction materials, and type of the expectedgeological hazards. Without proper geological investigations, the siting of a dam will cause serious hazardsduring construction and during commissioning of thedam. In this study, Mosul Dam case is considered asthe consequences of inadequate geological investigations which were carried out by the contractor andsupervised by Swiss Consultant. The location of thedam site and its foundations are built over a highlykarstified area, where gypsum and limestone beds areexposed and exist deep under the ground surface, andeven deeper than the foundations. Accordingly,grouting treatment was carried out and still on going,but all the attempts to have a safe and relevant damwere in vain. In this study we have provided theessential studies which should be included during thegeological investigation to have a safe and sound dam.

  • 23.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water Harvesting in Iraq: Status and Opportunities2020Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 199-217Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Water harvesting in Iraq is an old application with limited extent. Western Desert, Jazeera Desert and Eastern Valleys, are the zones were the water harvesting must be employed. Several water harvesting dams in Western Desert had built since 1970s, these dams are intended to provide habitat and recharge of groundwater resources. There is limited opportunity to recharge groundwater in Jazeera area due to existence of gypsum layers. Regarding Eastern Valleys, the experience of building water harvesting dams on the valleys manifested that sediments accumulation is the main obstacle to adapt this solution. Hemrin Hills considered as one of the most intensively eroded areas in Iraq, so, soil conservation and water harvesting development is important. Many small dams were built in mountainous zone in the last two decades, some are important for agriculture expansion, but there is need to evaluate the effects on large dams feeding. North-Eastern parts of Jordan, which has similar natural conditions of Northern Desert, had present a successful example of water harvesting development.  

  • 24.
    Al-Jabban, Wathiq
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    A Comparative Evaluation of Cement and By-Product Petrit T in Soil Stabilization2019Ingår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, nr 23, artikel-id 5238Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a comparison between the effectiveness of adding low binder amounts of industrial by-product Petrit T as well as cement to modify and improve fine-grained soil. Binder amount was added by soil dry weight; cement at 1%, 2%, 4% and 7% and Petrit T at 2%, 4% and 7%. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) was used as an indicator of soil strength. In addition, the consistency limits, laser particle size analysis, and pH tests were also conducted on the treated soil. The samples were cured at 20 °C for different periods from 7 to 90 days before testing. Results indicate that cement is more effective at improving the physical and engineering properties of the treated soil. Soil plasticity index decreases after treatment and with time. Liquidity index and the water content to plastic limit ratio are introduced as new indices to define the improvement in the workability of treated soil. Soil particle size distribution is changed by reducing the clay size fraction and increasing the silt size fraction after treatment. The findings confirm that adding small binder contents improve soil properties, which subsequently reduce the environmental threats and costs that are associated with using a high amount of binder.

  • 25.
    Bokde, Neeraj Dhanraj
    et al.
    Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur, India. Department of Engineering-Renewable Energy and Thermodynamics, Aarhus University, Denmark..
    Feijóo, Andrés
    Departamento de Enxeñería Eléctrica-Universidade de Vigo, Campus de Lagoas-Marcosende, Vigo, Spain..
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam..
    A comparison between reconstruction methods for generation of synthetic time series applied to wind speed simulation2019Ingår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, s. 1353096-135398Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind energy is an attractive renewable sources and its prediction is highly essential for multiple applications. Over the literature, there are several studies have been focused on the related researches of synthetic wind speed data generation. In this research, two reconstruction methods are developed for synthetic wind speed time series generation. The modeling is constructed based on different processes including independent values generation from the known probability distribution function, rearrangement of random values and segmentation. They have been named as Rank-wise and Step-wise reconstruction methods. The proposed methods are explained with the help of a standard time series and the examination on wind speed time series collected from Galicia, the autonomous region in the northwest of Spain. Results evidenced the potential of the developed models over the state-of-the-art synthetic time series generation methods and demonstrated a successful validation using the means of mean and median wind speed values, autocorrelations, probability distribution parameters with their corresponding histograms and confusion matrix. Pros and cons of both methods are discussed comprehensively.

  • 26.
    Alzeyadi, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Rawabdeh, Abdulla M.
    Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    A Novel Coating Method for Create Filter Media Capable to Remove Phosphate from Wastewater Effectively2019Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 11, nr 8, s. 443-463Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Filtration materials coating with metallic oxides represented a good method for phosphate sorption. However, most of the researchers utilize chemicals as a source of metallic oxides and heating process to set the chemicals over the filtration materials. This study is aimed to introduce the furnace bottom ash FBA as a source of metallic oxides; it is available free because it is dumped as a waste material from power generation plants. The method of creating new filter media involves coating the limestone and sand by FBA, and the ordinary Portland cement OPC utilized as binder to binding the mixture materials. The water is the factor which is responsible for activating the OPC. All factors such as mixed materials ratio, water content and age of reaction have subjected to optimization process. The results revealed that the optimal mixture for phosphate removal consists of 40% FBA, 5% OPC from dry weight of supporting material, 35% water ratio from the total weight of FBA and OPC, and 14 days are enough to complete the materials reaction. Limestone-furnace bottom ash LFBA indicated high capacity for phosphate sorption and possibility  of  efficiency  regenerate.  This  study  demonstrates  a  new  method  for coating the filtration materials more convenient with sustainability approach.

  • 27.
    Meng, Jingjing
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. School of Resources and Safety Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, China.
    Huang, Jinsong
    Discipline of Civil, Surveying and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia.
    Lin, Hang
    School of Resources and Safety Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, China.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Li, Kaihui
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    A static discrete element method with discontinuous deformation analysis2019Ingår i: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, ISSN 0029-5981, E-ISSN 1097-0207, Vol. 120, nr 7, s. 918-935Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For discrete element methods (DEMs), integrating the equation of motion based on Newton's second law is an integral part of the computation. Accelerations and velocities are involved even for modeling static mechanics problems. As a consequence, the accuracy can be ruined and numerous calculation steps are required to converge. In this study, we propose a static DEM based on discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA). The force of inertia is removed to develop a set of static equilibrium equations for distinct blocks. It inherits the advantages of DDA in dealing with distinct block system such as jointed rock structures. Furthermore, the critical numerical artifact in DDA, ie, artificial springs between contact blocks, is avoided. Accurate numerical solution can be achieved in mere one calculation step. Last but not the least, since the method is formulated in the framework of mathematical programming, the implementation can be easily conducted with standard and readily available solvers. Its accuracy and efficiency are verified against a series of benchmarks found in the literature.

  • 28.
    Baby, Sultana Nasrin
    et al.
    Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Arrowsmith, Colin
    Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Application of GIS for Mapping Rainwater-Harvesting Potential: Case Study Wollert, Victoria2019Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 14-21Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Water is a basic normal asset for supporting the condition of life. Accessible water assets are feeling the squeeze because of expanding demand. Soon wa- ter,  which  we  have  epended  upon  to  be  accessible  and  an  unconditional present of nature will turn into a rare roduct. Protection and conservation of water assets are desperately required. In many parts of Victoria, water supply to communities is limited. Rainwater harvesting systems can provide water ator near the point of demand. The systems can be owner and utility operated and  managed.  Rainwater  collected  using  existing  structures,  i.e.  rooftops, parking lots, playgrounds, parks, ponds, floodplains etc., has few negative en- vironmental impacts compared to other technologies for water resources de- velopment. Rainwater is relatively clean and the quality is usually acceptablefor many purposes with little or even no treatment. The physical and chemi- cal properties of rainwater are usually superior to sources of groundwater that may have been subjected to contamination. The present study was intended to measure the rooftop rainwater harvesting potential using GIS techniques. The GIS examination utilized in this investigation was basically an efficient assess- ment  of  rooftop  water  collecting  in  the  chose  Wollert  which  is  a  suburb  in Melbourne, Victoria. With the use of GIS it was conceivable to appraise the ag- gregate sum of water harvestable at the household level. It is very tedious work to assess the catchments available for rooftop rainwater harvesting. Here the roof surfaces are the catchments and GIS is employed to calculate the area of various  types  of  roofs  and  their  potential  for  planning  for  the  area  under study.  As  a  result  Eucalypt  Estate  Wollert  has  huge  potential  and  can  makeabove 179.11 litres water available per person per day throughout the year.

  • 29.
    Amini, Ata
    et al.
    Kurdistan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Kolahchi, Abdolnabi Abdeh
    Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Institute, SCWMRI, AREEO, Tehran, Iran.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Moghadam, Mehdi Karami
    Department of Agriculture, Payame Noor University (PNU), Tehran, Iran.
    Mohammad, Thamer
    Department of Water Resources Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Application of TRMM Precipitation Data to Evaluate Drought and Its Effects on Water Resources Instability2019Ingår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, nr 24, artikel-id 5377Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present research was carried out to study drought and its effects upon water resources using remote sensing data. To this end, the tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) satellite precipitation, the synoptic stations, and fountain discharge data were employed. For monitoring of drought in the study area, in Kermanshah province, Iran, the monthly precipitation data of the synoptic stations along with TRMM satellite precipitation datasets were collected and processed in the geographic information system (GIS) environment. Statistical indicators were applied to evaluate the accuracy of TRMM precipitation against the meteorological stations’ data. Standardized precipitation index, SPI, and normalized fountain discharge were used in the monitoring of drought conditions, and fountains discharge, respectively. The fountains were selected so that in addition to enjoying the most discharge rates, they spread along the study area. The evaluation of precipitation data showed that the TRMM precipitation data were of high accuracy. Studies in temporal scale are indicative of the strike of drought in this region to the effect that for most months of the year, frequency and duration in dry periods are much more than in wet periods. As for seasonal scales, apart from winter, the frequency and duration of drought in spring and autumn have been longer than in wet years. Moreover, the duration of these periods was different. A comparison between the results of changes in fountain discharges and drought index in the region has verified that the drought has caused a remarkable decline in the fountain discharges.

  • 30.
    Elias, Ziyad
    et al.
    Geomorphic Researcher Hannover Germany.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan Hewler Iraq. Private Consultant Geologist Erbīl Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Assessment of the Tectonic Activity in Northwestern Part of the Zagros Mountains, Northeastern Iraq by Using Geomorphic Indices2019Ingår i: Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, ISSN 0960-3182, E-ISSN 1573-1529, Vol. 37, nr 5, s. 3995-4007Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Tectonic Activity of regions with active tectonics can be assessed by using of the geomorphic indices. Six Geomorphic indices including stream-gradient index (SL), drainage basin asymmetry (Af), drainage basin shape (Bs), hypsometric integral (Hi), valley floor width-valley height ratio (Vf), and mountain-front sinuosity (Smf) were calculated using GIS technique in Kifri Chai Basin; northeast Iraq, which belongs to the Western Zagros Mountain. The basin was divided into eighteen sub-basins depending on the 4th, 5th and 6th stream orders of the drainage within Kirfi Basin. It was found that the SL, Af, Bs, Hi, Vf, and Smf (J) values are uniform and exhibit almost the same classes. However, few exceptions occur, especially in Bs values, but the exceptional values do not influence significantly on the acquired results, in each of the eighteen sub-basin. From these indices the relative active tectonics index value (Iat) was determined. The results of average Iat values (2.35) showed that the tectonic activity in the whole basin is Moderate. Moreover, an attempt was carried out to compare the regional Neotectonic activity with the relative tectonic activity in the basin. The results showed that there is a positive relation between the two comparatives; especially the subsidence amount and scored relative tectonic activity.

  • 31.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Private Consultant Engineering, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan, H awler, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Badush Dam: A Unique Case of Flood Wave Retention Dams Uncertain Future and Problematic Geology2019Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 189-205Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Badush Dam is a partially completed dam and a unique case of flood reten- tion dams. Its intended main function is to perform flood protection once in its lifetime; that is if Mosul Dam would collapse. In such a case, the Badush dam would temporarily store the whole flood wave and route it safely to the downstream. For this end, the bulk of the reservoir is left dry, while the re- maining  volume  at  the  lower  part  which  is  intended  for  power  eneration does  not  give  an  economic  justification  for  building  the  full  height  of  the dam. The short duration of the intended use as a protection dam has led to relaxing many design assumptions which have raised concerns over the dam integrity.  The  current  controversy  rages  now  over  whether  to  continue  the construction of the dam as it was first designed or to change all that in view of the similar site geology of Mosul Dam. Mosul dam foundations suffer at the moment from the severe continuous dissolution of the soluble materials in its foundation  leading  to  continued  maintenance  grouting  of  that  foundation. This paper gives an overview of the history of Badush dam, its current design and what new equirements which are needed if it is to replace Mosul Damitself.

  • 32.
    al Amli, Ali Sabah
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq..
    Shakir, Laith
    University of Karbala, Karbala, Iraq.
    Abdulredha, Ali
    University of Warith AL-Anbiya’a,Kerbala, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beams with effect of Stiffened Plates2019Ingår i: Civil Engineering Journal, ISSN 2676-6957, Vol. 5, nr 12, s. 2569-2578Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents experimental work including an investigation conducted on five simply supported reinforced concrete beams under pure torsion. First beam without strengthening as a control beam. The other four beams were strengthened externally by bolted thin steel plates. For this test the load was applied gradually. The torque was increased gradually up to failure of the beam.  The variables were the thickness and height of the steel plate that was externally connected to both sides  of the  rectangular  reinforced  concrete  beam.  The  test  results  for  the  beams  discussed  are  based  on  torque-twist behavior. The experimental results show that the attachment of thin steel plates by mechanical means to beams provides a considerable improvement in the torsional behavior of the reinforced concrete beams. Comparable to the reference beam, the maximum increase in the cracking and the ultimate torque of the composite beam was recorded for the reinforced concrete  beam  that  strengthen  by  steel  plate  of  150  mm  height,  2  mm  thickness  and  50  mm  spacing  between  shear connectors (B1). The results revealed that the cracking torque, ultimate torque, global stiffness of beam and beam ductility for all composite beams increase with the increase of the plate's thickness, plate's height.

  • 33.
    Hashim, Bassim Mohammed
    et al.
    Ministry of Science and Technology, AL Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Sultan, Maitham Abdullah
    Ministry of Science and Technology, AL Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Attyia, Mazin Najem
    Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al Maliki, Ali A.
    Ministry of Science and Technology, AL Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Change Detection and Impact of Climate Changes to Iraqi Southern Marshes Using Landsat 2 MSS, Landsat 8 OLI and Sentinel 2 MSI Data and GIS Applications2019Ingår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, nr 10, artikel-id 2016Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Marshes represent a unique ecosystem covering a large area of southern Iraq. In a major environmental disaster, the marshes of Iraq were drained, especially during the 1990s. Since then, droughts and the decrease in water imports from the Tigris and Euphrates rivers from Turkey and Iran have prevented them from regaining their former extent. The aim of this research is to extract the values of the normalized dierence vegetation index (NDVI) for the period 1977–2017 from Landsat 2 MSS (multispectral scanner), Landsat 8 OLI (operational land imager) and Sentinel 2 MSI (multi-spectral imaging mission) satellite images and use supervised classification to quantify land and water cover change. The results from the two satellites (Landsat 2 and Landsat 8) are compared with Sentinel 2 to determine the best tool for detecting changes in land and water cover. We also assess the potential impacts of climate change through the study of the annual average maximum temperature and recipitation in dierent areas in the marshes for the period 1981–2016. The NDVI analysis and image classification showed the degradation of vegetation and water bodies in the marshes, as vast areas of natural vegetation and agricultural lands disappeared and were replaced with barren areas. The marshes were influenced by climatic change, including rising emperature and the diminishing amount of precipitation during 1981–2016.

  • 34.
    Al-Mamoori, Sohaib Kareem
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Planning, Faculty of Physical PlanningUniversity of KufaNajafIraq.
    Al-Maliki, Laheab A. Jasem
    Department of Hydraulic Engineering Structures, Faculty of Water Resources EngineeringGreen University of Al QasimBaghdadIraq.
    El-Tawel, Khaled
    Faculty of Engineering, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al Ali, Mohammed Jawad
    Department of Environmental Planning, Faculty of Physical PlanningUniversity of KufaNajafIraq.
    Chloride, Calcium Carbonate and Total Soluble Salts Contents Distribution for An-Najaf and Al-Kufa Cities’ Soil by Using GIS2019Ingår i: Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, ISSN 0960-3182, E-ISSN 1573-1529, Vol. 37, nr 3, s. 2207-2225Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of the paper is to create geotechnical maps for three soil chemical properties in An-Najaf and Kufa cities’ soil by utilizing of GIS tools. This properties are the chloride concentration, calcium carbonate (CaCO 3) and total soluble salts where they affect the durability of reinforced structural elements. This paper provides an easy accurate way to represent soil properties levels for different depths of soil and create reliable database that will help engineers and decision makers. The data included in this paper were collected for (464) boreholes with depths up to 35 m distributed on residential areas in all of An-Najaf and Kufa cities. Arc-Map of GIS 10.2.1 was used to produce the maps. It has been concluded that chloride content in the soil of the study area range from - 0.01 to 0.99% and with an average of 0.5. The maximum value found in at depth 4–6 m while the minimum value found in location at depth 4–6, 8–10 and 14–16 m. The chloride content in most of An-Najaf province has exceeded the permissible limit and for all, this required taking percussions to protect foundations. While calcium carbonate content in the soil of the study area range from 53 to 0.18 and with an average of 26.6. The maximum and the minimum values found at depth 4–6 m. Calcium carbonate content is within the permissible limits in most locations except in some locations.

  • 35.
    Tajbakhsh, Mohammad
    et al.
    Regional Water Authority, Kermanshah, Iran.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Comparative study of multi-station method and Hershfield’s approaches for PMP determination (case study: Northeast of Iran)2019Ingår i: Sustainable Water Resources Management, ISSN 2363-5037, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 1133-1141Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The maximum daily rainfall values for 36 homogeneous stations in the northeast of Iran were adopted to estimate the appropriate Probable annual Maximum Precipitation 1-day precipitation (PMP24) values. PMP24 was found as 128.2–284.2, 62.7–160.2 and 124 mm for Hershfield 1, Hershfield 2 and multi-station approach, respectively. The ratio of PMP24 to the highest observed 1-day rainfall was consistent for the second approach of Hershfield. It was in harmony with the multi-station method, but varied widely for Hershfield 1. This may be the result of different record length effect on Hershfield 1 approach. Finally, the map of PMP24 isochrones was prepared for the second approach of Hershfield for over northeast of Iran.

  • 36.
    Tayebiyan, Aida
    et al.
    Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
    Mohammad, Thamer Ahmad
    University of Baghdad, Jadriya, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Malakootian, Mohammad
    Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
    Comparison of Optimal Hedging Policies forHydropower Reservoir System Operation2019Ingår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikel-id 121Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reservoiroperation rules play an important role in regions economic development. Meanwhile, hedging policies are mostly applied for municipal, industrial, and irrigation water supplies from reservoirs and it is less used for reservoir operation for hydropower generation. The concept of hedging and rationing factors can be used to maintain the water in a reservoir for the sake of increasing water storage and water head for future use. However, water storage and head are the key factors in operation of reservoir systems for hydropower generation. This study investigates the applicability of seven competing hedging policies including four customary forms of hedging (1PHP, 2PHP, 3PHP, DHP) and three new forms of hedging rules (SOPHP, BSOPHP, SHPHP) for reservoir operation for hydropower generation. The models were constructed in MATLABR2011b based on the characteristics of the Batang Padang hydropower reservoir system, Malaysia. In order to maximize the output of power generation in operational periods (2003–2009), three optimization algorithms namely particle swarm optimization (PSO), genetic algorithm (GA), and hybrid PSO-GA were linked to one of the constructed model (1PHP as a test) to find the most effective algorithm. Since the results demonstrated the superiority of the hybrid PSO-GA algorithm compared to either PSO or GA, the hybrid PSO-GA were linked to each constructed model in order to find the optimal decision variables of each model. The proposed methodology was validated using monthly data from 2010–2012. The results showed that there are no significant difference between the output of monthly mean power generation during 2003–2009 and 2010–2012. The results declared that by applying the proposed policies, the output of power generation could increase by 13% with respect to the historical management. Moreover, the discrepancies between mean power generations from highest to lowest months were reduced from 49 MW to 26 MW, which is almost half. This means that hedging policies could efficiently distribute the water-supply and power-supply in the operational period and increase the stability of the system. Among the studied hedging policies, SHPHP is the most convenient policy for hydropower reservoir operation and gave the best result.

  • 37.
    Beyaztas, Ufuk
    et al.
    Department of Statistics, Bartin University, Bartin, Turkey.
    Salih, Sinan Q.
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Chau, Kwok-Wing
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Yaseen, Zaher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Construction of functional data analysis modeling strategy for global solar radiation prediction: application of cross-station paradigm2019Ingår i: Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1994-2060, E-ISSN 1997-003X, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 1165-1181Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To support initiatives for global emissions targets set by the United Nations Framework Convention on climate change, sustainable extraction of usable power from freely-available global solar radia- tion as a renewable energy resource requires accurate estimation and forecasting models for solar energy. Understanding the Global Solar Radiation (GSR) pattern is highly significant for determin- ing the solar energy in any particular environment. The current study develops a new mathematical model based on the concept of Functional Data Analysis (FDA) to predict daily-scale GSR in the Burk- ina Faso region of West Africa. Eight meteorological stations are adopted to examine the proposed predictive model. The modeling procedure of the regression FDA is performed using two different internal parameter tuning approaches including Generalized Cross-Validation (GCV) and Generalized Bayesian Information Criteria (GBIC). The modeling procedure is established based on a cross-station paradigm wherein the climatological variables of six stations are used to predict GSR at two targeted meteorological stations. The performance of the proposed method is compared with the panel data regression model. Based on various statistical metrics, the applied FDA model attained convincing absolute error measures and best goodness of fit compared with the observed measured GSR. In quantitative evaluation, the predictions of GSR at the uahigouya and Dori stations attained corre- lation coefficients of R     0.84 and 0.90 using the FDA model, respectively. All in all, the FDA model introduced a reliable alternative modeling strategy for global solar radiation prediction over the Burkina Faso region with accurate line fit predictions.

  • 38.
    Darwesh, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Rasmussen, Thorkild Maack
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Controllable drilling parameter optimization for roller cone and polycrystalline diamond bits2019Ingår i: Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology, ISSN 2190-0558, E-ISSN 2190-0566Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Oil well drilling data from 23 oil wells in northern Iraq are analyzed and optimized controllable drilling parameters are found. The most widely used Bourgoyne and Young (BY) penetration rate model have been chosen for roller cone bits, and parameters were extracted to adjust for other bit types. In this regard, the collected data from real drilling operation have initially been averaged in short clusters based on changes in both lithology and bottom hole assemblies. The averaging was performed to overcome the issues related to noisy data negative effect and the lithological homogeneity assumption. Second, the Dmitriy Belozerov modifications for polycrystalline diamond bits compacts have been utilized to correct the model to the bit weight. The drilling formulas were used to calculate other required parameters for the BYM. Third, threshold weight for each cluster was determined through the relationship between bit weight and depth instead of the usual Drill of Test. Fourth, coefficients of the BYM were calculated for each cluster using multilinear regression. Fifth, a new model was developed to find the optimum drill string rotation based on changes in torque and bit diameter with depth. The above-developed approach has been implemented successfully on 23 oil wells field data to find optimum penetration rate, weight on bit and string rotation.

  • 39.
    Magnusson, Simon
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Ecoloop, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Maria
    Ecoloop, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Frosth, Sandra
    Ecoloop, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Kristina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Ecoloop, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Coordinating Soil And Rock Material In Urban Construction: Scenario Analysis Of Material Flows And Greenhouse Gas Emissions2019Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 241, artikel-id 118236Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Construction is associated with quarrying as well as heavy transportation of soil and rock materials, in and out of construction sites. Both quarrying and transportation of the excavated materials result in negative environmental impact due to energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Moreover, soil and rock materials of suitable geotechnical quality for construction are a scarce natural resource in some urban regions. These issues have urged the need to optimize the use of quarry materials on-site and thereby reduce transportation. Still, internal flows of soil and rock materials in urban areas have not been well analyzed. This study presents a model to analyze future soil and rock flows in terms of material quality and quantities in urban areas. Furthermore, the study analyses the possibility of recycling excavated soil and rock and thereby reduce transportation and transport-related GHG emissions. The study applies the model to analyze as a case study integrating future residential and non-residential developments and a highway project. The case study revealed that excavated material would be generated in enough volumes to potentially cover the quarry materials demanded for providing stability and permeability to buildings, streets and highway. The scenario analysis showed that provision of strategically located recycling sites for material coordination could reduce the demand for soil and rock transportation as well as transport-related GHG emissions i.e. by 23 – 36 % per area, compared to a business as usual scenario. The study shows that internal soil and rock flows within regions can be modelled by using data from development plans and geological maps. The model results may serve as a basis for decision making regarding strategic material management in urban planning.

  • 40.
    Ewaid, Salam Hussein
    et al.
    Technical Institute of Shatra, Southern Technical University, Diwaniyah, Iraq.
    Abed, Salwan Ali
    Department of Environment, College of Science, University of Al Qadisiyah, Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Crop Water Requirements and Irrigation Schedules for Some Major Crops in Southern Iraq2019Ingår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 4, artikel-id 756Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The climate of Iraq is of the subtropical semi-dry type; however, the country was rich in water resources until a few decades ago. Climate change and the construction of many dams on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in the neighboring countries have caused water shortages and poor water quality. Now, there is a need to decrease consumption, improve management of water resources, and determine the water requirements of the major crops because agriculture is the first consumer of water in Iraq. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) CROPWAT 8.0 simulation software and the CLIMWAT 2.0 tool attached to it have been used in this research for Dhi-Qar Province in southern Iraq to find the crop water requirements (CWRs) and irrigation schedules for some major crops. The CROPWAT Penman–Monteith method was used to calculate the reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) soil conservation (S.C.) method was used to estimate the effective rainfall. The study results showed that ET0 varied from 2.18 to 10.5 mm/day and the effective rainfall varied from 0.0 to 23.1 mm. The irrigation requirements were 1142, 203.2, 844.8, and 1180 mm/dec for wheat, barley, white corn, and tomatoes, respectively. There is a higher water demand for crops during the dry seasons (summer and autumn) and a lower demand during the wet seasons (winter and spring). The total gross irrigation and the total net irrigation were 343.8 mm and 240.7 mm for wheat, 175.2 mm and 122.6 mm for barley, 343.8 mm and 240.7 mm for white corn, and 203.3 mm and 142.3 mm for tomatoes. This study proved that the CROPWAT model is useful for calculating the crop irrigation needs for the proper management of water resources.

  • 41.
    Al-Ani, Thair
    et al.
    Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), Espoo, Finland.
    Hölttä, Pentti
    Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), Espoo, Finland.
    Grönholm, Sari
    Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), Espoo, Finland.
    Pakkanen, Lassi
    Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), Espoo, Finland.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Crystal Chemistry and Geochronology of Thorium-Rich Monazite from Kovela Granitic Complex, Southern Finland2019Ingår i: Natural Resources, ISSN 2158-706X, E-ISSN 2158-7086, Vol. 10, nr 6, s. 230-269Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abundant porphyritic granites, including Grt-bearing and Bt-bearing porphyritic granites, and porphyritic potash-feldspar granite (trondhjemite-granitic composition) are widely distributed within the Kovela granitic complex Southern Finland, which associated with monazite-bearing dikes (strong trondhjemite composition). The investigated monazite-bearing dikes are dominated by a quartz + K-feldspar + plagioclase + biotite + garnet + monazite assemblage. The monazite forms complexly zoned subhedral to euhedral crystals variable in size (100 - 1500 μm in diameter) characterized by high Th content. The chemical zoning characterised as: 1) concentric, 2) patchy, and 3) intergrowth-like. Textural evidence suggests that these accessory minerals crystallized at an early magmatic stage, as they are commonly associated with clusters of the observed variations in their chemical composition are largely explained by the huttonite exchange , and subordinately by the cheralite exchange   with proportions of huttonite (ThSiO4) and cheralite [CaTh(PO4)2] up to 20.4% and 9.8%, respectively. Textural evidence suggests that these monazites and associated Th-rich minerals (huttonite/thorite) crystallized at an early magmatic stage, rather than metamorphic origin. The total lanthanide and actinide contents in monazite and host dikes are strongly correlated. Mineral compositions applied to calculate P-T crystallization conditions using different approaches reveal a temperature range of 700°C - 820°C and pressure 3 - 6 kbars for the garnet-biotite geothermometry. P-T pseudo-section analyses calculated using THERMOCALC software for the bulk compositions of suitable rock types, constrain the PT conditions of garnet growth equilibration within the range of 5 - 6 kbars and 760°C - 770°C respectively. Empirical calculations and pseudo-section approaches indicate a clockwise P-T path for the rocks of the studied area. 207Pb/206Pb dating of monazite by LA-MC-ICPMS revealed a recrystallization period at around 1860 - 1840 Ma. These ages are related to the tectonic-thermal event associated with the intense crustal melting and intra-orogenic intrusions, constraining the youngest time limit for metamorphic processes in the Kovela granitic complex.

  • 42.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    University of Kurdistan Hewlệr, Department of Natural Resour ces, Engineering and Management, Department KRG, Erbil, Iraq.
    Elias, Ziyad
    Salahaddin University, Kirkuk road, Erbil, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Deducing the Lateral Growth of Anticlines using Drainage Analysisand Geomorphological Features2019Ingår i: Geotectonics, ISSN 0016-8521, E-ISSN 1556-1976, Vol. 53, nr 1, s. 140-154Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    — one in Iraq is an active tectonic area witnessing different evidences for Neotec-ur, Pulkhana, and Qumar anticlines which aretonic actipart of anticlinal series in the Low Folded Zone and Zagros Fold–Thrust Belt. The exposed rocks are of Mid- dle Miocene – Pleistocene age overlain unconformably by different types of Quaternary sediments which show different indications for lateral growth. Three anticlines are dissected by tens of different size valleys crossing the anticlines forming water gaps and wind gaps which are good indication for the anticlines lateral growth. We studied the lateral growth of three anticlines using different means of qualitative analysis of satel- lite imagery and digital topography and ArcGIS technique. The anticlines lateral growth was mainly mani- fested by the drainage system and patterns which exhibited strange courses during dissecting the three studied anticlines. Moreover, the main streams deposited alluvial fans during Early Pleistocene and even Early Holo- cene which were also inf luenced by both lateral and vertical anticlines growth. Their abnormal shapes, aban- doned fans and streams were among indica morphological indices which indicated tectonic activity of the study area.

  • 43.
    Pusch, Roland
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Kasbohm, Jörn
    Greifswald University, Greifswald, Germany.
    Hoang-Minh, Thao
    VNU University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Vietnam .
    Degradation Mechanisms in Smectitic Clay for Isolating Radioactive Waste2019Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 115-130Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the proposed techniques for chemical shielding of radioactive waste implies use of smectite clay, which degrades according to a well-known scheme. Since such “buffer” clay has to serve for many thousands of years, the mechanisms in the unavoidable long-term degradation process must be understood and accounted for as described in the paper. In addition to conversion of smectite to non-expandable minerals cementation by precipitation of siliceous matter created in the degradation process is of concern since it can reduce the self-sealing capacity of desiccated or mechanically damaged clay.

  • 44.
    Tao, Hai
    et al.
    Computer Science Department, Baoji University of Arts and Sciences, Baoji, China.
    Ebtehaj, Isa
    Department of Civil Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. Environmental Research Center, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.
    Bonakdari, Hossein
    Department of Civil Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. Environmental Research Center, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.
    Heddam, Salim
    Faculty of Science, Agronomy Department, Hydraulics Division, Laboratory of Research in Biodiversity Interaction Ecosystem and Biotechnology, University 20 Août 1955, Algeria.
    Voyant, Cyril
    Castelluccio Hospital, Radiotherapy Unit, Ajaccio, France. University of Reunion Island—PIMENT Laboratory, France..
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Deo, Ravinesh
    School of Agricultural, Computational and Environmental Sciences, Centre for Sustainable Agricultural Systems & Centre for Applied Climate Sciences, Institute of Life Sciences and the Environment, University of Southern Queensland, Springfield, Australia.
    Yaseen, Zaher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Designing a New Data Intelligence Model for Global Solar Radiation Prediction: Application of Multivariate Modeling Scheme2019Ingår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 7, artikel-id 1365Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Global solar radiation prediction is highly desirable for multiple energy applications, such

    as energy production and sustainability, solar energy systems management, and lighting tasks for home use and recreational purposes. This research work designs a new approach and investigates the capability of novel data intelligent models based on the self-adaptive evolutionary extreme learning machine (SaE-ELM) algorithm to predict daily solar radiation in the Burkina Faso region. Four different meteorological stations are tested in the modeling process: Boromo, Dori, Gaoua and Po, located in West Africa. Various climate variables ssociated with the changes in solar radiation are utilized as the exploratory predictor variables through different input combinations used in the intelligent model (maximum and minimum air temperatures and humidity, wind speed, evaporation and vapor pressure deficits). The input combinations are then constructed based on the magnitude of the Pearson correlation coefficient computed between the predictors and the predictand, as a baseline method to determine the similarity between the predictors and the target variable. The results of the four tested meteorological stations show consistent findings, where the

    incorporation of all climate variables seemed to generate data intelligent models that erforms with best prediction accuracy. A closer examination showed that the tested sites, Boromo, Dori, Gaoua and Po, attained the best performance result in the testing phase, with a root mean square error and a mean absolute error (RMSE-MAE [MJ/m 2]) equating to about (0.72-0.54), (2.57-1.99), (0.88-0.65) and (1.17-0.86), respectively. In general, the proposed data intelligent models provide an excellent modeling strategy for solar radiation prediction, particularly over the Burkina Faso region in Western Africa. This study offers implications for solar energy exploration and energy management in data sparse regions.

  • 45.
    Bobaker, Aiman M.
    et al.
    Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Benghazi, Benghazi, Libya .
    Alakili, Intisar
    Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Benghazi, Benghazi, Libya .
    Sarmani, Sukiman B.
    School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bandar Baru Bangi, Malaysia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Yaseen, Zaher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Determination and Assessment of the Toxic Heavy Metal Elements Abstracted from the Traditional Plant Cosmetics and Medical Remedies: Case Study of Libya2019Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, nr 11, s. 1-14, artikel-id 1957Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Henna and walnut tree bark are widely used by Libyan women as cosmetics. They may contain lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As), which, in turn, pose a high risk to their health. This study aims to determine the levels of Pb, Cd and As in henna and walnut tree bark products sold in Libyan markets. The products were analyzed for their Pb, Cd and As content by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after a microwave acid digestion. The results showed a significant difference between the henna and walnut tree bark samples in terms of their heavy metals content (p < 0.05). The highest heavy metal concentrations were observed in the walnut tree bark samples whereas the lowest was observed in the henna samples. In addition, 60% of the henna and 90% of the walnut tree bark samples contained Pb levels and approximately 80% of the henna and 90% the walnut tree bark samples contained Cd levels, which are much higher than the tolerance limit. However, As concentrations in all the samples were lower. The results indicated that such cosmetics expose consumers to high levels of Pb and Cd and hence, to potential health risks. Thus, studying the sources and effects of heavy metals in such cosmetics is strongly recommended.