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  • 1.
    Meng, Jingjing
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. School of Resources and Safety Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, China.
    Huang, Jinsong
    Discipline of Civil, Surveying and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia.
    Lin, Hang
    School of Resources and Safety Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, China.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Li, Kaihui
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    A static discrete element method with discontinuous deformation analysis2019Ingår i: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, ISSN 0029-5981, E-ISSN 1097-0207Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For discrete element methods (DEMs), integrating the equation of motion based on Newton's second law is an integral part of the computation. Accelerations and velocities are involved even for modeling static mechanics problems. As a consequence, the accuracy can be ruined and numerous calculation steps are required to converge. In this study, we propose a static DEM based on discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA). The force of inertia is removed to develop a set of static equilibrium equations for distinct blocks. It inherits the advantages of DDA in dealing with distinct block system such as jointed rock structures. Furthermore, the critical numerical artifact in DDA, ie, artificial springs between contact blocks, is avoided. Accurate numerical solution can be achieved in mere one calculation step. Last but not the least, since the method is formulated in the framework of mathematical programming, the implementation can be easily conducted with standard and readily available solvers. Its accuracy and efficiency are verified against a series of benchmarks found in the literature.

  • 2.
    Baby, Sultana Nasrin
    et al.
    Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Arrowsmith, Colin
    Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Application of GIS for Mapping Rainwater-Harvesting Potential: Case Study Wollert, Victoria: Application of GIS for Mapping Rainwater-Harvesting Potential: Case Study Wollert, Victoria2019Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 14-21Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Water is a basic normal asset for supporting the condition of life. Accessible water assets are feeling the squeeze because of expanding demand. Soon wa- ter,  which  we  have  epended  upon  to  be  accessible  and  an  unconditional present of nature will turn into a rare roduct. Protection and conservation of water assets are desperately required. In many parts of Victoria, water supply to communities is limited. Rainwater harvesting systems can provide water ator near the point of demand. The systems can be owner and utility operated and  managed.  Rainwater  collected  using  existing  structures,  i.e.  rooftops, parking lots, playgrounds, parks, ponds, floodplains etc., has few negative en- vironmental impacts compared to other technologies for water resources de- velopment. Rainwater is relatively clean and the quality is usually acceptablefor many purposes with little or even no treatment. The physical and chemi- cal properties of rainwater are usually superior to sources of groundwater that may have been subjected to contamination. The present study was intended to measure the rooftop rainwater harvesting potential using GIS techniques. The GIS examination utilized in this investigation was basically an efficient assess- ment  of  rooftop  water  collecting  in  the  chose  Wollert  which  is  a  suburb  in Melbourne, Victoria. With the use of GIS it was conceivable to appraise the ag- gregate sum of water harvestable at the household level. It is very tedious work to assess the catchments available for rooftop rainwater harvesting. Here the roof surfaces are the catchments and GIS is employed to calculate the area of various  types  of  roofs  and  their  potential  for  planning  for  the  area  under study.  As  a  result  Eucalypt  Estate  Wollert  has  huge  potential  and  can  makeabove 179.11 litres water available per person per day throughout the year.

  • 3.
    Elias, Ziyad
    et al.
    Geomorphic Researcher Hannover Germany.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan Hewler Iraq. Private Consultant Geologist Erbīl Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Assessment of the Tectonic Activity in Northwestern part of the Zagros Mountains, Northeastern Iraq by using Geomorphic Indices2019Ingår i: Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, ISSN 0960-3182, E-ISSN 1573-1529Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Tectonic Activity of regions with active tectonics can be assessed by using of the geomorphic indices. Six Geomorphic indices including stream-gradient index (SL), drainage basin asymmetry (Af), drainage basin shape (Bs), hypsometric integral (Hi), valley floor width-valley height ratio (Vf), and mountain-front sinuosity (Smf) were calculated using GIS technique in Kifri Chai Basin; northeast Iraq, which belongs to the Western Zagros Mountain. The basin was divided into eighteen sub-basins depending on the 4th, 5th and 6th stream orders of the drainage within Kirfi Basin. It was found that the SL, Af, Bs, Hi, Vf, and Smf (J) values are uniform and exhibit almost the same classes. However, few exceptions occur, especially in Bs values, but the exceptional values do not influence significantly on the acquired results, in each of the eighteen sub-basin. From these indices the relative active tectonics index value (Iat) was determined. The results of average Iat values (2.35) showed that the tectonic activity in the whole basin is Moderate. Moreover, an attempt was carried out to compare the regional Neotectonic activity with the relative tectonic activity in the basin. The results showed that there is a positive relation between the two comparatives; especially the subsidence amount and scored relative tectonic activity.

  • 4.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Private Consultant Engineering, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan, H awler, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Badush Dam: A Unique Case of Flood WaveRetention Dams Uncertain Future and Problematic Geology2019Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 189-205Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Badush Dam is a partially completed dam and a unique case of flood reten- tion dams. Its intended main function is to perform flood protection once in its lifetime; that is if Mosul Dam would collapse. In such a case, the Badush dam would temporarily store the whole flood wave and route it safely to the downstream. For this end, the bulk of the reservoir is left dry, while the re- maining  volume  at  the  lower  part  which  is  intended  for  power  eneration does  not  give  an  economic  justification  for  building  the  full  height  of  the dam. The short duration of the intended use as a protection dam has led to relaxing many design assumptions which have raised concerns over the dam integrity.  The  current  controversy  rages  now  over  whether  to  continue  the construction of the dam as it was first designed or to change all that in view of the similar site geology of Mosul Dam. Mosul dam foundations suffer at the moment from the severe continuous dissolution of the soluble materials in its foundation  leading  to  continued  maintenance  grouting  of  that  foundation. This paper gives an overview of the history of Badush dam, its current design and what new equirements which are needed if it is to replace Mosul Damitself.

  • 5.
    Hashim, Bassim Mohammed
    et al.
    Ministry of Science and Technology, AL Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Sultan, Maitham Abdullah
    Ministry of Science and Technology, AL Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Attyia, Mazin Najem
    Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al Maliki, Ali A.
    Ministry of Science and Technology, AL Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Change Detection and Impact of Climate Changes to Iraqi Southern Marshes Using Landsat 2 MSS, Landsat 8 OLI and Sentinel 2 MSI Data and GIS Applications2019Ingår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, nr 10, artikel-id 2016Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Marshes represent a unique ecosystem covering a large area of southern Iraq. In a major environmental disaster, the marshes of Iraq were drained, especially during the 1990s. Since then, droughts and the decrease in water imports from the Tigris and Euphrates rivers from Turkey and Iran have prevented them from regaining their former extent. The aim of this research is to extract the values of the normalized dierence vegetation index (NDVI) for the period 1977–2017 from Landsat 2 MSS (multispectral scanner), Landsat 8 OLI (operational land imager) and Sentinel 2 MSI (multi-spectral imaging mission) satellite images and use supervised classification to quantify land and water cover change. The results from the two satellites (Landsat 2 and Landsat 8) are compared with Sentinel 2 to determine the best tool for detecting changes in land and water cover. We also assess the potential impacts of climate change through the study of the annual average maximum temperature and recipitation in dierent areas in the marshes for the period 1981–2016. The NDVI analysis and image classification showed the degradation of vegetation and water bodies in the marshes, as vast areas of natural vegetation and agricultural lands disappeared and were replaced with barren areas. The marshes were influenced by climatic change, including rising emperature and the diminishing amount of precipitation during 1981–2016.

  • 6.
    Al-Mamoori, Sohaib Kareem
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Planning, Faculty of Physical PlanningUniversity of KufaNajafIraq.
    Al-Maliki, Laheab A. Jasem
    Department of Hydraulic Engineering Structures, Faculty of Water Resources EngineeringGreen University of Al QasimBaghdadIraq.
    El-Tawel, Khaled
    Faculty of Engineering, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al Ali, Mohammed Jawad
    Department of Environmental Planning, Faculty of Physical PlanningUniversity of KufaNajafIraq.
    Chloride, Calcium Carbonate and Total Soluble Salts Contents Distribution for An-Najaf and Al-Kufa Cities’ Soil by Using GIS2019Ingår i: Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, ISSN 0960-3182, E-ISSN 1573-1529, Vol. 37, nr 3, s. 2207-2225Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of the paper is to create geotechnical maps for three soil chemical properties in An-Najaf and Kufa cities’ soil by utilizing of GIS tools. This properties are the chloride concentration, calcium carbonate (CaCO 3) and total soluble salts where they affect the durability of reinforced structural elements. This paper provides an easy accurate way to represent soil properties levels for different depths of soil and create reliable database that will help engineers and decision makers. The data included in this paper were collected for (464) boreholes with depths up to 35 m distributed on residential areas in all of An-Najaf and Kufa cities. Arc-Map of GIS 10.2.1 was used to produce the maps. It has been concluded that chloride content in the soil of the study area range from - 0.01 to 0.99% and with an average of 0.5. The maximum value found in at depth 4–6 m while the minimum value found in location at depth 4–6, 8–10 and 14–16 m. The chloride content in most of An-Najaf province has exceeded the permissible limit and for all, this required taking percussions to protect foundations. While calcium carbonate content in the soil of the study area range from 53 to 0.18 and with an average of 26.6. The maximum and the minimum values found at depth 4–6 m. Calcium carbonate content is within the permissible limits in most locations except in some locations.

  • 7.
    Tayebiyan, Aida
    et al.
    Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
    Mohammad, Thamer Ahmad
    University of Baghdad, Jadriya, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Malakootian, Mohammad
    Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
    Comparison of Optimal Hedging Policies forHydropower Reservoir System Operation2019Ingår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikel-id 121Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reservoiroperation rules play an important role in regions economic development.Meanwhile, hedging policies are mostly applied for municipal, industrial, andirrigation water supplies from reservoirs and it is less used for reservoiroperation for hydropower generation. The concept of hedging and rationingfactors can be used to maintain the water in a reservoir for the sake ofincreasing water storage and water head for future use. However, water storageand head are the key factors in operation of reservoir systems for hydropowergeneration. This study investigates the applicability of seven competinghedging policies including four customary forms of hedging (1PHP, 2PHP, 3PHP,DHP) and three new forms of hedging rules (SOPHP, BSOPHP, SHPHP) for reservoiroperation for hydropower generation. The models were constructed in MATLABR2011b based on the characteristics of the Batang Padang hydropower reservoirsystem, Malaysia. In order to maximize the output of power generation inoperational periods (2003–2009), threeoptimization algorithms namely particle swarm optimization (PSO), geneticalgorithm (GA), and hybrid PSO-GA were linked to one of the constructed model(1PHP as a test) to find the most effective algorithm. Since the results demonstrated the superiority of the hybrid PSO-GA algorithm compared to either PSO or GA, the hybrid PSO-GA were linkedto each constructed model in order to find the optimal decision variables of eachmodel. The proposed methodology was validated using monthly data from 2010–2012.The results showed that there are no significant difference between the output of monthly meanpower generation during 2003–2009 and 2010–2012.The results declared that by applying the proposedpolicies, the output of power generation could increase by 13% with respect tothe historical management. Moreover, the discrepancies between mean powergenerations from highest to lowest months were reduced from 49 MW to 26 MW,which is almost half. This means that hedging policies could efficientlydistribute the water-supply and power-supply in the operational period andincrease the stability of the system. Among the studied hedging policies, SHPHPis the most convenient policy for hydropower reservoir operation and gave thebest result.

  • 8.
    Ewaid, Salam Hussein
    et al.
    Technical Institute of Shatra, Southern Technical University, Diwaniyah, Iraq.
    Abed, Salwan Ali
    Department of Environment, College of Science, University of Al Qadisiyah, Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Crop Water Requirements and Irrigation Schedules for Some Major Crops in Southern Iraq2019Ingår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 4, artikel-id 756Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The climate of Iraq is of the subtropical semi-dry type; however, the country was rich in water resources until a few decades ago. Climate change and the construction of many dams on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in the neighboring countries have caused water shortages and poor water quality. Now, there is a need to decrease consumption, improve management of water resources, and determine the water requirements of the major crops because agriculture is the first consumer of water in Iraq. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) CROPWAT 8.0 simulation software and the CLIMWAT 2.0 tool attached to it have been used in this research for Dhi-Qar Province in southern Iraq to find the crop water requirements (CWRs) and irrigation schedules for some major crops. The CROPWAT Penman–Monteith method was used to calculate the reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) soil conservation (S.C.) method was used to estimate the effective rainfall. The study results showed that ET0 varied from 2.18 to 10.5 mm/day and the effective rainfall varied from 0.0 to 23.1 mm. The irrigation requirements were 1142, 203.2, 844.8, and 1180 mm/dec for wheat, barley, white corn, and tomatoes, respectively. There is a higher water demand for crops during the dry seasons (summer and autumn) and a lower demand during the wet seasons (winter and spring). The total gross irrigation and the total net irrigation were 343.8 mm and 240.7 mm for wheat, 175.2 mm and 122.6 mm for barley, 343.8 mm and 240.7 mm for white corn, and 203.3 mm and 142.3 mm for tomatoes. This study proved that the CROPWAT model is useful for calculating the crop irrigation needs for the proper management of water resources.

  • 9.
    Al-Ani, Thair
    et al.
    Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), Espoo, Finland.
    Hölttä, Pentti
    Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), Espoo, Finland.
    Grönholm, Sari
    Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), Espoo, Finland.
    Pakkanen, Lassi
    Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), Espoo, Finland.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Crystal Chemistry and Geochronology of Thorium-Rich Monazite from Kovela Granitic Complex, Southern Finland2019Ingår i: Natural Resources, ISSN 2158-706X, E-ISSN 2158-7086, Vol. 10, nr 6, s. 230-269Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abundant porphyritic granites, including Grt-bearing and Bt-bearing porphyritic granites, and porphyritic potash-feldspar granite (trondhjemite-granitic composition) are widely distributed within the Kovela granitic complex Southern Finland, which associated with monazite-bearing dikes (strong trondhjemite composition). The investigated monazite-bearing dikes are dominated by a quartz + K-feldspar + plagioclase + biotite + garnet + monazite assemblage. The monazite forms complexly zoned subhedral to euhedral crystals variable in size (100 - 1500 μm in diameter) characterized by high Th content. The chemical zoning characterised as: 1) concentric, 2) patchy, and 3) intergrowth-like. Textural evidence suggests that these accessory minerals crystallized at an early magmatic stage, as they are commonly associated with clusters of the observed variations in their chemical composition are largely explained by the huttonite exchange , and subordinately by the cheralite exchange   with proportions of huttonite (ThSiO4) and cheralite [CaTh(PO4)2] up to 20.4% and 9.8%, respectively. Textural evidence suggests that these monazites and associated Th-rich minerals (huttonite/thorite) crystallized at an early magmatic stage, rather than metamorphic origin. The total lanthanide and actinide contents in monazite and host dikes are strongly correlated. Mineral compositions applied to calculate P-T crystallization conditions using different approaches reveal a temperature range of 700°C - 820°C and pressure 3 - 6 kbars for the garnet-biotite geothermometry. P-T pseudo-section analyses calculated using THERMOCALC software for the bulk compositions of suitable rock types, constrain the PT conditions of garnet growth equilibration within the range of 5 - 6 kbars and 760°C - 770°C respectively. Empirical calculations and pseudo-section approaches indicate a clockwise P-T path for the rocks of the studied area. 207Pb/206Pb dating of monazite by LA-MC-ICPMS revealed a recrystallization period at around 1860 - 1840 Ma. These ages are related to the tectonic-thermal event associated with the intense crustal melting and intra-orogenic intrusions, constraining the youngest time limit for metamorphic processes in the Kovela granitic complex.

  • 10.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    University of Kurdistan Hewlệr, Department of Natural Resour ces, Engineering and Management, Department KRG, Erbil, Iraq.
    Elias, Ziyad
    Salahaddin University, Kirkuk road, Erbil, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Deducing the Lateral Growth of Anticlines using Drainage Analysisand Geomorphological Features2019Ingår i: Geotectonics, ISSN 0016-8521, E-ISSN 1556-1976, Vol. 53, nr 1, s. 140-154Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    — one in Iraq is an active tectonic area witnessing different evidences for Neotec-ur, Pulkhana, and Qumar anticlines which aretonic actipart of anticlinal series in the Low Folded Zone and Zagros Fold–Thrust Belt. The exposed rocks are of Mid- dle Miocene – Pleistocene age overlain unconformably by different types of Quaternary sediments which show different indications for lateral growth. Three anticlines are dissected by tens of different size valleys crossing the anticlines forming water gaps and wind gaps which are good indication for the anticlines lateral growth. We studied the lateral growth of three anticlines using different means of qualitative analysis of satel- lite imagery and digital topography and ArcGIS technique. The anticlines lateral growth was mainly mani- fested by the drainage system and patterns which exhibited strange courses during dissecting the three studied anticlines. Moreover, the main streams deposited alluvial fans during Early Pleistocene and even Early Holo- cene which were also inf luenced by both lateral and vertical anticlines growth. Their abnormal shapes, aban- doned fans and streams were among indica morphological indices which indicated tectonic activity of the study area.

  • 11.
    Tao, Hai
    et al.
    Computer Science Department, Baoji University of Arts and Sciences, Baoji, China.
    Ebtehaj, Isa
    Department of Civil Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. Environmental Research Center, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.
    Bonakdari, Hossein
    Department of Civil Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. Environmental Research Center, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.
    Heddam, Salim
    Faculty of Science, Agronomy Department, Hydraulics Division, Laboratory of Research in Biodiversity Interaction Ecosystem and Biotechnology, University 20 Août 1955, Algeria.
    Voyant, Cyril
    Castelluccio Hospital, Radiotherapy Unit, Ajaccio, France. University of Reunion Island—PIMENT Laboratory, France..
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Deo, Ravinesh
    School of Agricultural, Computational and Environmental Sciences, Centre for Sustainable Agricultural Systems & Centre for Applied Climate Sciences, Institute of Life Sciences and the Environment, University of Southern Queensland, Springfield, Australia.
    Yaseen, Zaher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Designing a New Data Intelligence Model for Global Solar Radiation Prediction: Application of Multivariate Modeling Scheme2019Ingår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 7, artikel-id 1365Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Global solar radiation prediction is highly desirable for multiple energy applications, such

    as energy production and sustainability, solar energy systems management, and lighting tasks for home use and recreational purposes. This research work designs a new approach and investigates the capability of novel data intelligent models based on the self-adaptive evolutionary extreme learning machine (SaE-ELM) algorithm to predict daily solar radiation in the Burkina Faso region. Four different meteorological stations are tested in the modeling process: Boromo, Dori, Gaoua and Po, located in West Africa. Various climate variables ssociated with the changes in solar radiation are utilized as the exploratory predictor variables through different input combinations used in the intelligent model (maximum and minimum air temperatures and humidity, wind speed, evaporation and vapor pressure deficits). The input combinations are then constructed based on the magnitude of the Pearson correlation coefficient computed between the predictors and the predictand, as a baseline method to determine the similarity between the predictors and the target variable. The results of the four tested meteorological stations show consistent findings, where the

    incorporation of all climate variables seemed to generate data intelligent models that erforms with best prediction accuracy. A closer examination showed that the tested sites, Boromo, Dori, Gaoua and Po, attained the best performance result in the testing phase, with a root mean square error and a mean absolute error (RMSE-MAE [MJ/m 2]) equating to about (0.72-0.54), (2.57-1.99), (0.88-0.65) and (1.17-0.86), respectively. In general, the proposed data intelligent models provide an excellent modeling strategy for solar radiation prediction, particularly over the Burkina Faso region in Western Africa. This study offers implications for solar energy exploration and energy management in data sparse regions.

  • 12.
    Bobaker, Aiman M.
    et al.
    Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Benghazi, Benghazi, Libya .
    Alakili, Intisar
    Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University of Benghazi, Benghazi, Libya .
    Sarmani, Sukiman B.
    School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bandar Baru Bangi, Malaysia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Yaseen, Zaher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Determination and Assessment of the Toxic Heavy Metal Elements Abstracted from the Traditional Plant Cosmetics and Medical Remedies: Case Study of Libya2019Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, nr 11, s. 1-14, artikel-id 1957Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Henna and walnut tree bark are widely used by Libyan women as cosmetics. They may contain lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As), which, in turn, pose a high risk to their health. This study aims to determine the levels of Pb, Cd and As in henna and walnut tree bark products sold in Libyan markets. The products were analyzed for their Pb, Cd and As content by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after a microwave acid digestion. The results showed a significant difference between the henna and walnut tree bark samples in terms of their heavy metals content (p < 0.05). The highest heavy metal concentrations were observed in the walnut tree bark samples whereas the lowest was observed in the henna samples. In addition, 60% of the henna and 90% of the walnut tree bark samples contained Pb levels and approximately 80% of the henna and 90% the walnut tree bark samples contained Cd levels, which are much higher than the tolerance limit. However, As concentrations in all the samples were lower. The results indicated that such cosmetics expose consumers to high levels of Pb and Cd and hence, to potential health risks. Thus, studying the sources and effects of heavy metals in such cosmetics is strongly recommended.

  • 13.
    Naganna, Sujay Raghavendra
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Shri Madhwa Vadiraja Institute of Technology and Management, Bantakal, Udupi, India. Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belagavi, Karnataka, India.
    Deka, Paresh Chandra
    Department of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Mangalore, India.
    Ghorbani, Mohammad Ali
    Department of Civil Engineering, Near East University, Nicosia, Turkey. Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
    Biazar, Seyed Mostafa
    Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Dew Point Temperature Estimation: Application of Artificial Intelligence Model Integrated with Nature-Inspired Optimization Algorithms2019Ingår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, water, Vol. 11, nr 4, artikel-id 742Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dew  point  temperature  (DPT)  is  known  to  fluctuate  in  space  and  time  regardless  of

    the climatic zone considered.  The accurate estimation of the DPT is highly significant for various applications of hydro and agro–climatological researches.  The current research investigated the hybridization of a multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network with nature-inspired optimization algorithms (i.e., gravitational search (GSA) and firefly (FFA)) to model the DPT of two climatically contrasted (humid and semi-arid) regions in India. Daily time scale measured weather information, such as wet bulb temperature (WBT), vapor pressure (VP), relative humidity (RH), and dew point temperature, was used to build the proposed predictive models.  The efficiencies of the proposed hybrid MLP networks (MLP–FFA and MLP–GSA) were authenticated against standard MLP tuned by a Levenberg–Marquardt back-propagation algorithm, extreme learning machine (ELM), and support vector  machine  (SVM)  models.   Statistical  evaluation  metrics  such  as  Nash  Sutcliffe  efficiency (NSE),  root  mean  square  error  (RMSE),  and  mean  absolute  error  (MAE)  were  used  to  validate the model efficiency.  The proposed hybrid MLP models exhibited excellent estimation accuracy. The hybridization of MLP with nature-inspired optimization algorithms boosted the estimation accuracy that is clearly owing to the tuning robustness. In general, the applied methodology showed very convincing results for both inspected climate zones.

  • 14.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Groundwater Directorate of Sulaimani, Kurdistan,Iraq.
    Ali, Salahalddin S.
    Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani,Kurdistan, Iraq. Komar University of Science and Technology, Iraqi Kurdistan , Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hydrogeochemical Evaluation of Groundwater and Its Suitability for Domestic Uses in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq2019Ingår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 4, artikel-id 690Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation of the hydrogeochemical characteristics and groundwater suitability for

    domestic use was conducted in the Halabja Saidsadiq Basin in the northeastern part of Iraq. The total studied area is about 1278 km 2 with a specific Mediterranean-type continental interior climate, which is cold in winter and hot in summer. To conduct the required laboratory chemical analysis for groundwater samples in the studied basin, 78 groundwater samples, in total, were collected from 39 water wells in the dry and wet seasons in 2014 and analyzed for major cations and anions, and the results were compared with the permitted limits for drinking water. An examination of the chemical concentrations of the World Health Organization drinking water norms demonstrate that a large portion of the groundwater samples is suitable for drinking, and a preponderance of groundwater samples situated in the class of hard and very hard water types for both seasons. Suitability of groundwater for drinking use was additionally assessed according to the water quality index classification. This showed that more than 98% of groundwater samples have good water quality in the dry and wet seasons. Conversely, the classification of groundwater samples based on Piper’s diagram designates that the groundwater type is alkaline water, with existing bicarbonate

    along with sulfate and chloride. However, water–ock exchange processes and groundwater flow have been responsible for the dominant water type of Ca–g–CO3.

  • 15.
    Jing, Wang
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, Baoji University of Arts and Sciences, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China. Faculty of Computer Systems & Software Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang, Pahang, Malaysia.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Shahid, Shamsuddin
    School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Saggi, Mandeep Kaur
    Department of Computer Science, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala, India.
    Tao, Hai
    Department of Computer Science, Baoji University of Arts and Sciences, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China.
    Kisi, Ozgur
    Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia.
    Salih, Sinan Q.
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Chau, Kwok-Wing
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China.
    Implementation of evolutionary computing models for reference evapotranspiration modeling: short review, assessment and possible future research directions2019Ingår i: Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1994-2060, E-ISSN 1997-003X, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 811-823Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Evapotranspiration is one of the most important components of the hydrological cycle as it accounts for more than two-thirds of the global precipitation losses. Indeed, the accurate prediction of reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is highly significant for many watershed activities, including agriculture, water management, crop production and several other applications. Therefore, reliable estimation of ETo is a major concern in hydrology. ETo can be estimated using different approaches, including field measurement, empirical formulation and mathematical equations. Most recently, advanced machine learning models have been developed for the estimation of ETo. Among several machine learning models, evolutionary computing (EC) has demonstrated a remarkable progression in the modeling of ETo. The current research is devoted to providing a new milestone in the implementation of the EC algorithm for the modeling of ETo. A comprehensive review is conducted to recognize the feasibility of EC models and their potential in simulating ETo in a wide range of environments. Evaluation and assessment of the models are also presented based on the review. Finally, several possible future research directions are proposed for the investigations of ETo using EC.

  • 16.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    et al.
    School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Mohtar, Wan Hanna Melini Wan
    Sustainable and Smart Township Research Centre (SUTRA), Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Ameen, Ameen Mohammed Salih
    Department of Water Resources, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Ebtehaj, Isa
    Department of Civil Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.
    Razali, Siti Fatin Mohd
    Sustainable and Smart Township Research Centre (SUTRA), Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Bonakdari, Hossein
    Department of Civil Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.
    Salih, Sinan Q.
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Shahid, Shamsuddin
    School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Implementation of Univariate Paradigm for Streamflow Simulation Using Hybrid Data-Driven Model: Case Study in Tropical Region2019Ingår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, s. 74471-74481Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of the bio-inspired adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) models are proposed for forecasting highly non-linear streamflow of Pahang River, located in a tropical climatic region of Peninsular Malaysia. Three different bio-inspired optimization algorithms namely particle swarm optimization (PSO), genetic algorithm (GA), and differential evolution (DE) were individually used to tune the membership function of ANFIS model in order to improve the capability of streamflow forecasting. Different combination of antecedent streamflow was used to develop the forecasting models. The performance of the models was evaluated using a number of metrics including mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), coefficient of determination ( R2 ), and Willmott’s Index (WI) statistics. The results revealed that increasing number of inputs has a positive impact on the forecasting ability of both ANFIS and hybrid ANFIS models. The comparison of the performance of three optimization methods indicated PSO improved the capability of ANFIS model (RMSE = 7.96; MAE = 2.34; R2=0.998 and WI = 0.994) more compared to GA and DE in forecasting streamflow. The uncertainty band of ANFIS-PSO forecast was also found the lowest (±0.217), which indicates that ANFIS-PSO model can be used for reliable forecasting of highly stochastic river flow in tropical environment.

  • 17.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Environment Engineering, college of Engineering, U niversity of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq. .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hazim, Anwer
    Koya university, Koya, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Landfill Sites Selection Using MCDM and Comparing Method of Change Detection for Babylon Governorate, Iraq2019Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill site`s selection represents a complicated process due to the large number of variables to be adopted. In this study, an arid area (Babylon Governorate as a case study) was selected. It is located in the middle region of Iraq. In this area, the  landfills do not satisfy the required  international criteria.  Fifteen  of the  most significant criterion were selected for this purpose. For suitable weight for each criterion, the multi criteria decision making (MCDM) methods were applied. These methods are AHP and RSW. In the GIS software 10.5, the raster maps of the chosen criterion were arranged and analysed. The method of change detection was implemented to determine the matching pixels and non-matching pixels. The final results showed that there are two candidate locations for landfills for each district in the governorate (ten sites). The areas of the selected sites were sufficient to contain the cumulative quantity of solid waste from 2020 until 2030.

  • 18.
    Naji, Laith A.
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Iraq.
    Jassam, Salim H.
    Department of Building and Construction Technology Engineering, Technical College Baghdad, Middle Technical University.
    Yaseen, Mohammed J.
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Mustansiriayah University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Faisal, Ayad A. H.
    Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Modification of Langmuir model for simulating initial pH and temperature effects on sorption process2019Ingår i: Separation science and technology (Print), ISSN 0149-6395, E-ISSN 1520-5754, Separation Science and Technology, ISSN 0149-6395Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study modifies the sorption isothermfor simulating the influences of initial pH and temperature variations on thecadmium sorption from contaminated water using waste foundry sand based on Langmuir,Freundlich and Temkin models. Results proved that the Langmuir expression is ableto adopt these effects by relating sorption capacity and affinity constantswith pH and temperature of aqueous solution through exponential relationships (determinationcoefficient = 0.9375). The present model is assumed that the sorption process occursthrough acidic functional groups and this is consistent with FTIR outputs. Interactionof cadmium/WFS is found to be exothermic by thermodynamic analysis.

  • 19.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Private Consultant Engineering, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG, Iraq. Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mosul Dam: Geology and Safety Concerns2019Ingår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. 151-177Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul Dam is an earth fill dam located on the River Tigris northern part of Iraq. The capacity of its reservoir is 11.11 billion cubic meters which makes it the fourth biggest dam in the Middle East. From geological perspective, the dam is located on double plunging anticlines. The rocks of the site are mainly composed of highly jointed and karistified alternating beds of limestones, gysum and marls, since the impoundment of the reservoir seepage of water was recognized under the foundation of the dam. To stop or minimize the seepage, intensive grouting operations were conducted. Recent investigations and evaluation of the conditions of the dam indicate that it is in a critical situation. In this paper, consequences of the dam failure are discussed and possible solutions are given.

  • 20.
    Yaseen, Zaher
    et al.
    School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
    Ebtehaj, Isa
    Department of Civil Engineering, Razi University, Iran.
    Kim, Sungwon
    Department of Railroad Construction and Safety Engineering, Dongyang University, Korea.
    Sanikhani, Hadi
    Water Engineering Department, Agriculture Faculty, University of Kurdistan, Iran.
    Asadi, H.
    Water Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran.
    Ghareb, Mazen Ismaeel
    Department of Computer Science, College of Science and Technology, University of Human Development, Iraq.
    Bonakdari, Hossein
    Department of Civil Engineering, Razi University, Iran.
    Mohtar, Wan Hanna Melini Wan
    Sustainable and Smart Township Research Centre (SUTRA), Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Shahid, Shamsuddin
    School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
    Novel Hybrid Data-Intelligence Model for Forecasting Monthly Rainfall with Uncertainty Analysis2019Ingår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 3, artikel-id 502Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research, three different evolutionary algorithms (EAs), namely, particle swarm optimization (PSO), genetic algorithm (GA) and differential evolution (DE), are integrated with the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model. The developed hybrid models are proposed to forecast rainfall time series. The capability of the proposed evolutionary hybrid ANFIS was compared with the conventional ANFIS in forecasting monthly rainfall for the Pahang watershed, Malaysia. To select the optimal model, sixteen different combinations of six different lag attributes taking into account the effect of monthly, seasonal, and annual history were considered. The performances of the forecasting models were assessed using various forecasting skill indicators. Moreover, an uncertainty analysis of the developed forecasting models was performed to evaluate the ability of the hybrid ANFIS models. The bound width of 95% confidence interval (d-factor) and the percentage of observed samples which was enveloped by 95% forecasted uncertainties (95PPU) were used for this purpose. The results indicated that all the hybrid ANFIS models performed better than the conventional ANFIS and for all input combinations. The obtained results showed that the models with best input combinations had the (95PPU and d-factor) values of (91.67 and 1.41), (91.03 and 1.41), (89.74 and 1.42), and (88.46 and 1.43) for ANFIS-PSO, ANFIS-GA, ANFIS-DE, and the conventional ANFIS, respectively. Based on the 95PPU and d-factor, it is concluded that all hybrid ANFIS models have an acceptable degree of uncertainty in forecasting monthly rainfall. The results of this study proved that the hybrid ANFIS with an evolutionary algorithm is a reliable modeling technique for forecasting monthly rainfall.

  • 21.
    Yousif, Ali A.
    et al.
    Water Resources Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Duhok, Duhok, Iraq.
    Sulaiman, Sadeq Oleiwi
    Dams and Water Resources Department, College of Engineering, University of Anbar, Ramadi, Iraq.
    Diop, Lamine
    UFR S2ATA, Sciences Agronomiques, de l’Aquaculture et des Technologies Alimentaires, Université Gaston Berger (UGB), Saint Louis, Sénégal.
    Etheram, Mohammad
    Department of Water Engineering and Hydraulic Structures, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran.
    Shahid, Shamsuddin
    School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    ustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Open Channel Sluice Gate Scouring Parameters Prediction: Different Scenarios of Dimensional and Non-Dimensional Input Parameters2019Ingår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 2, artikel-id 353Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The determination of scour characteristics in the downstream of sluice gate is highly importantfor designing and protection of hydraulic structure.  The applicability of modern data-intelligence technique known as extreme learning machine (ELM) to simulate scour characteristics has been examined in this study.  Three major characteristics of scour hole in the downstream of a sluice gate, namely the length of scour hole (Ls), the maximum scour depth (Ds), and the position of maximum scour depth (Lsm), are modeled using different properties of the flow and bed material. The obtained results using ELM were compared with multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS). The dimensional analysis technique was used to reduce the number of input variable to a smaller number of dimensionless groups and both the dimensional and non-dimensional variables were used to model the scour characteristics. The prediction performances of the developed models were examined using several statistical metrics. The results revealed that ELM can predict scour properties with much higher accuracy compared to MARS. The errors in prediction can be reduced in the range of 79%–81% using ELM models compared to MARS models. Better performance of the models was observed when dimensional variables were used as input. The result indicates that the use of ELM with non-dimensional data can provide high accuracy in modeling complex hydrological problems.

  • 22.
    Yang, R.
    et al.
    Discipline of Civil, Surveying & Environmental Engineering, Priority Research Centre for Geotechnical Science & Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Australia.
    Huang, Jinsong
    Discipline of Civil, Surveying & Environmental Engineering, Priority Research Centre for Geotechnical Science & Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Australia.
    Griffiths, D.V.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, USA.
    Meng, Jingjing
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Fenton, Gordon A.
    Department of Engineering Mathematics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada.
    Optimal geotechnical site investigations for slope design2019Ingår i: Computers and geotechnics, ISSN 0266-352X, E-ISSN 1873-7633, Vol. 114, artikel-id 103111Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Site investigation in combination with field and laboratory testing, plays a vital role in characterizing the soil profile for geotechnical design in order to reduce uncertainty. In spite of this, site investigations are often limited in scope due to high costs. In this paper, conditional random fields are used to examine the influence of soil strength mean, standard deviation and spatial correlation length on the risk of slope design failure for different levels of site investigation scope. An undrained slope example is used to illustrate how the proposed approach can be used to assess the risk reduction that can be obtained as the scope of a site investigation is increased. By combining the cost of site investigation with the cost of slope failure, the results indicate that there exists an optimal site investigation scope, beyond which the cost of additional boreholes does not justify the cost savings due to reduced slope failure risk.

  • 23.
    Qutbudin, Ishanch
    et al.
    Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Shiru, Mohammed Sanusi
    Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Federal University Dutse, Dutse, Nigeria.
    Sharafati, Ahmad
    Department of Civil Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
    Ahmed, Kamal
    Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Faculty of Water Resource Management, Lasbela University of Agriculture, Water and Marine Sciences, Balochistan, Pakistan.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Shahid, Shamsuddin
    Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Wang, Xiaojun
    State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, Nanjing, China. Research Center for Climate Change, Ministry of Water Resources, Nanjing, China.
    Seasonal Drought Pattern Changes Due to Climate Variability: Case Study in Afghanistan2019Ingår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 5, s. 1-20, artikel-id 1096Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We assessed the changes in meteorological drought severity and drought return periods during cropping seasons in Afghanistan for the period of 1901 to 2010. The droughts in the country were analyzed using the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI). Global Precipitation Climatology Center rainfall and Climate Research Unit temperature data both at 0.5 resolutions were used for this purpose. Seasonal drought return periods were estimated using the values of the SPEI fitted with the best distribution function. Trends in climatic variables and SPEI were assessed using modified Mann–Kendal trend test, which has the ability to remove the influence of long-term persistence on trend significance. The study revealed increases in drought severity and frequency in Afghanistan over the study period. Temperature, which increased up to 0.14 C/decade, was the major factor influencing the decreasing trend in the SPEI values in the northwest and southwest of the country during rice- and corn-growing seasons, whereas increasing temperature and decreasing rainfall were the cause of a decrease in SPEI during wheat-growing season. We concluded that temperature plays a more significant role in decreasing the SPEI values and, therefore, more severe droughts in the future are expected due to global warming.

  • 24.
    Al-Madhlom, Qais
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. College of Engineering/Al-Musaib, University of Babylon, Hillah, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Hussain, Hussain Musa
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq.
    Site Selection of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Systems in Shallow Groundwater Conditions2019Ingår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 7, artikel-id 1393Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Underground thermal energy storage (UTES) systems are widely used around the world, due

    to their relations to heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) applications [1]. To achieve the required objectives of these systems, the best design of these systems should be accessed first. The process of determining the best design for any UTES system has two stages, the type selection stage and the site selection stage. In the type selection stage, the best sort of UTES system is determined. There are six kinds of UTES systems, they are: boreholes, aquifer, bit, tank, tubes in clay, and cavern [2–5]. The selection of a particular type depends on three groups of parameters. They are: Site specific, design, and operation parameters (Figure 1). Apart from site specific parameters, the other two types can be changed through the life time of the system. The site specific parameters, e.g., geological,

    hydrogeological, and metrological, cannot be changed during the service period of the  ystem. Therefore, the design of the best type should depend, at first consideration, on site specific parameters.

  • 25.
    Al-Jabban, Wathiq Jasim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Soil Modification by adding small amounts of binders: A laboratory study2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 26.
    Chabuk, Ali
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Solid Waste Landfills in an Arid Environment : Site Selection and Design2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting landfill sites is considered a complicated task because its whole process is based upon several factors and restrictions. This study shows the present status of solid waste management, sources, collection personnel, machinery and equipment that are involved in the waste collection process, financing and financial management for the major cities of the Babylon Governorate in Iraq (Al-Hillah, Al-Qasim, Al-Mahawil, Al-Hashimiyah and Al-Musayiab). The management of waste collection and disposal in the Babylon Governorate and its districts is through open waste dumps, so the quality of the collection and disposal process is poor, and these sites do not conform to the scientific and environmental criteria usually applied in the selection of landfill sites.

    In the first part of the current study, three methods were used to calculate the solid waste quantity for each specific year up to the year 2030 as well as the cumulative quantity of solid waste for the period (2020-2030) for Babylon Governorate. The results show the cumulative quantity of solid waste resulting from (method 3) receives a high value compared to other methods, and so it is used as a maximum value to estimate the required area for candidate sites for landfills in each district. The generation rate in 2030 will be (0.97, 0.69, 0.48, 0.62 and 0.91) (kg/capita/day) in (Al-Hillah, Al-Qasim, Al-Mahawil, Al-Hashimiyah and Al-Musayiab), respectively, based on method 3, where the estimated annual incremental generation rate is 1 %. 

    The second part of this study aims to find the best sites for landfills in the arid areas that are distinguished by a shallow depth of groundwater. The Babylon Governorate was selected as a case study because it is located in an arid area, and the depths beneath the ground surface to the groundwater level are shallow.  

    For this purpose, 15 important criteria were adopted as follows: groundwater depth, rivers, soil types, agricultural land use, land use, elevation, slope, gas pipelines, oil pipelines, power lines, roads, railways, urban centers, villages and archaeological sites. These criteria were then entered into the geographic information system (GIS). The GIS software has a large capacity to manage and analyze various input data using special analysis tools. In addition, Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods were used to derive the relative weightings for each criterion in different styles. These methods are (Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Simple Additive Weighting (SAW), Ratio Scale Weighting (RSW) and Straight Rank Sum (SRS)).

    Raster maps of the selected criteria were prepared and analyzed within the GIS software. The final map for candidate landfill sites was obtained through combining the GIS software and (MCDM) methods. Subsequently, comparison methods (Change Detection, Combination, Kappa and Overall Assessment) for each pair of raster maps that result from using the two different methods of multi-criteria decision making were implemented to determine the pixel percentage of matching and non-matching as well as to determine and check the suitability of the selected sites for landfills on both resulting maps using two methods.  

    Two suitable candidate sites for landfills were determined to fulfill the scientific and environmental requirements in each major city. These areas are (6.768 and 8.204) km2 in Al-Hillah, (2.766 and 2.055) km2 in Al-Qasim, (1.288 and 1.374) km2 in Al-Hashimiyah, (2.950 and 2.218) km2 in Al-Mahawil, and (7.965 and 5.952) km2 in Al-Musayiab. The required area of the selected sites can accommodate solid waste from 2020 until 2030 based on the required areas according to the third method.

    The third part of this study includes soil investigations for the selected landfill sites. The suggested design should ensure that there is no groundwater pollution by leachate from these sites because the groundwater depth is very shallow in the Babylon Governorate. To avoid this problem, soil investigation was conducted at these sites so that the most suitable landfill design could be established. Each site was subjected to field soil tests to find the composition of the soil strata at each site to a depth of 10 m, and these results were compared with the soil properties adopted for final site selection. The Iraqi Ministry of Housing & Construction, National Centre for Construction Laboratories and Research Babylon, Iraq, carried out the analytical work on the soil in 2016. The results of the soil investigation at these sites include the soil profile, groundwater depth, chemical properties, allowable bearing capacity, atterberg limits test results and material characteristics of the soil strata. According to the results of these tests, the best design is the one that puts the compacted waste at the surface.

    The fourth part of this study covers the selection of a suitable proposed design in the arid areas (Babylon Governorate, Iraq) for the selected landfill siting. In the current study, the design of this landfill includes the suggested soil layers for the liner system and final cover system.  

    For the base liner system (from the bottom toward the top), the composite bottom barrier layer consists of highly compacted sandy clay. The thickness of the bottom barrier layer is 60 cm, and its saturated hydraulic conductivity is 1.0E-7cm/s. The 1.5 mm thick geomembrane (HDPE), with hydraulic conductivity of 2.0E-13 cm/s, is placed over the composite bottom barrier layer. The leachate collection system consists of drainage layer (gravel) with a thickness of 30 cm and a hydraulic conductivity of 3.0E-1 cm/s. The diameter of the main drainpipes is between 15 and 20 cm. The protection layer consists of sand material, and its hydraulic conductivity is 5.0E-3 cm/s. The thickness of the protection layer is 30 cm.

    The compacted solid waste is placed upon the surface to a height of 2 m because of the shallow groundwater depth and to avoid groundwater contamination by leachate from the landfill site. The density of the compacted waste is 700 kg/m3, and its saturated hydraulic conductivity is 1.0E-5 cm/s.

    Three scenarios were used for the suggested designs for the final cover system of the landfills in arid areas. The first scenario was “evapotranspiration soil cover (ET) (capillary barriers type)”, the second scenario was a modified cover design of "RCRA Subtitle D", and the third scenario was the “Recommended design”. In this study, “Recommended design”, the third scenario for the final cover system, was adopted in the arid area (Babylon governorate, Iraq) based on combining certain layers from the first and second scenarios. For the three scenarios, the soil components in these designs used was based on available local materials in the study area. The layers of the base liner system were adopted in all scenarios.

    The third scenario for the final cover system, “Recommended design”, was implemented based on weather parameters in the arid areas. The water infiltrated from the surface of landfill is stored within upper layers that have fine particles. This allows the stored water to evaporate from the soil surface of the landfill or transpire through vegetation due to the high temperature during most months in the study area. The water that enters from the surface of the landfill should be contained above the geomembrane liner and top barrier layer without leakage into the waste body, thereby preventing leachate generation.

    For the layers of the final cover system (from the bottom to the top), the intermediate cover is used to cover the waste body, and this layer consists of moderate compacted silty clayey loam (native soil). The thickness of the intermediate cover is 30 cm, and its saturated hydraulic conductivity is1.0E-6 cm/s. The foundation layer consists of coarse sand material with a thickness of 30 cm and a saturated hydraulic conductivity of 1.0E-2 cm/s. This layer acts as a cushion for the layers of the final cover system. The gas collection system can be installed within the foundation layer.  

    The top barrier layer is placed over the foundation layer. This layer consists of highly compacted sandy clay of (45 - 60 cm) thickness with compacted lifts (each lift is 15 cm). The saturated hydraulic conductivity of the barrier layer is 1.0E-7 cm/s. The geomembrane liner, (HDPE) of 0.5 cm thickness and a saturated hydraulic conductivity of 2.0E-13 cm/s, is put on top of the barrier layer. The upper layers of the final cover system are the support vegetation layer and the topsoil layer. The composition of the support vegetation layer is moderate compacted loam. This layer is placed directly on the geomembrane liner. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of the support layer is1.0E-5 cm/s, and its thickness is 45 cm. The topsoil layer consists of silty clayey loam, and it is placed over the support vegetation layer with a slope of 3%. The thickness of the topsoil layer is 15 cm, and its hydraulic conductivity is 4.0E-5 cm/s.  

    The Hydrologic Evaluation of a Landfill Performance (HELP 3.95 D) model was applied to the selected landfill sites in the governorate to check if there could be any infiltration of the leachate that will result from the waste in the landfills in the selected sites in the future. The HELP model, which utilizes both weather and soil data, is the most commonly used model for landfill design, and it is employed to evaluate the quantity of water inflow through soil layers for the designed landfill. This suggested landfill is designed using the weather parameters (rainfall, temperature, solar, and the required date to calculate evapotranspiration) for the 12 consecutive years from 2005 to 2016, as well the required data for soil design.

    In the HELP model, the result for the suggested landfill design for both the recommended design (third scenario) and the second scenario was a modified cover design of "RCRA Subtitle D", which showed there was no leachate through the soil sub-layers, including the bottom barrier layer. The proposed design for the final cover system showed a reduction in the surface runoff and an increase in actual evapotranspiration. In the first scenario “evapotranspiration soil cover (ET) (capillary barriers type)”, there was no leachate percolation through the bottom barrier layer during the study years, apart from in 2013 and 2014. In these years, water percolation figures were 1.4E-5 and 4.0E-6 mm, respectively. These values are considered small, and they resulted from the high rate of rainfall during these years. Although, these values were small, they should still be taken into consideration when adopting this design in the study area.

    In the HELP model, the average annual and peak daily results for all scenarios showed that there was no water percolation through the bottom barrier layer during the years from 2005 to 2016.

  • 27.
    Ali, Ammar A.
    et al.
    College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Suhail, Qusay
    College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Spatial total load rating curve for a large river: A Case study of the Tigris River at Baghdad2019Ingår i: International Journal of River Basin Management, ISSN 1571-5124, E-ISSN 1814-2060Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Tigris River in Baghdad is a large sand-bed river, supply-limited because of the implementation of a water flow regulation scheme comprising a series of reservoirs and barrages.  The significant reduction in the water discharge has affected the hydraulic performance of the river and turned it into an under-fit river of complicated morphology where many islands and bank deposits have been showed up across an 18km reach in addition to the essential sinuosity. Measuring sediment load at individual cross-sections in the river gives misleading estimates and the corresponding sediment rating curve has a locally limited using. A spatially sediment rating by investigating sediment loads over the complicated reach is required to overcome the local limitations. Sediment transport rates have been investigated at 16 cross-sections along the study reach by collecting suspended load, bed load and bed material samples. Velocity profiles were measured at the sampling stations using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). The measurement results indicated that the suspended load is the dominant mode of transport (93.5%). However, bedloads were considered in determining the total loads. A spatial total load rating curve in the form of a power function was established and examined against the sediment measurements. Twenty-two previously published total load formulae where applied at the same sections and of these the Colby1964 formula gave the closest fit to the measured loads. Based on the results from this study a recommended procedure is established for using a spatial total load rating curve to estimate sediment transport rates for similar morphologically complicated rivers. Average annual transport rates during the period 2009-13 was estimated at 3.21 million tons.

  • 28.
    Silva, Ingrid
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Suffusion of Glacial Till Dam Cores: An Experimental Investigation2019Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Suffusion, also called internal instability, is an internal erosion mechanism that occurs in embankment dams when fine-grained particles are washed out of the core soil matrix by seepage. Initiation of internal erosion depends mainly on three major factors: grain size distribution of the soil, stress conditions and hydraulic load; whilst its continuation depends of the filter properties. Broadly graded moraines, as glacial tills, are more susceptible to internal erosion by suffusion than other types of soils used in dams.

    Most embankment dams in Sweden consist of a central core of glacial till built more than 50 years ago. At the time of its construction, the available guidelines did not include specific grain size boundaries for the core and the filter related to internal erosion susceptibility. Today, several Swedish embankment dams have experienced incident of internal erosion such as leakages and sinkholes, making internal erosion an important safety issue. This circumstance allows raising the questions: How safe are the Swedish embankment dams and what conditions are needed for internal erosion by suffusion to initiate?

    This research aims to contribute to the assessment of dam safety by giving inputs regarding the characterization of internal erosion by suffusion and the relation among the main factors involved on its occurrence (geotechnical characteristics of soil material, degree of compaction and hydraulic load). This in order to increase the knowledge regarding the critical hydraulic gradient needed to develop suffusion in a given till material with a known degree of compaction.

    The research includes a laboratory program consistent on suffusion tests, which is an extension of the standard permeability test, and considers post-test examination and diagnosis of the samples. Two main groups of tests were performed: small and large suffusion tests. The small tests serve as a reference of the expected behaviour of soil samples under different boundary and test conditions, which allows optimizing the number of test to be performed in large tests.

    Results show that suffusion mechanism can be classified as internal suffusion (or filtration) and external suffusion (loss of soil particles from the soil matrix). The influence of compaction degree on the initiation of suffusion is limited in internally stable soils. However, poorly compacted specimens exposed to high hydraulic gradients could develop both internal and external suffusion if the filter is not capable to retain the eroded particles. The hydraulic conductivity of specimens with internal suffusion tends to decrease with a step wise increase of the hydraulic gradient. Such tendency is the result of the matrix of soil reaching equilibrium with the new seepage stresses. The hydraulic conductivity of specimens with external suffusion tends to increase with the increase of the hydraulic gradient.

  • 29.
    Jing, Wang
    et al.
    Department of Computer science, Baoji Universi ty of Arts and Sciences, Baoji, China. Faculty of Computer Systems & Software Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang, Pahang, Malaysia .
    Naji, Hafeth Ibrahem
    Department of civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Diyala, Diyala, Iraq.
    Zehawi, Raquim Nihad
    Department of civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Diyala, Diyala, Iraq.
    Ali, Zainab Hasan
    Department of civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Diyala, Diyala, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Yaseen, Zaher
    Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam .
    System Dynamics Modeling Strategy for Civil Construction Projects: The Concept of Successive Legislation Periods2019Ingår i: Symmetry, ISSN 2073-8994, E-ISSN 2073-8994, Vol. 11, nr 5, s. 1-18, artikel-id 677Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost and time performance are considered to be the most important aspects in the construction industry. The exceptional conditions that took place in Iraq since the beginning of the third millennia had a huge vicious impact on the cost and time performance of local constructionprojects. This may represent the principal motivation for the local authorities to enact some four successive legislations in order to control the performance of the construction industry. In this research, an evaluation is made to the cost and time performance of local construction projects and their variation due to the multiple changes in the internal factors that affect project performance,and changes in the surrounding events include legislative, economic, and security environment during the period that lasted from 2003 to 2014. Data is collected from 30 governmental projects to conduct the evaluation. A comprehensive questionnaire is performed to estimate a quantitative value for the impact of several factors that concern both the owner and the contractor, with special consideration to their variation through the successive legislation periods. These estimates are, in turn, utilized in a system dynamics model, in which the project development process is simulated.

    The final cost and duration changes in the project are accumulated in the form of stocks to give an indication of the cost and time performance of the project. The developed model returned a progressive reduction of 10.9% for the change in project cost and 135.37% for the change in project schedule throughout the eleven years period.

  • 30.
    Malik, Anurag
    et al.
    Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, College of Technology, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India.
    Kumar, Anil
    Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, College of Technology, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India.
    Kushwaha, Daniel Prakash
    Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, College of Technology, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India.
    Kisi, Ozgur
    School of Business, Technology and Education, Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia.
    Salih, Sinan Q.
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Yaseen, Zaher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    The Implementation of a Hybrid Model for Hilly Sub-Watershed Prioritization Using Morphometric Variables: Case Study in India2019Ingår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 6, s. 1-19, artikel-id 1138Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Among several components of watershed prioritization, morphometric parameters are considered to be essential elements for appropriate water resource planning and anagement. In the current study, nine hilly sub-watersheds are prioritized using novel hybrid model ased on morphometric variables analysis at Bino Watershed (BW) located in the upper Ramganga basin, India. The proposed model is based on the hybridization of principal component analysis (PCA) with weighted-sum approach (WSA), presenting a single-frame methodology (PCWSA) for sub-watershed prioritization. The prioritization process was conducted based on several morphometric parameters including linear, areal, and shape. The PCA was performed to identify the significant correlated factor-loading matrix whereas WSA was established to provide the weights for the morphometric parameters and fix their priority ranking (PR) to be categorized based on compound factor value. The findings showed that 37.81% of total area is under highly susceptible zone sub-watersheds (SW-6 and SW-7). This is verifying the necessity for appropriate soil and water conservation measures for the area. The proposed hybrid methodology demonstrated a reliable approach for water resource planning and management, agriculture, and irrigation activities in the study region.

  • 31.
    Salih, Sinan Q.
    et al.
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Aldlemy, Mohammed Suleman
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Collage of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Benghazi, Libya.
    Rasani, Mohammad Rasidi
    Centre for Integrated Design for Advanced Mechanical Systems, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia.
    Ariffin, A.K.
    Centre for Integrated Design for Advanced Mechanical Systems, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia.
    Ya, Tuan Mohammad Yusoff Shah Tuan
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Tronoh, Malaysia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Yaseen, Zaher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Chau, Kwok-Wing
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China.
    Thin and sharp edges bodies-fluid interaction simulation using cut-cell immersed boundary method2019Ingår i: Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1994-2060, E-ISSN 1997-003X, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 860-877Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to develop an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) algorithm combined with Cut-Cell IBM using two-stage pressure–velocity corrections for thin-object FSI problems. To achieve the objective of this study, the AMR-immersed boundary method (AMR-IBM) algorithm discretizes and solves the equations of motion for the flow that involves rigid thin structures boundary layer at the interface between the structure and the fluid. The body forces are computed in proportion to the fraction of the solid volume in the IBM fluid cells to incorporate fluid and solid motions into the boundary. The corrections of the velocity and pressure is determined by using a novel simplified marker and cell scheme. The new developed AMR-IBM algorithm is validated using a benchmark data of fluid past a cylinder and the results show that there is good agreement under laminar flow. Simulations are conducted for three test cases with the purpose of demonstration the accuracy of the AMR-IBM algorithm. The validation confirms the robustness of the new algorithms in simulating flow characteristics in the boundary layers of thin structures. The algorithm is performed on a staggered grid to simulate the fluid flow around thin object and determine the computational cost.

  • 32.
    Meng, Jingjing
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. School of Resources and Safety Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.
    Cao, Ping
    School of Resources and Safety Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.
    Huang, Jinsong
    Discipline of Civil, Surveying and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Australia.
    Lin, Hang
    School of Resources and Safety Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.
    Li, Kaihui
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.
    Cao, Rihong
    School of Resources and Safety Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.
    Three-dimensional spherical discontinuous deformation analysis using second-order cone programming2019Ingår i: Computers and geotechnics, ISSN 0266-352X, E-ISSN 1873-7633, Vol. 112, s. 319-328Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a new formulation of three-dimensional spherical discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA) based on second-order cone programming has been proposed. Artificial springs with open-close iteration used in classic DDA have been removed, given that improper stiffness parameters might cause numerical problems. Furthermore, to account for irregular granular shapes, a rolling resistance model is incorporated in the variational formulation. The proposed formulation can be cast into a standard second-order cone programming program, which can be solved using efficient off-the-shelf optimisation solvers. The proposed approach is validated by a series of numerical examples.

  • 33.
    Hoang-Minh, Thao
    et al.
    VNU University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi.
    Kasbohm, Jörn
    Greifswald University, Greifswald, Germany.
    Nguyen-Thanh, Lan
    Institute of Applied Geosciences, Technical University of Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany.
    Nga, Pham Thi
    VNU University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Lai, Le Thi
    Institute of Geological Sciences, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Vietnam.
    Duong, Nguyen Thuy
    VNU University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Thanh, Nguyen Duc
    Advance Technology Transfer and Consultancy Co., Hanoi , Vietnam.
    Thuyet, Nguyen Thi Minh
    VNU University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Anh, Dao Duy
    National Institute of Mining – Metallurgy Science and Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mählmann, Rafael Ferreiro
    Institute of Applied Geosciences, Technical University of Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany.
    Use of TEM-EDX for structural formula identification of clay minerals: a case study of Di Linh bentonite, Vietnam2019Ingår i: Journal of applied crystallography, ISSN 0021-8898, E-ISSN 1600-5767, Vol. 52, nr 1, s. 133-147Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Transmission electron microscopy linked with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDX) was applied to characterize mineralogical signals ofweathering processes in the Di Linh bentonite deposit (Vietnam) and to visualize the effects of Na activation on the smectitic phases. Modelling of X ray diffraction patterns (oriented mount) was applied in order to refine the computed structural formula. X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) methods were also applied to verify the TEM-EDX results. An Excel-based routine has been developed in this research to allow fast computation of structural formulae and classification of the investigated clay particles. This routine supports the acquirement of 100 300 TEM-EDX analyses as a representative set of individual particles for each sample. The Excel-based routine involves end members of different clay mineral groups and interstratifications with two or three members (e.g. illite smectite interstratifications – IS-ml; dioctahedral vermiculite–smectite interstratifications – diVS-ml; and kaolinite–montmorillonite–dioctahedral vermiculite interstratifications – KSV-ml). The routine is now freely available. According to the identification procedure, the <2 mm fraction of the Di Linh bentonite (Vietnam) is composed mainly of K- and charge-deficient illite smectite interstratifications (or diVS-ml): montmorillonite-rich randomly ordered (R0) type and illite-rich regularly ordered (R1) type. Additionally, Fe-poor KSV-ml was identified.Industrial Na activation of the Di Linh bentonite resulted in an increase of theR1 diVS-ml portion and dissolution of a large part of the smectite-rich phases.The TEM-EDX approach also gave analytical proof of a sedimentary processfor Di Linh smectite. The parent muscovite was altered in two different environments: (i) K-leaching and layer-wise alteration into kaolinite (weathering), and (ii) further edge-controlled alteration of mica into lath-like montmorillonite particles associated with a dissolution of kaolinite layers from the former kaolinite–mica intergrowths by heat impact (basalt flow).

  • 34.
    Salih, Sinan Q.
    et al.
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Allawi, Mohammed Falah
    Department of Civil Engineering, Al-Esraa University College, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Yousif, Ali A.
    Water Resources Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Duhok, Duhok, Iraq.
    Armanuos, Asaad M.
    Irrigation and Hydraulics Engineering Department, Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.
    Saggi, Mandeep Kaur
    Department of Computer Science, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patalia, India.
    Ali, Mumtaz
    Deakin-SWU Joit Research Centre on Big Data, School of Information Techonology, Deakin University, Victoria, Australia.
    Shahid, Shamsuddin
    School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM).
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Chau, Kwok-Wing
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.
    Viability of the advanced adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system model on reservoir evaporation process simulation: case study of Nasser Lake in Egypt2019Ingår i: Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1994-2060, E-ISSN 1997-003X, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 878-891Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable prediction of evaporative losses from reservoirs is an essential component of reservoir management and operation. Conventional models generally used for evaporation prediction have a number of drawbacks as they are based on several assumptions. A novel approach called the co-active neuro-fuzzy inference system (CANFIS) is proposed in this study for the modeling of evaporation from meteorological variables. CANFIS provides a center-weighted set rather than global weight sets for predictor–predictand relationship mapping and thus it can provide a higher prediction accuracy. In the present study, adjustments are made in the back-propagation algorithm of CANFIS for automatic updating of membership rules and further enhancement of its prediction accuracy. The predictive ability of the CANFIS model is validated with three well-established artificial intelligence (AI) models. Different statistical metrics are computed to investigate the prediction efficacy. The results reveal higher accuracy of the CANFIS model in predicting evaporation compared to the other AI models. CANFIS is found to be capable of modeling evaporation from mean temperature and relative humidity only, with a Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.93, which is much higher than that of the other models. Furthermore, CANFIS improves the prediction accuracy by 9.2–55.4% compared to the other AI models.

  • 35.
    Ewaid, Salam Hussein
    et al.
    Technical Institute of Shatra, Southern Technical University, Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq.
    Abed, Salwan Ali
    Department of Environment, College of Science, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water Footprint of Wheat in Iraq2019Ingår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 3, artikel-id 535Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The water footprint (WF) is an indicator of indirect and direct fresh water use. In respect of

    facilitating decision-making processes,WF gives an excellent perspective on how and where fresh water is used in the supply chain. More than 39million people live in Iraq and,with a growing population, there is a water shortage and a rising demand for food that cannot be met in the future. In this study, theWF of wheat production is estimated for the year 2016–2017 for 15 Iraqi provinces. TheWF was calculated using the method ofMekonnen and Hoekstra (2011) and the CROPWAT and CLIMWAT softwares’ crop water requirement option. It was found that theWF in m 3/ton was 1876 m3/ton. The 15 provinces showed variations inWFs, which can be ascribed to the difference in climate and production values. The highest

    wheat WF was found in Nineveh province, followed by Muthanna, Anbar, and Basra. The last three provinces produce little and have a highWF so, in these provinces, wheat can be replaced with crops that need less water and provide more economic benefit. There is an opportunity to reduce the greenWF by increasing production from the 4 rain-fed provinces, which will reduce the need for production from the irrigated provinces and, therefore, reduce the use of blue water.

  • 36.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    et al.
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG. Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Elagely, Malik
    Private consultant, Baghdad, Iraq.
    A Comparative Study of Mosul and Haditha Dams, Iraq: Geological conditions2018Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 35-52Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul and Haditha Dams are the largest dams on the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in Iraq, respectively. Both dams are of earthfill type and constructed on sedimentary rocks, but have different geological conditions. Both of them suffer from karstification problems. The former; however, suffers from intense karstification, which has endangered the stability of the dam and possible failure. The karstification in both sites is of different origins, types, shapes, sizes and depths, as well as in different rocks and geological formations. In Mosul Dam site, the highly dissolved gypsum beds of the Fatha Formation has formed solution type sinkholes with cavities of different shapes and sizes at different depth; attaining to about 250 m upon which the foundations of the dam are located. In Haditha Dam site, the karstification occur in the limestone beds of the Euphrates Formation, the developed sinkholes are of collapse type with regular shapes; either circular or oval apertures. The thickness of the karstified sequence in the foundations is not more 50 m. This research work is to highlight the role of the geological conditions, especially when the karstification in the safety of both dams is concerned and its effect on the foundations of the dams.

  • 37.
    Li, Jing
    et al.
    Business School, Lanzhou City University, Lanzhou, China.
    Ameen, Ameen Mohammed Salih
    Department of Water Resources, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Mohammad, Thamer Ahmad
    Department of Water Resources, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Yaseen, Zaher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    A Systematic Operation Program of a Hydropower Plant Based on Minimizing the Principal Stress: Haditha Dam Case Study2018Ingår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, nr 1270, s. 2-20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dam operation and management have become more complex recently because of the need for considering hydraulic structure sustainability and environmental protect on. An Earthfill dam that includes a powerhouse system is considered as a significant multipurpose hydraulic structure. Understanding the effects of running hydropower plant turbines on the dam body is one of the major safety concerns for earthfill dams. In this research, dynamic analysis of earthfill dam, integrated with a hydropower plant system containing six vertical Kaplan turbines (i.e., Haditha dam), is investigated.In the first stage of the study, ANSYS-CFX was used to represent one vertical Kaplan turbine unit by designing a three-dimensional (3-D) finite element (FE) model. This model was used to differentiate between the effect of turbine units’ operation on dam stability in accordance to maximum and minimum reservoir upstream water levels, and the varying flowrates in a fully open gate condition. In the second stage of the analysis, an ANSYS-static modeling approach was used to develop a 3-D FE earthfill dam model. The water pressure pattern determined on the boundary of the running turbine model is transformed into the pressure at the common area of the dam body with turbines. The model is inspected for maximum and minimum upstream water levels. Findings indicate that the water stress fluctuations on the dam body are proportional to the inverse distance from the turbine region. Also, it was found that the cone and outlet of the hydropower turbine system are the most affected regions when turbine is running. Based on the attained results, a systematic operation program was proposed in order to control the running hydropower plant with minimized principal stress atselected nodes on the dam model and the six turbines.

  • 38.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Alkaradaghi, Karwan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Kurdistan Institution for Strategic Studies and Scientific Research, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Application of the HELP Model for Landfill Design in AridAreas: Case Study Babylon Governorate, Iraq2018Ingår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 12, nr 12, s. 848-879Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The landfill design is necessary to be implemented in various regions to protect public human health and the factors ofenvironment. The suggested design of landfill was performed in the arid areas, where that Babylon Governorate, Iraq was selected as a case study. Babylon overnorate is located in the middle of Iraq. The suggested design for the selected sites for landfill in the arid areas was consisted of the base liner and final cover systems. The HELP 3.95D model was applied on both systems to check if there is any leakage by leachate from the suggested soil layers of landfill base on the water balance in Babylon Governorate for the years 2005-2016. The suggested design of final cover system was implemented based on weather parameters in the arid areas through storing water that coming from the surface within upper layers that have fine particles and over the top barrier without leakage into the waste body, thereby preventing leachate generation. This is  allowing to the stored water to evaporate from the surface of soil or transpire through vegetation due to the high temperature during the most months in the study area. The results showed there was no percolation of leachate through the base liner system. The design of final cover system was acted to reduce the runoff on the surface and increase theactual evaporation.

  • 39.
    Mårtensson, Stefan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Johansson, Mårten
    Åre Avalanche Centre/European Avalanche Management Group, Sweden.
    Are avalanche courses the new high-risk sport?: Use of Sensation Seeking Scale in Avalanche Education Highlights the Need for Reassessment of Participants’ True Nature and Suggests that the Test Itself Can Serve as a Learning Tool2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In a perfect world, the risk of dying in an avalanche should decrease with knowledge. On the contrary, studies have shown that this risk might increase after an avalanche course. Could it be that par- ticipants from the beginning have an appetite for risks? If so, how high is this preference for risk-taking? Can such knowledge of personal risk preference be used to help the participants understand their own risk-taking? A majority of avalanche accidents are caused by the victim itself, but few studies have inves- tigated the personal disposition of risk-taking. This risk preference can be estimated by measuring sensa- tion seeking. Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS) is a psychometric tool and has been used in studies of high- risk sports such as skiing, parachuting, diving or climbing. During two winters the SSS test was used on Swedish avalanche courses, a total of 333 participants completed the test. The instructors also used the test results in a risk-taking module where participants reflected on their personal risk preferences. Results show that sensation seeking is relatively high among participants. The total average is 21.9 (SD 5.1), which is in line with high-risk sports. Another result is that both participants and instructors experience the test as an important and appreciated module. The conclusions are partly that avalanche courses should be regarded as a high-risk sport because the participants have high-risk preferences, partly that the SSS test itself serves as a learning tool for self-reflection and increased understanding of the participants’ own risk-taking.

  • 40.
    O. Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Groundwater Directorate of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
    S. Ali, Salahalddin
    Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq;Komar University of Science and Technology, Sulaimani, Iraqi Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Assessment of Groundwater Vulnerability to Pollution Using VLDA and COP Models in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq2018Ingår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 12, nr 11, s. 798-809, artikel-id 003Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater aquifer in the Halabja and Saidsadiq Basin considered being one of the most important aquifers in terms of water supplying in Kurdistan Region, NE of Iraq. The growing of economics, irrigation and agricultural activities inside the basin makes it of the main essentials to the region. Therefore, pollution of groundwater is of specific worry as groundwater resources are the principal source of water for drinking, agriculture, irrigation and industrial activities. Thus, the best and practical arrangement is to keep the pollution of groundwater through. The current study aims the evaluation of the vulnerability of groundwater aquifers of the study area. Two models were applied, to be specific VLDA and COP to develop maps of groundwater vulnerability for contamination. The VLDA model classified the area into four classes of vulnerability with each covered area: low (2%), moderate (44%), high (53%) and very high (1%). While four vulnerability classes were accomplished dependent on COP model including very low, low, moderate and high vulnerability classes with coverage areas of (1%, 37%, 2% and 60%) respectively. To confirm the suitability of each map for assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the area, it required to be validated of the theoretical sympathetic of current hydrogeological conditions. In this study, groundwater age evaluated utilizing tritium isotopes investigation and applied it to validate the vulnerability results. Based on this validation, the outcome exhibits that the vulnerability classes acquired utilizing VLDA model are more predictable contrasted with the COP model.

  • 41. Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan, Hewler, KRG. Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Badush Dam: Controversy and Future Possibilities2018Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 17-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Badush Dam is believed to be the first dam in the world which is designed to protect from the flood wave which could result from the collapse of another dam; in this case Mosul Dam.  Badush Dam construction was started in 1988 but it was stopped two years later due to unexpected reasons. From that time on many attempts were made to resume construction without success. Its value was stressed in a multitude of studies and technical reports amid conflict of opinions on how to do this.  The original design of the dam as a protection dam was intended to have a large part of the reservoir empty to accommodate the volume of the expected flood wave for only a few months during which time it’s content are released in a controlled and safe way to the downstream. The lower part of Badush Dam which has a limited height continues before and after this event to act as a low head power generation facility. Among the later studies on the dam, there were suggestions to introduce changes to the design of the unfinished dam which covered the foundation treatment and also asked for constructing a diaphragm in the dam. A long controversy is still going on with many possibilities but with no hope to reach a final solution soon. Any rational solution must consider both Badush Dam and Mosul Dam together as the safety issue involves both of them. This paper may be seen in six paragraphs. The first three describe in brief the history, the outline design and foundation treatment of the dam, therefore, setting the background to follow the conflicting views over its purpose and future which is discussed in the following two paragraphs. The final paragraph is devoted to discussion and our conclusions.

  • 42.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    et al.
    University of Kurdistan, Hewler, KRG. Private Consultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Badush Dam, NW Iraq: A Geological Study2018Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 1-15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The river Tigris flows from Turkey towards Iraq in its northwestern part dissecting the whole Iraqi territory. During 1981– 1986 a very large earth fill dam was constructed, which is Mosul Dam impounding the flow of the Tigris River. It is the largest dam in Iraq and one of the largest in the Middle East. The geological conditions of the dam site and surroundings, however, are not suitable due to thick exposures of the Fatha Formation, which consists of marl, clay, limestone and gypsum. The gypsum and limestone beds are highly karstified causing severe problems to the dam foundation. Mosul dam suffers from serious problems due to the presence of karstified rocks; therefore, the Ministry of Irrigation in Baghdad, decided to construct a protection dam downstream of Mosul Dam; it is called Badush Dam. The geological conditions at Badush Dam site are the same as those at Mosul Dam site, which means the foundations of the dam are located on karstified rocks. Therefore, grouting works were planned and designed and it was partly performed from the beginning of the construction in 1988. The construction of the dam; however, stopped in 1991 due to the consequences of the First Gulf War. The constructed parts of the dam are (30 – 40) %. In this study, we have presented the main problems, which will cause real danger to Badush Dam, if its construction is re-started, and we have suggested many requirements to avoid any hazard that may cause the collapse of Badush Dam.

  • 43.
    Al-Maliki, Laheab A. Jasem
    et al.
    Department of Hydraulic Engineering Structu res, Faculty of Water Resources Engine ering, Green University of Al Qasim, Baghdad.
    Al-Mamoori, Suhaib Kareem
    Department of Environmental Planning, Faculty of Physical Planning, University of Kufa, Najaf.
    El-Tawel, Khaled
    Lebanese University, Faculty of Engineering, Beirut.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Najaf.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al Ali, Mohammed Jawad
    Department of Environmental Planning, Faculty of Physical Planning, University of Kufa, Najaf.
    Bearing Capacity Map for An-Najaf and Kufa Cities Using GIS2018Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 10, nr 5, s. 262-269Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An-Najaf province is situated in south-western part of Iraq. It is 70 meters above the sea level in the dry desert environment. The city is considered as one of the most important cities in Iraq, facing a fast population growth and continuous development in constructions such as residential complexes, hotels, bridges and shopping malls. Soil investigation data for An-Najaf Province (An-Najaf and Kufa cities) from 464 boreholes drilled by the National Centre for Construction Laboratories & Researches (NCCLR)/Babylon laboratory were used in this research. The data were analysed and possessed using Excel program then represented on the Geographical Information System (GIS) program by Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) tool to create an allowable bearing capacity map for the soil at depths 0 - 2 meters. The allowable bearing capacity is one of the most important soil characteristics to be considered when making a database for An-Najaf city soil. Geographical Information System GIS program enables to create reliable database for any characteristic and it is one of the best programs to produce an accurate map and allow ease in dealing with it. Those maps cover all the studied areas and by using contour lines, approximate values for no-data areas can be obtained. The results show that the allowable bearing capacity range is 5 - 20 Ton/m2 for both An-Najaf and Kufa cities. Kufa city has the range 5 - 9 Ton/m2. An-Najaf city has the range 7 - 18 at the center, 8 - 10 Ton/m2 at the north eastern part, 7 - 14 Ton/m2 for the north western part, 6 - 12 Ton/m2 at the south eastern and 12 - 19 Ton/m2 at the south western.

  • 44.
    Al Amli, Ali Sabah Ahmed
    et al.
    Civil Engineering Department, Al Mustansiriyah Engineering College, Al Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Abtan, Yaarub G.
    Civil Engineering Department, Al Mustansiriyah Engineering College, Al Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad.
    Behavior of Repairing Composite I-SectionBeams with Opening under Ultimate Torque2018Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 202-214Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the behavior of composite concrete beams damaged and cracked under pure torsion, and then repaired by external strengthening. This was achieved using high strength Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) laminates bonded with epoxy four composite modify reactive powder concrete (MRPC) I-beams. Different types of section (Solid & with opening) were tested to obtain the effect of amount of CFRP laminate on beams ultimate torque behavior, angle of twist and failure modes. The results obtained showed that a significant effect of external high strength CFRP laminates on effectively restore of section solid, the range of 89.8% to 91.2% of ultimate torsional strength effectively restored as well as effectively restoring of section opening by 83.48% - 86.67% of ultimate torsional strength. The repaired beams give high efficiency in ultimate torsional strength, and indicate that the adopted technique gives a good torsional strength.

  • 45.
    Knutsson, Roger
    et al.