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  • 101.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Karimu, Amin
    Umeå universitet.
    Elmarknaden och elprisets utveckling före och efter avregleringen: ekonometriska analyser2012Report (Other academic)
  • 102.
    Bäckström, Kristoffer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Aktivitet: Gästföreläsning vid Moscow State University2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Presenterade forskning kring hur miljötekniska innovationer kan främjas av olika styrmedel.

  • 103.
    Bäckström, Kristoffer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Aktivitet: Norrbottensakademiens ekonomipris för bästa examensarbete inom ekonomi 20122012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Motivering:Uppsatsen använder patentdata för flera länder över en längre tidsperiod för att med hjälp av ekonometriska metoder studera hur energipolitiken påverkat innovationsbenägenheten i solenergiteknologi. Bäckström har gjort ett imponerande jobb med att samla in data och diskutera dess reliabilitet samt validitet. Han utgår från teorin om endogen (inducerad) teknisk utveckling och använder avancerade metoder (s.k. count data modelling) för att analysera effekterna av t.ex. stödformer och FoU (och deras interaktion) på patentbenägenheten. Uppsatsen genererar flera viktiga resultat och är så pass bra att den (i en förkortad version) skulle kunna publiceras i en erkänd vetenskaplig tidskrift. Kristoffer Bäckström är en värdig mottagare av NOAKs ekonomipris.

  • 104.
    Bäckström, Kristoffer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The Role of Public Policies for Energy Technology Development: Their Innovation Effects and Interaction2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this thesis is to analyze the role of public policies for technological development (i.e., innovation) in the renewable energy sector. The thesis consists of an introductory part and three self-contained papers.

    Paper I investigates the innovation effects of renewable energy support policies and their interaction in the empirical context of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. This is achieved by using data on solar PV patent counts and policies targeting solar PV development across 13 countries over the time period 1978-2008. These policies include public R&D support to solar PV as well as two different types of production support schemes: feed-in tariffs (FIT) and renewable energy certificates (REC). The data are applied to a negative binomial model and the results indicate that: (a) both FIT and REC schemes stimulate solar PV patenting activity although the impact of the former is of a larger magnitude; (b) public R&D has been more influential than the production support schemes in inducing solar PV innovation; and (c) policy interaction exists in that the innovation effect of public R&D support is greater at the margin if it is accompanied by the use of FIT schemes for solar PV.

    Paper II analyzes the role of pilot and demonstration plants (PDPs) in technological development. As surprisingly little explicit attention has been devoted to this issue in prior research, the existing literature is synthesized and categorized, and an agenda is proposed for future work. Scholarly work on PDPs can be found across several research fields and the discussion in the paper is organized around three research streams: engineering and natural science research, technology and innovation management, and innovation systems. Based on searches in key bibliographic databases more than 200 publications were identified and reviewed. According to the literature synthesis, the plants bridge basic knowledge generation and technological breakthroughs on the one hand (promoted by public R&D support), and exploitation of new technology for commercial use on the other (promoted by production support schemes). Still, more research on the subject is needed. For instance, the role of PDPs for inducing innovation needs to be assessed in a rigorous empirical setting as this issue has only been researched in conceptual studies or retrospective case studies based entirely on qualitative or descriptive approaches.

    Paper III provides an econometric analysis of the innovation impacts of publicly funded PDP activities in the case of advanced biofuel technology. This is achieved by using data on biofuel patent counts and PDPs across eight European countries over the time period 1980-2011. It is acknowledged that PDPs have two main objectives: testing and optimization of technology (experimental PDPs), and diffusion and commercialization of technology (exemplary PDPs). The data are applied to a negative binomial model and indicate that: (a) PDP activities are overall positively correlated with biofuel patents; (b) experimental PDPs are more innovation-promoting than exemplary PDPs; and (c) experimental PDP activities encourage innovation also indirectly through knowledge spillovers.

    The overall conclusion is that environmental policy encourages renewable energy innovation. Public R&D support as well as production support schemes are important for inducing innovation, and there are interactions between these policy types which must be acknowledged when designing public support. As public R&D support is more innovation-promoting when accompanied by the use of certain production support schemes, these policies should be employed simultaneously. Moreover, publicly funded PDP activities foster innovation and thus, their role must also be acknowledged when designing public policy.

  • 105.
    Bäckström, Kristoffer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    What are the Innovation Effects of Pilot and Demonstration Plants?: The Case of Advanced Biofuels in the Transport Sector2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pilot and demonstration plants (PDPs) may be important for fostering technological innovation. They constitute a bridge between basic knowledge generation and technological breakthroughs on the one hand, and industrial application and commercial adoption of new technology on the other. The aim of this paper is to examine the innovation impacts of publicly funded PDP activities in the empirical context of production technology for advanced biofuels. The study is conducted by employing patent data for eight European countries over the time period 1980-2011, and it is acknowledged that PDPs have two main objectives: testing and optimization of technology (experimental PDPs), and diffusion and commercialization of technology (exemplary PDPs). The results are overall robust to alternative model specifications, and indicate that: (a) PDP activities are overall positively correlated with biofuel patenting activity; (b) both experimental and exemplary PDPs encourage biofuel innovation although the impact of the former is more profound; and (c) development activities in experimental PDPs encourage innovation also indirectly through knowledge spillovers across countries.

  • 106.
    Bäckström, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Public Policies and Solar PV Innovation: An Empirical Study Based on Patent Data2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to examine the innovation impacts of different renewable energy support policies and their interaction in the empirical context of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. This is achieved using data on patent applications for 13 countries over the time period 1978-2008. Three policies are included in the analysis: public R&D support to solar PV, fixed feed-in tariffs (FIT), and renewable energy certificate (REC) schemes. The results are overall robust to alternative model specifications, and indicate that: (a) both FIT schemes and REC schemes induce more solar PV patenting activity even though the impact of the former policy appears to be more profound; (b) (lagged) public R&D support has an important impact on solar PV innovation; and (c) policy interaction exists in that the impact of public R&D support on innovation is greater at the margin if it is accompanied by the use of FIT schemes for solar PV. A corresponding interaction effect does not emerge in the case of public R&D and the use of REC schemes, possibly due to the relatively strong technology selection pressure under the latter policy.

  • 107.
    Bäckström, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ständiga förbättringar och arbetsutveckling i små steg2004In: Kvalitetsmagasinet, ISSN 1104-1579, no 5, p. 31-35Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 108.
    Börjesson, Martin
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Ahlgren, Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Athanassiadis, Dimitris
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Future bioenergy scenarios under carbon constraints: A model analysis for Sweden2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 109.
    Börjesson, Martin
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Ahlgren, Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Athanassiadis, Dimitris
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundström, Anders
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Scenarios for large-scale integration of renewable fuels in the Swedish road transport sector2013Report (Refereed)
  • 110.
    Börjesson, Martin
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Ahlgren, Erik O.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Athanassiadis, Dimitris
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Biofuel futures in road transport: A modeling analysis for Sweden2014In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 32, p. 239-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    First and second generation biofuels are among few low-carbon alternatives for road transport that currently are commercially available or in an early commercialization phase. They are thus potential options for meeting climate targets in the medium term. For the case of Sweden, we investigate cost-efficient use of biofuels in road transport under system-wide CO2 reduction targets to 2050, and the effects of implementation of targets for an almost fossil-free road transport sector to 2030. We apply the bottom-up, optimization MARKAL_Sweden model, which covers the entire Swedish energy system including the transport sector. For CO2 reductions of 80% to 2050 in the Swedish energy system as a whole, the results of the main scenario show an annual growth rate for road transport biofuels of about 6% from 2010 to 2050, with biofuels accounting for 78% of road transport final energy use in 2050. The preferred biofuel choices are methanol and biomethane. When introducing additional fossil fuel phase-out policies in road transport (−80% to 2030), a doubling of the growth rate to 2030 is required and system CO2 abatement costs increases by 6% for the main scenario. Results imply that second generation biofuels, along with energy-efficient vehicle technologies such as plug-in hybrids, can be an important part of optimized system solutions meeting stringent medium-term climate targets.

  • 111.
    Börjesson, Martin
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Ahlgren, Erik O.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Athanassiadis, Dimitris
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Oil Phase Out in the Transportation Sector of Sweden: Costs and Consequences2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 112.
    Börjesson, Martin
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Athanassiadis, Dimitris
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ahlgren, Erik O.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Bioenergy futures in Sweden: system effects of CO2 reduction and fossil fuel phase-out policies2015In: Global Change Biology Bioenergy, ISSN 1757-1693, E-ISSN 1757-1707, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 1118-1135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioenergy could contribute both to the reduction of greenhouse gases and to increased energy security, but the extent of this contribution strongly depends on the cost and potential of biomass resources. For Sweden, this study investigates how the implementation of policies for CO2 reduction and for phase out of fossil fuels in road transport affect the future utilization of biomass, in the stationary energy system and in the transport sector, and its price. The analysis is based on the bottom-up, optimization MARKAL_Sweden model, which includes a comprehensive representation of the national energy system. For the analysis, the biomass supply representation of MARKAL_Sweden is updated and improved by the use of, e.g., forestry forecasting modeling and through construction of detailed biomass supply curves. A time horizon up to 2050 is applied. The results indicate a potential for significantly higher use of bioenergy. In the main analysis scenario, in which CO2 reduction of 80% by 2050 is imposed on the Swedish energy system, the total bioenergy utilization increases by 63% by 2050 compared to 2010. The largest increase occurs in the transport sector, which by 2050 accounts for 43% of the total primary bioenergy use. The high demand and strong competition significantly increase biomass prices and lead to the utilization of higher cost biomass sources such as stumps and cultivated energy forest, as well as use of pulpwood resources for energy purposes.

  • 113.
    Chege, Christine C.K.
    et al.
    Georg-August-University of Goettingen.
    Andersson, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Qaim, Matin
    Georg-August-University of Goettingen.
    Impacts of Supermarkets on Farm Household Nutrition in Kenya2015In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 72, p. 394-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many developing countries experience a food system transformation with a rapid growth of supermarkets. We analyze impacts of supermarkets on farm household nutrition with survey data from Kenya. Participation in supermarket channels is associated with significantly higher calorie, vitamin A, iron, and zinc consumption. We use simultaneous equation models to analyze impact pathways. Supermarket-supplying households have higher incomes, a higher share of land under vegetables, and a higher likelihood of male control of revenues. Furthermore, income and the share of land under vegetables have positive impacts, while male control of revenues has negative impacts on dietary quality. Policy and further research implications are discussed.

  • 114.
    Choumert, Johanna
    et al.
    Université d'Auvergne.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Uwera, Claudine
    University of Gothenburg, University of Rwanda.
    Access to water as determinant of rental values: A housing hedonic analysis in Rwanda2014In: Journal of Housing Economics, ISSN 1051-1377, E-ISSN 1096-0791, Vol. 26, p. 48-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study the determinants of rental values in urban housing markets in Kigali, Rwanda. In particular, we study the value of access to piped water; due to the high costs associated with installing new piped connections, renting a property with an existing connection is often the only way for low income households to access piped water. Our results indicate that extending the piped network to a new house will in many cases raise the rental value of the house enough to pay for the cost of installing the new connection in less than two years.

  • 115. Coria, Jessica
    et al.
    Hennlock, Magnus
    Löfgren, Åsa
    Persson, Martin
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sterner, Thomas
    Wråke, Markus
    The progress of GHG markets: opportunities and risks2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The climate negotiations at the COP15 in December 2009 did not produce a new international treaty with binding emissions commitments but the Copenhagen Accord for dealing with post-2012 climate change. Given the current climate negotiation process it is unlikely that we will see a global climate agreement soon on a global cap between all Convention members participating in a single carbon market. We may be more likely to see a stepwise process moving towards this scenario, most likely involving linkages between different national policy programs when it comes to mitigation as well as offsetting emissions. In such a process countries will offer commitments based on their domestic abilities, preferences and policies, norms and institutions. National and sub-national policies are thus likely to be the de-facto building blocks of nations' abilities to make and fulfill international commitments. However, also with multilateral mitigation programs without binding commitments, carbon markets will be needed as well as international authorities that support measurement, reporting and verification rules and the international registries. Such markets will necessarily be complicated and temporary in a world without an overarching binding agreement. There will be numerous tradeoffs between different kinds of second-best arrangements. The purpose of this report is to build knowledge about the effects of the development of regional and international carbon markets and the auxiliary technology agreements that might be needed. Among the topics we address are: the evolution and integration of carbon markets, the impacts of policy and technology cost uncertainty on the cost of meeting targets through a carbon market mechanism, the effect of banking, price floors and ceilings, institutional constraints and technological change in the further development of carbon markets and their links to other environmental policy instruments, and the potential of REDD-plus to encourage sustainable forest development and climate mitigation.

  • 116.
    Dahl, Carol
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Mineral and Energy Economics Program and Payne Institute of Earth Resources, Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO .
    Editor's Introduction2018In: Energy Journal, ISSN 0195-6574, E-ISSN 1944-9089, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 257-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 117.
    Dahlqvist, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Current and future trends in the European forest resource market: trade and competition issues2005In: Biomass for energy, industry and climate protection: 14th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition ; proceedings of the international conference held in Paris, France, 17 - 21 October 2005 / [ed] L. Sjunnesson, Florence: ETA - Renewable Energies , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 118.
    Dahlqvist, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Increasing the use of forest resources: a result of a political mass psychosis?2005In: Biomass for energy, industry and climate protection: 14th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition ; proceedings of the international conference held in Paris, France, 17 - 21 October 2005, Florence: ETA - Renewable Energies , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 119.
    Dahlqvist, Anna
    et al.
    National Institute of Economic Research.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Industrial Energy Use, Management Practices and Price Signals: The Case of Swedish Process Industry2019In: International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, ISSN 2146-4553, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 30-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of the paper are to: (a) derive and discuss indicators of industrial companies’ decision-making and management practices on energy use; and (b) investigate whether these practices can help explain variations in energy intensities across these companies. The data were collected through telephone interviews with 101 large industrial firms in Sweden. The indicators display a significant overall increase in firms’ awareness of energy efficiency issues over time, including the attention devoted to these issues at the top management level. Still, our econometric results show that energy prices constitute the most important determinant of inter-firm differences in energy intensities. Higher energy prices over the time-period, have induced the implementation of energy-relevant management and practices, and led to more systematic decision-making processes. Finally, firms for which so-called ‘hidden’ costs, e.g., the costs of production disruptions, are a large concern, will be more energy intense than others.

  • 120. Dienes, Leslie
    et al.
    Dobozi, István
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Energy and economic reform in the Former Soviet Union: implications for production, consumption and exports, and for the international energy markets1994Book (Other academic)
  • 121.
    Dieperink, Carel
    et al.
    Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Environmental Governance.
    Mees, Hannelore
    Antwerp University, Research Group Environment and Society.
    Priest, Sally J.
    Flood Hazard Research Centre, Middlesex University.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bruzzone, Silvia
    Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées (ENPC), France.
    Larrue, Corinne
    University of Paris.
    Matczak, Piotr
    Adam Mickiewicz University, Institute of Sociology.
    Managing urban flood resilience as a multilevel governance challenge: an analysis of required multilevel coordination mechanisms2018In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In both academic literature and flood risk management practices, it is argued that governance initiatives are needed to enhance the flood resilience of urban agglomerations. Multiple levels of governance will be involved in this activity. However, thus far, the literature has hardly addressed what mechanisms are required to coordinate the different levels of managing urban flood resilience, and what factors account for these mechanisms. Our aim is to address this knowledge gap. Here, we examine six in-depth case studies undertaken in urban agglomerations in different European countries: Dordrecht, the Netherlands; Hull, UK; Geraardsbergen, Belgium; Karlstad, Sweden; Wroclaw, Poland; and Nice, France. The case studies reveal the ways in which multiple levels of governance are involved in managing urban flood resilience. Coordination among governance levels is achieved by proactive policy entrepreneurs, the use of bridging concepts, clear rules, and the provision of resources. These mechanisms seem to be universally applicable, but their characteristics appear to be highly dependent on more general institutional, economic, geographical, and cultural contextual factors.

  • 122.
    Dikgang, Johane
    et al.
    Department of Economics and Econometrics, Public and Environmental Economics Research Centre (PEERC), University of Johannesburg.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Local communities’ valuation of environmental amenities around the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park in Southern Africa2017In: Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy, ISSN 2160-6544, E-ISSN 2160-6552, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 168-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper seeks to examine how communities value a variety of drylandenvironmental amenities provided by the Kgalagadi Transfontier Parkwhere there is an interest in limiting their access, both in order to protectthe environment and in order to make it more attractive for tourists. Thisis done using a choice experiment, which targeted households in theKgalagadi area. The values placed on environmental amenities byindigenous communities are estimated using a conditional logit model, arandom parameter logit model and a random parameter logit model withinteractions. The results show that local communities would prefer gettingincreased grazing opportunities and bush food collection. This is animportant policy issue in itself, and it also ties in well with on-goingdiscussions on how to compensate (or at least attach reasonable costestimates to) losses to local communities linked to environmentalpreservation policies.

  • 123.
    Dikgang, Johane
    et al.
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    The Effect of Land Restitution on Poverty Reduction among the Khomani San “Bushmen” in South Africa2016In: South African Journal of Economics, ISSN 0038-2280, E-ISSN 1813-6982, Vol. 84, no 1, p. 63-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper looks at the impact of land restitution involving the Khomani San “bushmen” in the Kgalagadi area of South Africa. It seeks to investigate the effect of land restitution on poverty reduction among the beneficiaries. We run two-stage least squares models of access to nature, per capita income and poverty status on the use of restituted land, among other variables. Our results suggest that the Khomani San beneficiaries have gotten more access to natural resources but that the use of restituted land has neither increased per capita income nor reduced poverty. In fact, the use of restituted land has contributed to increased poverty. Therefore, land restitution should become part of a broader, carefully crafted rural developmental strategy for it to be effective in reducing poverty. Otherwise, land restitution risks enabling indigenous communities to continue with their “traditional” way of life, and in fact thereby keep them poor.

  • 124.
    Dikgang, Johane
    et al.
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town, Environmental-Economics Policy Research Unit (EPRU), School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    Environmental-Economics Policy Research Unit (EPRU), School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    The valuation of biodiversity conservation by the South African Khomani San "bushmen" community2012In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 84, p. 7-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The restitution of parkland to the Khomani San "bushmen" and Mier "agricultural" communities in May 2002 marked a significant shift in conservation in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park and environs in South Africa. Biodiversity conservation will benefit from this land restitution only if the Khomani San, who interact with nature more than do other groups, are good environmental stewards. To assess their attitude toward biodiversity conservation, this study used the contingent valuation method to investigate the economic values the communities assign to biodiversity conservation under three land tenure arrangements in the Kgalagadi area. For each community and land tenure arrangement, there are winners and losers, but the winners benefit by more than the cost that losers suffer. The net worth for biodiversity conservation under the various land tenure regimes ranged from R928 to R3456 to R4160 for municipal land, parkland, and communal land respectively for the Khomani San, compared to R25. 600 to R57. 600 to R64. 000 for municipal land, parkland, and communal land respectively for the Mier.

  • 125.
    Dikgang, Johane
    et al.
    University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Securing benefits for local communities from international visitors to the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park2017In: Tourism Economics, ISSN 1354-8166, E-ISSN 2044-0375, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 1553-1567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article estimates the visitation demand function for Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park (KTP) in order to determine the scope for raising fees charged to international tourists in order to fund revenue-sharing schemes for local communities. International and Southern African Development Community tourists account for approximately 25% and 2% of the total number of visitors to South African national parks, with domestic visitors making up the remaining portion. Although small, the South African international tourism market is mature and accounts for a disproportionately large share (around 42%) of net revenue. To estimate visitation demand at the KTP and three other national parks, random effects Tobit Model was used. Using the estimated elasticities, the revenue-maximizing daily conservation fee was computed to be R1 131.94 (US$144.20) for KTP, which can be compared with the R180 (US$22.93) currently charged. Furthermore, the study also demonstrated that there is a possibility of raising fees at the other three parks. Sharing conservation revenue with communities surrounding parks could demonstrate the link between ecotourism and local communities’ economic development and promote a positive view of land restitution involving national parks.

  • 126.
    Edström, Frida
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    Nilsson, Hanna
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    The Natural Forest Protection Program in China: A contingent valuation study in Heilongjiang province2012In: Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering A, ISSN 2162-5298, E-ISSN 2162-5301, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 426-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1998, the Chinese Government implemented the NFPP (Natural Forest Protection Program), which included logging restrictions, protected areas, replanting, and a range of other policies aimed at safeguarding the state of the country’s forests and reducing the risk of erosion and flooding. A second phase of this program is currently being discussed. In this paper, contingent valuation is used to estimate the WTP (willingness to pay) for maintaining the program among the inhabitants in Heilongjiang Province in northern China. The results show that, even with fairly conservative assumptions, the aggregated WTP for maintaining the program for another five years is some 3.24 billion yuan per year. This can be compared with the current cost of the Program in the province, which is some 1.57 billion yuan per year.

  • 127.
    Egberth, Mikael
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nyberg, Gert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Næsset, Erik
    Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences.
    Gobakken, Terje
    Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences.
    Mauya, Ernest
    Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences.
    Malimbwi, Rogers
    Department of Forest Mensuration and Management, Sokoine University of Agriculture, United Republic of Tanzania.
    Katani, Josiah
    Department of Forest Mensuration and Management, Sokoine University of Agriculture, United Republic of Tanzania.
    Chamuya, Nurdin
    Tanzania Forest Services Agency, Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism, United Republic of Tanzania.
    Bulenga, George
    Department of Forest Mensuration and Management, Sokoine University of Agriculture, United Republic of Tanzania.
    Olsson, Håkan
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Combining airborne laser scanning and Landsat data for statistical modeling of soil carbon and tree biomass in Tanzanian Miombo woodlands2017In: Carbon Balance and Management, ISSN 1750-0680, E-ISSN 1750-0680, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil carbon and biomass depletion can be used to identify and quantify degraded soils,and by using remote sensing, there is potential to map soil conditions over large areas.Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager satellite data and airborne laser scanning datawere evaluated separately and in combination for modeling soil organic carbon, aboveground tree biomass and below ground tree biomass. The test site is situated in theLiwale district in southeastern Tanzania and is dominated by Miombo woodlands. Treedata from 15m radius field-surveyed plots and samples of soil carbon down to a depthof 30cm were used as reference data for tree biomass and soil carbon estimations.Cross-validated plot level error (RMSE) for predicting soil organic carbon was 28%using only Landsat 8, 26% using laser only, and 23% for the combination of the two.The plot level error for above ground tree biomass was 66% when using only Landsat8, 50% for laser and 49% for the combination of Landsat 8 and laser data. Results forbelow ground tree biomass were similar to above ground biomass. Additionally it wasfound that an early dry season satellite image was preferable for modelling biomasswhile images from later in the dry season were better for modelling soil carbon.The results show that laser data is superior to Landsat 8 when predicting both soilcarbon and biomass above and below ground in landscapes dominated by Miombowoodlands. Furthermore, the combination of laser data and Landsat data weremarginally better than using laser data only.

  • 128.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Mineral development and regional employment effects in northern Sweden: a scenario-based assessment2013In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 25, no 2-3, p. 55-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the main results of an assessment of the local and regional economic benefits of a new large-scale iron ore project that is currently being developed by Northland Resources in northern Sweden. Specifically, the mine is located in Pajala—a municipality of approximately 6,300 residents in Norrbotten County in northern Sweden. We employ the Swedish regional impact model rAps to estimate the local and regional benefits of the project, focusing mainly on the employment opportunities created by multiplier effects. The rAps-system links an input–output model of regional production with a demographic model of net migration and commuting. This allows us to use a scenario-based approach and simulate the impact of different demographic assumptions, which are key determinants of the magnitude of local benefits. The local labour supply is limited and if most of the workers are non-residents who commute, much of the household incomes generated by the project flow out of Pajala and benefit other municipalities in the region. Our results indicate that the local employment multiplier for Pajala varies between 1.4 to 1.6 depending on the demographic assumptions, but the effect on local incomes is limited if labour demand is serviced mainly by commuters from other municipalities. The estimated regional employment multiplier for Norrbotten County is approximately 1.7, reflecting that the bigger and more diverse regional economy is better equipped to supply inputs to mineral development projects.

  • 129.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The European market for bentonite: a supply side perspective2008In: Minerals & Energy - Raw Materials Report, ISSN 1404-1049, E-ISSN 1651-2286, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 168-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the European market for bentonite, a clay mineral with a wide range of industrial applications. The paper outlines some of the main uses of bentonite to gain a context in which the values of bentonite as an economic mineral can be understood. In addition, the paper examines the global geography of bentonite production and briefly addresses the world market and directions of trade. We focus on the recent years and attempt to shed light on where bentonite is produced, the direction of major trade flows and the main drivers of the European market.

  • 130.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Möjligheter och hinder för en grön energiomställning: erfarenheter från andra regioner med lärdomar för Norrbotten2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report has been prepared for the project Green energy investments, which has been funded by the European Regional Development Fund, the County Council of Norrbotten, the County Administrative Board of Norrbotten, and the Swedish Energy Agency. The project has been managed by North Sweden Energy Agency in collaboration with Luleå University of Technology (Energy Technology, Economics, and Entrepreneurship and Innovation) and Företagarna Norrbotten.

    The objectives of the report are to: (a) increase knowledge about the potential regional and benefits of a green energy transition and the obstacles to such a transition; and (b) identify and discuss various strategies, policy instruments and business models that can contribute to the realization of new green energy solutions. This is achieved by consulting and synthesizing relevant experiences from earlier energy transition processes, as well as by discussing the prerequisites for such a transition in the county of Norrbotten specifically.

    The report contains three main parts. The first part is generic and based on experiences and lessons from other regions and countries. Here we first discuss obstacles to green energy projects, with a focus on financing opportunities, conditions for the development of new technology and obstacles in the form of social constructions such as stereotypical conceptions about gender, ethnicity etc. In a case study of the obstacles to increased use of excess heat we highlight a number of factors that are important to address in several types of energy projects involving actor collaborations. The first part of the report also contains a discussion of how green energy projects can promote regional economic development, and pin-points factors that determine the magnitude of these effects. A key lesson is that these positive effects do not always occur automatically; various measures and strategies may often be needed. For this reason we also discuss a number of such strategies, e.g., regional funds, local ownership, crowdfunding, as well as strategies that aim at explicitly strengthening the actor networks that need to be established around the new energy projects.

    The second part of the report focuses on Norrbotten, and discusses the prerequisites for a green energy transition with significant economic development can be achieved in the county. These prerequisites are described with reference to the existing strategies that are there to promote regional economic growth; a common denominator for these is that they all point to the possibilities to combined regional growth objectives and a sustainable energy transition. We also discuss the regional prospects for inclusive, not least gender equal, innovation in the county of Norrbotten.

    In the third and final part of the report the most significant lessons are summarized. Here we clarify the relevance of earlier experiences for the regional context, and we discuss, based on interviews with project owners, the experiences concerning obstacles and strategies from seven different energy projects that form part of the project Green energy investments. In a final chapter we highlight a number of important lessons and recommendations for future efforts aimed at promoting the energy transition processes in Norrbotten.

  • 131.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundgren, Nils-Gustav
    41 000 anställningar till och med 2025: En studie av rekryteringsbehovet i Norrbottens län2013Report (Other academic)
  • 132. Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Mining investment and regional development: a scenario-based assessment for Northern Sweden2011In: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 14-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The way in which mineral development contributes to economic development in the region where it takes place is important for the mining industry's relations to the local community. The purpose of this paper is to provide an assessment of the regional-economic impacts of a large-scale contemporary iron ore project in Northern Sweden (including two new mines, two processing plants, and one pellet plant). The regional input-output model rAps, provided by the Swedish government agency NUTEK is used, and it explicitly addresses the linkages between demographic development, the labour market, industrial production and the municipal finances in a consistent modelling framework. The simulation results suggest an average employment multiplier of about 2-2.5 during the maximum production phase, indicating that for every 100 jobs in mining about 100-150 jobs are supported elsewhere in the local economy. The positive impacts in this case are made possible in large because of the existing mining cluster and local suppliers in northern Sweden. Still, these results are perhaps best viewed as an indication of the potential for local economic development as they neglect, for instance, potential supply constraints (e.g., attracting the necessary labour force, road infrastructure, etc.). Specific policies to further strengthen the regional linkage effects may therefore be necessary in order for this potential to be realized in practice, and attention would preferably be paid to policy measures that have positive external spillover effects on the surrounding geographical area.

  • 133. Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The regional economic impacts of mining: the case of northern Sweden2009In: 8th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD) and Securing the Future: Mining, Metals & the Environment in a Sustainable Society 2009: Skelleftea, Sweden, 22 - 26 June 2009, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 134.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wind power, regional development and benefit-sharing: The case of Northern Sweden2015In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 47, p. 476-485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the question of how investments in wind power can promote regional development and employment, as well as how different benefit-sharing instruments (e.g., community funds etc.) can be used to strengthen the positive impacts. The objectives of the paper are to provide: (a) a survey of previous regional-economic assessments of wind power projects; as well as (b) a quantitative assessment of the employment impacts of an ongoing wind farm investment in the Swedish county of Norrbotten under different benefit-sharing scenarios. Our model-based input–output analysis confirms many of the findings of previous research, such as significant construction work impacts, especially in the presence of local manufacturing. The analysis also illustrates that in the absence of any benefit-sharing mechanism, the employment impacts for Norrbotten during the operating phase will be modest (with an employment multiplier of 1.4). However, even if a relatively low share of the wind power revenues is assumed to accrue to the local government this would have significant positive impacts on employment rates. For this reason, additional research on various types of benefit-sharing instruments is called for, including studies of the associated challenges and trade-offs

  • 135.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Michanek, Gabriel
    Ödberg, Christer
    Turismen och naturresurserna, konflikt eller samverkan?: en förstudie till ett rättsekonomiskt forskningsprojekt2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Turismen har blivit en viktig näringsgren i Sverige, detta gäller både i storstadsregioner och på landsbygd. Landsbygdens - och inte minst Norrlands - särskilda nisch bygger i hög grad på naturupplevelser, såsom bl.a. forsränning, överlevnadskurser, jakt, fiske, exkursioner, fågelskådning etc. Anspråken på naturresurserna är dock många, och i flera fall finns en ökad risk för intressekonflikter kring utnyttjandet av exempelvis markområden. Denna rapport ut-gör resultatet av en förstudie till ett större forskningsprojekt vars huvudsakliga mål skulle vara att analysera möjligheterna för ett samhällsekonomiskt effektivt nyttjande av de norrländska naturresurserna för turism- och rekreationsändamål, samt i vilken mån den rådande lagstift-ningen utgör ett hinder för att uppnå detta mål. Syftet med denna förstudie är att: (a) ge en översikt av tidigare nationell och internatio-nell forskning som bidragit med kunskap om naturens rekreationsvärden, samt om åtgärder genom vilka dessa värden kan förstärkas; samt (b) identifiera centrala intressekonflikter vilka möjliggör en analys av lagstiftningens roll för ett samhällsekonomiskt effektivt utnyttjande av naturresurserna. Vår genomgång av tidigare forskning visar att det finns ett såväl vetenskapligt som praktiskt värde i att utforma ett rättsekonomiskt forskningsprojekt där dagens lagstiftning och rättstillämpning skärskådas med samhällsekonomiska metoder, men där samtidigt dessa senare metoders begränsningar lyfts fram tydligare än vad som tidigare har varit fallet. Dessa begränsningar består främst i: (a) det begränsade utrymmet för deliberation och diskussion; (b) antagandet om kontinuerliga och exogena preferenser; samt (c) fokus på individuella snarare än kollektiva värden. Detta innebär att existerande värderingsmetoder med fördel kan kompletteras med ett starkare inslag av fokusgruppdiskussioner och s.k. medborgarjurys där preferenser kan skapas endogent via diskussioner med andra (inklusive experter). I rapporten argumenteras för att dessa nya angreppssätt är av stort värde för ett forskningsprojekt som rör den norrländska naturens turism- och rekreationsvärden, och de intressekonflikter som kan beröra realiserandet av dessa. Rapporten identifierar vidare fyra områden inom vilka denna forskning praktiskt bör kunna bedrivas: (a) allemansrätten och turismen; (b) gruvindustrin och turismen; (c) omställ-ningen av energisystemet och turismen; samt (d) markupplåtelser och upplevelseturism. På alla dessa områden finns ett tydligt utrymme för fruktbart mångvetenskapligt samarbete kring ett rättsekonomiskt projekt, där exempelvis lagstiftningens begränsningar och samhällsekono-miska konsekvenser kan belysas och kontrasteras utifrån såväl lagtext, förarbeten, och praxis som kompletterande preferensstudier av "stakeholders" samt allmänhet. Genom att fokusera forskningen på ett eller flera sådana områden lyfts också centrala frågor och problem fram som rör turism- och upplevelseproduktion i Norrland och dess koppling till nyttjandet av landsändans naturresurser och markområden.

  • 136.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Norrbottens roll i samhällsekonomin: En kritisk granskning av indikatorer samt några lärdomar för framtiden2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 137.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Framtidens Norrbotten: Fem scenariobeskrivningar över länets utveckling2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande rapport utgör en framåtriktad analys av de regionala förutsättningar som rapporterats inom projektet Regional förnyelse, som finansierats av Länsstyrelsen i Norrbottens län och Luleå tekniska universitet (LTU). Utifrån de studier och rapporter som bidragit till en ökad förståelse kring länets möjligheter och utmaningar resonerar vi i den här studien om möjliga framtidsscenarier för Norrbotten. Vår målsättning är inte att förutspå den regionala utvecklingen utan att i stället lyfta fram ett antal scenarier som det regionala utvecklingsarbetet kan leda till. Syftet blir att skapa ett diskussionsunderlag som kan vara till nytta för framtida utveckling av regionala strategier såsom exempelvis den regionala utvecklingsstrategin och den regionala innovationsstrategin. Regionala strategierDen regionala utvecklingsstrategin ingår i EU:s och Sveriges strategier för hållbar tillväxt och är styrande för de mer operativa programmen i länet. Strategin binder samman planeringsprocesser som har betydelse för en hållbar tillväxt och kan därigenom underlätta samverkan inom och mellan länen. Strategin utgör och ett strategiskt underlag i förhandlingar mellan länet och regeringen och även vid överläggningar på EU-nivå.Den regionala analysen av Norrbottens förutsättningar för utveckling och potential för tillväxt resulterade i fem strategiska områden där ett antal prioriterade åtgärder anges. De största utmaningarna är den demografiska utvecklingen och den framtida kompetensförsörjningen. Avgörande för regionens tillväxt är att det finns arbetskraft och kompetens som matchar arbetslivets behov. Med en allt äldre befolkning ökar försörjningsbördan och det blir allt svårare att upprätthålla välfärden med minskade skatteunderlag.Regionala analyserEtt flertal rapporter och studier har författats inom ramarna för projektet Regional förnyelse. Näringslivsanalyser och analyser av internationell handel stödjer att det finns goda förutsättningar för tillväxt inom länets företag. Företagarna beskriver kompetensförsörjning som en av de största utmaningarna för att uppnå planerad tillväxttakt. Regionala scenarierUtifrån de regionala analyserna har fem scenarier, i form av framtidsbilder, målats upp. Avsikten med scenarierna är att beskriva hur regionala insatser och utveckling kan skapa alternativa framtider för Norrbotten. Avsikten med scenarierna är således inte att förutspå regionens framtida utveckling utan snarare peka på hur olika typer av regional utveckling kan skapa olika förutsättningar. De scenarios som diskuteras i denna rapport är:— Scenario I: Basindustriregionen— Scenario II: Kunskap, kreativitet och kommunikation som regional drivkraft— Scenario III: Förändrat globalt klimat med nya möjligheter— Scenario IV: Smart specialisering baserad på relaterad variation— Scenario V: Diversifiering efter en nationell genomsnittsmodell

  • 138.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Företags behov och erfarenheter av företagsstöd: en litteraturöversikt.2016In: De regionala företagsstöden: ändamålsenliga eller otidsenliga?, Östersund: Myndigheten för tillväxtpolitiska utvärderingar och analyser , 2016, p. 58-72Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 139.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundgren, Nils-Gustav
    Projekt: Regional förnyelse2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 140.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Befintliga och potentiella utvecklingsmöjligheter: Testnäring i Norrobotten2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 141.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Conceptualizing and Measuring Smart Specialization: A Literature Review and Empirical Test2018In: 21st Uddevalla Symposium, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 142.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Metaanalys med fokus på utvecklingsmöjligheter: Testnäring i Norrbotten2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 143.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Regionala effekter: Testnäring i Norrbotten2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 144.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Public and private attitudes towards “green” electricity: the case of Swedish wind power2005In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 33, no 13, p. 1677-1689Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There exists a political goal in Sweden and elsewhere to increase the use of renewable energy and wind power seems to be a favourable choice from an environmental perspective. However, although the public generally expresses a positive attitude towards wind power, the experience often shows that specific wind power projects face resistance from the local population. This paper analyses the attitudes towards wind power among the electricity consumers as well as the foundations of these attitudes. Results are based on a postal survey that was sent out to 1000 Swedish house owners. According to the results, the public is generally positive towards wind power. The probability of finding an average individual in support of wind power decreases with age and income. People with an interest in environmental issues are, however, more likely to be positive towards wind power than the average respondent and the results do not support the NIMBY-hypothesis. In addition, people that are more inclined to express public preferences are also more likely to be positive towards wind electricity than people who are less inclined to do so. These results imply, for instance, that the potential of markets for “green” electricity may be limited, other support schemes is thus required if the politically stated goal to increase wind power capacity is to be fulfilled.

  • 145.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Quantifying the environmental impacts of renewable energy: the case of Swedish wind power2006In: Environmental Valuation in Developed Countries, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, Incorporated , 2006, p. 181-210Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 146.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Quantifying the preferences over the environmental impacts of renewable energy: the case of Swedish wind power2002In: Valuing the environment in developing countries: case studies, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2002Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 147.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Review of National Research Council of the National Academies: Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects, The National Academies Press, Washington, DC (2007). 376 pp., ISBN-10: 0-309-10834-92009In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 12, no 7, p. 1073-1074Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind power still amounts to a tiny proportion of total electricity generation in the United States (only 1 percent in 2006), but the growth in capacity to generate electricity from wind has increased rapidly during the last decade, from 1.8 MW in 1998 to 11.6 MW in 2006.The United States are thus in their early stages of developing knowledge on how to plan for and regulate wind power facilities. This study is conducted by the National Research Council on the commission of the Congress as part of this learning process. The task to the Council was threefold. Firstly, they were asked to conduct an assessment of the environmental impacts of wind-energy installations using the Mid-Atlantic Highlands (MAH), a mountainous region in Pennsylvania, Virginia, Maryland and West Virginia, as a case study. Secondly, the committee was requested to develop an analytical framework for evaluating the beneficial and adverse effects associated with wind-energy in order to support and improve the planning and regulation process regarding future wind-energy installations, and thirdly, they were to identify major areas where more research and development is necessary. The study is a comprehensive piece of work; it deals with a number of factors that add to the complexity of the planning and regulating process of wind-energy developments. The committee accomplishing the study represents knowledge and expertise from a wide range of areas and subjects including numerous natural and social science disciplines.A significant part of the study is devoted to delineating and discussing the positive and negative impacts associated with wind-energy. When assessing the environmental benefits of wind power, the committee focuses on the extent to which it displaces electricity generated by other sources, and thereby on the extent to which it reduces hazardous emissions, including carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide and particulate matter. They conclude that estimates of the potential for future development of wind-energy in the USA - as well as its contribution to reduced emissions - are highly uncertain. According the projections used in the study, wind-energy will contribute to between 1.2 and 4.5 percent of estimated electricity generation in 2020 in the United States. Such an outcome would imply reduced carbon dioxide emissions from electricity generation sources by about 4.5 percent. However, given the prevailing total caps on the emissions of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur dioxide from electricity generation in the eastern part of the country, the estimated increase in electricity production stemming from wind is not likely to contribute to additional reductions of the emissions of these substances in any significant way. When discussing adverse ecological effects of wind-energy development the main focus is on bird and bat fatalities. The authors state that there is insufficient knowledge available at present to be able to draw any conclusions on the likely effects of the planned wind-power installations in the MAH on the bird and bat populations. This is accordingly one area identified where more research is considered necessary. The human impacts considered in the report include a number of aspects such as aesthetic impacts, cultural impacts (affecting historical, sacred or archeological or recreational sites), impacts on human health and well being (e.g., noise and flicker) economic and fiscal impacts, and the risk of electromagnetic interference. The authors recommend that established methods that are available for assessing the positive and negative impacts of wind power projects on humans should be used more frequently so as to develop a better informed and more transparent decision making process. Such methods include systematic methods for evaluating aesthetic impacts, which often are among the most loud-voiced protests expressed among local population in opposition of proposed wind-energy schemes.The last part of the study, where the planning and regulation process is described and discussed, was the part of the report I found the most interesting. It is established that wind-energy regulation on the national level is minimal in the United States and that there are large differences on the state/regional or the local level with respect to how proposed wind-energy developments are reviewed. These differences span over, for instance: (1) the locus of the regulatory review (national, state/regional or local); (2) whether utility and environmental issues are separated or integrated in the review process; (3) the amount and quality of information required; (4) the procedures for integrating public participation into the process; and (5) how positive and negative effects of wind-power installations are weighted. Clearly, the differences in practices and the minimal amount of guidance that is available for developers, regulators, and the public makes it difficult for all the actors to predict whether a specific project will be approved or not.The authors argue that it is unlikely that the United States would plan for wind-energy at the national level as many other countries do; as a result of both its geographically diversion and its confidence in the superiority of the outcome of free markets. Still, they argue, the present situation is characterized with too much uncertainty about what future policy tools will be in force. Therefore, national policies (implemented through e.g., subsidies, regulations and guidelines) could enhance a proactive planning for future wind-energy installations.One of the directives to the committee was to develop an analytical framework for evaluating environmental and socio-economic impacts of wind-energy developments. Such guidance would of course be a very useful tool in the decision making process. An ideal such framework would address all impacts associated with wind power across both spatial and temporal scales - it would require more information than is available - or even exists. Therefore the committee stopped short of a complete framework and instead offers what is called an evaluation guide that can be used to aid the process of reviewing proposed and evaluating existing wind-energy developments. The evaluation guide addresses procedural considerations (both related to planning, public relations and to legal issues) as well as environmental and socio-economic impacts of wind power facilities. The guide can be used as a check-list; it consists of a set of questions to each area to aid evaluation at different jurisdictional levels.It is convincing that the use of such an evaluation guide has the potential to improve the review process and reduce uncertainty for all parties involved. If the review processes are documented in a transparent way it would in itself gradually add to the knowledge stock about how wind-energy installations affect the environment and is perceived and valued by the public. Such knowledge would be useful both for regulators, developers and the public. Still, the key issues on how the positive and negative impacts associated with wind-energy development - as well as the conflicts of interest that often emerge - should be weighted against each other is still an open question. This issue is also highlighted in the very final recommendation in the report where the authors recommend that "Representatives of federal, state and local governments should work with wind-energy developers, non-governmental organizations, and other interests groups and experts to develop guidelines for addressing tradeoffs between benefits and costs of wind-energy generation" (p. 218).

  • 148.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The economics of renewable energy support2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation consists of an introductory part and five self-contained papers, all related to the issue of promoting renewable power sources. Paper I provides an econometric analysis of the most important determinants of Swedish households’ willingness to pay a premium for “green” electricity. Methodologically we draw heavily on recent developments in the literature on integrating norm motivated behavior into neoclassical consumer theory. The analysis is based on postal survey responses from 655 Swedish households, which are analyzed within a binary choice framework. The results indicate that the impact of choosing “green” on the household budget largely influences the willingness to contribute to “green” electricity schemes, as do the degree of perceived personal responsibility for the issue and the felt ability to affect the outcome in a positive way. We find only limited support for the idea that perception about others’ behavior affect individual moral norms and behavior; stronger support is instead found for the presence of a prescriptive social norm. In paper II we perform an empirical test the overall hypothesis that the framing of renewable power support in a “conditional” and an “unconditional” scenario, respectively, will tend to trigger different types of moral deliberations. We approach this research task by analyzing the responses to dichotomous willingness to pay questions from two different versions of a postal survey sent out to 1200 Swedish house owners. The responses are analyzed within a random effects binary probit model and the estimated marginal effects support the notion that different types of factors tend to dominate choices depending on the support scheme considered. Paper III analyzes the attitudes towards wind power among residential electricity consumers, as well as the foundations of these attitudes. The results are based on a postal survey that was sent out to 1000 Swedish house owners, and these results suggest that the average Swedish house owner is in general positive towards wind power. The probability of finding an average individual in support of wind power decreases with age and income while people who act on environmental values are more likely to be positive. In addition, people that are more inclined to express public preferences are also more likely to be positive towards wind electricity than people who are less inclined to do so. Paper IV scrutinizes the Swedish households’ preferences over the environmental characteristics associated with wind power by applying a choice experiment approach. The results are based on a postal survey that was sent out to 1000 Swedish house owners. The non-monetary attributes included in the choice scenario were: the noise level, location, height, and the grouping of windmills. According to the results the location of wind turbines has the most pronounced impact on the utility of the average individual. If the environmental external costs are to be minimized the results suggest that new schemes should primarily be located offshore, and large wind farms located onshore should be avoided. Finally, paper V provides an econometric analysis of innovation and diffusion in the European wind power sector. The empirical results indicate that reductions in investment costs are an important determinant of increased diffusion of wind power, and these cost reductions are in turn explained by learning-by- doing activities but less so by knowledge accumulating as a result of public R&D support. Feed-in tariffs also play a role in the innovation and diffusion processes. The higher is the feed-in price the higher is, ceteris paribus, the rate of diffusion. High feed-in tariffs, though, also tends to have a negative effect on average cost reductions as they induce wind generators to choose high-cost sites and provide fewer incentives for cost cuts.

  • 149.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Valuing the environmental impacts of renewable energy: the case of Swedish wind power2002In: Conference Proceedings 25th Annual IAEE Conference, Aberdeen, 26-29 June, 2002, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 150.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Valuing the environmental impacts of wind power: a choice experiment approach2002Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There exists a political goal in Sweden to increase the use of renewable energy, and wind power seems to be a favorable choice from an environmental perspective. Although the public generally expresses a positive attitude towards wind power, specific projects often face resistance from the local population. This study aims at examining the general attitude towards wind power among Swedish house owners, and in particular at analyzing their valuation of the external impacts associated with wind power using a choice experiment approach. A postal survey was sent out to 1000 Swedish residential homeowners. The non-monetary attributes included in the choice experiment were: the noise level, location, height, and the grouping of windmills. An electricity price change was included as a cost attribute. According to the results wind power incurs external costs, and the impacts represented by the noise, location, group, and the price change attributes all had statistically significant effects on the utility of the average respondent. Among the non-monetary attributes, the location of windmills seems to have the biggest impact on the utility of the respondents, i.e., the highest implicit price. The average respondent perceives wind power capacity located offshore as a change for the better while locating windmills in the mountains is perceived as a change for the worse, all compared to a location onshore. In addition, the respondents appear to be willing to pay a positive amount to avoid large wind farms. Furthermore, noise reductions are considered as improvements and lower electricity prices are preferred over higher, as is to be expected. However, there is no evidence that the height of windmills affects the utility of the average respondent. Hence, if the environmental external costs associated with wind power are to be minimized, our results suggest that new schemes should be located offshore rather than in the mountains and that large wind farms should be avoided. This also provides important lessons for wind power producers who wish to market wind power as a "green" electricity source and adapt their generation portfolio accordingly. However, all future measures towards decreasing the external impacts of wind power must be relatively low- cost; according to the results the Swedish house owners are cost conscious and prefer low electricity prices over higher.

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