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  • 1.
    Chegere, Martin J.
    et al.
    University of Dar es Salaam, Department of Economics, Tanzania.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Agricultural production diversity, dietary diversity and nutritional status: Panel data evidence from Tanzania2020In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 129, article id 104856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Household agricultural production for self-consumption is often highlighted by nutritionists as the main route to increasing household food security and nutritional status, especially for the poor in developing countries. At the same time, the income gains from specializing in fewer crops and selling the surplus product could be an alternate route to improved nutritional status. We use Tanzanian data to study linkages between the diversity and market orientation of a household's agricultural production, the quality and diversity of their diets, and the nutritional status of their children. We find that diversifying a household's agricultural production significantly increases diversity in that household's diet, but the positive nutritional effects are small. We also find that market orientation has no clear effect on dietary diversity. At the same time, however, the nutritional status of children is not found to be linked clearly to general dietary diversity. On the other hand, factors such as education and overall income have strong and significant effects on both household dietary diversity and child nutrition. Thus, policies for increasing the quality of children's diets, improving children's nutritional status and enhancing the overall dietary diversity of farm households should incorporate those factors.

  • 2.
    Lauf, Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, UFZ, Leipzig, Germany.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Gawel, Erik
    Department of Economics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, UFZ, Leipzig, Germany. Institute for Infrastructure and Resources Management, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
    Lehmann, Paul
    Department of Economics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, UFZ, Leipzig, Germany. Institute for Infrastructure and Resources Management, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The Regional Heterogeneity of Wind Power Deployment: An Empirical Investigation of Land-use Policies in Germany and Sweden2020In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 29p. 751-778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze and compare the impacts of land-use policies on wind power deployment at the regional levels in Germany and Sweden. We use data for the period 2008–2012, and an econometric approach in which the probability of having any wind power capacity additions and the actual level of increased capacity, given that it is positive, are permitted to be determined by different processes. The results confirm the importance of land-use policies, e.g., priority and exclusion areas, and interesting differences across the two countries are found. The impact of priority areas has been more profound in Germany, while the assignment of protected areas instead has constituted a more binding policy tool in Sweden. Cross-country differences in the relevance of various explanatory variables are linked to factors such as geographical patterns, design of wind power support schemes, and the allocation of decision-making power in planning processes.

  • 3.
    Okumu, Boscow
    et al.
    University of Cape Town, School of Economics, Private Bag Rondebosch, Cape Town, South Africa. EfD-Kenya, School of Economics, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The National Treasury and Planning, Kenya.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. University of Cape Town, School of Economics, Private Bag Rondebosch, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Welfare and forest cover impacts of incentive based conservation: Evidence from Kenyan community forest associations2020In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 129, article id 104890Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines whether offering landless forest-adjacent communities options to grow appropriate food crops inside forest reserves during early stages of reforestation programmes increases incomes of low-income households and conserve forests. We consider the forest cover and household welfare impacts of a unique incentive scheme in Kenya known as the Plantation Establishment and Livelihood Improvement Scheme (PELIS). PELIS seeks to deepen community participation in forestry, and improve the livelihoods of adjacent communities. Using cross sectional data collected from 22 Community Forest Associations and 406 households, we use propensity score matching methods to evaluate the mean impact of the scheme on forest cover and household welfare. We also assess the heterogeneous impacts of the scheme on household welfare using an endogenous quantile treatment effects model. The results show that on average, PELIS has a significant and positive impact on the welfare of participating households (estimated between 15.09% and 28.14%) and on forest cover (between 5.53% and 7.94%). However, the scheme cannot be defended on equity grounds as it has inequitable distributional impacts on household welfare. The scheme raises welfare of groups other than the poorest and marginalized sections of the community. Our observations from the field blame elite capture for this outcome.

  • 4.
    Aldieri, Luigi
    et al.
    Department of Economic and Statistical Sciences, University of Salerno, Fisciano, Italy.
    Grafström, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sundström, Kristoffer
    The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vinci, Concetto Paolo
    Department of Economic and Statistical Sciences, University of Salerno, Fisciano, Italy.
    Wind Power and Job Creation2020In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 45Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a global overview of job effects per MW of wind power installations, which will enable improved decision-making and modeling of future wind-power projects. We found indications that job creation connected to wind-power installations is rather limited. In total, 17 peer-reviewed articles and 10 reports/non-peer-reviewed papers between 2001 and 2019 were assessed. Our three major policy conclusions are as follows: (a) job creation seems to be limited; (b) each new project should consider a unique assessment, since all projects have been undertaken within different institutional frameworks, labor markets, and during separate years, meaning that the technology is not comparable; and (c) the number of jobs depends on the labor intensity of the country.

  • 5.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Hellsmark, Hans
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mossberg, Johanna
    Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE), Division of Bioeconomy, Sweden.
    A Knowledge-based Perspective on System Weaknesses in Technological Innovation Systems2019In: Science and Public Policy, ISSN 0302-3427, E-ISSN 1471-5430, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 55-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on technological innovation systems (TIS) provides policymakers and other actors with a scheme of analysis to identify system weaknesses. In doing so, TIS analysis centres on which system weaknesses policy interventions should target to promote further development of a particular system. However, prior TIS literature has not sufficiently elaborated on what may constitute the conceptual roots of a ‘weakness’. We apply a knowledge-based perspective and propose that many—albeit not all—system weaknesses may root in four types of knowledge problems: uncertainty, complexity, equivocality, and ambiguity. Employing these as sensitizing concepts, we study system weaknesses by analysing data from a biorefinery TIS in Sweden. This analysis results in novel implications for the TIS literature and for achieving a better match between system weaknesses and the design of innovation policies.

  • 6.
    Ouraich, Ismael
    et al.
    Internationalization and Structural Transformation, Tillvaxtanalys, SE-831 40 € Ostersund, Sweden.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    A Spatial Price Determination Model for Multi-Market Heterogeneously Distributed Resources: An Application to Forestry Markets in Sweden2019In: Geographical Analysis, ISSN 0016-7363, E-ISSN 1538-4632, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 182-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spatial dimension is a key paradigm in price determination, as attested by recentstudies in the literature that highlighted the differential in market behavior between spa-tial and non-spatial pricing settings. In this paper, we develop a model of spatial pricingfor multi-market heterogeneously distributed resources, with an application to the Swed-ish forestry sector. The focus of the model is to estimate the impact of spatial interactionon the demand for resources in terms of resource allocation, competition, and pricing. Inits core, the pricing mechanism relies on a supply–demand framework. Using disaggre-gated data at the gridcell level for forest feedstock supply and harvesting costs in Sweden,we construct regional supply curves for each gridcell assuming a maximum transporta-tion distance to delimit the potential market. Demand nodes are exogenously determinedand are adjusted using a distance-decay model to assess demand pressure across loca-tions. We apply the model empirically to assess the impact on forest feedstock prices of a20 TWh increase in biofuel production.

  • 7.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Unit of Economic History, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Environmental Regulation in the Pulp and Paper Industry: Impacts and Challenges2019In: Current Forestry Reports, ISSN 2198-6436, Vol. 5, p. 185-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of Review

    In this article, we review existing research addressing how environmental regulations have influenced the pulp and paper industry. These regulations appear in different forms and designs and address air and water pollution as well as climate change. The paper devotes particular attention to how various regulations have affected sustainable technological change and the prospects for inducing deep emission reductions without jeopardizing industrial competitiveness and future investments.

    Recent Findings

    Experiences from key pulp and paper regions, not least the Nordic countries, suggest that gradually tightening performance standards have contributed to radical reductions in emissions, e.g., chlorine compounds and biological oxygen demanding agents, and without imposing excessive compliance costs. This outcome can largely be attributed to how the regulations have been designed—and implemented—in practice, as well as to the presence of efficient and legitimate institutions. Long-term emission reduction targets, in combination with extended compliance periods and trustful firm-regulator relationships, contributed to radical technological innovation and permitted radical emission reductions without excessive compliance costs. The development of alternative bleaching technologies is an apt example. In contrast, the impact of carbon pricing schemes, including the EU emissions trading scheme, on carbon dioxide emissions reductions and related technological change in the pulp and paper industry has however been modest. Self-regulation, certification, and community pressure have exerted relatively modest influences on the environmental performance of the industry.

    Summary

    Important avenues for future research are identified. These include the following: (a) comparative research on how policy mixes in various countries have influenced environmental compliance and innovation; processes; (b) future studies of environmental regulations, their design and implementation, in emerging pulp and paper producing countries, not least China; and (c) research on how environmental regulations can affect ongoing restructurings in the industry towards a broader palette of products in biorefineries.

  • 8.
    Ntuli, Herbert
    et al.
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Cape Town, South Africa. Environmental Policy Research Unit (EPRU), University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Jagers, Sverker C.
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg. Centre for Collective Action Research, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Linell, Amanda
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg. Centre for Collective Action Research, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Sjöstedt, Martin
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg. Centre for Collective Action Research, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. School of Economics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Cape Town, South Africa. Environmental Policy Research Unit (EPRU), University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Factors influencing local communities’ perceptions towards conservation of transboundary wildlife resources: the case of the Great Limpopo Trans-frontier Conservation Area2019In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 28, no 11, p. 2977-3003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local communities’ perceptions of protected areas are important determinants of the success of conservation efforts in Southern Africa, as these perceptions affect people’s attitudes and behaviour with respect to conservation. As a result, the involvement of local communities in transboundary wildlife conservation is now viewed as an integral part of regional development initiatives. Building on unique survey data and applying regression analysis, this paper investigates the determinants of the perceptions of local communities around the Great Limpopo Trans-frontier Conservation Area in Zimbabwe and South Africa. Our results illustrate that people perceiving the park as well-managed tend to have more positive perceptions regarding the benefits from the park, rules governing the park, and wildlife conservation in general. Household expertise on resource extraction, in turn, tends to make people more likely to perceive environmental crime as morally acceptable. Furthermore, the results indicate that if people perceive the rules of the park in a negative way, then they are less likely to conserve wildlife. Receiving benefits from the park has a positive impact on people’s perceptions of the rules governing the park, as well as on their perception of wildlife conservation in general, but not on perceptions about environmental crime. Surprisingly, perceived high levels of corruption is positively associated with people’s perception of wildlife benefits and with perceptions of that environmental crime is morally justified. There is also evidence of the role of socioeconomic variables on people’s perceptions towards wildlife. However, unobservable contextual factors could be responsible for explaining part of the variation in people’s perceptions. Our results speak to the literature on large-scale collective action since perceptions of wildlife benefits, corruption, environmental crime, park management and rules governing the parks, all affect local communities’ ability and willingness to self organize. These variables are interesting because they can be influenced by policy through training and awareness campaigns. 

  • 9.
    Jaunky, Vishal Chandr
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Jeetoo, Jamiil
    Department of Economics and StatisticsUniversity of Mauritius, Reduit, Mauritius.
    Rampersad, Shreya
    Department of Economics and StatisticsUniversity of Mauritius, Reduit, Mauritius.
    Happiness and Consumption in Mauritius: An Exploratory Study of Socio-Economic Dimensions, Basic Needs, Luxuries and Personality Traits2019In: Journal of Happiness Studies, ISSN 1389-4978, E-ISSN 1573-7780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mainstream economics perceive an individual as highly individualistic, presuming that he/she consumes goods in the most efficient way to optimize his/her level of happiness. This study attempts to explore the nexus between socio-economic dimensions, basic needs, luxuries and personality traits and happiness in Mauritius. Material consumption and happiness are projected to be positively and strongly related. This is usually illuminated in terms of the increased possibilities to satisfy basic needs and luxuries along with other motives which additional spending provides. Other instrumental aspects of consumption, such as its relative, community-based and hedonic magnitudes are accounted. Cross-sectional data are compiled from a household survey with a sample size of 1015 observations. To conduct the analysis, an ordered probit model is applied. The general conclusion is drawn upon the results that socio-economic indicators like educational attainment, residential location, family size, income in addition to the intermediate needs deprivation index, brand consciousness, fashion innovativeness, commercial interest, shopping enjoyment, hedonism, bandwagon effect and personality traits are significantly related to people’s happiness.

  • 10.
    Bezabih Ayele, Mintewab
    et al.
    Environment and Climate Research center, Ethiopian Development Research Institute.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    How much is too much?: Individual biodiversity conservation2019In: Economics Bulletin, ISSN 1545-2921, E-ISSN 1545-2921, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 247-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The individual farmer has little incentive to care about the public good properties of on-farm biodiversity in the formof different crop varieties. There is a common assumption that, because of this, farmers will tend to maintain too littlebiodiversity on their farms compared with the social optimum. However, in developing countries, this assumption doesnot fit with the empirical data: because of poorly functioning insurance markets, farmers tend to maintain a wide rangeof different crop varieties to hedge against weather shocks and other uncertainties. In this paper we develop atheoretical model to account for this apparent contradiction, and show that farmers may in fact even maintain toomuch biodiversity on their farms, compared with the social optimum.

  • 11.
    Zhao, Xu
    et al.
    China University of Petroleum, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Dahl, Carol
    Mineral and Energy Economics Program, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, United States.
    Luo, Dongkun
    China University of Petroleum, Changping, Beijing, China.
    How OECD countries subsidize oil and natural gas producers and modeling the consequences: A review2019In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 104, p. 111-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since fossil fuel subsidies entail significant economic, fiscal, social and environmental costs, more and more attention is being paid to phasing out fossil fuel subsidies. The OECD has recently completed a report quantifying the amount of both producer and consumer subsidies for their member countries, and some work has been implemented on analyzing the effects of consumer subsidy removal. However, there is hardly any investigation of the consequences of producer subsidies. In this paper, we focus on oil and gas producer subsidies of OECD countries and their effects. First, we describe the transfer mechanisms indicated by the OECD report for producer subsidies. In order to recommend models to analyze the influence of removing producer subsidies, we review upstream oil and gas models and provide a taxonomy for them. From them we recommend the most appropriate models for each type of producer subsidy to model upstream decision making. Our contribution in this paper is to categorize the upstream models we have found, compare their main features, as well as recommending best in class models for analyzing the effects of each type of upstream producer subsidy.

  • 12.
    Zhao, Xu
    et al.
    School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Luo, Dongkun
    School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Lu, Kun
    China-Russia Cooperation Department, CNPC, Dongcheng, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Xiaoyu
    Postal Savings Bank of China, Chaoyang, Beijing, China.
    Dahl, Carol
    Mineral and Energy Economics Program, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, USA.
    How the removal of producer subsidies influences oil and gas extraction: A case study in the Gulf of Mexico2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 166, p. 1000-1012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since producer subsides can entail significant economic, fiscal, social and environmental costs, governments have been increasingly interested in removing them. Although many studies have been done on reducing consumer subsidies, subsidies to fossil fuel production are rarely discussed by scholars. This paper seeks to fill this void by developing an economic optimization model for oil and gas extraction to analyze the effects of producer subsidy removal. We forecast field-specific costs for exploration, development and production through constructing functions for the number of wells drilled and producing wells, production and economic limits. Various scenarios of phasing out producer subsidies in U.S. federal and state regulation on optimal production using field data from the Gulf of Mexicoare simulated, including removing royalty relief, amortization of geological and geophysical costs, and percentage depletion. The results show that removal of producer subsidies reduces the optimal production rate and investors' net present value and increases government revenue, but the total effect is a cost of net social benefits. Changes in both the discount rate and oil price have positive effects on optimal production, but they exert opposite effects on producer benefits. Our research is helpful for policy-makers to regulate an efficient subsidy removal path.

  • 13.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Antelo, Juan
    Technological Research Institute, University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Carabante, Ivan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Komárek, Michael
    Department of Environmental Geosciences, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic.
    Söderberg, Charlotta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    In situ chemical stabilization of trace element-contaminated soil: Field demonstrations and barriers to transition from laboratory to the field : A review2019In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 100, p. 335-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical stabilization, or immobilization, of trace elements (metals and metalloids; TE) in contaminated soil has been studied for decades. A vast number of scientific publications are available on the method performance in laboratory settings, reporting that the application of various soil amendments to contaminated soil reduces TE mobility, bioavailability and toxicity. The most commonly used soil amendments include organic matter, iron oxides, phosphates, ashes, and lately biochar, alone or in combination with each other and/or lime. Most of the implemented field studies show a certain degree of improvement in soil and/or vegetation status following amendment. Regardless the positive performance of the technique in the laboratory, field validations and demonstrations remain scarce. The establishment of a field experiment often involves permits from authorities and agreements with site owners, both of which are considerably more time-consuming than laboratory tests. Due to conservative institutional structures, public authorities have been slow to adopt alternative remediation technologies, especially when the total TE concentration in soil remains the same and all of the associated risks are not yet convincingly described. For this reason, researchers should also focus on enhancing public knowledge of alternative remediation techniques so that future projects which aim to demonstrate the effectiveness of in situ immobilization techniques under natural conditions will be supported.

  • 14.
    Dahlqvist, Anna
    et al.
    National Institute of Economic Research.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Industrial Energy Use, Management Practices and Price Signals: The Case of Swedish Process Industry2019In: International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, ISSN 2146-4553, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 30-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of the paper are to: (a) derive and discuss indicators of industrial companies’ decision-making and management practices on energy use; and (b) investigate whether these practices can help explain variations in energy intensities across these companies. The data were collected through telephone interviews with 101 large industrial firms in Sweden. The indicators display a significant overall increase in firms’ awareness of energy efficiency issues over time, including the attention devoted to these issues at the top management level. Still, our econometric results show that energy prices constitute the most important determinant of inter-firm differences in energy intensities. Higher energy prices over the time-period, have induced the implementation of energy-relevant management and practices, and led to more systematic decision-making processes. Finally, firms for which so-called ‘hidden’ costs, e.g., the costs of production disruptions, are a large concern, will be more energy intense than others.

  • 15.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Introduction2019In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 127-129Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Löf, A.
    et al.
    RMG Consulting, Stockholm.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Löf, O.
    RMG Consulting, Stockholm.
    Iron ore market review 20182019In: CIS Iron and Steel Review, ISSN 2072-0815, Vol. 17, p. 4-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iron ore prices remained at relatively high levels during 2018. Premia paid for high quality ores increased and are substantial. Global iron ore production is estimated to grow by around 2% in 2018. Sharp cuts in production of un-beneficiated ore have taken place in China during 2018. Demand for iron ore in general and for high grade products in particular has however increased. Future developments in China, both in the steel and iron ore industries, will be crucial to the global iron ore markets in 2019. This review is written in March 2019 and incorporates as much as possible figures and trends for the full year 2018, in some cases this is however not yet possible. 

  • 17.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Metal markets and recycling policies: impacts and challenges2019In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increased understanding of the existing markets for recycled (secondary) metals, including interactions with virgin material production, is essential for public decision-making processes concerning the implementation and evaluation of different categories of recycling policies. In this paper, we review the existing literature with the purpose of discussing (1) the impacts of various recycling policies on metal markets in which aggregate demand can be met by both primary and secondary production, and (2) a number of challenges that policy-makers need to confront in choosing between various types of recycling policies and policy designs. A simple partial equilibrium model is used as a pedagogical tool for shedding light on the impacts of tradable recycling credits, virgin material taxes, and recycling subsidies. In a second step, the paper identifies and discusses a few key challenges that policy-makers will need to address in recycling policy-making. These challenges include improving the functioning of secondary material markets by addressing various non-environmental market inefficiencies; identifying and designing (second-best) policy mixes due to the presence of incomplete monitoring and enforcement of waste disposal behavior, and regulating environmental impacts through price- or quantity-based policies. Throughout the analysis, we consult the empirical literature on the functioning of scrap metal markets (e.g., steel, copper, and aluminum).

  • 18.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Miljölagstiftningens betydelse för stora kunskapsintensiva investeringar2019Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här studien analyserar vi hur miljöprövningen kan utformas för att driva på miljöarbetet vid etableringen av stora kunskapsintensiva investeringar (SKI), utan att äventyra konkurrenskraften. Frågan är central eftersom miljöprövningen ofta är ett viktigt ramvillkor vid SKI. Studien visar att en planerad lokalisering, tydliga riktlinjer för miljöprövning av nya verksamheter och bättre förutsättningar för en kontinuerlig miljöanpassning är viktiga faktorer. Studien utgår från tidigare forskning och egna fallstudier av tre SKI-relaterade verksamheter: Facebooks datacenter i Luleå, Northvolts batterifabrik i Skellefteå och Preems raffinaderi i Lysekil.

  • 19.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Simon
    Sundin, Timmy
    Miljöprövningens roll för industrins utsläppsreduktion: erfarenheter från svenska pappers- och massabruk, 1981–20132019In: Miljörätten och den förhandlingsovilliga naturen: Vänbok till Gabriel Michanek / [ed] Jan Darpö, Maria Forsberg, Maria Pettersson, och Charlotta Zetterberg, Uppsala: Iustus förlag, 2019, p. 355-374Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Priester, Michael
    et al.
    Projekt-Consult GmbH, Hamburg, Germany.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Dolega, Peter
    Öko-Institut e.V., Darmstadt, Germany.
    Löf, Olof
    RMG Consulting, Täby, Sweden.
    Mineral grades: an important indicator for environmental impact of mineral exploitation2019In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 49-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have collected and analysed grade information for nine metals: copper, gold, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, PGM, tin, and zinc. Based on this analysis, we have developed a proposal of “grade classes”, i.e., what could be considered low-grade, average-grade, and high-grade deposits for all these metals. We discuss the implications of possible developments into the future of the grades of ores, from which these metals are extracted. A focus on high-grade deposits will naturally reduce the environmental impact of mining. For six metals (copper, gold, iron, nickel, PGM, and zinc), we have further analysed the volumes available for the 10% cohort of projects and operating mines with the highest grades. Three metals (iron, PGM, and zinc) show considerable volumes, between 15 and 20% of total metal content in resources in this high-grade percentile. Copper and gold have between 5 and 10% while nickel has only 1.7% in the highest 10% grade percentile.

  • 21.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Löf, Olof
    RMG Consulting, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mining’s contribution to national economies between 1996 and 20162019In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 223-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In several low- and middle-income countries rich in non-fuel mineral resources, mining makes significant contributions to national economic development as measured by the revised Mining Contribution Index (MCI-Wr). Ten countries among the 20 countries where mining contributes most (highest MCI-Wr score) have moved up one or two steps in the World Bank’s country classification between 1996 and 2016. In particular, African countries have benefitted. Socio-economic development indicators also show signs of progress for African mineral-rich countries. This paper provides an update and expansion of an earlier study within the framework of the United Nations University (UNU) World Institute for Development Economics Research (WIDER) initiative Extractives for Development. Based on the detailed data available for the sector, such as production, export, prices, mineral rents, exploration expenditure and government revenues, an analysis is carried out of the current situation for 2016, and trends in mining’s contribution to economic development for the years 1996–2016. The contribution of minerals and mining to GDP and exports reached a maximum at the peak of the mining boom in 2011. Naturally, the figures for mining’s contribution had declined for most countries by 2016, but importantly the levels were still considerably higher than in 1996. The results of this survey contradict the widespread view that mineral resources create a dependency that might not be conducive to economic and social development. In addition, this paper presents an attempt to use already available socio-economic indicators for African mineral-rich countries to measure socio-economic developments. One preliminary conclusion of this survey is that mining countries perform better than oil-producing countries and non-mineral countries in Africa as measured by these indices of human development and governance.

  • 22.
    Nauzeer, Salim
    et al.
    Open University of Mauritius, MAURITIUS.
    Jaunky, Vishal Chandr
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Motivation and Academic Performance: A SEM Approach2019In: International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, ISSN 1306-3065, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 41-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many models in educational have tried to clarify the causal relationships of motivation variables on student performance, by presenting hypothesized models, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) under structural equation modeling (SEM). Based on the literature, this model inspected the most robust stimuli of motivation: intrinsic, extrinsic, amotivation, self-efficacy and achievement motivation alongside with other variables like parental education, location, musculoskeletal pain (MSP), student body mass index (BMI), bag weights and tuition. SEM (unmodified and modified) is used to clarify the interrelationships of these variables and their relative contributions to academic performance. The sample consists of 324 students from Forest-Side State Secondary School (Boys). The results show that as predicted the latent variable motivation, mother education, private tuition and weights of bags have direct effects on students‘ performance using the modified standardized coefficients.

  • 23.
    Ramesh, Vani
    et al.
    Bharathiar University.
    Jaunky, Vishal Chandr
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Oodit, Heemlesh Sigh
    Open University Mauritius.
    Perception Towards Adoption and Acceptance of E-Banking in Mauritius2019In: Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Digital Strategies for Organizational Success, SSRN - Elsevier , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at understanding the customer satisfaction on adoption of e-banking services at Mauritius. This is an empirical evidence, with the help of primary data (drop off survey) and secondary sources. The main objective of the study is to investigate in depth the customer's perception regarding e-banking adoption and their satisfaction. Also examines, if customers' choice of banks is influenced by the quality of e–banking services provided. For the purpose of the study, a well-structured questionnaire with 5-point Likert scale having 35 questions is used and personal details and customers' e-banking preference of Mauritians. The questionnaire was administered to about 250 respondents who are regular on online banking transactions, and the response rate is 74% (185 responded). More suitable and reliable statistical techniques are adopted, such as, ordered probit, ordered logit and descriptive statistics with the help software STATA. The 'confirmatory factor analysis' (CFA) approach is exploited to generate the results with the help of software SPSS AMOS (Analysis of Moment Structures). The original and modification indices of the model are evaluated with help of SEM, which further establishes the improvement in SEM`s effectiveness. It is evidence that, there is a relationship with different income group of respondents that the perception about the e–banking services offered by Mauritian banks. This study aims at contributing for the existing literature and assists for the policy makers.

  • 24.
    Strunz, Sebastian
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Helmholtz Centre für Environmental Research – UFZ.
    Gawel, Erik
    Department of Economics, Helmholtz Centre für Environmental Research – UFZ.
    Lehmann, Paul
    Department Ökonomie, Helmholtz- Zentrum für Umweltforschung − UFZ, Leipzig.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Policy convergence as a multifaceted concept: the case of renewable energy policies in the European Union2019In: The European Dimension of Germany's Energy Transition: Opportunities and Conflicts, Springer, 2019, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 147-171Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on policy convergence has identified numerous facets and causal drivers of convergence. Distinguishing four dimensions of convergence (object, benchmark, drivers and directed process) helps clarify why and in what form policy convergence may occur (or not). Thus, depending on, for example, the object of analysis (policy outcome or instruments used), the same empirical case may give rise to opposing assessments. Furthermore, both economic and political drivers are necessary to account for successful policy convergence: economic convergence partly explains why countries may face similar problems, and political mechanisms explain why they might choose similar policies to solve a given problem. This article illustrates the multifaceted character of convergence for the dynamic field of renewable energy policies in the European Union. The empirical results indicate temporary convergence in the case of policy support instrument choices and conditional convergence in terms of renewable shares. However, the results suggest divergence of public R&D subsidies targeting renewables

  • 25.
    Florén, Henrik
    et al.
    Center for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Halmstad University .
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Löf, Anton
    Raw Materials Group, Stockholm.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Raw materials management in iron and steelmaking firms2019In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 39-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper adds new knowledge on how raw materials should be managed in iron and steelmaking firms. While previous research has contributed significantly to how firms should deal with functional challenges related to raw materials, the understanding of Raw Materials Management from a holistic perspective is largely lacking, and extant research does not provide qualified advice to firms on this matter. This study provides such knowledge by drawing on insights from Höganäs AB, a world leader in ferrous powder metallurgy, and their efforts to identify key aspects and principles of raw materials management. Our elaboration of a more holistic view on raw materials management builds on two elements. First, we depict five external uncertainties and three internal conditions that impact firm-level raw materials management. Second, we present six critical capabilities that underpin proficient firm-level raw materials management. The paper concludes with a discussion of implications for both firms aiming to increase their raw materials proficiency and to future investigations into this important area.

  • 26.
    Olofsson, Elias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Regional effects of a green steel industry: Fuel substitution and feedstock competition2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 29-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forestry and forest industry sectors have vital roles for many regional economies. Consequently, it is important to understand how the introduction of the iron and steel industry (ISI) as a new large consumer of woody materials may affect existing feedstock markets. The use of metallurgical coal can partially or fully be substituted by refined biomass. To analyze the potential consequences of a new woody consumer on regional markets, three regions in northern Sweden and Finland are used as a case. A regional partial equilibrium model is developed, the Norrbotten County Forest Sector Model (NCFSM), and applied on three different scenarios. The purpose of the study is to analyze the intra- and inter-regional effects increased competition for woody materials may have on regional markets and on the economic well-being of the regions. The result suggest that the total welfare effect is relatively small, however, some regional welfare distributional effects are observed. Additionally, the price of roundwood will only be moderately affected if the ISI sector switch from fossil fuels to refined woody biomass. However, secondary woody materials, i.e. by-products and harvesting residues, will experience larger price shifts.

  • 27.
    Stage, Jesper
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Thangavelu, Tharshini
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Savings revisited: a replication study of a savings intervention in Malawi2019In: Journal of Development Effectiveness, ISSN 1943-9342, E-ISSN 1943-9407, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 313-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We replicate and reanalyse data from the randomised controlled trial of a programme originally carried out by Brune and colleagues to facilitate formal savings for Malawian tobacco farmers. The results from their study indicate that offering farmers access to personal savings accounts increased farmers’ banking transactions and enhanced the well-being of their households. Our pure replication, as well as our estimation analyses, support the conclusions from the original study. We also conducted a separate analysis focussing on the subset of farmers who chose to make use of the savings vehicles offered. We found that this subset of farmers, compared with the overall treatment group, had far greater positive effects on their agricultural output.

  • 28.
    Bryngemark, Elina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Second generation biofuels and the competition for forest raw materials: A partial equilibrium analysis of Sweden2019In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 109, article id 102022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reach the renewable energy policy targets in the transport sector, biofuels from forest raw materials (e.g., harvesting residues) can play an important role. However, these raw materials are currently used in both the heat and power (HP) sector and the traditional forest industries. It is essential to understand how these sectors would be affected by an increased penetration of second generation (2G) biofuels. This study investigates price development and resource allocation in the Swedish forest raw materials market in the presence of 5–30 TWh of 2G biofuel production. Sweden is an interesting case study due to its well-developed forest industries and mature district heating sector, something which makes it a suitable country for future 2G biofuel production. A national partial equilibrium model of the forest sector is extended with a 2G biofuel module to address the impacts of such production. The simulation results show increasing forest industry by-product (e.g. sawdust) prices, thus displaying that the 2G biofuel targets lead to increased raw material competition. The higher feedstock prices make the use of forest biomass in the HP sector less profitable, but we find meagre evidence of substitution of fossil fuels for by-products. In this sector, there is instead an increased use of harvesting residues. Fiberboard and particleboard production ceases entirely due to increased input prices. There is also evidence of synergy effects between the sawmill sector and the use of forest raw materials in the HP sector. Higher by-product prices spur sawmills to produce more sawnwood, something that in turn induces forest owners to increase harvest levels. Already in the 5 TWh Bio-SNG scenario, there is an increase in the harvest level, suggesting that this by-product effect kicks in from start.

  • 29. Teräs, Jukka
    et al.
    Jokelainen, Kristiina
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Smart specialisation at the edge of Europe: Case study of sparesly populated regions in the Arctic2019In: Strategic Approaches to Regional Development: Smart Experimentation in Less-Favoured Regions / [ed] Iryna Kristensen, Alexandre Dubois, Jukka Teräs, New York: Routledge, 2019, 1Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Hellsmark, Hans
    Chalmers University of Technology, Environmental Systems Analysis, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Stockholm School of Economics, House of Innovation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hansson, Julia
    Chalmers University of Technology, Maritime Environmental Sciences, Gothenburg, Sweden. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mossberg, Johanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, RISE Bioeconomy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Technological development for sustainability: The role of network management in the innovation policy mix2019In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 138, p. 309-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the key role of actor networks in progressing new sustainable technologies, there is a shortage of conceptual knowledge on how policy can help strengthen collaborative practices in such networks. The objective of this paper is to analyze the roles of such policies – so-called network management – throughout the entire technological development processes. The analysis draws on the public management and sustainability transitions literatures, and discusses how various network characteristics could affect the development of sustainable technologies, including how different categories of network management strategies could be deployed to influence actor collaborations. The paper's main contribution is an analytical framework that addresses the changing roles of network management at the interface between various phases of the technological development process, illustrated with the empirical case of advanced biorefinery technology development in Sweden. Furthermore, the analysis also addresses some challenges that policy makers are likely to encounter when pursuing network management strategies, and identifies a number of negative consequences of ignoring such instruments in the innovation policy mix. The latter include inefficient actor role-taking, the emergence of small, ineffective and competing actor networks in similar technological fields, and a shortage of interpretative knowledge.

  • 31.
    Grafström, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Ratio.
    Teknikutvecklingen och arbetsmarknaden2019In: En dynamisk arbetsmarknad / [ed] Lotta Stern, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2019, p. 26-40Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vanliga tider liknar varandra, men ovanliga tider är annorlunda på sitt eget sätt –teknikutvecklingen som pågår bär tecken som tyder på att vi är på väg in i en ovanlig tid. Det ovanliga i denna tid är den sammanlagda snabbheten av teknologiska förändringar. Historiskt har teknikutveckling förändrat arbetsmarknader men det har funnits gott om tid för omställning. I detta kapitel diskuteras teknikförändringarnas utmaningar och huruvida det sker en polarisering på arbetsmarknaden. Kapitlet avslutas med några tankar kring hur en person på arbetsmarknaden kan rusta sig för en framtida, potentiellt ovanlig, tid.

  • 32.
    Bryngemark, Elina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The Competition for Forest Raw Materials in the Presence of Increased Bioenergy Demand: Partial Equilibrium Analysis of the Swedish Case2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing energy use and greenhouse gas emissions have implied an increased attention to the development of renewable energy sources. Bioenergy from forest biomass is expected to be one of the cornerstones in reaching renewable energy targets, especially in forest-rich countries such as Sweden. However, forest biomass is a limited resource, and an intensified use of bioenergy could affect roundwood and forest products’ markets in several ways. The overall purpose of this thesis is to analyze price formation and resource allocation of forest raw materials in the presence of increased bioenergy demand. The empirical focus is on the competition for wood fibres between bioenergy use and the traditional forest industries, as well as synergy effects between the various sectors using forest raw materials. The methodologic approach is partial equilibrium modeling (forest sector model), and the geographical focus is on Sweden. The thesis comprises three self-contained articles, which all address the above issues.

    The first paper presents an economic assessment of two different policies – both implying an increased demand for forest ecosystem services – and how these could affect the competition for forest raw materials. A forest sector trade model is updated to a new base year (2016), and used to analyze the consequences of increased bioenergy use in the heat and power (HP) sector as well as increased forest conservation in Sweden. These overall scenarios are assessed individually and in combination. The results show how various forest raw material-using sectors are affected in terms of price changes and responses in production. A particularly interesting market impact is that bioenergy promotion and forest conservation tend to have opposite effects on forest industry by-product prices. Moreover, combining the two policies mitigates the forest industry by-product price increase compared to the case where only the bioenergy-promoting policy is implemented. In other words, the HP sector is less negatively affected in terms of increased feedstock prices if bioenergy demand target are accompanied by increased forest conservation. This effect is due to increasing pulpwood prices, which reduces pulp, paper and board production, and in turn mitiges the competition for the associated by-products. Overall, the paper illustrates the great complexity of the forest raw material market, and the importance of considering demand and supply responses within and between sectors in energy and forest policy designs.

    The second article investigates the forest raw material market effects from introducing second-generation transport biofuel (exemplified by Bio-SNG) production in Sweden. Increases in Bio-SNG demand between 5 and 30 TWh are investigated. The simulation results illustrate increasing forest industry by-product (i.e., sawdust, wood chips and bark) prices, not least in the high-production scenarios (i.e. 20-30 TWh). This suggests that increases in second-generation biofuel productions lead to increased competition for the forest raw materials. The higher feedstock prices make the HP sector less profitable, but very meagre evidence of substitution of fossil fuels for by-products can be found. In this sector, there is instead an increased use of harvesting residues. Fiberboard and particleboard production ceases entirely due to increased input prices. There is also evidence of synergy (“by-product”) effects between the sawmill sector and the use of forest raw materials in the HP sector. Higher by-product prices spur sawmills to produce more sawnwood, something that in turn induces forest owners to increase harvest levels. Already in the 5 TWh Bio-SNG scenario, there is an increase in the harvest level, thus suggesting that the by-product effect kicks in from start.

    Biofuels and green chemicals are likely to play significant roles in achieving the transition towards a zero-carbon society. However, large-scale biorefineries are not yet cost-competitive with their fossil-fuel counterparts, and it is therefore important to identify biorefinery concepts with high economic performance in order to achieve widespread deployment in the future. For evaluations of early-stage biorefinery concepts, there is a need to consider not only the technical performance and the process costs, but also the performance of the full supply chain and the impact of its implementation in the feedstock and products markets. The third article presents – and argues for – a conceptual interdisciplinary framework that can form the basis for future evaluations of the full supply-chain performance of various novel biorefinery concepts. This framework considers the competition for biomass feedstocks across sectors, and assumes exogenous end-use product demand and various geographical and technical constraints. It can be used to evaluate the impacts of the introduction of various biorefinery concepts in the biomass markets in terms of feedstock allocations and prices. Policy evaluations, taking into account both engineering constraints and market mechanisms, should also be possible.

    Overall, the thesis illustrates the importance of considering the market effects when designing and evaluating forest policies and bioenergy policy targets. The forest industry sector and the bioenergy sector are closely interlinked and can both make or break one another depending on the policy design. The results indicate that for an increased demand of bioenergy, an industrial transformation is to be expected, as well as increased roundwood harvest.

  • 33.
    Palage, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The impact of pilot and demonstration plants on innovation: The case of advanced biofuel patenting in the European Union2019In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 210, p. 42-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to investigate how pilot and demonstration plants affect innovation in the empirical context of advanced biofuel technology. Patent counts are used as a proxy for innovation; we employ data for eight EU Member States over the time-period 1980–2011, and negative binomial regression techniques. The focus is on plant investments that have received public co-funding. The results are overall robust to alternative model specifications, and show that the knowledge generated through past investments in pilot and demonstration plants has had positive effects on advanced biofuel patenting activities. This result is particularly valid for so-called experimental plants, i.e., aiming at testing the technical viability of new technology. The empirical analysis does not indicate the presence of any positive interaction between investments in experimental plants and biofuel blending policies, i.e., in the sense that more stringent blending requirements can raise the rate-of-return on additional pilot tests. Moreover, advanced biofuel innovation is also affected through knowledge spillovers across the selected EU Member States. The paper ends by outlining avenues for future research on the role of pilot and demonstration plants in technology development.

  • 34.
    Jaunky, Vishal Chandr
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Jeetoo, Jamiil
    Faculty of Social Science and Humanities, Department of Economics and Statistics, University of Mauritius, Reduit, Mauritius.
    Bajah, Caitanyadass
    School of Business, Management and Finance, University of Technology, Mauritius, La Tour Koenig, Pointe Aux Sables, Mauritius.
    Ramesh, Vani
    Department of Commerce and Management, REVA University, Bangalore, India.
    The Importance of Understanding the Anti-Corruption Legislation to Promote Corruption Reporting: Lessons from Mauritius2019In: International Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 0190-0692, E-ISSN 1532-4265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anti-corruption campaigns usually focus on educating the population. However, little is known about the impact of knowledge, especially understanding of the anti-corruption legislation and the function of Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC) body in practice. This study sheds light on the factors influencing the likelihood of reporting a case of corruption in Mauritius. Cross-sectional data are compiled from a household survey with a sample size of 380 observations. To perform the investigation, an ordered probit model is employed. Knowledge about the Prevention of Corruption Act (PoCA) is found to be a crucial variable in determining the functional form of the empirical model. In general, media consumption and knowledge about the PoCA increases the probability of reporting an act of corruption, while Interest in politics decreases the likelihood of reporting  a case of corruption to the ICAC. In addition, age, educational attainment, income level, family size and civil status are found to be important predictors of corruption reporting.

  • 35.
    Palage, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The innovation effects of renewable energy policies and their interaction: the case of solar photovoltaics2019In: Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, ISSN 1432-847X, E-ISSN 1867-383X, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 217-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to examine the innovation impacts of renewable energy support policies, and their interaction in the empirical context of solar photovoltaics (PV) technology. This is achieved using data on patent applications for 13 countries over the period 1978–2008, and unconditional negative binomial estimators. The analysis addresses one technology-push instrument, public R&D support, and two demand-pull instruments, feed-in tariffs (FIT), and renewable energy certificate (REC) schemes. The results indicate that: (a) both FIT and REC schemes induce solar PV patenting activity, but the impact of the former policy appears to be more profound; (b) public R&D support has overall been more influential than FIT and REC schemes in encouraging solar PV innovation; (c) policy interaction exists in that the impact of public R&D support on innovation is greater at the margin if it is accompanied by the use of FIT schemes for solar PV. A corresponding interaction effect is harder to detect for public R&D support and REC schemes, possibly due to the stronger technology selection pressure under the latter policy. The results following several robustness tests support the existence of a positive interaction effect between public R&D and FIT schemes.

  • 36.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    To John Tilton, a personal note2019In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This text provides my praise for my oldest professional friend, John Tilton, as it has developed over more than 40 years through global interaction.

  • 37.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Drielsma, Johannes
    European Association of Mining Industries, Metal Ores and Industrial Minerals, Brussels, Belgium.
    Humphreys, David
    CEPMLP, Dundee University, Dundee, UK.
    Storm, Per
    EIT Raw Materials North AB, Luleå, Sweden.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Why current assessments of ‘future efforts’ are no basis for establishing policies on material use: a response to research on ore grades2019In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 111-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of declining availability due to declining primary resource quality has been investigated for various resource categories to try to determine the effort needed in future to either extract the resource or to treat it for intended use. The concept of ‘future efforts’ due to declining primary resource quality is explored by Vieira et al. (2016, 2017). They suggest that a specific burden associated with the production of each primary material should be taken into account and that this can be done by studying the costs of production or ore requirements of the material and by projecting forward likely costs into the future. For the purpose of the analysis, they employ mine cost data for 2000–2013 and reserve data published by the US Geological Survey. We will argue below that this approach is not correct and, with this comment, we wish to make it clear that—contrary to what is suggested in much of the Life Cycle Assessment literature—the future efforts concept is not an established rule of natural resource extraction. For mineral resources, it is quite impossible to proceed with extraction in the ordered way that this approach suggests because nobody has a comprehensive view of the entire natural resource. Secondly, there is no evidence available to support the idea that extracting a mineral resource today causes a decrease in availability of that mineral tomorrow. On the contrary, the weight of evidence suggests that where declines in ore grades have been observed, they are overwhelmingly due to technology development in response to high demand and have been accompanied by increased mining efficiency and increased availability of the resource to successive generations. Grade is a rather arbitrary measure since the grade of mined ore ultimately has to do with the relationship of costs and revenues. It is not only the technology employed which matters but also how smartly this technology is applied. Thirdly, the future efforts approach entirely overlooks the potential availability of mineral materials from secondary (scrap) sources, sources which are expected to become increasingly important to mineral supply in the future. Our conclusion from the discussion is that we as humans have been able to economically access ever-increasing amounts of material from often lower and lower-grade sources. What is impossible to conclude from this is that the environment no longer contains any of the higher-grade sources. In fact, all the available evidence suggests that higher-grade deposits are still out there. We remain critical optimists.

  • 38.
    Lauf, Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research–UFZ, Leipzig, Germany.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Gawel, Erik
    Department of Economics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research–UFZ, Leipzig, Germany .
    Lehmann, Paul
    Department of Economics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research–UFZ, Leipzig, Germany .
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wind Power Deployment as a Stressor for Ecosystem Services: A Comparative Case Study from Germany and Sweden2019In: Atlats of Ecosystem Services: Drivers, Risks and Societal Responses / [ed] M. Schröter, A. Bonn, S. Klotz, R. Seppelt, and C. Baessler, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2019, p. 125-128Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book aims to identify, present and discuss key driving forces and pressures on ecosystem services. Ecosystem services are the contributions that ecosystems provide to human well-being. The scope of this atlas is on identifying solutions and lessons to be applied across science, policy and practice. The atlas will address different components of ecosystem services, assess risks and vulnerabilities, and outline governance and management opportunities. The atlas will therefore attract a wide audience, both from policy and practice and from different scientific disciplines. The emphasis will be on ecosystems in Europe, as the available data on service provision is best developed for this region and recognizes the strengths of the contributing authors. Ecosystems of regions outside Europe will be covered where possible.

  • 39.
    Ouraich, Ismail
    et al.
    Tillväxtanalys, Internationalisation and Structural Change, Östersund.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. Ecosystems Services and Management, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Forsell, Nicklas
    Ecosystems Services and Management, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    A spatial-explicit price impact analysis of increased biofuel production on forest feedstock markets: a scenario analysis for Sweden2018In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 119, p. 364-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper introduces an integrated spatially explicit framework for assessing price impact on forestry markets in Sweden. The framework is based on the “soft-link” of a price determination model, the SpPDM model with the BeWhere Sweden model. The aim is to analyse the impacts of increased forest-based biofuel production for transportation within the Swedish context by 2030. To that effect, we develop scenarios analyses based on the simulations of successive biofuel production targets, under different assumptions concerning the competition intensity for forest biomass and the use of industrial by-products. The results suggest marginal impacts on the prices of forest biomass. The average across spatial-explicit prices varies from 0% to 2.8% across feedstocks and scenario types. However, the distribution of the spatial-explicit price impacts displays large variation, with price impacts reaching as high as 8.5%. We find that the pattern of spatial distribution of price impacts follows relatively well the spatial distribution of demand pressure. However, locations with the highest price impacts show a tendency of mismatch with the locations of the highest demand pressure (e.g. sawlogs). This is a counterintuitive conclusion compared to results from non-spatial economic models. The spatial-explicit structure of the framework developed, and its refined scale allows such results to be reported. Hence, from a policy-making perspective, careful analysis should be devoted to the locational linkages for forestry markets of increased biofuel production in Sweden.

  • 40.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    An analysis of iron ore prices during the latest commodity boom2018In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 31, no 1-2, p. 203-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper performs a quantitative analysis of iron ore prices, and is an extension of Wårell (2014), which analyzed the change in iron ore pricing regime on iron ore prices using data from 2003 until September 2012. However, considering that the iron ore market still was characterized by surging prices in 2012, it is of interest to see if the same conclusions hold today when the latest commodity boom has come to an end. The quantitative analysis uses monthly data between January 2003 and June 2017, and performs both statistical tests for structural breaks and a reduced price regression of the most important factors for iron ore prices during the time period. The overall results indicate that the change in pricing regime does not have a significant impact on the iron ore prices when extending the time period; rather, it is the end of the commodity boom in 2014 that is picked up as a structural break in the price series. Furthermore, results regarding whether the variables are cointegrated are more inconclusive when analyzing the entire commodity boom. However, the result that GDP growth in China has had the strongest impact on iron ore prices is though robust when extending the time period. To conclude, even though the commodity boom now has come to an end the developments in China still seems to be the most influential factor determining international iron ore prices.

  • 41.
    Olofsson, Elias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    An economic study on forest resource competition: How market imperfections and increased competition affect woody feedstock markets2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Forestry and forest industry sectors have vital roles in the economy, both on a national and regional level. Due to the significant role of these sectors on the economic system, it is important to understand how competition issues impact market outcomes. In this licentiate thesis, competition problems affecting woody feedstock markets have been examined from two different perspectives: (a) imperfect competition, and (b) increased competition. The overall purpose of the thesis is to analyze how these two different competition issues will influence woody feedstock markets; and hopefully the results can help to increase the general knowledge of the subject of competition.

    To undertake this objective, three articles were written: (i) one review, (ii) one modeling, and (iii) one policy application; where the former examines imperfect competition, and the two latter, the implications of increased competition due to changing market conditions. The review article analyzed the competitive situation on forest product markets (i.e., roundwood markets). This was done by asking the general research question “What conclusions can be made from the research literature regarding the market characteristics for competitive forest product markets?” The study was motivated by the realization that the market condition may entail that forest product are subject to imperfect competition. A comprehensive article search was conducted using a number of different keywords on three different web-based search engines. The search was then expanded upon based on initial search results. The purpose of the first article was to review and assess the current state of knowledge relating to the competitive situation on forest product markets; and to increase the general understanding of how competition issues affect efficiency and allocation on forest product markets. In the second article, a regional partial equilibrium (PE) model was outlined and developed. The model, defined as the Norrbotten County Forest Sector Model (NCFSM), is comprised of three geographical regions in northern Sweden and Finland, and includes all the major forest industries in these regions and the iron- and steel industry (ISI) sector, a prospective wood user. The addition of the ISI sector represents a novelty in terms of modeling the value-chain of woody material in a Swedish context. Data for the NCFSM was collected from a combination of open sources, official national statistics, and personal correspondence with industry representatives. In the final article, the NCFSM was applied to assess how woody feedstock markets are affected by the introduction of the ISI sector to the marketplace. Three different market scenarios were formulated, and model output for each scenario was then compared to a business-as-usual baseline without the ISI sector.

    The overall result of the thesis indicates that there are quite clear implications from either imperfect or increased competition on the market outcome. This result is not unexpected. However, to what degree these competition aspect currently or potentially influence feedstock markets are more ambiguous. The result of the review article is inconclusive. In the review it is suggested that this result may be due to regional rather than sectoral differences, and that the degree of market imperfection varies over time. It has been suggested that the exertion of market power will follow the general conjectures of the economy, meaning that imperfect competition outcomes are more prevalent during economic downturns. In the review it is also suggested that the size of the individual forest industry will influence market delineation, where an increased business activity will decrease the probability of an imperfect market outcome. That is, as the industrial operation becomes larger, the procurement of woody materials will become more important since the economic implications (i.e., losses) of running out of materials increase with production. Thus, larger forest industries come to be more occupied with acquiring woody materials, thereby maintain production and securing long-term profitability, then engaging in short-term profit maximization schemes. The results from the third article suggests that increased feedstock competition, caused by the introduction of the ISI sector, will raise feedstock prices. The welfare variable remained relatively unchanged over the three scenarios when compared to the baseline, though some regional welfare redistribution effects are observed. Prices for primary woody materials, i.e., sawlogs and pulpwood, will mainly experience small changes from increased competition. Secondary woody materials, i.e., harvesting residues and industrial woody by-products, will experience greater price shifts, up to 650%. This outcome leads to secondary woody materials being priced above pulpwood. Such a market outcome is highly improbable, since there are incentives for market actors to substitute the expensive commodities with a cheaper woody feedstock. The overall results can be interpreted as ii indicating the intrinsic conflict of increased demand for a finite resource that is already used; the improbability of the ISI sector substituting fossil fuels with biofuels; and the importance of inter-regional trade for optimal allocation of woody materials.

  • 42.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Analysis and projection of global iron ore trade: a panel data gravity model approach2018In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 31, no 1-2, p. 191-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, an empirical model of global trade in iron ore is developed and applied. The empirical specification is based on the trade gravity theory in which the trade is determined by the income of the trading countries, the distance between the countries, and other characteristics of the countries. The model is specified allowing for country-specific effects. The estimation is performed with panel data for global bilateral iron ore trade flows from 1980 to 2016 including 121 countries and almost 14,000 observations. The results indicate a strong support of the gravity model hypotheses. On average, the trade value is projected to increase by approximately 5% per year up until 2035. The trade potential of iron ore is estimated to 410 million USD per year. Applied to forecasting and policy analysis, the results represent another worthwhile source of information providing an alternative view of the global trade in iron ore that can be helpful for decision-makers.

  • 43.
    Lindman, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Avståndsskatters effekt för Norrbotten: En konsekvensanalys2018Report (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Befintliga och potentiella utvecklingsmöjligheter: Testnäring i Norrobotten2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 45.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Burn Out, the End Game for Fossil Fuels: by Dieter Helm (Yale University Press 2017) 281 pages, ISBN 978-0-300-22562-42018In: Energy Journal, ISSN 0195-6574, E-ISSN 1944-9089, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 257-258Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Lehmann, Paul
    et al.
    Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Can Technology-Specific Deployment Policies Be Cost-Effective?: The Case of Renewable Energy Support Schemes2018In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 71, no 2, p. 28p. 475-505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While there is relatively limited disagreement on the general need for supporting the deployment of renewable energy sources for electricity generation (RES-E), there are diverging views on whether the granted support levels should be technology-neutral or technology-specific. In this review paper we question the frequently stressed argument that technology-neutral schemes will promote RES-E deployment cost-effectively. We use a simple partial equilibrium model of the electricity sector with one representative investor as a vehicle to synthesize the existing literature, and review potential rationales for technology-specific RES-E support. The analysis addresses market failures associated with technological development, long-term risk taking, path dependencies as well as various external costs, all of which drive a wedge between the private and the social costs of RES-E deployment. Based on analytical insight and a review of empirical literature, we conclude that the relevance of these market failures is typically heterogeneous across different RES-E technologies. The paper also discusses a number of possible caveats to implementing cost-effective technology-specific support schemes in practice, including the role of various informational and politico-economic constraints. While these considerations involve important challenges, neither of them suggests an unambiguous plea for technology-neutral RES-E support policies either. We close by highlighting principles for careful RES-E policy design, and by outlining four important avenues for future research.

  • 47.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Climate and the Environment: Managing the Transition2018In: Addressing Societal Challenges / [ed] Editors Johan Frishammar Åsa Ericson, Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2018, p. 7-22Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition to a green economy likely requires a re-assessmentof the roles of the private industry and the state, respectively. Theadvent of so-called green capitalism and sustainability entrepreneurshipcan be catalysts to this process. Still, the extent of the contributionof green capitalism is uncertain; there is likely to be key roles forthe state. Policy instrument mixes, including direct support to greentechnology, will be required to address the challenges associatedwith diffuse emissions and green innovation. This is, though, in itselfa challenge to policy-making at different levels, e.g., understandinghow various policies interact and how the institutional contexts canaffect the effectiveness of various instruments. For LTU the abovesuggests that efforts aimed at green technical innovation must acknowledgethe subsequent need for new and complementing organizationaland societal innovations.

  • 48.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Conceptualizing and Measuring Smart Specialization: A Literature Review and Empirical Test2018In: 21st Uddevalla Symposium, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Andersson, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Consumer choices in private transportation: The case of biofuels2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Acar, Sevil
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Istanbul Kemerburgaz University, Bagcilar, Turkey.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics, Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions: implications and meta-analysis2018In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 512-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a rich empirical literature testing whether per capita carbon dioxide emissions tend to converge over time and across countries. This article provides a meta-analysis of the results from this research, and discusses how carbon emissions convergence may be understood in, for instance, the presence of international knowledge spillovers and policy convergence. The results display evidence of either divergence or persistent gaps at the global level, but convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions between richer industrialized countries. However, the results appear sensitive to the choice of data sample and choice of convergence concept, e.g. stochastic convergence versus β-convergence. Moreover, peer-reviewed studies have a higher likelihood of reporting convergence in carbon dioxide emissions compared to non-refereed work. POLICY RELEVANCE The empirical basis for an egalitarian rule of equal emissions per capita in the design of global climate agreements is not solid; this supports the need to move beyond single allocation rules, and increase knowledge about the impacts of combined scenarios. However, even in the context of the 2015 Paris Agreement with its emphasis on voluntary contributions and ‘national circumstances’, different equity-based principles could serve as useful points of reference for how the remaining carbon budget should be allocated

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