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  • 1.
    Mateo-Marti, Eva
    et al.
    Centro de Astrobiología Torrejón de Ardoz .
    Zorzano, María Paz
    Centro de Astrobiología.
    Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga
    Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), 28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Osuna, S.
    Centro de Astrobiología Torrejón de Ardoz .
    Rennó, Nilton O.
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
    A Chamber for Studying Planetary Environments and Its Application to Astrobiology: of Liquid Saline Water on Present Day Mars2012In: Paleontological journal, ISSN 0031-0301, E-ISSN 1555-6174, Vol. 46, no 9, p. 1076-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Fonseca, Ricardo
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Madrid, Spain.
    Azu-Bustos, Armando
    Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Madrid, Spain. Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Santiago, Chile.
    González-Silva, Carlos
    Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Tarapacá, Iquique, Chile.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (UGR-CSIC), Granada, Spain.
    A surface temperature and moisture intercomparison study of the Weather Research and Forecasting model, in‐situ measurements and satellite observations over the Atacama Desert2019In: Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, ISSN 0035-9009, E-ISSN 1477-870X, Vol. 145, no 722, p. 2202-2220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Good knowledge of the environmental conditions of deserts on Earth is relevant forclimate studies. The Atacama Desert is of particular interest as it is considered tobe the driest region on Earth. We have performed simulations using the WeatherResearch and Forecasting (WRF) model over the Atacama Desert for two week-longperiods in the austral winter season coincident with surface temperature and relativehumidity in-situ observations at three sites. We found that the WRF model generallyoverestimates the daytime surface temperature, with biases of up to 11◦C, despitegiving a good simulation of the relative humidity. In order to improve the agree-ment with observed measurements, we conducted sensitivity experiments in whichthe surface albedo, soil moisture content and five tuneable parameters in the NoahLand Surface Model (namely soil porosity, soil suction, saturated soil hydraulic con-ductivity, thebparameter used in hydraulic functions and the quartz fraction) areperturbed. We concluded that an accurate simulation is not possible, most likelybecause the Noah Land Surface Model does not have a groundwater table that maybe shallow in desert regions. The WRF-predicted land surface temperature is alsoevaluated against that estimated from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrora-diometer (MODIS) instrument. While at night the satellite-derived and ground-basedmeasurements are generally in agreement, during the day MODIS estimates aretypically lower by as much as 17◦C. This is attributed to the large uncertainty inthe MODIS-estimated land surface temperatures in arid and semi-arid regions. Thefindings of this work highlight the need for ground-based observational networksin remote regions such as the Atacama Desert where satellite-derived and modelproducts may not be very accurate.

  • 3.
    Soria-Salinas, Álvaro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Zorzano Mier, Maria-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Sánchez-García-Casarrubios, J.
    Department of Signal and Telecommunication Theory, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.
    Pérez-Díaz, J-L
    Department of Signal and Telecommunication Theory, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.
    Vakkada Ramachandran, Abhilash
    Luleå University of Technology.
    A Xenon Mass Gauging through Heat Transfer Modeling for Electric Propulsion Thrusters2017In: World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology: An International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology, ISSN 2010-376X, E-ISSN 2070-3740, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 94-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current state-of-the-art methods of mass gauging of Electric Propulsion (EP) propellants in microgravity conditions rely on external measurements that are taken at the surface of the tank. The tanks are operated under a constant thermal duty cycle to store the propellant within a pre-defined temperature and pressure range. We demonstrate using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations that the heat-transfer within the pressurized propellant generates temperature and density anisotropies. This challenges the standard mass gauging methods that rely on the use of time changing skin-temperatures and pressures. We observe that the domes of the tanks are prone to be overheated, and that a long time after the heaters of the thermal cycle are switched off, the system reaches a quasi-equilibrium state with a more uniform density. We propose a new gauging method, which we call the Improved PVT method, based on universal physics and thermodynamics principles, existing TRL-9 technology and telemetry data. This method only uses as inputs the temperature and pressure readings of sensors externally attached to the tank. These sensors can operate during the nominal thermal duty cycle. The improved PVT method shows little sensitivity to the pressure sensor drifts which are critical towards the end-of-life of the missions, as well as little sensitivity to systematic temperature errors. The retrieval method has been validated experimentally with CO2 in gas and fluid state in a chamber that operates up to 82 bar within a nominal thermal cycle of 38 °C to 42 °C. The mass gauging error is shown to be lower than 1% the mass at the beginning of life, assuming an initial tank load at 100 bar. In particular, for a pressure of about 70 bar, just below the critical pressure of CO2, the error of the mass gauging in gas phase goes down to 0.1% and for 77 bar, just above the critical point, the error of the mass gauging of the liquid phase is 0.6% of initial tank load. This gauging method improves by a factor of 8 the accuracy of the standard PVT retrievals using look-up tables with tabulated data from the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

  • 4.
    Navarro‐González, Rafael
    et al.
    Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico.
    Navarro, Karina F.
    Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico.
    Coll, Patrice
    Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, CNRS UMR 7583, Université Paris‐Est Créteil, Université Paris Diderot, Créteil, France.
    McKay, Christopher P.
    NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA.
    Stern, Jennifer C.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Sutter, Brad
    Jacobs, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA.
    Archer Jr, P. Douglas
    Jacobs, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA.
    Buch, Arnaud
    Ecole Centrale Paris, Châtenay‐Malabry, France.
    Cabane, Michel
    Laboratoire Atmosphère, Milieux, Observations Spatiales, UMR CNRS 8190, Université Versailles Saint‐Quentin en Yvelines, UPMC Université Paris 06, Guyancourt, France.
    Conrad, Pamela G
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Franz, Heather B.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Freissinet, Caroline
    Laboratoire Atmosphère, Milieux, Observations Spatiales, UMR CNRS 8190, Université Versailles Saint‐Quentin en Yvelines, UPMC Université Paris 06, Guyancourt, France.
    Glavin, Daniel P.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Hogancamp, Joanna V.
    Jacobs, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA.
    McAdam, Amy C.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Malespin, Charles A.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Granada, Spain.
    Ming, Douglas W.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA.
    Morris, Richard V.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA.
    Prats, Benny
    NASA/eINFORMe, Inc., Goddard Space Flight Center, Planetary Environments Laboratory, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Raulin, François
    Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, CNRS UMR 7583, Université Paris‐Est Créteil, Université Paris Diderot, Créteil, France.
    Rodríguez‐Manfredi, José Antonio
    Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Madrid, Spain.
    Szopa, Cyril
    Laboratoire Atmosphère, Milieux, Observations Spatiales, UMR CNRS 8190, Université Versailles Saint‐Quentin en Yvelines, UPMC Université Paris 06, Guyancourt, France.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Madrid, Spain.
    Mahaffy, Paul R.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Atreya, Sushil
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Trainer, Melissa G.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Vasavada, Ashwin R.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Abiotic Input of Fixed Nitrogen by Bolide Impacts to Gale Crater During the Hesperian: Insights From the Mars Science Laboratory2019In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 124, no 1, p. 94-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular hydrogen (H2) from volcanic emissions is suggested to warm the Martian surface when carbon dioxide (CO2) levels dropped from the Noachian (4100 to 3700 Myr) to the Hesperian (3700 to 3000 Myr). Its presence is expected to shift the conversion of molecular nitrogen (N2) into different forms of fixed nitrogen (N). Here we present experimental data and theoretical calculations that investigate the efficiency of nitrogen fixation by bolide impacts in CO2‐N2 atmospheres with or without H2. Surprisingly, nitric oxide (NO) was produced more efficiently in 20% H2 in spite of being a reducing agent and not likely to increase the rate of nitrogen oxidation. Nevertheless, its presence led to a faster cooling of the shock wave raising the freeze‐out temperature of NO resulting in an enhanced yield. We estimate that the nitrogen fixation rate by bolide impacts varied from 7 × 10−4 to 2 × 10−3 g N·Myr−1·cm−2 and could imply fluvial concentration to explain the nitrogen (1.4 ± 0.7 g N·Myr−1·cm−2) detected as nitrite (NO2−) and nitrate (NO3−) by Curiosity at Yellowknife Bay. One possible explanation is that the nitrogen detected in the lacustrine sediments at Gale was deposited entirely on the crater's surface and was subsequently dissolved and transported by superficial and ground waters to the lake during favorable wet climatic conditions. The nitrogen content sharply decreases in younger sediments of the Murray formation suggesting a decline of H2 in the atmosphere and the rise of oxidizing conditions causing a shortage in the supply to putative microbial life.

  • 5.
    Azua-Bustos, Armando
    et al.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, Spain. Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Santiago, Chile.
    González-Silva, Carlos
    Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica, Chile.
    Fernández-Martínez, Miguel Ángel
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, Spain.
    Arenas-Fajardo, Cristián
    Atacama Biotech, Santiago, Chile.
    Fonseca, Ricardo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (UGR-CSIC), Armilla, Granada, Spain.
    Fernández-Sampedro, Maite
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, Spain.
    Fairén, Alberto G.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, Spain. Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Aeolian transport of viable microbial life across the Atacama Desert, Chile: Implications for Mars2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 11024Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we inspect whether microbial life may disperse using dust transported by wind in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile, a well-known Mars analog model. By setting a simple experiment across the hyperarid core of the Atacama we found that a number of viable bacteria and fungi are in fact able to traverse the driest and most UV irradiated desert on Earth unscathed using wind-transported dust, particularly in the later afternoon hours. This finding suggests that microbial life on Mars, extant or past, may have similarly benefited from aeolian transport to move across the planet and find suitable habitats to thrive and evolve.

  • 6.
    Smith, M.D.
    et al.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt.
    Zorzano Mier, Maria-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Lemmon, Mark T.
    Department of Atmospheric Sciences , Texas A&M University.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Mendaza de Cal, Maria Teresa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Aerosol optical depth as observed by the Mars Science Laboratory REMS UV photodiodes2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Smith, Michael D.
    et al.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Mier, Maria-Paz Zorzano
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Lemmon, Mark T.
    Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A&M University, Texas A&M University, College Station.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Cal, Maria Teresa Mendaza de
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Aerosol optical depth as observed by the Mars Science Laboratory REMS UV photodiodes2016In: Icarus (New York, N.Y. 1962), ISSN 0019-1035, E-ISSN 1090-2643, Vol. 280, p. 234-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systematic observations taken by the REMS UV photodiodes on a daily basis throughout the landed Mars Science Laboratory mission provide a highly useful tool for characterizing aerosols above Gale Crater. Radiative transfer modeling is used to model the approximately 1.75 Mars Years of observations taken to date taking into account multiple scattering from aerosols and the extended field of view of the REMS UV photodiodes. The retrievals show in detail the annual cycle of aerosol optical depth, which is punctuated with numerous short timescale events of increased optical depth. Dust deposition onto the photodiodes is accounted for by comparison with aerosol optical depth derived from direct imaging of the Sun by Mastcam. The effect of dust on the photodiodes is noticeable, but does not dominate the signal. Cleaning of dust from the photodiodes was observed in the season around Ls=270°, but not during other seasons. Systematic deviations in the residuals from the retrieval fit are indicative of changes in aerosol effective particle size, with larger particles present during periods of increased optical depth. This seasonal dependence of aerosol particle size is expected as dust activity injects larger particles into the air, while larger aerosols settle out of the atmosphere more quickly leading to a smaller average particle size over time.

  • 8.
    Ullán, Aurora
    et al.
    Departamento de Teoría de la Señal y Comunicaciones, Escuela Politécnica Superior , Universidad de Alcalá, Madrid.
    Zorzano Mier, Maria-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Valentin-Serrano, Patricia
    nstituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC - UGR), Granada.
    Kahanpää, Henrik
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Harri, Ari-Matti
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Gómez-Elvira, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiologí a (CSIC-INTA), Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Navarro, Sara
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC - INTA), Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Analysis of wind-induced dynamic pressure fluctuations during one and a half Martian years at Gale Crater2017In: Icarus (New York, N.Y. 1962), ISSN 0019-1035, E-ISSN 1090-2643, Vol. 288, p. 78-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) instrument on-board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) has acquired unprecedented measurements of key environmental variables at the base of Gale Crater. The pressure measured by REMS shows modulations with a very structured pattern of short-time scale (of the order of seconds to several minutes) mild fluctuations (typically up to 0.2 Pa at daytime and 1 Pa at night-time). These dynamic pressure oscillations are consistent with wind, air and ground temperature modulations measured simultaneously by REMS. We detect the signals of a repetitive pattern of upslope/downslope winds, with maximal speeds of about 21 m/s, associated with thermal changes in the air and surface temperatures, that are initiated after sunset and finish with sunrise proving that Gale, a 4.5 km deep impact crater, is an active Aeolian environment. At nighttime topographic slope winds are intense with maximal activity from 17:00 through 23:00 Local Mean Solar Time, and simultaneous changes of surface temperature are detected. During the day, the wind modulations are related to convection of the planetary boundary layer, winds are softer with maximum wind speed of about 14 m/s. The ground temperature is modulated by the forced convection of winds, with amplitudes between 0.2 K and 0.5 K, and the air temperatures fluctuate with amplitudes of about 2 K. The analysis of more than one and a half Martian years indicates the year-to-year repeatability of these environmental phenomena. The wind pattern minimizes at the beginning of the south hemisphere winter (Ls 90) season and maximizes during late spring and early summer (Ls 270). The procedure that we present here is a useful tool to investigate in a semi-quantitative way the winds by: i) filling both seasonal and diurnal gaps where wind measurements do not exist, ii) providing an alternative way for comparisons through different measuring principia and, iii) filling the gap of observation of short time-wind variability, where the REMS wind-sensor is blind

  • 9.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Sam, Lydia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Institut für Kartographie, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany. Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC ‐ UGR), Armilla, Spain. UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Madrid, Spain.
    Are Slope Streaks Indicative of Global‐Scale Aqueous Processes on Contemporary Mars?2019In: Reviews of geophysics, ISSN 8755-1209, E-ISSN 1944-9208, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 48-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Slope streaks are prevalent and intriguing dark albedo surface features on contemporary Mars. Slope streaks are readily observed in the equatorial and subequatorial dusty regolith regions with low thermal inertia. They gradually fade over decadal timescales. The proposed mechanisms for their formation vary widely based on several physicochemical and geomorphological explanations. The scientific community is divided in proposing both dry and wet mechanisms for the formation of slope streaks. Here we perform a systematic evaluation of the literature for these wet and dry mechanisms. We discuss the probable constraints on the various proposed mechanisms and provide perspectives on the plausible process driving global‐scale slope streak formation on contemporary Mars. Although per our understanding, a thorough consideration of the global distribution of slope streaks, their morphology and topography, flow characteristics, physicochemical and atmospheric coincidences, and terrestrial analogies weighs more in favor of several wet mechanisms, we acknowledge that such wet mechanisms cannot explain all the reported morphological and terrain variations of slope streaks. Thus, we suggest that explanations considering both dry and wet processes can more holistically describe all the observed morphological variations among slope streaks. We further acknowledge the constraints on the resolutions of remote sensing data and on our understanding of the Martian mineralogy, climate, and atmosphere and recommend continuous investigations in this direction using future remote sensing acquisitions and simulations. In this regard, finding more wet and dry terrestrial analogs for Martian slope streaks and studying them at high spatiotemporal resolutions can greatly improve our understanding.

  • 10.
    Cordoba-Jabonero, Carmen
    et al.
    Centro de Astrobiología.
    Patel, Manish R.
    Planetary and Space Sciences Research Institute, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes .
    Zorzano, María Paz
    Centro de Astrobiología.
    Cockell, Charles Seaton
    British Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge .
    Assessments for possible habitability in Martian polar environments: Fundaments based in ice screening of UV radiation2004In: ESA SP, ISSN 0379-6566, E-ISSN 1609-0438, Vol. 545, p. 187-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a study of the solar UV radiation in Martian high latitude environments covered by ice, where the UV propagation through the polar cover depends on the ice radiative properties (layers of H2O or CO 2 ice). But also we will investigate the changes in the subsurface UV levels induced by the seasonal variations of solar UV flux on the surface, as well as by the seasonal freezing-thawing and related CO2 sublimation processes. The biological dose relative to DNA-damage will be also estimated for biological implication assessments. All these studies will be compared with the biological dose received in the Antarctic snow-ice covered environment which is seasonally exposed to high UV radiation levels (formation of "ozone hole"), where the environmental conditions could be similar to those present on Mars

  • 11.
    Osuna-Esteban, Susana
    et al.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA).
    Zorzano, María Paz
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA).
    Menor-Salván, César
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA).
    Ruíz-Bermejo, Marta
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA).
    Veintemillas-Verdaguer, Sabino
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA).
    Asymmetric chiral growth of micron-size NaClO3 crystals in water aerosols2008In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 100, no 14, article id 146102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe an aerosol-liquid cycle that launches the autocatalytic amplification of any initial imbalance of the order of 10-7% (1 ppb) up to total chiral purity in a single step process. Crystal nucleation of NaClO3 is initiated at the aerosol air-water interface where, due to the accumulation of ambient chiral impurities or added hydrophobic chiral aminoacids in tiny concentrations (ppb), the initial levorotatory (l) and dextrorotatory (d) excess will not be produced with equal probability. The enantiomeric yield is then enhanced up to homochirality by recycling the crystallites through a liquid phase. In the absence of added catalysts this process leads to preferential (d) homochiral crystallizations in a ratio of 4 1 which is due to ambient contamination. By adding only 2 ppb of (L) or (D) Phe, we induce a final preferential homochiral crystallization of (d) or (l) handedness, respectively, in a ratio of 2 1.

  • 12.
    Moores, John E.
    et al.
    York University, Toronto.
    Lemmon, Mark T.
    Texas A&M University, College Station.
    Rafkin, Scot C R
    Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas.
    Francis, Raymond
    University of Western Ontario.
    Pla-Garcia, Jorge
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Juárez, Manuel De La Torre
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Bean, Keri
    Texas A&M University.
    Kass, David
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Haberle, Robert
    Ames Research Centre.
    Newman, Claire .E.
    Ashima Research, Pasadena.
    Mischna, Michael A.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Vasavada, Ashwin R.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Rennó, Nilton
    University of Michigan.
    Bell, Jim
    Arizona State University.
    III, Fred .J. Calef
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Cantor, Bruce
    Malin Space Science Systems.
    McConnochie, Timothy H.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park.
    Harri, Ari-Matti
    Finnish Meteorological Institute.
    Genzer, Maria
    Finnish Meteorological Institute.
    Wong, Michael
    University of Michigan.
    Smith, Michael D.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Zorzano, María-Paz
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid , Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial, Madrid.
    Kemppainen, Osku
    Finnish Meteorological Institute.
    McCullough, Emily
    University of Western Ontario.
    Atmospheric movies acquired at the Mars Science Laboratory landing site: Cloud Morphology, Frequency and Significance to the Gale Crater Water Cycle and Phoenix Mission Results2015In: Advances in Space Research, ISSN 0273-1177, E-ISSN 1879-1948, Vol. 55, no 9, p. 2217-2238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the first 360 sols (LS 150° to 5°), representing just over half a Martian year, of atmospheric monitoring movies acquired using the NavCam imager from the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover Curiosity. Such movies reveal faint clouds that are difficult to discern in single images. The data set acquired was divided into two different classifications depending upon the orientation and intent of the observation. Up to sol 360, 73 Zenith Movies and 79 Supra-Horizon Movies have been acquired and time-variable features could be discerned in 25 of each. The data set from MSL is compared to similar observations made by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) onboard the Phoenix Lander and suggests a much drier environment at Gale Crater (4.6°S) during this season than was observed in Green Valley (68.2°N) as would be expected based on latitude and the global water cycle. The optical depth of the variable component of clouds seen in images with features are up to 0.047 ± 0.009 with a granularity to the features observed which averages 3.8 degrees. MCS also observes clouds during the same period of comparable optical depth at 30 and 50 km that would suggest a cloud spacing of 2.0 to 3.3 km. Multiple motions visible in atmospheric movies support the presence of two distinct layers of clouds. At Gale Crater, these clouds are likely caused by atmospheric waves given the regular spacing of features observed in many Zenith movies and decreased spacing towards the horizon in sunset movies consistent with clouds forming at a constant elevation. Reanalysis of Phoenix data in the light of the NavCam equatorial dataset suggests that clouds may have been more frequent in the earlier portion of the Phoenix mission than was previously thought.

  • 13.
    Webster, Christopher R.
    et al.
    NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, Granada.
    Zorzano, María-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Centro de Astrobiologia, Instituto National de Tecnica Aerospacial, Madrid.
    Vasavada, Ashwin R
    NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.
    Background levels of methane in Mars' atmosphere show strong seasonal variations2018In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 360, no 6393, p. 1093-1096Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variable levels of methane in the martian atmosphere have eluded explanation partly because the measurements are not repeatable in time or location. We report in situ measurements at Gale crater made over a 5-year period by the Tunable Laser Spectrometer on the Curiosity rover. The background levels of methane have a mean value 0.41 ± 0.16 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) (95% confidence interval) and exhibit a strong, repeatable seasonal variation (0.24 to 0.65 ppbv). This variation is greater than that predicted from either ultraviolet degradation of impact-delivered organics on the surface or from the annual surface pressure cycle. The large seasonal variation in the background and occurrences of higher temporary spikes (~7 ppbv) are consistent with small localized sources of methane released from martian surface or subsurface reservoirs.

  • 14.
    Israel Nazarious, Miracle
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Vakkada Ramachandran, Abhilash
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Zorzano, María-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Calibration and preliminary tests of the Brine Observation Transition To Liquid Experiment on HABIT/ExoMars 2020 for demonstration of liquid water stability on Mars2019In: Acta Astronautica, ISSN 0094-5765, E-ISSN 1879-2030, Vol. 162, p. 497-510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The search for unequivocal proofs of liquid water on present day Mars is a prominent domain of research with implications on habitability and future Mars exploration. The HABIT (Habitability: Brines, Irradiation, and Temperature) instrument that will be on-board the ExoMars 2020 Surface Platform (ESA-IKI Roscosmos) will investigate the habitability of present day Mars, monitoring temperature, winds, dust conductivity, ultraviolet radiation and liquid water formation. One of the components of HABIT is the experiment BOTTLE (Brine Observation Transition To Liquid Experiment). The purposes of BOTTLE are to: (1) quantify the formation of transient liquid brines; (2) observe their stability over time under non-equilibrium conditions; and (3) serve as an In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) technology demonstrator for water moisture capture. In this manuscript, we describe the calibration procedure of BOTTLE with standard concentrations of brines, the calibration function and the coefficients needed to interpret the observations on Mars.

    BOTTLE consists of six containers: four of them are filled with different deliquescent salts that have been found on Mars (calcium-perchlorate, magnesium-perchlorate, calcium-chloride, and sodium-perchlorate); and two containers that are open to the air, to collect atmospheric dust. The salts are exposed to the Martian environment through a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter (to comply with planetary protection protocols). The deliquescence process will be monitored by observing the changes in electrical conductivity (EC) in each container: dehydrated salts show low EC, hydrated salts show medium EC and, liquid brines show high EC values. We report and interpret the preliminary test results using the BOTTLE engineering model in representative conditions; and we discuss how this concept can be adapted to other exploration missions.

    Our laboratory observations show that 1.2 g of anhydrous calcium-chloride captures about 3.7 g of liquid water as brine passing through various possible hydrate forms. This ISRU technology could potentially be the first attempt to understand the formation of transient liquid water on Mars and to develop self-sustaining in-situ water harvesting on Mars for future human and robotic missions.

  • 15.
    Hochberg, David
    et al.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA).
    Zorzano, María Paz
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA).
    Morán, Federico
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA).
    Complex noise in diffusion-limited reactions of replicating and competing species2006In: Physical Review E. Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics, ISSN 1539-3755, E-ISSN 1550-2376, Vol. 73, no 6, article id 066109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We derive exact Langevin-type equations governing quasispecies dynamics. The inherent multiplicative noise has both real and imaginary parts. The numerical simulation of the underlying complex stochastic partial differential equations is carried out employing the Cholesky decomposition for the noise covariance matrix. This noise produces unavoidable spatiotemporal density fluctuations about the mean-field value. In two dimensions, the fluctuations are suppressed only when the diffusion time scale is much smaller than the amplification time scale for the master species

  • 16.
    Hochberg, David
    et al.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA).
    Zorzano, María Paz
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA).
    Morán, Federico
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA).
    Complex reaction noise in a molecular quasispecies model2006In: Chemical Physics Letters, ISSN 0009-2614, E-ISSN 1873-4448, Vol. 423, no 1-3, p. 54-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have derived exact Langevin equations for a model of quasispecies dynamics. The inherent multiplicative reaction noise is complex and its statistical properties are specified completely. The numerical simulation of the complex Langevin equations is carried out using the Cholesky decomposition for the noise covariance matrix. This internal noise, which is due to diffusion-limited reactions, produces unavoidable spatio-temporal density fluctuations about the mean field value. In two dimensions, this noise strictly vanishes only in the perfectly mixed limit, a situation difficult to attain in practice

  • 17.
    Zorzano, María Paz
    et al.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA).
    Hochberg, David
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA).
    Morán, Federico
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA).
    Consequences of imperfect mixing the Gray-Scott model2006In: Physical Review E. Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics: Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids, and Related Interdisciplinary Topics, ISSN 1063-651X, E-ISSN 1095-3787, Vol. 74, no 5, article id 057102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study an autocatalytic reaction-diffusion scheme, the Gray-Scott model, when the mixing processes do not homogenize the reactants. Starting from the master equation, we derive the resulting coupled, nonlinear, stochastic partial differential equations that rigorously include the spatiotemporal fluctuations resulting from the interplay between the reaction and mixing processes. The fields are complex and depend on correlated complex noise terms. We implement a method to solve for these complex fields numerically and extract accurate information about the system evolution and stationary states under different mixing regimes. Through this example, we show how the reaction-induced fluctuations interact with the temporal nonlinearities, leading to results that differ significantly from the mean-field (perfectly mixed) approach. This procedure can be applied to an arbitrary nonlinear reaction diffusion scheme

  • 18.
    Soria-Salinas, Álvaro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Zorzano Mier, Maria-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Convective Heat Transfer at the Martian Boundary Layer, Measurement and Model2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Soria-Salinas, Álvaro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Zorzano Mier, Maria-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Feiccabrino, James
    Department of Water Resources Engineering., Lund University.
    Convective Heat Transfer Measurements at the Martian Surface2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Kahanpää, Henrik
    et al.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Newman, C.E.
    Ashima Research, Pasadena.
    Moores, John E.
    Center for Research in Earth and Space Science, York University, Toronto, York University, Toronto, York University/Earth and Space Science and Engineering, North York, Ontario, York University, North York, Ontario.
    Zorzano, Maria-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Navarro, Sara
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid , Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Lepinette, Alain
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid , Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Cantor, Bruce
    Malin Space Science Systems.
    Lemmon, Mark T.
    Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A&M University, Texas A&M University, College Station.
    Valentin-Serrano, Patricia
    CSIC-UGR - Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (IACT), Granada, Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Ullán, Aurora
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Schmidt, W.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Convective vortices and dust devils at the MSL landing site: annual variability2016In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 121, no 8, p. 1514-1549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two hundred fifty-two transient drops in atmospheric pressure, likely caused by passing convective vortices, were detected by the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station instrument during the first Martian year of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landed mission. These events resembled the vortex signatures detected by the previous Mars landers Pathfinder and Phoenix; however, the MSL observations contained fewer pressure drops greater than 1.5 Pa and none greater than 3.0 Pa. Apparently, these vortices were generally not lifting dust as only one probable dust devil has been observed visually by MSL. The obvious explanation for this is the smaller number of strong vortices with large central pressure drops since according to Arvidson et al. [2014] ample dust seems to be present on the surface. The annual variation in the number of detected convective vortices followed approximately the variation in Dust Devil Activity (DDA) predicted by the MarsWRF numerical climate model. This result does not prove, however, that the amount of dust lifted by dust devils would depend linearly on DDA, as is assumed in several numerical models of the Martian atmosphere, since dust devils are only the most intense fraction of all convective vortices on Mars, and the amount of dust that can be lifted by a dust devil depends on its central pressure drop. Sol-to-sol variations in the number of vortices were usually small. However, on 1 Martian solar day a sudden increase in vortex activity, related to a dust storm front, was detected. 

  • 21.
    Gõmez-Elvira, Javier
    et al.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Armiens, Carlos
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Carrasco, Isaias
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Genzer, Maria
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Gómez, Felipe
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Haberle, Robert M.
    NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA.
    Hamilton, Victoria E.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO.
    Harri, Ari-Matti
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Kahanpää, Henrik
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Kemppinen, Osku
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Lepinette, Alain
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC - INTA), Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Martin-Soler, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Martínez-Frías, Jesús
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Mischna, Michael A.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.
    Mora, Luis
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Navarro, Sara
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Newman, Claire E.
    Ashima Research Inc.
    De Pablo, Miguel Ángel
    Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Alcalá de Henares.
    Peinado, Verõnica
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Polkko, Jouni
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Rafkin, Scot C Randell
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO.
    Ramos, Miguel A.
    Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Alcalá de Henares.
    Rennó, Nilton O.
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
    Richardson, Mark E.
    Ashima Research, Pasadena, CA.
    Rodríguez Manfredi, José Antonio
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Romeral Planellõ, Julio J.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Sebastián, Eduardo M.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    De La Torre Juárez, Manuel
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Torres, Josefina
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Urquí, Roser
    Ingeniería de Sistemas Para la Defensa de España, Madrid.
    Vasavada, Ashwin R
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.
    Verdasca, José
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Zorzano, María Paz
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejõn de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Curiosity's rover environmental monitoring station: Overview of the first 100 sols2014In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 119, no 7, p. 1680-1688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the first 100 Martian solar days (sols) of the Mars Science Laboratory mission, the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) measured the seasonally evolving diurnal cycles of ultraviolet radiation, atmospheric pressure, air temperature, ground temperature, relative humidity, and wind within Gale Crater on Mars. As an introduction to several REMS-based articles in this issue, we provide an overview of the design and performance of the REMS sensors and discuss our approach to mitigating some of the difficulties we encountered following landing, including the loss of one of the two wind sensors. We discuss the REMS data set in the context of other Mars Science Laboratory instruments and observations and describe how an enhanced observing strategy greatly increased the amount of REMS data returned in the first 100 sols, providing complete coverage of the diurnal cycle every 4 to 6 sols. Finally, we provide a brief overview of key science results from the first 100 sols. We found Gale to be very dry, never reaching saturation relative humidities, subject to larger diurnal surface pressure variations than seen by any previous lander on Mars, air temperatures consistent with model predictions and abundant short timescale variability, and surface temperatures responsive to changes in surface properties and suggestive of subsurface layering. Key Points Introduction to the REMS results on MSL mission Overiview of the sensor information Overview of operational constraints

  • 22.
    Galvez-Martinez, Santos
    et al.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, Spain.
    Escamilla-Roa, Elizabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, Spain.
    Mateo-Marti, E.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, Spain.
    Defects on a pyrite(100) surface produce chemical evolution of glycine under inert conditions: experimental and theoretical approaches2019In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 21, no 44, p. 24535-24542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of non-stoichiometric sites on the pyrite(100) surface makes it a suitable substrate for driving the chemical evolution of the amino acid glycine over time, even under inert conditions. Spectroscopic molecular fingerprints prove a transition process from a zwitterionic species to an anionic species over time on the monosulfide enriched surface. By combining experimental and theoretical approaches, we propose a surface mechanism where the interaction between the amino acid species and the surface will be driven by the quenching of the surface states at Fe sites and favoured by sulfur vacancies. This study demonstrates the potential capability of pyrite to act as a surface catalyst.

  • 23.
    Escamilla-Roa, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Zorzano, María-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Granada, Spain.
    Hernäandez-Laguna, Alfonso
    Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Granada, Spain.
    Sainz-Diaz, Claro
    Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Granada, Spain.
    DFT study of electronic and redox properties of TiO2 supported on olivine for modelling regolith on Moon and Mars conditions2020In: Planetary and Space Science, ISSN 0032-0633, E-ISSN 1873-5088, Vol. 180, article id 104760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Titanium dioxide TiO2 is one of the most studied oxides in photocatalysis, due to its electronic structure and its wide variety of applications, such as gas sensors and biomaterials, and especially in methane-reforming catalysis. Titanium dioxide and olivine have been detected both on Mars and our Moon. It has been postulated that on Mars photocatalytic processes may be relevant for atmospheric methane fluctuation, radicals and perchlorate productions etc. However, to date no investigation has been devoted to modelling the properties of TiO2 adsorbed on olivine surface.

    The goal of this study is to investigate at atomic level with electronic structure calculations based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT), the atomic interactions that take place during the adsorption processes for formation of a TiO regolith. This model is formed with different TiO films adsorbed on olivine (forsterite) surfaces, one of the most common minerals in Universe, Earth, Mars, cometary and interstellar dust. We propose three regolith models to simulate the principal phase of titanium oxide (TiO, Ti2O3 and TiO2). The models show different adsorption processes i.e. physisorption and chemisorption. Our results suggest that the TiO is the most reactive phase and produces a strong exothermic effect. Besides, we have detailed, from a theoretical point of view, the effect that has the adsorption process in the electronic properties such as electronic density of state (DOS) and oxide reduction process (redox). This theoretical study can be important to understand the formation of new materials (supports) that can be used as support in the catalytic processes that occur in the Earth, Mars and Moon. Also, it may be important to interpret the present day photochemistry and interaction of regolith and airborne aerosols in the atmosphere on Mars or to define possible catalytic reactions of the volatiles captured on the Moon regolith.

  • 24.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Sam, Lydia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Discovery of recurring slope lineae candidates in Mawrth Vallis, Mars2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 2040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    utside of established RSL regions and further prompt the inclusion of a new geographical region within the RSL candidate group. Our inferences on the RSL candidates are based on several morphological and geophysical evidences and analogies: (i) the dimensions of the RSL candidates are consistent with confirmed mid-latitude RSL; (ii) albedo and thermal inertia values are comparable to those of other mid-latitude RSL sites; and (iii) features are found in a summer season image and on the steep and warmest slopes. These results denote the plausible presence of transient liquid brines close to the previously proposed landing ellipse of the ExoMars rover, rendering this site particularly relevant to the search of life. Further investigations of Mawrth Vallis carried out at higher spatial and temporal resolutions are needed to identify more of such features at local scales to maximize the scientific return from the future Mars rovers, to prevent probable biological contamination during rover operations, to evade damage to rover components as brines can be highly corrosive, and to quantify the ability of the regolith at mid-latitudes to capture atmospheric water which is relevant for in-situ-resource utilization.

  • 25.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Sam, Lydia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Armilla, Granada, Spain.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain.
    Distribution and Morphologies of Transverse Aeolian Ridges in ExoMars 2020 Rover Landing Site2019In: Remote Sensing, ISSN 2072-4292, E-ISSN 2072-4292, Vol. 11, no 8, article id 912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aeolian processes are believed to play a major role in the landscape evolution of Mars. Investigations on Martian aeolian landforms such as ripples, transverse aeolian ridges (TARs), and dunes, and aeolian sediment flux measurements are important to enhance our understanding of past and present wind regimes, the ongoing dust cycle, landscape evolution, and geochemistry. These aeolian bedforms are often comprised of loose sand and sharply undulating topography and thus pose a threat to mobility and maneuvers of Mars rovers. Here we present a first-hand account of the distribution, morphologies, and morphometrics of TARs in Oxia Planum, the recently selected ExoMars 2020 Rover landing site. The gridded mapping was performed for contiguous stretches of TARs within all the landing ellipses using 57 sub-meter high resolution imaging science experiment (HiRISE) scenes. We also provide the morphological descriptions for all types of TARs present within the landing ellipses. We use HiRISE digital terrain models (DTMs) along with the images to derive morphometric information for TARs in Oxia Planum. In general, the average areal TAR coverage was found to be 5.4% (±4.9% standard deviation), increasing from west to east within the landing ellipses. We report the average TAR morphometrics in the form of crest–ridge width (131.1 ± 106.2 m), down-wind TAR length (17.6 ± 10.1 m), wavelength (37.3 ± 11.6 m), plan view aspect ratio (7.1 ± 2.3), inter-bedform spacing (2.1 ± 1.1), slope (10.6° ± 6.1°), predominant orientations (NE-SW and E-W), and height (1.2 ± 0.8 m). While simple TARs are predominant, we report other TAR morphologies such as forked TAR, wavy TAR with associated smaller secondary ripples, barchan-like TAR, networked TAR, and mini-TARs from the region. Our results can help in planning the rover traverses in terms of both safe passage and scientific returns favoring aeolian research, particularly improving our understanding of TARs.

  • 26.
    Kahanpää, Henrik
    et al.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Newman, C.
    Ashima Research Inc.
    Moores, John E.
    Earth and Space Science and Engineering , York University.
    Zorzano Mier, Maria-Paz
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC - INTA), Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Navarro, Sara
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC - INTA), Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Lepinette, Alain
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC - INTA), Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    nstituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC - UGR), Granada.
    Valentin-Serrano, Patricia
    nstituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC - UGR), Granada.
    Cantor, Bruce
    Malin Space Science Systems, San Diego.
    Lemmon, Mark T.
    Department of Atmospheric Sciences , Texas A&M University.
    Ullán, Aurora
    Departamento de Teoría de la Señal y Comunicaciones, Escuela Politécnica Superior , Universidad de Alcalá, Madrid.
    Schmidt, W.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Dust Devils and Convective Vortices Detected by MSL2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Zorzano, María Paz
    et al.
    Ctro. de Astrobiologa (CSIC/INTA), NASA Astrobiology Institute.
    Hochberg, David
    Ctro. de Astrobiologa (CSIC/INTA), NASA Astrobiology Institute.
    Morán, Federico
    Ctro. de Astrobiologa (CSIC/INTA), NASA Astrobiology Institute.
    Dynamic renormalization group and noise induced transitions in a reaction diffusion model2004In: Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, ISSN 0378-4371, E-ISSN 1873-2119, Vol. 334, no 1-2, p. 67-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate how additive weak noise (correlated as well as uncorrelated) modifies the parameters of the Gray-scott reaction diffusion system by performing numerical simulations and applying a renormalization group (RG) analysis in the neighborhood of the spatial scale where biochemical reactions take place. One can obtain the same sequence of spatial-temporal patterns by means of two equivalent routes: (i) by increasing only the noise intensity and keeping all other model parameters fixed; or (ii) keeping the noise fixed, and adjusting certain model parameters to their running scale-dependent values as predicted by the RG. This explicit demonstration validates the dynamic RG transformation for finite scales in a two-dimensional stochastic model and provides further physical insight into the coarse-graining analysis proposed by this scheme. Through several study cases we explore the role of noise and its temporal correlation in self-organization and propose a way to drive the system into a new desired state in a controlled way.

  • 28.
    Zorzano, María Paz
    et al.
    Centro de Astrobiología, CSIC/INTA, NASA Astrobiology Institute.
    Vázquez, Luiz
    Departamento de Matemáatica Aplicada, Facultad de Inform´atica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid.
    Emergence of synchronous oscillations in neural networks excited by noise2003In: Physica D: Non-linear phenomena, ISSN 0167-2789, E-ISSN 1872-8022, Vol. 179, no 1-2, p. 105-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of noise in nonlinear dynamical systems can play a constructive role, increasing the degree of order and coherence or evoking improvements in the performance of the system. An example of this positive influence in a biological system is the impulse transmission in neurons and the synchronization of a neural network. Integrating numerically the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation we show a self-induced synchronized oscillation. Such an oscillatory state appears in a neural network coupled with a feedback term, when this system is excited by noise and the noise strength is within a certain range

  • 29.
    Stern, Jennifer C.
    et al.
    Solar System Exploration Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Sutter, Brad
    Jacobs Technology, Inc., Johnson Space Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Houston, Texas.
    Freissinet, Caroline
    NASA Postdoctoral Program, Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Navarro-González, Rafael
    Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico D.F..
    McKay, Christopher P.
    Exobiology Branch, Ames Research Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Moffett Field, Kalifornien.
    Jr., P. Douglas Archer
    Jacobs Technology, Inc., Johnson Space Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Houston, Texas.
    Buch, Arnaud
    Laboratoire de Genie de Procedes et Materiaux, Ecole Centrale Paris, Chatenay-Malabry.
    Brunner, Anna E.
    Solar System Exploration Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Coll, Patrice
    Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, Université Paris-Est Créteil, Université Paris Diderot and CNRS, Créteil.
    Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.
    Solar System Exploration Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Fairen, Alberto G.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Franz, Heather B.
    Solar System Exploration Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Glavin, Daniel P.
    Solar System Exploration Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Kashyap, Srishti
    Solar System Exploration Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    McAdam, Amy C.
    Solar System Exploration Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Ming, Douglas W.
    Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate, Johnson Space Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Houston, Texas.
    Steele, Andrew
    Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington D.C..
    Szopa, Cyril
    Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux et Observations Spatiales, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Versailles Saint-Quentin and CNRS, Paris.
    Wray, James J.
    School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Zorzano, Maria-Paz
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Conrad, Pamela G.
    Solar System Exploration Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Mahaffy, Paul R.
    Solar System Exploration Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Evidence for indigenous nitrogen in sedimentary and aeolian deposits from the Curiosity rover investigations at Gale crater, Mars2015In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 112, no 14, p. 4245-4250, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover has detected oxidized nitrogen-bearing compounds during pyrolysis of scooped aeolian sediments and drilled sedimentary deposits within Gale crater. Total N concentrations ranged from 20 to 250 nmol N per sample. After subtraction of known N sources in SAM, our results support the equivalent of 110–300 ppm of nitrate in the Rocknest (RN) aeolian samples, and 70–260 and 330–1,100 ppm nitrate in John Klein (JK) and Cumberland (CB) mudstone deposits, respectively. Discovery of indigenous martian nitrogen in Mars surface materials has important implications for habitability and, specifically, for the potential evolution of a nitrogen cycle at some point in martian history. The detection of nitrate in both wind-drifted fines (RN) and in mudstone (JK, CB) is likely a result of N2 fixation to nitrate generated by thermal shock from impact or volcanic plume lightning on ancient Mars. Fixed nitrogen could have facilitated the development of a primitive nitrogen cycle on the surface of ancient Mars, potentially providing a biochemically accessible source of nitrogen.

  • 30.
    Schwenzer, Susanne P.
    et al.
    CEPSAR, Open University, Milton Keynes, Department of Physical Sciences, CEPSAR, Open University, Milton Keynes, Open University, Milton Keynes, Department of Physical Science, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes.
    Bridges, John C.
    Space Research Centre, University of Leicester, Space Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University of Leicester.
    Wiens, Roger C.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Space Remote Sensing, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, International Space and Response Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Conrad, Pamela G.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, Solar System Exploration Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Maryland, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Kelley, S.P.
    Department of Physical Sciences, CEPSAR, Open University, Milton Keynes.
    Leveille, R.
    Canadian Space Agency, St-Hubert.
    Mangold, Nicolas
    Laboratoire Planétologie et Géodynamique de Nantes, LPGN/CNRS and Université de Nantes, Laboratorie de Planetologie et Geodynamique de Nantes, Laboratoire Planétologie et Géodynamique, LPGNantes, CNRS UMR 6112, Université de Nantes, LPGN, CNRS, UMR 6112, Université Nantes, CNRS- UMR 6112, Laboratoire de Planétologie et Géodynamique, Université de Nantes.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    McAdam, Amy C.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Solar System Exploration Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Newsom, Horton E.
    Institute of Meteoritics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, Institute of Meteoritics, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
    Mier, Maria-Paz Zorzano
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Rapin, W.
    Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse.
    Spray, John G.
    Planetary and Space Science Centre, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton.
    Treiman, A.H.
    Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston.
    Westall, F.
    Centre de Biophysique Moléculaire, CNRS, Orléans.
    Fairen, Alberto G.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Meslin, Pierre-Yves
    Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse, IRAP, CNRS/UPS, Toulouse, Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP.
    Fluids during diagenesis and sulfate vein formation in sediments at Gale crater, Mars2016In: Meteoritics and Planetary Science, ISSN 1086-9379, E-ISSN 1945-5100, Vol. 51, no 11, p. 2175-2202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We model the fluids involved in the alteration processes recorded in the Sheepbed Member mudstones of Yellowknife Bay (YKB), Gale crater, Mars, as revealed by the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover investigations. We compare the Gale crater waters with fluids modeled for shergottites, nakhlites, and the ancient meteorite ALH 84001, as well as rocks analyzed by the Mars Exploration rovers, and with terrestrial ground and surface waters. The aqueous solution present during sediment alteration associated with phyllosilicate formation at Gale was high in Na, K, and Si; had low Mg, Fe, and Al concentrations—relative to terrestrial groundwaters such as the Deccan Traps and other modeled Mars fluids; and had near neutral to alkaline pH. Ca and S species were present in the 10−3 to 10−2 concentration range. A fluid local to Gale crater strata produced the alteration products observed by Curiosity and subsequent evaporation of this groundwater-type fluid formed impure sulfate- and silica-rich deposits—veins or horizons. In a second, separate stage of alteration, partial dissolution of this sulfate-rich layer in Yellowknife Bay, or beyond, led to the pure sulfate veins observed in YKB. This scenario is analogous to similar processes identified at a terrestrial site in Triassic sediments with gypsum veins of the Mercia Mudstone Group in Watchet Bay, UK.

  • 31.
    Cockell, C.S.
    et al.
    UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh.
    Bush, T.
    UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh.
    Bryce, C.
    UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh.
    Direito, S.
    UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh.
    Fox-Powell, M.
    UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh.
    Harrison, J.P
    UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh.
    Lammer, H.
    Austrian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute, Graz.
    Landenmark, H.
    UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Nicholson, N.
    UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh.
    Noack, L.
    Department of Reference Systems and Planetology, Royal Observatory of Belgium, Brussels.
    O'Malley-James, J.
    School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, St Andrews.
    Payler, S.J.
    UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh.
    Rushby, A.
    Centre for Ocean and Atmospheric Science (COAS), School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich.
    Samuels, T.
    UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh.
    Schwendner, P.
    UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh.
    Wadsworth, J.
    UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh.
    Mier, Maria-Paz Zorzano
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Habitability: a review2016In: Astrobiology, ISSN 1531-1074, E-ISSN 1557-8070, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 89-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Habitability is a widely used word in the geoscience, planetary science, and astrobiology literature, but what does it mean? In this review on habitability, we define it as the ability of an environment to support the activity of at least one known organism. We adopt a binary definition of “habitability” and a “habitable environment.” An environment either can or cannot sustain a given organism. However, environments such as entire planets might be capable of supporting more or less species diversity or biomass compared with that of Earth. A clarity in understanding habitability can be obtained by defining instantaneous habitability as the conditions at any given time in a given environment required to sustain the activity of at least one known organism, and continuous planetary habitability as the capacity of a planetary body to sustain habitable conditions on some areas of its surface or within its interior over geological timescales. We also distinguish between surface liquid water worlds (such as Earth) that can sustain liquid water on their surfaces and interior liquid water worlds, such as icy moons and terrestrial-type rocky planets with liquid water only in their interiors. This distinction is important since, while the former can potentially sustain habitable conditions for oxygenic photosynthesis that leads to the rise of atmospheric oxygen and potentially complex multicellularity and intelligence over geological timescales, the latter are unlikely to. Habitable environments do not need to contain life. Although the decoupling of habitability and the presence of life may be rare on Earth, it may be important for understanding the habitability of other planetary bodies

  • 32.
    Shekhar, Mayank
    et al.
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Singh, Shaktiman
    Institut für Kartographie, Technische Universität Dresden.
    Ranhotra, Parminder S.
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India.
    Bhattacharyya, Amalava
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India.
    Pal, Ashish K.
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India.
    Roy, Ipsita
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India.
    Martín-Torres, F. Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Armilla, Granada, Spain.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), 28850, Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain.
    Himalayan glaciers experienced significant mass loss during later phases of little ice age2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 10305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To date, there is a gap in the data about the state and mass balance of glaciers in the climate-sensitive subtropical regions during the Little Ice Age (LIA). Here, based on an unprecedented tree-ring sampling coverage, we present the longest reconstructed mass balance record for the Western Himalayan glaciers, dating to 1615. Our results confirm that the later phase of LIA was substantially briefer and weaker in the Himalaya than in the Arctic and subarctic regions. Furthermore, analysis of the time-series of the mass-balance against other time-series shows clear evidence of the existence of (i) a significant glacial decay and a significantly weaker magnitude of glaciation during the latter half of the LIA; (ii) a weak regional mass balance dependence on either the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) or the Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) taken in isolation, but a considerable combined influence of both of them during the LIA; and (iii) in addition to anthropogenic climate change, the strong effect from the increased yearly concurrence of extremely high TSI with El Niño over the past five decades, resulting in severe glacial mass loss. The generated mass balance time-series can serve as a source of reliable reconstructed data to the scientific community.

  • 33.
    Herr, Werner
    et al.
    CERN, SL Division.
    Zorzano, María Paz
    CERN, SL Division.
    Jones, F.
    TRIUMF, Vancouver.
    Hybrid fast multipole method applied to beam-beam collisions in the strong-strong regime2001In: Physical Review Special Topics. Accelerators and Beams, ISSN 1098-4402, E-ISSN 1098-4402, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 37-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The strong-strong interactions of two colliding beams are simulated by tracking the motion of a set of macroparticles. The field generated by each distribution is evaluated using the fast multipole method together with some elements of particle-mesh methods. This technique allows us to check the exact frequencies of the coherent modes and the frequencies of oscillations of individual particles in the beam. The agreement between the simulations and analytical calculations is largely improved. Furthermore, it is an efficient method to study the coherent modes in the case of separated beams.

  • 34.
    Zorzano, María Paz
    et al.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA).
    Cordoba-Jabonero, Carmen
    nst Nacl Tecn Aeroespacial, Dept Observ Tierra.
    Influence of aerosol multiple scattering of ultraviolet radiation on martian atmospheric sensing2007In: Icarus (New York, N.Y. 1962), ISSN 0019-1035, E-ISSN 1090-2643, Vol. 190, no 2, p. 492-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ultraviolet (UV) radiative transfer problem in the martian atmosphere is dominated by multiple scattering of photons with the micronsized aerosols that are suspended in the thin atmosphere. By implementing a multiple stream, vertical fine layering description of the radiative transfer equation that is able to cope with the strong vertical variations of the atmospheric properties, we estimate the resulting upwelling and downwelling UV irradiances under different martian scenarios in equatorial and close to equatorial latitudes. We include the latest SPICAM measurements on the aerosol vertical profile (distribution of Angstrom exponent and aerosol loading), scattering properties (asymmetry parameter and single scattering albedo), ground albedo, and 03 content as well as MER long-term monitorization of ground-based aerosol optical depth. We show that due to the fact that the distributions of absorbing (ozone) and scattering (aerosols) agents are vertically coincident, the probability to absorb a photon following a multiple scattered trajectory is increased. One can thus best deteetweak ozone absorption signatures in the upwelling and downwelling diffuse irradiances. However as it is later shown, the absorption signature in the diffuse irradiance field and for a given total ozone column, changes with the total aerosol content and its vertical profile. This must be taken into account in order not to overestimate the total ozone column. It is shown that typical dust scenarios such as those seen by the MER long-term monitorization of ground-based aerosol optical depth, tau approximate to 0.45 and 0.9, produce UV nadir viewing reflectance values of the order of 0.02 and 0.04, respectively, which are comparable with those actually measured by Mars Express. For these scenarios, more than 75% of the upwelling irradiance at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) is backscattered by atmospheric aerosols alone, the rest being reflected by the low albedo ground. Depending on the aerosol vertical distribution, the ozone absorption signature may be changed by a factor of two. Finally we also show that the upwelling irradiance depends also on the ground altitude. In the future, this work may be useful to link in situ, ground-based UV measurements, with simultaneous satellite nadir measurements as well as to extract relevant atmospheric information from the irradiance measurements

  • 35.
    Korablev, Oleg I.
    et al.
    Space Research Institute IKI, Moscow.
    Dobrolensky, Yurii
    Space Research Institute IKI, Moscow.
    Evdokimova, Nadezhda
    Space Research Institute IKI, Moscow.
    Fedorova, Anna A.
    Space Research Institute IKI, Moscow.
    Kuzmin, Ruslan O.
    Space Research Institute IKI, Moscow.
    Mantsevich, Sergei N.
    Space Research Institute IKI, Moscow.
    Cloutis, Edward A.
    The University of Winnipeg.
    Carter, John
    Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale IAS-CNRS/Université Paris Sud Orsay.
    Poulet, Francois
    Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale IAS-CNRS/Université Paris Sud Orsay.
    Flahaut, Jessica
    Université Lyon 1, ENS-Lyon, CNRS.
    Griffiths, Andrew
    Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Dorking.
    Gunn, Matthew
    Department of Physics, Aberystwyth University.
    Schmitz, Nicole
    German Aerospace Center DLR, Köln.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Zorzano Mier, Maria-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Rodianov, Daniil S.
    Space Research Institute IKI, Moscow.
    Vago, Jorge L.
    ESA ESTEC, Noordwijk.
    Stepanov, Alexander V.
    Space Research Institute IKI, Moscow.
    Titov, Andrei Yu.
    Space Research Institute IKI, Moscow.
    Vyazovetsky, Nikita A.
    Space Research Institute IKI, Moscow.
    Trokhimovskiy, Alexander Yu.
    Space Research Institute IKI, Moscow.
    Sapgir, Alexander G.
    Space Research Institute IKI, Moscow.
    Kalinnikov, Yurii K.
    Space Research Institute IKI, Moscow.
    Ivanov, Yurii S.
    Main Astronomical Observatory MAO NASU, Kyiv.
    Shapkin, Alexei A.
    Space Research Institute IKI, Moscow.
    Ivanov, Andrei Yu.
    Space Research Institute IKI, Moscow.
    Infrared Spectrometer for ExoMars: A Mast-Mounted Instrument for the Rover2017In: Astrobiology, ISSN 1531-1074, E-ISSN 1557-8070, Vol. 17, no 6-7, p. 542-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ISEM (Infrared Spectrometer for ExoMars) is a pencil-beam infrared spectrometer that will measure reflected solar radiation in the near infrared range for context assessment of the surface mineralogy in the vicinity of the ExoMars rover. The instrument will be accommodated on the mast of the rover and will be operated together with the panoramic camera (PanCam), high-resolution camera (HRC). ISEM will study the mineralogical and petrographic composition of the martian surface in the vicinity of the rover, and in combination with the other remote sensing instruments, it will aid in the selection of potential targets for close-up investigations and drilling sites. Of particular scientific interest are water-bearing minerals, such as phyllosilicates, sulfates, carbonates, and minerals indicative of astrobiological potential, such as borates, nitrates, and ammonium-bearing minerals. The instrument has an ∼1° field of view and covers the spectral range between 1.15 and 3.30 μm with a spectral resolution varying from 3.3 nm at 1.15 μm to 28 nm at 3.30 μm. The ISEM optical head is mounted on the mast, and its electronics box is located inside the rover's body. The spectrometer uses an acousto-optic tunable filter and a Peltier-cooled InAs detector. The mass of ISEM is 1.74 kg, including the electronics and harness. The science objectives of the experiment, the instrument design, and operational scenarios are described.

  • 36.
    Pandey, S.
    et al.
    Mars Society Australia, Clifton Hill, VIC, Australia. Amity Centre of Excellence in Astrobiology, Amity University Mumbai, Mumbai, India. Blue Marble Space Institute of Science, Seattle, WA, United States.
    Clarke, J.
    Mars Society Australia, Clifton Hill, VIC, Australia.Australian Centre of Astrobiology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Nema, P.
    Blue Marble Space Institute of Science, Seattle, WA, United States.
    Bonaccorsi, R.
    Space Sciences Division, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, United States. SETI Institute, Carl Sagan Center, Mountain View, CA, United States.
    Som, S.
    Blue Marble Space Institute of Science, Seattle, WA, United States.
    Sharma, M.
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India.
    Phartiyal, B.
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India.
    Rajamani, S.
    Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune, India.
    Mogul, R.
    Blue Marble Space Institute of Science, Seattle, WA, United States. California Polytechnic University, Pomona, CA, United States.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Armilla, Granada, Spain.
    Vaishampayan, P.
    Blue Marble Space Institute of Science, Seattle, WA, United States.
    Blank, J.
    Blue Marble Space Institute of Science, Seattle, WA, United States.Space Sciences Division, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, United States.
    Steller, L.
    Australian Centre of Astrobiology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Srivastava, A
    Mars Society, Lakewood, CO, United States.
    Singh, R.
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India.
    McGuirk, S.
    Mars Society Australia, Clifton Hill, VIC, Australia. Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University, Australian Capital Territory, Australia.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain.
    Güttler, J.M.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Cal, Maria Teresa Mendaza de
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Soria-Salinas, Álvaro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Ahmad, S.
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India.
    Ansari, A.
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India.
    Singh, V.K
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India.
    Mungi, C.
    Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune, India.
    Bapat, N.
    Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune, India.
    Ladakh: Diverse, high-altitude extreme environments for off-earth analogue and astrobiology research2019In: International Journal of Astrobiology, ISSN 1473-5504, E-ISSN 1475-3006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper highlights unique sites in Ladakh, India, investigated during our 2016 multidisciplinary pathfinding expedition to the region. We summarize our scientific findings and the site's potential to support science exploration, testing of new technologies and science protocols within the framework of astrobiology research. Ladakh has several accessible, diverse, pristine and extreme environments at very high altitudes (3000–5700 m above sea level). These sites include glacial passes, sand dunes, hot springs and saline lake shorelines with periglacial features. We report geological observations and environmental characteristics (of astrobiological significance) along with the development of regolith-landform maps for cold high passes. The effects of the diurnal water cycle on salt deliquescence were studied using the ExoMars Mission instrument mockup: HabitAbility: Brines, Irradiance and Temperature (HABIT). It recorded the existence of an interaction between the diurnal water cycle in the atmosphere and salts in the soil (which can serve as habitable liquid water reservoirs). Life detection assays were also tested to establish the best protocols for biomass measurements in brines, periglacial ice-mud and permafrost melt water environments in the Tso-Kar region. This campaign helped confirm the relevance of clays and brines as interest targets of research on Mars for biomarker preservation and life detection.

  • 37.
    Castro, Juan Francisco Buenestado
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Mier, Maria-Paz Zorzano
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Liquid water at crater Gale, Mars2015In: Journal of Astrobiology and Outreach, ISSN 2332-2519, Vol. 3, no 3, article id 131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suspicion that Mars could have transient liquid water on its surface through deliquescence of salts to form aqueous solutions or brines is an old proposal whose inquiry was boosted by Phoenix Lander observations. It provided some images of what were claimed to be brines, the presence of which at its landing site was compatible with the atmospheric parameters and the composition of the soil observed. On the other hand, the so called Recurrent Slope Lineae (RSL) often imaged by orbiters, were considered as another clue pointing to the occurrence of the phenomenon, since it was thought that they might be caused by it. Now, Curiosity rover has performed the first in-situ multi-instrumental study on Mars’ surface, having collected the most comprehensive environmental data set ever taken by means of their instruments Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS), Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN), and Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM). REMS is providing continuous and accurate measurements of the relative humidity and surface and air temperatures among other parameters, and DAN and SAM provide the water content of the regolith and the atmosphere respectively. Analysis of these data has allowed to establish the existence of a present day active water cycle between the atmosphere and the regolith, that changes according to daily and seasonal cycles, and that is mediated by the presence of brines during certain periods of each and every day. Importantly, the study shows that the conditions for the occurrence of deliquescence are favourable even at equatorial latitudes where, at first, it was thought they were not due to the temperature and relative humidity conditions. This study provides new keys for the understanding of martian environment, and opens interesting lines of research and studies for future missions which may even have a bearing on extant microbial life.

  • 38.
    Guzewich, Scott D.
    et al.
    NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center,Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Lemmon, M.
    Space Science Institute, College Station, TX, USA.
    Smith, C.L
    Department of Earth and Space Science and Engineering, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Martínez, G.
    College of Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    de Vicente‐Retortillo, Á.
    College of Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Newman, C. E.
    Aeolis Research, Pasadena, CA, USA.
    Baker, M.
    Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Campbell, C.
    Department of Earth and Space Science and Engineering, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Cooper, B.
    Department of Earth and Space Science and Engineering, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Gómez‐Elvira, J.
    Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Madrid, Spain.
    Harri, A.‐M.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hassler, D.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO, USA.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC‐UGR), Armilla, Granada, Spain.
    McConnochie, T.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA.
    Moores, J. E.
    Department of Earth and Space Science and Engineering, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Kahanpää, H.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, , Helsinki, Finland; School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, , Espoo, Finland.
    Khayat, A.
    NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA;CRESST II and Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA.
    Richardson, M. I.
    Aeolis Research, Pasadena, CA, USA.
    Smith, M.D
    NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Sullivan, R.
    Cornell Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.
    de la Torre Juarez, M.
    Cornell Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.
    Vasavada, A.R
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA.
    Viúdez‐Moreiras, D.
    Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Madrid, Spain.
    Zeitlin, C.
    Leidos, Houston, TX, USA.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Mars Science Laboratory Observations of the 2018/Mars Year 34 Global Dust Storm2019In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 71-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover observations of the 2018/Mars year 34 global/planet‐encircling dust storm represent the first in situ measurements of a global dust storm with dedicated meteorological sensors since the Viking Landers. The Mars Science Laboratory team planned and executed a science campaign lasting approximately 100 Martian sols to study the storm involving an enhanced cadence of environmental monitoring using the rover's meteorological sensors, cameras, and spectrometers. Mast Camera 880‐nm optical depth reached 8.5, and Rover Environmental Monitoring Station measurements indicated a 97% reduction in incident total ultraviolet solar radiation at the surface, 30K reduction in diurnal range of air temperature, and an increase in the semidiurnal pressure tide amplitude to 40 Pa. No active dust‐lifting sites were detected within Gale Crater, and global and local atmospheric dynamics were drastically altered during the storm. This work presents an overview of the mission's storm observations and initial results.

  • 39.
    Harri, A.-M.
    et al.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Genzer, M.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Kemppinen, O.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Gomez-Elvira, J.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Haberle, R.
    NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field.
    Polkko, J.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Savijärvi, H.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Rennó, N.
    Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
    Rodriguez-Manfredi, J. A.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CAB).
    Schmidt, W.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Richardson, M.
    Ashima Research, Pasadena.
    Siili, T.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Paton, M.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Torre-Juarez, M. De La
    NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena.
    Mäkinen, T.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Newman, C.
    Ashima Research, Pasadena.
    Rafkin, S.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Mischna, M.
    NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena.
    Merikallio, S.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Haukka, H.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Komu, M.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Zorzano, María-Paz
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Peinado, V.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Vazquez, L.
    Department of Applied Mathematics, Complutense University of Madrid.
    Urqui, R.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CAB).
    Mars Science Laboratory relative humidity observations: Initial results2014In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 119, no 9, p. 2132-2147, article id 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) made a successful landing at Gale crater early August 2012. MSL has an environmental instrument package called the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) as a part of its scientific payload. REMS comprises instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air, ground temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity (REMS-H), and UV measurements. We concentrate on describing the REMS-H measurement performance and initial observations during the first 100 MSL sols as well as constraining the REMS-H results by comparing them with earlier observations and modeling results. The REMS-H device is based on polymeric capacitive humidity sensors developed by Vaisala Inc., and it makes use of transducer electronics section placed in the vicinity of the three humidity sensor heads. The humidity device is mounted on the REMS boom providing ventilation with the ambient atmosphere through a filter protecting the device from airborne dust. The final relative humidity results appear to be convincing and are aligned with earlier indirect observations of the total atmospheric precipitable water content. The water mixing ratio in the atmospheric surface layer appears to vary between 30 and 75 ppm. When assuming uniform mixing, the precipitable water content of the atmosphere is ranging from a few to six precipitable micrometers.

  • 40.
    Fonseca, Ricardo Morais
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    MARSWRF Prediction of Entry Descent Landing Profiles: Applications to Mars Exploration2019In: Earth and Space Science, E-ISSN 2333-5084, Vol. 6, no 8, p. 1440-1459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we use the Mars implementation of the Planet Weather Research and Forecasting model, MarsWRF, to simulate the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) vertical profiles from six past missions: Pathfinder, Mars Exploration Rovers Opportunity and SpiritPhoenix, Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover and ExoMars 2016 (Schiaparelli), and compare the results with observed data. In order to investigate the sensitivity of the model predictions to the atmospheric dust distribution, MarsWRF is run with two prescribed dust scenarios. It is concluded that the MarsWRF EDL predictions can be used for guidance into the design and planning stage of future missions to the planet, as it generally captures the observed EDL profiles, although it has a tendency to underestimate the temperature and overestimate the density for heights above 15 km. This could be attributed to an incorrect representation of the observed dust loading. We have used the model to predict the EDL conditions that may be encountered by two future missions: ExoMars 2020 and Mars 2020. When run for Oxia Planum and Jezero Crater for the expected landing time, MarsWRF predicts a large sensitivity to the dust loading in particular for the horizontal wind speed above 10‐15 km with maximum differences of up to ±30 m s‐1 for the former and ±15 m s‐1 for the latter site. For both sites, the best time for EDL, i.e. when the wind speed is generally the weakest with smaller shifts in direction, is predicted to be in the late morning and early afternoon.

  • 41.
    Vandaele, Ann Carine
    et al.
    Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (IASB-BIRA), Brussels, Belgium.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Univ Granada, Inst Andaluz Ciencias Tierra, Granada, Spain.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Inst Nacl Tecn Aeroespacial CSIC INTA, Ctr Astrobiol, Madrid, Spain.
    Martian dust storm impact on atmospheric H2O and D/H observed by ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter2019In: Nature, ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 568, no 7753, p. 521-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global dust storms on Mars are rare1,2 but can affect the Martian atmosphere for several months. They can cause changes in atmospheric dynamics and inflation of the atmosphere3, primarily owing to solar heating of the dust3. In turn, changes in atmospheric dynamics can affect the distribution of atmospheric water vapour, with potential implications for the atmospheric photochemistry and climate on Mars4. Recent observations of the water vapour abundance in the Martian atmosphere during dust storm conditions revealed a high-altitude increase in atmospheric water vapour that was more pronounced at high northern latitudes5,6, as well as a decrease in the water column at low latitudes7,8. Here we present concurrent, high-resolution measurements of dust, water and semiheavy water (HDO) at the onset of a global dust storm, obtained by the NOMAD and ACS instruments onboard the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter. We report the vertical distribution of the HDO/H2O ratio (D/H) from the planetary boundary layer up to an altitude of 80 kilometres. Our findings suggest that before the onset of the dust storm, HDO abundances were reduced to levels below detectability at altitudes above 40 kilometres. This decrease in HDO coincided with the presence of water-ice clouds. During the storm, an increase in the abundance of H2O and HDO was observed at altitudes between 40 and 80 kilometres. We propose that these increased abundances may be the result of warmer temperatures during the dust storm causing stronger atmospheric circulation and preventing ice cloud formation, which may confine water vapour to lower altitudes through gravitational fall and subsequent sublimation of ice crystals3. The observed changes in H2O and HDO abundance occurred within a few days during the development of the dust storm, suggesting a fast impact of dust storms on the Martian atmosphere.

  • 42.
    Lasue, J.
    et al.
    Université de Toulouse, Toulouse, France.
    Cousin, A.
    Université de Toulouse, Toulouse, France.
    Meslin, P.Y
    Université de Toulouse,Toulouse, France.
    Mangold, N.
    Université de Nantes, Nantes, France.
    Wiens, R.C
    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA.
    Berger, G.
    Université de Toulouse,Toulouse, France.
    Dehouck, E.
    Université de Lyon, Villeurbanne, France.
    Forni, O.
    Université de Toulouse,Toulouse, France.
    Goetz, W.
    Max‐Planck‐Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Göttingen, Germany.
    Gasnault, O.
    Université de Toulouse,Toulouse, France.
    Rapin, W.
    California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA.
    Schroeder, S.
    German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institut für Optische Sensorsysteme, Berlin‐Adlershof, Germany.
    Ollila, A.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA.
    Johnson, J.
    Johns Hopkins University APL, Laurel, MD, USA.
    Le Mouélic, S.
    Université de Nantes, Nantes, France.
    Maurice, S.
    Université de Toulouse, Toulouse, France.
    Anderson, R.
    USGS, Flagstaff, AZ, USA.
    Blaney, D.
    NASA JPL, Pasadena, CA, USA.
    Clark, B.
    Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO, USA.
    Clegg, S.M
    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA.
    D'Uston, C.
    Université de Toulouse,Toulouse, France.
    Fabre, C.
    Lorraine University, Vandoeuvre, France.
    Lanza, N.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA.
    Madsen, M.B
    Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Melikechi, N.
    University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, USA.
    Newsom, H.
    University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA.
    Sautter, V.
    Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Torrejón de Ardoz, Spain.
    Martian Eolian Dust Probed by ChemCam2018In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 45, no 20, p. 10968-10977Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ubiquitous eolian dust on Mars plays important roles in the current sedimentary and atmospheric processes of the planet. The ChemCam instrument retrieves a consistent eolian dust composition at the submillimeter scale from every first laser shot on Mars targets. Its composition presents significant differences with the Aeolis Palus soils and the Bagnold dunes as it contains lower CaO and higher SiO2. The dust FeO and TiO2contents are also higher, probably associated with nanophase oxide components. The dust spectra show the presence of volatile elements (S and Cl), and the hydrogen content is similar to Bagnold sands but lower than Aeolis Palus soils. Consequently, the dust may be a contributor to the amorphous component of soils, but differences in composition indicate that the two materials are not equivalent.

  • 43.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Sam, Lydia
    Institut für Kartographie, Technische Universität Dresden.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Zorzano Mier, Maria-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Fonseca, Ricardo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Martian slope streaks as plausible indicators of transient water activity2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 7074Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Slope streaks have been frequently observed in the equatorial, low thermal inertia and dusty regions of Mars. The reason behind their formation remains unclear with proposed hypotheses for both dry and wet mechanisms. Here, we report an up-to-date distribution and morphometric investigation of Martian slope streaks. We find: (i) a remarkable coexistence of the slope streak distribution with the regions on Mars with high abundances of water-equivalent hydrogen, chlorine, and iron; (ii) favourable thermodynamic conditions for transient deliquescence and brine development in the slope streak regions; (iii) a significant concurrence of slope streak distribution with the regions of enhanced atmospheric water vapour concentration, thus suggestive of a present-day regolith-atmosphere water cycle; and (iv) terrain preferences and flow patterns supporting a wet mechanism for slope streaks. These results suggest a strong local regolith-atmosphere water coupling in the slope streak regions that leads to the formation of these fluidised features. Our conclusions can have profound astrobiological, habitability, environmental, and planetary protection implications

  • 44.
    Delgado-Bonal, Alfonso
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Mier, Maria-Paz Zorzano
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Martian Top of the Atmosphere 10–420 nm spectral irradiance database and forecast for solar cycle 242016In: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 134, p. 228-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultraviolet radiation from 10 to 420 nm reaching Mars Top of the Atmosphere (TOA) and surface is important in a wide variety of fields such as space exploration, climate modeling, and spacecraft design, as it has impact in the physics and chemistry of the atmosphere and soil. Despite the existence of databases for UV radiation reaching Earth TOA, based in space-borne instrumentation orbiting our planet, there is no similar information for Mars. Here we present a Mars TOA UV spectral irradiance database for solar cycle 24 (years 2008–2019), containing daily values from 10 to 420 nm. The values in this database have been computed using a model that is fed by the Earth-orbiting Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) data. As the radiation coming from the Sun is not completely isotropic, in order to eliminate the geometrically related features but being able to capture the general characteristics of the solar cycle stage, we provide 3-, 7- and 15-days averaged values at each wavelength. Our database is of interest for atmospheric modeling and spectrally dependent experiments on Mars, the analysis of current and upcoming surface missions (rovers and landers) and orbiters in Mars. Daily values for the TOA UV conditions at the rover Curiosity location, as well as for the NASA Insight mission in 2016, and ESA/Russia ExoMars mission in 2018 are provided.

  • 45.
    Martorell, José Antonio Gordillo
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Israel Nazarious, Miracle
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Mathanlal, Thasshwin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Granada, Spain.
    Zorzano, María Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, Spain.
    Thurfjell, Magnus
    Porsöskolan, Lulea, Sweden.
    Antich Lunqvist, Margaretta
    Porsöskolan, Lulea, Sweden.
    Metabolizing science from the laboratory to the classroom: The Metabolt Educational Experience2019In: Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, Vol. 2, no 7, p. 9-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article summarizes a pilot knowledge co-creation process experience done with a group of 15 eleven and twelve years old students of Porsöskolan, a public school near Luleå Tekniska Universitet from September 2018 to January 2019. The experience is based on a true research project of the Group of Atmospheric Science (GAS) called METABOLT, an instrument to investigate the metabolic activity of microorganisms in soils by measuring the electrochemical and gaseous bio signatures. In this paper, we explain how we have designed, developed, applied and evaluated a complete learning and engagement strategy to bring science from the laboratory to the classroom. The experience adapts the scientific method to the primary classroom level, taking as practical case the METABOLT experiment: identification of a problem, hypothesis design, experiment creation to get results, analysis and confrontation with the hypothesis and provisional conclusions to verify or discard them. After the experience a set of surveys were given to all the stakeholders, students, teachers and researchers to evaluate their perception of the effects of the activity. One unexpected result is the difference in perception between the teachers and students on the learning experience. This project demonstrates that professional researchers with the adequate communication strategy, training and tracking can promote a relevant learning process and achieve a social impact in different audiences

  • 46.
    Soria-Salinas, Álvaro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Zorzano, María Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Centro de Astrobiologiá (INTA-CSIC), Madrid.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Granada.
    Microgravity validation for xenon propellant distributions2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current Electric Propulsion era, one of the most relevant propellants is xenon, which is generally stored in supercritical stage. Because of the increase in time of spacecraft lifetime, the amount of propellant stored on-board has been quadrupled in the recent years, and the need of more accurate gauging methods for measuring propellant usage along the missions has become more critical too. Thermal gradients affect the densities distribution of the stored propellants and this turns out to be critical in orbit because of the absence of convection in low-gravity environments. Recently we have proposed a new gauging method (Soria-Salinas, et al., 2017) that relies on the analysis of measurements from existing and operating technology (in TRL 9), i.e., this method does not imply the development of any new technology. This new method, the improved PVT method, improves by a factor 8 the accuracy of the standard PVT retrievals (Soria-Salinas, et al., 2017). A laboratory experimental validation has shown that, for CO2 at a pressure of about 70 bar, just below the critical pressure, the error of the mass retrieval using this new gauging method is only 0.1% of the initial mass at launch. However, for its complete validation, a microgravity study should be performed in order to quantify the effect of thermal gradients under the absence of convection in a low-g environment. The present work describes: 1) the design of a proposed in-flight microgravity validation experiment for a parabolic flight campaign such as those provided by the Airbus A-310 zero-G platform for microgravity research; and 2) comparative studies of the expected xenon density distribution of real size tanks under operation in orbit, through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and heat transfer calculations.

  • 47.
    Hochberg, David
    et al.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA).
    Zorzano, María Paz
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA).
    Mirror symmetry breaking as a problem in dynamic critical phenomena2007In: Physical Review E. Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics: Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids, and Related Interdisciplinary Topics, ISSN 1063-651X, E-ISSN 1095-3787, Vol. 76, no 2, article id 021109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The critical properties of the Frank model of spontaneous chiral synthesis are discussed by applying results from the field theoretic renormalization group (RG). The long time and long wavelength features of this microscopic reaction scheme belong to the same universality class as multicolored directed percolation processes. Thus the following RG fixed points (FPs) govern the critical dynamics of the Frank model for d<4: one unstable FP that corresponds to complete decoupling between the two enantiomers, a saddle point that corresponds to symmetric interspecies coupling, and two stable FPs that individually correspond to unidirectional couplings between the two chiral molecules. These latter two FPs are associated with the breakdown of mirror or chiral symmetry. In this simplified model of molecular synthesis, homochirality is a natural consequence of the intrinsic reaction noise in the critical regime, which corresponds to extremely dilute chemical systems.

  • 48. Korablev, Oleg
    et al.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Vago, Jorge L.
    European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), ESA, Noordwijk, The Netherlands.
    No detection of methane on Mars from early ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter observations2019In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 568, p. 517-520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The detection of methane on Mars has been interpreted as indicating that geochemical or biotic activities could persist on Mars today1. A number of different measurements of methane show evidence of transient, locally elevated methane concentrations and seasonal variations in background methane concentrations2,3,4,5. These measurements, however, are difficult to reconcile with our current understanding of the chemistry and physics of the Martian atmosphere6,7, which—given methane’s lifetime of several centuries—predicts an even, well mixed distribution of methane1,6,8. Here we report highly sensitive measurements of the atmosphere of Mars in an attempt to detect methane, using the ACS and NOMAD instruments onboard the ESA-Roscosmos ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter from April to August 2018. We did not detect any methane over a range of latitudes in both hemispheres, obtaining an upper limit for methane of about 0.05 parts per billion by volume, which is 10 to 100 times lower than previously reported positive detections2,4. We suggest that reconciliation between the present findings and the background methane concentrations found in the Gale crater4 would require an unknown process that can rapidly remove or sequester methane from the lower atmosphere before it spreads globally.

  • 49.
    Gaite, José A.
    et al.
    Inst. de Matemat./Fis. Fundamental, CSIC.
    Zorzano, María Paz
    Centro de Astrobiología, CSIC-INTA.
    Nonlinear spherical gravitational downfall of gas onto a solid ball: Analytic and numerical results2003In: Physica D: Non-linear phenomena, ISSN 0167-2789, E-ISSN 1872-8022, Vol. 183, no 1-2, p. 102-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of downfall of initially homogeneous gas onto a solid ball due to the ball's gravity (relevant in astrophysical situations) is studied with a combination of analytic and numerical methods. The initial explicit solution soon becomes discontinuous and gives rise to a shock wave. Afterwards, there is a crossover between two intermediate asymptotic similarity regimes, where the shock wave propagates outwards according to two self-similar laws, initially accelerating and eventually decelerating and vanishing, leading to a static state. The numerical study allows one to investigate in detail this dynamical problem and its time evolution, verifying and complementing the analytic results on the initial solution, intermediate self-similar laws and static long-term solution.

  • 50.
    Zorzano, María Paz
    et al.
    Centro De AstrobiologIÍa.
    Mancho, Ana Maria
    Inst. De Matemat. Y FIIsica F., Consejo Sup. De Invest. CientIIficas.
    Vázquez, Luiz
    Departamento de Matemáatica Aplicada, Facultad de Inform´atica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid.
    Numerical integration of the discrete-ordinate radiative transfer equation in strongly non-homogeneous media2005In: Applied Mathematics and Computation, ISSN 0096-3003, E-ISSN 1873-5649, Vol. 164, no 1, p. 263-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider the radiation transfer problem in the discrete-ordinate, plane-parallel approach. We introduce two benchmark problems with exact known solutions and show that for strongly non-homogeneous media the homogeneous layers approximation can lead to errors of 10% in the estimation of the intensity. We propose and validate a general purpose numerical method that transforming the two-boundary problem into an initial boundary problem, using an adaptative step integration and an interpolation of the local optical properties, can improve the accuracy of the solution up to two orders of magnitude. This is furthermore of interest for practical applications, such as atmospheric radiation transfer, where the scattering and absorbing properties of the media vary strongly with height and are only known, based on measurements or models, at certain discrete points.

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