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  • 101.
    Haupt, Dan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Nord, Kent
    Emissioner och emissionsfaktorer från fyra arbetsmaskiner: mätning av reglerade och ickereglerade emissioner2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetsmaskiner förbrukar en mycket stor del av det dieselbränsle som används i landet. En stor del av avgasemissionerna härrör följaktligen från dessa maskiner. Det är därför viktigt att ta fram kunskap om vilka emissioner som avges och på vilka olika sätt emissionerna kan minskas. Som ett led i detta arbete har projektet "Utveckling av relevanta arbetscykler och emissionsfaktorer samt reducering av bränsleförbrukningen för arbetsmaskiner" (EMMA) genomförts. Projektet har finansierats av Kommunikationsforskningsberedningen (numera en del av VINNOVA), Energimyndigheten, Vägverket och LRF. Dessutom har Volvo Wheel Loaders ställt motorer och Valtra Traktor AB traktorer och motorer tillprojektets förfogande. Vidare har JTI disponerat en större traktor från Lantmännens Maskin Import AB.Projektet har genomförts av ett konsortium bestående av:Luleå tekniska universitet (LTU)JTI - Institutet för jordbruks- och miljöteknik (JTI)Institutionen för lantbruksteknik SLU (LT)SkogForsk (Skog)Svensk Maskinprovning AB (SMP)Vägverket Produktion (VägvP)I denna rapport sammanfattar Luleå Tekniska Universitet sina resultat från emissionsmätningarna i EMMA projektet. Mätningarna omfattar fyra arbetsmaskiner som har körts i motorprovbänk enligt en 22- punkters testcykel. Motorerna som testades var en Sisu Diesel 620 DWRE, en Volvo TD63 KDE, en Volvo TD40 GJE samt en Sisu diesel 420 DWRE. Motorerna testades vid Luleå Tekniska Universitets motorlaboratorium samt vid Svensk maskinprovning i Umeå. Både reglerade och icke-reglerade emissioner har uppmätts. De reglerade emissionerna som har mätts är HC, NOX och CO. De icke reglerade komponenterna som analyserats är formaldehyd, acetaldehyd, akrolein, bensaldehyd, etan, eten, propan, propen, propyn, isobutan, acetylen, 1-buten, isobuten, pentan, 1,3-butadien, bensen, toluen, M-xylen och O-xylen.Genom att använda uppmätta tidsprocentvärden från ett antal olika arbetsoperationer, som därefter har fördelats enligt moderna i ISO 8178, har emissionsfaktorer för ett antal olika arbetsoperationer genererats.

  • 102.
    Haupt, Dan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Nord, Kent
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Ahlvik, Peter
    VEF Tec.
    Egebäck, Karl-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Hydrocarbons and aldehydes from a diesel engine running on ethanol and equipped with EGR, catalyst and DPF2004Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A commercially available exhaust aftertreatment system, DNO\dx\sT, comprising exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), an oxidative catalyst and a continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter (DPF) were tested. The test object was a 9-liter, ethanol-fueled diesel engine from Scania equipped with turbocharger and aftercooler. A similar diesel engine from Scania, but running on ordinary Swedish diesel fuel, was used as a reference and a reminder of "the state of the art." The tests involved two different ethanol fuels containing various ignition improvers, Beraid 3540 and rapeseed methyl ester. Test conditions for the engines were those specified in the European Stationary Cycle (ESC). The aftertreatment system reduced the emissions of HC, CO and NO\dx, down to 0.15, 0.04 and 2.54 g/kWh, respectively, while the estimated particle mass was reduced by 67%. Actually, by using the DNO\dx\sT system, the engines became Euro IV engines regarding the emissions of HC, CO and NO\dx. The ethanol-fueled engine without EGR, catalyst or DPF emitted approximately 1.6 times more formaldehyde and 9.8 times more acetaldehyde than the diesel engine. However, the emission of acrolein was only 0.47 times the emission of acrolein from the diesel engine. When the ethanol-fueled engine was equipped with DNO\dx\sT, a significant reduction of the emissions of aldehydes was obtained. The emissions of acrolein, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were reduced by 56%, 87% and 95%, respectively. An even higher reduction was observed when the system was connected to the diesel engine. Fifteen different hydrocarbons (alkanes, olefins and monoaromates) were also identified. The diesel-fueled engine, without any exhaust aftertreatment devices, emitted approximately twice as much hydrocarbon than the ethanol-fueled engine, also without any exhaust aftertreatment devices. However, there were also qualitative differences. Three hydrocarbons, namely propene, ethene and benzene, accounted for 77% of the hydrocarbons emitted from the diesel-fueled engine, while acetylene, ethene and benzene, made up only 53% of the hydrocarbons emitted from the ethanol-fueled engine. When connecting the system to the engines, a difference was observed; the reduction of analyzed hydrocarbon emissions was approximately 90% for the diesel-fueled engine, but only 47% for the ethanol-fueled engine. The studied aftertreatment system has been developed and optimized for the diesel-fueled engine. This fact is reflected in the powerful reduction of hydrocarbons, aldehydes, particles and NO\dx that is obtained when connecting the system to the diesel-fueled engine. Nevertheless, a significant reduction is also obtained when connecting the system to the ethanol-fueled engine. Test results indicate that it should be possible to better optimize the system for the ethanol engine. It is also, probably, necessary to exchange the catalyst in the system. Thereby, an even higher reduction of unregulated and regulated emissions should be obtained

  • 103.
    Haupt, Dan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Nord, Kent
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Tingvall, Bror
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Ahlvik, Peter
    Ecotraffic ERD3 AB.
    Egebäck, Karl-Erik
    Autoemission KE E Concultant.
    Andersson, Sören
    STT EMTEC.
    Blomquist, Micael
    STT EMTEC.
    Investigating the potential to obtain low emissions from a diesel engine running on ethanol and equipped with EGR, catalyst and DPF2004Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiments were performed to investigate the potential to achieve low emissions from a diesel engine fueled by ethanol and equipped with a commercially available exhaust after-treatment device, DNO\dx\sT from STT Emtec. The DNO\dx\sT system includes exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) catalysts and a continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter (DPF). Two Euro III classified 9-liter turbocharged, after-cooled diesel engines from Scania were used for the task. One engine was fueled by ethanol and the other by Swedish diesel fuel, EC1. Engine operating conditions of a 22-mode test cycle, including the 13 modes of the European Stationary Cycle (ESC cycle), were used for the tests. The emissions of NO\dx and HC were small for the ethanol-fueled engine, 3.48 and 0.53 g/kWh, respectively, while the emission of CO was higher, 2.07 g/kWh. Estimations of emitted particle mass were calculated by using the software supplied in the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). The estimations showed that the ethanol engine emitted only \mA1/10 of the particle mass emitted by the diesel-fueled engine. A powerful reduction of the regulated emissions was obtained when equipping the ethanol engine with EGR, catalyst and DPF. The emissions of HC, CO and NO\dx decreased down to 0.15, 0.04 and 2.54 g/kWh, respectively, while the estimated particle mass was reduced by 67%. Actually, by using the aftertreatment system, the engine became a Euro IV engine regarding the emissions of HC, CO and NO\dx. The system worked even better with the diesel-fueled engine. The NO\dx emission was reduced by approximately 33% and the estimated particle mass by more than 99%. Calculations showed that the EGR ratio was higher for the diesel engine than for the ethanol engine. Consequently, by applying a higher EGR ratio for the ethanol engine an additional reduction of the NO\dx emissions should be obtained. The results indicate that very low NO\dx and particle emissions could be obtained for an ethanol-fueled diesel engine by using the right aftertreatment equipment. Future studies should investigate the possibility to increase the EGR ratio further. The investigations also underline the need for development of a special particulate filter for ethanol engines.

  • 104.
    Haupt, Dan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Weitoft, Gunilla Ringbäck
    Centre for Epidemiology, National Board of Health and Welfare.
    Nilsson, J Lars G.
    NEPI Foundation.
    Refill adherence to oral antihyperglycaemic drugs in Sweden2009Inngår i: Acta Diabetologica, ISSN 0940-5429, E-ISSN 1432-5233, Vol. 46, nr 3, s. 203-208Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Only 49% of the patients with T2D in Sweden that medicate with oral antihyperglycaemic drugs (AHGD) had good blood glucose control (HbA1C < 6.0%). The reason can be low medication adherence. The aim of this study was, therefore, to determine the adherence to different oral AHGD. Included were all patients in Sweden, older than 40 years and having at least two expenditures of AHGD between 1 December 2005 and 30 November 2006. After exclusions of inpatients and patients with unspecified daily dosage 171,220 patients (57% men) remained. Medication possession ratio (MPR) was used for estimating adherence and patients were regarded adherent if MPR ≥80%. The overall refill adherence average 90%, with mean MPR (SD) = 107% (30). Eighty-five percent of the patients in their 40s were adherent compared to 91% of the patients in their 80s. About 90.1% of the women were adherent whereas 89.5% of the men were adherent. Patients with an indication for the medicine were more adherent than patients without this information. We conclude that the unsatisfactory blood glucose control showed among many Swedish T2D patients is not the result of non-adherence to prescribed medication.

  • 105.
    Haupt, Dan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Wettermark, Björn
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Centre for Pharmacoepidemiology.
    Nilsson, J. Lars G.
    NEPI Foundation.
    Dispensed volumes of anti-asthmatic drugs related to the prevalence of asthma and COPD in Sweden2008Inngår i: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, ISSN 1053-8569, E-ISSN 1099-1557, Vol. 17, nr 5, s. 461-7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To explore the possibility of using dispensed volumes asthma/COPD drugs as a proxy for the combined prevalence of asthma plus COPD. METHODS: The proportions of the Swedish population with inhalation drugs for asthma/COPD 2004 were obtained using three different databases. A pharmacy record database gave the volumes of dispensed drugs (defined daily doses, DDDs of R03A + R03B drugs) for each patient, 20 years and older. The X-plain database of Apoteket AB gave drug sales data for Sweden and Swedish population data were obtained from Swedish statistics. RESULTS: The sales volumes of asthma/COPD drugs were much higher for older than for younger people. The volumes increased from 18 DDD/TID for the 20-29 year group up to 124 DDD/TID for patients 70-79 years, or about seven times. The average volumes per patient in the different age groups corresponded to one DDD/day in only three of the age groups (50-79 years). In the youngest group the average drug volume per patient corresponded to one DDD every second day, which may indicate undermedication. The percentages of the Swedish population with asthma/COPD drugs increased from 4.0% for 20-29 years old to 14.5% for 80+ years old, or 3.6 times. When head-to-head comparisons could be made between reported prevalence data of asthma and COPD and our data the two sets of data were in a reasonable agreement. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of drug treatment, i.e. the proportion of the population with dispensed asthma/COPD drugs, could function as a proxy for the disease prevalence of asthma plus COPD.

  • 106.
    Hyun, Sang-Min
    et al.
    College of Pharmacy, Yonsei University, 85 Songdogwahak-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, Republic of Korea. Yonsei Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Yonsei University, 85 Songdogwahak-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, Republic of Korea.
    Joon Lee, Benjamin
    College of Pharmacy, Yonsei University, 85 Songdogwahak-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, Republic of Korea.
    Abuzar, Sharif Md
    College of Pharmacy, Yonsei University, 85 Songdogwahak-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, Republic of Korea. Yonsei Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Yonsei University, 85 Songdogwahak-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, Republic of Korea.
    Lee, Soohun
    College of Pharmacy, Yonsei University, 85 Songdogwahak-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, Republic of Korea. Yonsei Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Yonsei University, 85 Songdogwahak-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, Republic of Korea.
    Joo, Yechan
    College of Pharmacy, Yonsei University, 85 Songdogwahak-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, Republic of Korea. Yonsei Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Yonsei University, 85 Songdogwahak-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, Republic of Korea.
    Hong, Seung-Hyeon
    College of Pharmacy, Yonsei University, 85 Songdogwahak-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, Republic of Korea. Yonsei Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Yonsei University, 85 Songdogwahak-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, Republic of Korea.
    Kang, Han
    College of Pharmacy, Yonsei University, 85 Songdogwahak-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, Republic of Korea.
    Kwon, Kyung-Ae
    Dae Hwa pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 2145 Nambusunhwan-ro, Seocho-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Velaga, Sitaram
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Hwang, Sung-Joo
    College of Pharmacy, Yonsei University, 85 Songdogwahak-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, Republic of Korea. Yonsei Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Yonsei University, 85 Songdogwahak-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, Republic of Korea.
    Preparation, characterization, and evaluation of celecoxib eutectic mixtures with adipic acid/saccharin for improvement of wettability and dissolution rate2019Inngår i: International Journal of Pharmaceutics, ISSN 0378-5173, E-ISSN 1873-3476, Vol. 554, s. 61-71Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Celecoxib (CEL) is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor therapeutically indicated for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, acute pain, and inflammation. However, its poor solubility and dissolution rate significantly hinders its broader application. In this study, eutectic mixtures, as binary pharmaceutical compositions of CEL with adipic acid (ADI) and saccharin (SAC), were identified through a phase diagram and Tammann’s triangle intended to improve the wettability and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble CEL. The contact angles at 0s in the liquid-solid interface were approximately θs (theta) 79.7° ± 0.50° and 86.65° ± 0.45° for CEL-ADI and CEL-SAC, respectively, which were much lower than the value obtained for CEL (92.05° ± 0.75° θ). Moreover, a comparison of the disk intrinsic dissolution rate and powder dissolution properties demonstrated that eutectic mixtures significantly increased the dissolution rate compared with CEL and physical mixtures. A general relationship was elucidated and indicated that the dissolution rate was increased as the contact angle decreased (correlation coefficient, r = 0.9966 ± 0.0031). Therefore, CEL-ADI and CEL-SAC eutectics may offer a novel formulation strategy to enhance the solubility and oral bioavailability of CEL.

  • 107. Högberg, Sofie
    et al.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik.
    Velaga, Sitaram
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Ljung, Anna-Lena
    Fluid mechanics of particle deposition in human lungs2005Inngår i: Contributed paper abstracts / American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists: annual meeting and exposition, 2005Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To develop an ideal Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model, which provides knowledge of fundamental characteristics of particles and their eventual deposition patterns in the respiratory system, to design an effective formulation for a specific therapeutic application (local or systemic) Methods: The whole flow field was measured in a single measurement using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The concept was to add small sized particles to the flow. These particles were then illuminated by a thin laser-layer in the region of interest and the motion of the formed speckle pattern was captured by a CCD-camera. Results: In a preliminary study, the flow in the uppermost three generations of airways, with a focus on branches of rectangular cross-sections, has been investigated. This geometry was easily built from blocks of PMMA. The model captured the main flow features. A qualitative agreement between experiments and simulations was obtained as shown in Figure 1, a snap-shot taken during inhalation. The experiments further enable a more detailed study of the quality and trust of the simulations. The result of this is then applied on a more realistic model of the uppermost airways and the particle deposition simulated (Figure 2). Fig 1 Fig 2 Figure 1: PIV-measurements showing the velocity field, the upper CFD-graph is obtained for a k-? turbulent flow and the lower graph shows the field for a laminar; Figure 2: Virtual model of the upper part of the air-ways. Please notice that the grid was refined for the initial simulations Conclusions: Preliminary studies were initiated with an ultimate aim of developing a complete lung model. Our efforts so far yielded a good understanding of experimental and numerical visualisation of the flow in the uppermost airways and we are currently engaged in quantifying the results.

  • 108.
    Isaksson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering.
    Josephsson, Staffan
    Karolinska institute, Neurobiology Care Sciences and Society, Division of Occupational Therapy.
    Lexell, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Skär, Lisa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Omvårdnad.
    Men's experiences of giving and taking social support after their wife's spinal cord injury2008Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 236-246Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of how men living with women with spinal cord injury (SCI) experienced and acted when they were giving and taking social support to and from their wives and other persons in their social network. Another aim was to give some possible explanations of the complex process of change that they went through. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with four men and field notes. To describe the men's subjective experiences and the process of change, a narrative approach inspired by Polkinghorne was used. The analyses resulted in one story that included the four men's experiences and action. The story showed that when the men went through a process of change, they used and needed both emotional and practical support to handle their new life situation. Furthermore, the men's experiences and action against social support changed over time. This indicated that, through narratives from spouses, professionals within rehabilitation could understand the process of change they went through after their partner's sudden injury, and support them to find strategies to handle their changed life situation. To give some possible explanations for the men's experiences and action during the process of change, the findings are discussed in relation to theories concerning adaptation and coping

  • 109.
    Jacobson, Inger
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Hur ser en damfotbollspelare ut?1999Inngår i: Svensk idrottsmedicinsk förenings vårmöte: Ystad 1999, Svensk idrottsmedicinsk förening , 1999Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 110.
    Jacobson, Inger
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Injuries among female football players - With special emphasis on region differences2007Inngår i: Svensk idrottsmedicinsk förenings vårmöte: Uppsala 2007, 2007, s. 43-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 111.
    Jacobson, Inger
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Injuries among female football players: with special emphasis on regional differences2007Inngår i: Abstraktbok Sjukgymnastdagarna 10-12 oktober 2007, Stockholm: LSR , 2007, s. 11-12Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 112.
    Jacobson, Inger
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Injuries among female football players: with special emphasis on regional differences2006Inngår i: Advances in Physiotherapy, ISSN 1403-8196, E-ISSN 1651-1948, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 66-74Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this 1-year prospective study, the aim was to investigate if there are any differences concerning injuries and injury incidence during an entire football season between Swedish female football players from different geographical regions. A total of 130 out of 253 players (51%) sustained 229 injuries. The overall injury incidence was 9.6/1000 h of football. The incidence of injury during practice was 8.4/1000 h and during game was 13.3/1000 h. Players in the north had a higher incidence of injury during game than those in the south (19.5 vs. 7.2/1000 h, respectively, p<0.001). Fifty-nine per cent of all injuries were traumatic injuries. Both traumatic and overuse injuries occurred mainly during the early preseason and at the beginning of the competitive spring season. Of all injuries, 13% were classified as slight, 39% as minor, 37% as moderate and 11% as major injuries. Players in the north had a higher injury incidence concerning moderate injuries than players in the south (p<0.01). In the present study, evidence is presented that regional factors play a role in the injury incidence. Female football players in the north and south have different injury patterns. This could be a result of different conditions for football as a sport between the regions.

  • 113.
    Jacobson, Inger
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Injuries among swedish female elite football players: a prospective population study2007Inngår i: Abstraktbok Sjukgymnastdagarna 10-12 oktober 2007, Stockholm: LSR , 2007, s. 12-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 114.
    Jacobson, Inger
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Injuries among Swedish female elite football players: a prospective population study2007Inngår i: Svensk idrottsmedcinsk förenings vårmöte: Uppsala 2007, 2007, s. 44-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 115.
    Jacobson, Inger
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Injuries among swedish female elite football players: a prospective population study2007Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 84-91Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Injury occurrence in all 12 female elite senior football teams in premiere league was registered during 1 year. Of 269 players, 129 (48%) sustained 237 injuries. The total injury incidence was 4.6/1000 h of football. The injury incidence during practice was 2.7 and during the game time was 13.9/1000 h. The highest injury incidence during practice was to the knee (0.8/1000 h) and thigh (0.5/1000 h), and during game time was to the knee (4.4/1000 h) and head (2.2/1000 h). In total, the location for the highest injury incidence was the knee with 1.5 injuries/1000 h of football. The majority of injuries (82%) were localized to the lower extremities. Sixty-six injuries (28%) were re-occurring injuries (re-injuries). The incidence of traumatic injuries was 3.3/1000 h of football and for overuse injuries 1.3/1000 h. Overuse injuries occurred mainly during the preseason and at the beginning of the spring season. Thirty-nine percent of the injuries were slight or minor causing absence from practice or game time of less than 1 week, 39% were moderate (absence 7-28 days) and 22% were major (absence more than 28 days). The major injuries occurred often owing to trauma and were mainly to the knee.

  • 116.
    Jacobson, Inger
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Range of motion in relation to upcoming sprain and strain injuries among female football players2007Inngår i: Abstraktbok Sjukgymnastdagarna 10-12 oktober 2007, Stockholm: LSR , 2007, s. 32-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 117.
    Jacobson, Inger
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Range of motion in relation to upcoming sprain and strain injuries among female football players2007Inngår i: Svensk idrottsmedicinsk förenings vårmöte: Uppsala 2007, 2007, s. 42-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 118.
    Jacobson, Inger
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Skador inom svensk damfotboll2000Inngår i: Svensk idrottsmedicinsk förenings vårmöte: Stockholm 2000, Svensk idrottsmedicinsk förening , 2000Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 119.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering.
    Levnadssituationen för traumatiskt hjärnskadade i Norrbotten2008Inngår i: Forskning i Norr, 21-22 maj 2008, Mittuniversitetet , 2008, s. 23-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 120.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Long-term outcome after traumatic brain injury: studies of individuals from northern Sweden2010Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    As traumatic brain injury (TBI) is as one of the major causes of long-term disability, there is an increasing interest in the long-term outcome of TBI. The overall aim of this thesis was to increase our knowledge and understanding of the situation for individuals many years post injury, with regard to demographics, injury characteristics and primary outcome, long-term functioning and disability, health-related quality of life, life satisfaction, self-appraisal of the impact of the TBI and sense of coherence.In study I, data was retrospectively collected on those individuals in Norrbotten, northern Sweden, with a computed tomography (CT) verified TBI and brain injury symptoms, who had been transferred for neurosurgical care between 1992 to 2001. A total of 332 individuals, 250 men and 82 women, were registered. The findings revealed that a majority were older men with a mild TBI following a fall. Younger individuals were fewer in number but more often had a severe TBI from a traffic accident. Most individuals received post-acute care and brain injury rehabilitation. A majority had a moderate or severe disability, but many were discharged back from hospital and sent home with no major changes in their physical or social environment. In study II, 88 individuals (age between 18 and 65 at the time of assessment, to represent individuals of working age) were included and their functioning and disability were assessed with internationally established TBI outcome measures, on average 10 years (range 6-15 years) post injury. There was an improvement in overall outcomes from the time of discharge from inpatient rehabilitation to follow-up, and many had a high degree of motor and cognitive functioning, which enabled them to live independently in their own home without assistance. There remained, however, a disability related to community reintegration and social participation. This affected their productivity and to some degree their marital stability, factors which were related to the age at the time of injury and the severity of the injury. In study III, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and life satisfaction (LS) were assessed in 67 individuals, and compared with reference values from the general population. HRQoL, as well as LS, was lower compared with the general population. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that the individuals’ own appraisal of the impact of the TBI, along with vocational productivity, were most strongly associated with their current physical health and overall satisfaction with life. In study IV, sense of coherence (SOC) and the influence on self-rated LS of SOC, along with measures of functioning and disability, sex, age at injury, injury severity and time since injury were assessed in 66 individuals. SOC did not differ from the general population, and there was a strong relationship between SOC and LS indicating that the individuals’ sense of preservation of good health was strongly associated with high LS. High LS was also strongly associated with emotional factors and social participation, together with longer time post-injury and a more severe injury sustained at a later age.In conclusion, the results indicate that many individuals with a TBI can achieve and maintain a high degree of functioning many years after the injury. However, emotional and inter-relational problems remain and impact on social activities and participation. Many individuals experienced a reduced HRQoL and LS. The individuals’ perception of the low impact of the injury and their positive SOC were firmly associated with high LS. These results confirm that TBI can lead to long-term disability and emphasize the need for support systems and rehabilitation programmes that can meet the individuals’ needs, with regard to emotional factors, social participation and overall satisfaction with life, in a long-term perspective.

  • 121.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Lexell, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Demographics, injury characteristics and outcome of traumatic brain injuries in northern Sweden2007Inngår i: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 116, nr 5, s. 300-306Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives - To describe demographics, injury characteristics and outcome of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in northern Sweden over 10 years. Material and methods - Data were retrospectively collected on those individuals ( n = 332) in Norrbotten, northern Sweden, with a TBI who had been transferred for neurosurgical care from 1992 to 2001. Results - A majority were older men with a mild TBI and an acute or chronic subdural hematoma following a fall. Younger individuals were fewer but had more often a severe TBI from a traffic accident. Most individuals received post-acute care and brain injury rehabilitation. A majority had a moderate or severe disability, but many were discharged back home with no major changes in their physical or social environment. Conclusions - Our data confirm the relationship between age, cause of injury, injury severity and outcome in relation to TBI and underscore the need for prevention as well as the importance of TBI as a cause of long-term disability

  • 122.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Westerberg, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Lexell, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Health related quality of life and life satisfaction 6 to 15 yearsafter traumatic brain injuries in northern Sweden2010Inngår i: Brain Injury, ISSN 0269-9052, E-ISSN 1362-301X, Vol. 24, nr 9, s. 1075-1086Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To describe health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) and life satisfaction many years after a traumatic brain injury (TBI) and assess possible associations with variables related to the time of injury and follow-up and the individuals' self-appraisal of the impact of the TBI. Method: Sixty-seven individuals (18-65 years), on average 10 years post-injury, were interviewed. Data on HRQoL, using the SF-36 questionnaire, were compared with a Swedish age-and sex-matched reference sample, and life satisfaction, using the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), were compared with a nationwide Swedish sample of students. The participant's self-appraisal of the TBI was assessed with two supplementary questions. Data were analysed with hierarchical multiple regression analyses.Results: HRQoL as well as life satisfaction were lower compared with the reference samples. From the regression analyses, the individuals' own appraisal of the impact of the TBI and whether they were vocationally productive or not were strongly associated with their current physical health and life satisfaction.Conclusion: These results confirm the importance of TBI as a cause of long-term disability and the impact of the injury on the individuals' self-perceived values of health, quality-of-life and life satisfaction

  • 123.
    Jara, Miguel O.
    et al.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, School of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.
    Catalan-Figueroa, Johanna
    Department of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, School of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.
    Landin, Mariana
    Department of Pharmacology, Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Santiago, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    Morales, Javier O.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap. Department of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, School of Chemical and Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of Chile, Santiago, Chile. Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDiS), Santiago, Chile.
    Finding key nanoprecipitation variables for achieving uniform polymeric nanoparticles using neurofuzzy logic technology2018Inngår i: Drug Delivery and Translational Research, ISSN 2190-393X, Vol. 8, nr 6, s. 1797-1806Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanoprecipitation is a simple and fast method to produce polymeric nanoparticles (Np); however, most applications require filtration or another separation technique to isolate the nanosuspension from aggregates or polydisperse particle production. In order to avoid variability introduced by these additional steps, we report here a systematic study of the process to yield monomodal and uniform Np production with the nanoprecipitation method. To further identify key variables and their interactions, we used artificial neural networks (ANN) to investigate the multiple variables which influence the process. In this work, a polymethacrylate derivative was used for Np (NpERS) and a database with several formulations and conditions was developed for the ANN model. The resulting ANN model had a high predictability (> 70%) for NpERS characteristics measured (mean size, PDI, zeta potential, and number of particle populations). Moreover, the model identified production variables leading to polymer supersaturation, such as mixing time and turbulence, as key in achieving monomodal and uniform NpERS in one production step. Polymer concentration and type of solvent, modifiers of polymer diffusion and supersaturation, were also shown to control NpERS characteristics. The ANN study allowed the identification of key variables and their interactions and resulted in a predictive model to study the NpERS production by nanoprecipitation. In turn, we have achieved an optimized method to yield uniform NpERS which could pave way for polymeric nanoparticle production methods with potential in biological and drug delivery applications.

  • 124.
    Jonsson, B-A
    et al.
    Department of Medical Biosciences, Medical and Clinical Genetics, Umeå University Hospital.
    Stattin, E-L
    Department of Medical Biosciences, Medical and Clinical Genetics, Umeå University Hospital.
    Wiklund, F.
    Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute.
    Lindblom, K.
    Department of Experimental Medical Sciences, Lund University.
    Önnverfjord, P.
    Department of Experimental Medical Sciences, Lund University.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Sasaki, T.
    Department of Experimental Medicin I, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg.
    Struglics, A.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University.
    Lohmander, S.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University.
    Dahl, N.
    Department of Genetics and Pathology, The Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University.
    Heinegård, D.
    Department of Experimental Medical Sciences, Lund University.
    Aspberg, A.
    Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen.
    A missense mutation in the aggrecan C-type lectin domain disrupts extracellular matrix interactions and causes dominant familial osteochondritis dissecans with short stature and early osteoarthritis2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 125.
    Jonsson, Johan
    et al.
    Västmanland hospital, Västmanlands sjukhus Västerås.
    Jonsson, Mattias
    Västmanland hospital, Västmanlands sjukhus Västerås.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    The Epidemiology of Overuse Injuries in Ice Hockey: An Analysis from 29 Seasons in the Swedish Elite League2019Inngår i: Orthopedics and sports medicine, ISSN 2638-6003, Vol. 2, nr 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: An overuse injury is considered to be the result of iterated micro trauma or monotonous movements. Sports related to monotonous and repetitive movements have a high amount of overuse injuries. Ice hockey with its complexity of movements makes the player exposed to overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to analyze overuse injuries, and to study the long-term injury panorama. It is the first and essential step to obtain an injury-prevention method.Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study.Method: Data from an elite ice hockey team was prospectively collected from 29 seasons. The definition of an overuse injury was a gradual onset injury caused by repeated micro trauma without a single identifiable event responsible for that injury and which resulted in absence from ice hockey. Result: 315 overuse injuries were registered and accounted for 16.2% of all injury registrations. An overuse injury led on average to 1.8 missed games, 6.5 missed training sessions and 8.4 days of absence. August and September were the most injury months for an injury, with a total of 38.7% of the events. The most affected body region was the hip and groin, as 67.3% of all overuse injuries arose there. The second and third most affected body regions were the back and the knee respectively.Conclusion: The present study reports that overuse injuries are a relevant problem. Primarily hip and groin are frequently affected. The beginning of the on-ice season has shown to be the most vulnerable period

  • 126.
    Jumisko, Eija
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Omvårdnad.
    Lexell, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Söderberg, Siv
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Omvårdnad.
    Living with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury: the meaning of family members' experiences2007Inngår i: Journal of Family Nursing, ISSN 1074-8407, E-ISSN 1552-549X, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. 353-69Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has long-lasting consequences not only for the individual with the injury but also for family members. The aim of this study is to elucidate the meaning of family members' experiences of living with an individual with moderate or severe TBI. The data have been collected by means of qualitative research interviews with 8 family member participants. A phenomenological hermeneutic interpretation (Ricouer, 1976) of the data reveal that family members struggle with their own suffering while showing compassion for the injured person. Their willingness to assume care for the injured person is derived from their feeling of natural love and the ethical demand to be responsible for the other. Hope and natural love from close relatives, the afflicted person, and other family members give the family members strength. It is important that professionals pay more attention to the suffering of close relatives

  • 127.
    Jumisko, Eija
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Omvårdnad.
    Lexell, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Söderberg, Siv
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Omvårdnad.
    The meaning of feeling well in people with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury2009Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 18, nr 16, s. 2273-2281Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. The aim of this study was to elucidate the meaning of feeling well for people with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury.Background. Considerable attention has been given to research consequences, quality of life and satisfaction with life in people with traumatic brain injury. Most studies reveal negative aspects of living with traumatic brain injury. Knowledge that provides an understanding of the meaning of feeling well for people with a traumatic brain injury entails the possibility that they could receive support to feel well, despite their injury.Design. This study used a qualitative research approach, as the aim was to elucidate meaning.Methods. Data were collected through qualitative research interviews with two women and six men with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury who had lived with the injury for between 7-15 years. A phenomenological hermeneutic method was used to interpret the data.Results. The meaning of feeling well for people with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury was that the initially unfamiliar life with traumatic brain injury became familiar. This included finding strength, regaining control over everyday life, being close to someone and being good enough. People with traumatic brain injury felt well when they became reconciled with the circumstances of their life and created a new entity in that life, in which their complete health had been lost.Relevance to clinical practice. This study helps professionals to enhance their understanding and awareness of the possibilities for people with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury to feel well. The study showed that people with traumatic brain injury needed a lot of strength to achieve this. Professionals can help them to feel well by getting to know them and thus find ways to support the person's feeling of wellbeing.

  • 128.
    Jung, Min-Sook
    et al.
    Chungnam National University.
    Kim, Jeong-Soo
    Chungnam National University.
    Kim, Min-Soo
    Chungnam National University.
    Alhalaweh, Amjad
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Cho, Wonkyung
    Chungnam National University.
    Hwang, Sung-Joo
    Chungnam National University.
    Velaga, Sitaram
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Bioavailability of indomethacin-saccharin cocrystals2010Inngår i: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology (JPP), ISSN 0022-3573, E-ISSN 2042-7158, Vol. 62, nr 11, s. 1560-1568Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceutical cocrystals are new solid forms with physicochemical properties that appear promising for drug product development. However, the in-vivo bioavailability of cocrystals has rarely been addressed. The cocrystal of indomethacin (IND), a Biopharmaceutical Classification System class II drug, with saccharin (SAC) has been shown to have higher solubility than IND at all pH. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the in-vitro dissolution and in-vivo bioavailability of IND-SAC cocrystals in comparison with IND in a physical mixture and the marketed product Indomee (R).MethodsScale-up of the cocrystals was undertaken using cooling batch crystallisation without seeding. The chemical and physical purity of the up-scaled material was verified using high-performance liquid chromatography, differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction. The IND-SAC cocrystals and IND plus SAC were mixed with lactose and the formulations were placed into gelatin capsules. In-vitro dissolution studies were then performed using the rotating basket dissolution method. The intrinsic dissolution rate of IND and IND-SAC cocrystals was also determined. Finally, a bioavailability study for the formulations was conducted in beagle dogs. The plasma samples were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography and the pharmacokinetic data were analysed using standard methodologies.Key findingsThe bulk cocrystals (i.e. scaled-up material) were chemically and physically pure. The in-vitro dissolution rate of the cocrystals was higher than that of IND and similar to that of Indomee (R) at pH 7.4 and pH 1.2. The in-vivo bioavailability of the IND-SAC cocrystals in dogs was significantly higher (ANOVA, P < 0.05) than that of IND but not significantly different from Indomee (R) (ANOVA, P > 0.05).ConclusionsThe study indicates that the improved aqueous solubility of the cocrystals leads to improved bioavailability of IND. Thus, the cocrystals are a viable alternative solid form that can improve the dissolution rate and bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs.

  • 129.
    Kaialy, Waseem
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Alhalaweh, Amjad
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Velaga, Sitaram
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Nokhodchi, Ali
    University of Kent.
    Effect of carrier particle shape on dry powder inhaler performance2011Inngår i: International Journal of Pharmaceutics, ISSN 0378-5173, E-ISSN 1873-3476, Vol. 421, nr 1, s. 12-23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    he aim of this study was to characterise the aerosolisation properties of salbutamol sulphate (SS) from dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations containing different carrier products. The difference in the elongation ratio (ER) of the different carriers was highlighted. Different set of carriers, namely commercial mannitol (CM), commercial lactose (CL), cooling crystallised mannitol (CCM), acetone crystallised mannitol (ACM) and ethanol crystallised mannitol (ECM) were used and inspected in terms of size, shape, density, crystal form, flowability, and in vitro aerosolisation performance using Multi Stage Liquid Impinger (MSLI) and Aerolizer® inhaler device. Solid-state and morphological characterization showed that CM product was in pure β-form having particles with smaller ER (CM: ER = 1.62 ± 0.04) whereas ACM and ECM mannitol particles were in pure α form with higher ER (ACM: ER = 4.83 ± 0.18, ECM: ER = 5.89 ± 0.19). CCM product crystallised as mixtures of β-form and δ-form and showed the largest variability in terms of particle shape, size, and DPI performance. Linear relationships were established showing that carrier products with higher ER have smaller bulk density (Db), smaller tap density (Dt), higher porosity (P), and poorer flow properties. In vitro aerosolisation assessments showed that the higher the ER of the carrier particles the greater the amounts of SS delivered to lower airway regions indicating enhanced DPI performance. Yet, DPI performance enhancement by increasing carrier ER reached a “limit” as increasing carrier ER from 4.83 ± 0.18 (ACM) to 5.89 ± 0.19 (ECM) did not significantly alter fine particle fraction (FPF) of SS. Also, carrier particles with higher ER were disadvantageous in terms of higher amounts of SS remained in inhaler device (drug loss) and deposited on throat. Linear relationship was established (r2 = 0.87) showing that the higher the carrier ER the lower the drug emission (EM) upon inhalation. Moreover, poorer flowability for carrier products with higher ER is disadvantageous in terms of DPI formulation dose metering and processing on handling scale. In conclusion, despite that using carrier particles with higher ER can considerably increase the amounts of drug delivered to lower airway regions; this enhancement is restricted to certain point. Also, other limitations should be taken into account including higher drug loss and poorer flowability.

  • 130.
    Kaialy, Waseem
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Alhalaweh, Amjad
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Velaga, Sitaram
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Nokhodchi, Ali
    Chemistry and Drug Delivery Group, Medway School of Pharmacy, University of Kent.
    Influence of lactose carrier particle size on the aerosol performance of budesonide from a dry powder inhaler2012Inngår i: Powder Technology, ISSN 0032-5910, E-ISSN 1873-328X, Vol. 227, s. 74-85Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of carrier particle size on properties of dry powder and its effect on dry powder inhaler (DPI) performance. Commercial α-lactose-monohydrate, a commonly used carrier in DPI formulations, was carefully sieved to obtain different lactose size fractions, namely Lac A (90–125 μm), Lac B (63–90 μm), Lac C (45–63 μm), Lac D (20–45 μm), and Lac E (< 20 μm). The lactose samples were analysed in terms of size, shape, solid state, density, and flowability. Lactose particles were blended with budesonide (< 5 μm) powder to generate five different formulations. These formulations were then evaluated in terms of budesonide-lactose adhesion properties, drug content homogeneity, and in vitro aerosolisation performance. The results demonstrated that lactose samples with smaller particle volume mean diameter have higher amorphous lactose content, higher true density (linear, r2 = 0.9932), higher surface smoothness (linear, r2 = 0.8752), smaller angularity (linear, r2 = 0.921), smaller bulk density, higher porosity (linear, r2 = 0.914), poorer flowability, and higher specific surface area. In general, the smaller the lactose particles the smaller are the budesonide-lactose adhesion properties. Budesonide formulated with smaller lactose particles exhibited smaller aerodynamic diameter and higher amounts of budesonide were delivered to lower stages of the impactor indicating improved DPI aerosolisation performance. However, the use of lactose particles with smaller volume mean diameter had a detrimental effect on budesonide content homogeneity and caused an increase in the amounts of budesonide deposited on oropharyngeal region. Therefore, particle size of the lactose within dry powder inhaler formulations should be selected carefully. Accordingly, higher drug aerosolisation efficiency of lactose particles with smaller size may have to be balanced due to considerations of other disadvantages including poorer flowability, reduced formulation stability, higher potential side effects, and higher dose variability.

  • 131.
    Kruse, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Experiences of Interns and General Practitioners of Communicating with and Writing Referrals to the Radiology Department2016Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this licentiate thesis was to describe the experiences of medical interns and general practitioners (GPs) communicating with and writing referrals to the radiology department. The referral is a major communication tool between medical professionals to establish an accurate diagnosis.   

    Data were collected by means of qualitative research, using focus group interviews with three groups of medical interns during their internship in hospitals and with three groups of general practitioners in their health care centre. Data were analysed using qualitative thematic content analysis.     

    The study showed some differences between the groups in that the medical interns required more support in both referral writing situations and the decision portion of the process, choosing imaging modality. The general practitioners were more confident in the narrative process of the referral, writing facts and formulating diagnostic questions, but similarly they needed additional support in decisions concerning the imaging portion of the process. The GPs even advised an evident share of responsibility by letting the radiologists control the choice of imaging method. Both groups suggested different opportunities for dialogue and education as crucial to achieving improvements.

    The results can be discussed in relation to the specific radiology knowledge and are characterized by a combination of specific expert knowledge and tacit knowledge. The means of communication could be evaluated from different perspectives in relation to what referents and staff in the radiology department perceive and expect. The results can also be assessed in relation to the demand-control-support theory. In this respect, the medical interns experienced high demands and poor control and support, while the GPs experienced demands differently; they often controlled their situation but still needed enhanced radiological support.       

  • 132.
    Kruse, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Lehto, Niklas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Riklund, Katrine
    Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology, Umeå University.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Engström, Åsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Omvårdnad.
    Scrutinized with inadequate control and support Interns' experiences communicating with and writing referrals to hospital radiology departments: a qualitative study2016Inngår i: Radiography, ISSN 1078-8174, E-ISSN 1532-2831, Vol. 22, nr 4, s. 313-318Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    IntroductionInterns' experiences communicating with and writing referrals to hospital radiology departments are important for patient safety, image quality, and decision-making in the diagnostic process. Understanding roles within the department and in the diagnostic process is important for communication. This study aimed to describe interns' experiences communicating with and writing referrals to their hospital's radiology department.MethodA qualitative study design was used. Data was collected from focus discussions with ten interns in three focus groups in Northern Sweden during 2012. The data were subjected to qualitative content analysis.ResultsOne theme, “a feeling of being scrutinized and lacking control”, was identified in the final categories. The interns experienced that the radiology department placed high demands on them and desired more diagnostic skills training, resources and feedback. The interns suggested the following improvements: enhanced dialogue and feedback, improved education, handy guidelines, and practice writing referrals.ConclusionInterns need more feedback from, and dialogue with, members of the Department of Radiology. They also need more knowledge of referral guidelines, appropriateness criteria and more practice to develop their knowledge and skill for writing referrals. They describe feelings of inadequate support and feel scrutinized in demanding work conditions and need more collaboration. They also need more time and more control of radiology outcomes, and they are eager to learn.

  • 133.
    Lankinen, Minna
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Westman, Marina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Centrala venösa infarter på röntgenavdelningen: En litteraturöversikt om patientsäkerhet och bildkvalitet2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Centrala venösa infarter används inom vården för att administrera läkemedel, ge parenteral nutrition och för blodprovstagning. Indikationer på att en patient behöver en central venös infart är att patienten behöver akut vård eller långvarig intravenös administrering av läkemedel. Många av dessa patienter behöver dessutom genomgå undersökningar via datortomografen (DT), där kontrastmedel kan krävas för att undersökningen ska kunna utföras. Syfte: Syftet med litteraturöversiktet var att sammanställa kunskap om centrala venösa infarters användbarhet vid administrering av kontrastmedel i samband med DT undersökningar. Metod: En allmän litteraturöversikt som baseras på tolv kvantitativa artiklar. Resultat: I de tolv artiklarna så uppmärksammades fyra kategorier som syftar till användbarheten: Tryck och Flödeshastigheter, Kateterspetsläge, Efterspolning och Diagnostisk bildkvalitet. Flera av studierna visade på kateterspetsförskjutning i samband med en kontrastmedelsinjektion med tryckspruta på DT. Tre av de fyra studier som kontrollerade bildkvalitet visade på bra diagnostisk bildkvalitet. Slutsats: Centrala venösa infarter är användbara vid administrering av kontrastmedel under datortomografiundersökningar under förutsättning att röntgensjuksköterskan har rätt kunskap om användandet av dem. Nationella riktlinjer behövs för att underlätta röntgensjuksköterskans arbete med dem så att hanteringen av dem utförs patientsäkert.

  • 134.
    Larsson-Lund, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering.
    Lexell, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    A positive turning point in life: how persons with late effects of polio experience the influence of an interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme2010Inngår i: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 42, nr 6, s. 559-565Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To describe and enhance our understanding of how persons with late effects of polio experience the influence of an interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme. Participants: Twelve persons with clinically verified late effects of polio who had participated in an individualized, goal-oriented, comprehensive interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme. Methods: Qualitative research interviews analysed using the constant comparative method of grounded theory. Results: The rehabilitation programme was experienced as a turning point in the participants' lives. Before rehabilitation they felt they were on a downward slope without control. Rehabilitation was the start of a process of change whereby they acquired new skills, which, over time, contributed to a different but good life. After approximately a year, they had a sense of control and had accepted life with late effects of polio. They had also established new habits, taken on a changed valued self and could look to the future with confidence. Conclusion: This qualitative study has shown that persons with late effects of polio can benefit from an individualized, goal-oriented, comprehensive interdisciplinary rehabilitation programme and experience positive changes in their manage­ment of daily activities and in their view of their late effects of polio, their future and their self.

  • 135.
    Larsson-Lund, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering.
    Lexell, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Associations between perceptions of environmental barriers and participation in persons with late effects of polio2009Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 16, nr 4, s. 194-204Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this pilot study was to assess the association between perceived environmental barriers and perceived participation in everyday life situations encountered by people with late effects of polio. A sample of 45 persons with clinically verified late effects of polio answered the Swedish versions of the Impact on Participation and Autonomy Questionnaire (IPA-S) and the Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors (CHIEF-S). The relationships between the perceived occurrence of a broad range of environmental barriers and perception of participation in life situations and problems with participation were explored. The majority of the respondents perceived that they encountered environmental barriers, but their occurrence was generally infrequent and their magnitude tended to be low. The barriers identified in the physical/structural subscale were generally most strongly related to problems with participation, compared with the four other environmental subscales. A high frequency of never encountering environmental barriers in the three subscales physical/structural, work and education, and policies in CHIEF-S were significantly related to more reports of good participation in IPA-S. These associations indicate that the participation of those with late effects of polio is influenced by their perception of the barriers they encounter. Further studies of these concepts can provide a greater understanding of disabilities and help us to promote participation in life situations for people with late effects of polio.

  • 136.
    Larsson-Lund, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering.
    Lexell, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Life satisfaction in persons with late effects of polio2011Inngår i: Applied Research in Quality of Life, ISSN 1871-2584, E-ISSN 1871-2576, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 71-80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To assess satisfaction with life as a whole and with ten domains of life satisfaction in Swedish persons with late effects of polio, to describe the relationship with sex, age, marital status, use of mobility aids and self-perceived needs of instrumental support, and to compare the level of life satisfaction with a Swedish reference sample. A cross-sectional study of 160 persons with verified late effects of polio answered a postal questionnaire including the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LiSat-11). A majority were to some degree satisfied with life as a whole and with all the ten domains of life satisfaction. Satisfaction with life as whole was not related to any of the sociodemographic or disability related factors and these factors had few relations to the ten domains of life satisfaction. The respondents were significantly less satisfied with life as a whole and with vocation, leisure, sexual life, activities of daily living, and somatic and psychological health compared to the Swedish reference sample, but were significantly more satisfied with economy and contacts with friends. Men and women with late effects of polio, regardless of age, marital status or disability, can experience a reduced life satisfaction. This emphasises the need to identify potential gaps between these persons' aspirations and achievements in life and carry out appropriate rehabilitation interventions to enhance their life satisfaction

  • 137.
    Larsson-Lund, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering.
    Lexell, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Relationship between participation in life situations and life satisfaction in persons with late effects of polio2009Inngår i: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 31, nr 19, s. 1592-1597Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. To assess the relationship between participation and problems with participation in life situations, and life satisfaction in persons with late effects of polio. Methods. One hundred fifty-eight persons with late effects of polio responded to a postal questionnaire including the Swedish versions of the Impact on Participation and Autonomy Questionnaire (IPA-S) and Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LiSat-11). Results. The persons' perceived participation in the five domains of participation in the IPA-S was significantly correlated with their satisfaction with life as a whole and with most of the 10 domains of life satisfaction. Significant differences in satisfaction with life as a whole and with eight of the 10 domains in LiSat-11 were found between groups of increasing severe problems with participation. Greater number of reports of severe problems with participation corresponded with gradually decreased satisfaction with life as a whole and with satisfaction in the eight domains in LiSat-11. Conclusions. Perceived participation and problems with participation in life situations are determinants of life satisfaction in persons with late effects of polio. This implies that addressing participation and problems with participation in the rehabilitation of persons with late effects of polio may lead to an enhanced life satisfaction.

  • 138.
    Lehto, Niklas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Aktivitet: Vad har kroppens fysik med fysik att göra?2013Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 139.
    Lehto, Niklas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Effects of age on marathon finishing time among male amateur runners in Stockholm marathon 1979-20142016Inngår i: Journal of Sport and Health Science, ISSN 2095-2546, E-ISSN 2213-2961, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 349-354Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeThe purpose of the present study was to investigate the age-related changes in the endurance performance among male amateur marathon runners.MethodsSubjects were taken from the 36 Stockholm Marathons heldfrom 1979 through 2014, and age and finishing time were analyzed for a total of 312,342male runners.ResultsThe relation was found to be a second-order polynomial, t = a + bx + cx2, which models 99.7% of the variation in the average running time t as a function of age x. The model shows that the marathon performance of the average runner improves up to age 34.3 ± 2.6 years, thereafter, the performance starts to decline. Aquantification of the age’s influence on running time shows that it accounts for 4.5% of the total variance seen in the performance data.ConclusionThese outcomes indicate that the effect of age on performance in endurance running events is clearly measurable, quantifiable and possible to describe. At the same time the findings indicate that other factors, such as training, affect the performance more. A comparison with the elite showed peak performance at the same age, but the rates of change in performance with age, improvement as well as degradation, was found to be higher among the elite.

  • 140.
    Lehto, Niklas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Varför spendera tid på interaktion?: En undersökning av studenters användning av ett asynkront diskussionsforum2014Inngår i: NU 2014: Umeå 8-10 oktober : abstracts, Umeå: Umeå universitet. Pedagogiska institutionen , 2014, s. 54-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 141.
    Leijon Sundqvist, Katarina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Evaluation of hand skin temperature: Infrared thermography in combination with cold stress tests2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Since ancient times, warm or cold skin on the human body has been used as a parameter in evaluating health. Changes in body temperature are attributed to diseases or disorders. The assessment of body temperature is often performed to measure fever by detecting an elevated core temperature. With techniques such as infrared thermography, it is possible to perform a non-contact temperature measurement on a large surface area. The overall aim of this thesis was to contribute to a better understanding of the hand skin temperature variability in healthy persons and in persons experiencing whitening fingers (WF).

    The enclosed four papers discuss issues such as thermal variability response to cold stress test (CST) in repeated investigations; the specific rewarming pattern after CST; the difference between the hand’s palmar and dorsal temperatures; and evaluating skin temperatures and response to CST in participants with WF and healthy participants. All four papers used an experimental approach involving healthy males (I-III) and females (III) as well as individuals with (IV) and without WF (I-IV). Data were generated using dynamic infrared imaging before and after a CST. The radiometric images were analyzed using image analysis and statistics.

    The study showed that: (I) there is variability in hand skin temperature; (II) there are cold and warm hand skin temperature response patterns; (III) the skin temperatures on the palmar and dorsal sides of the hand are closely related; and (IV) a baseline hand skin temperature measurement can distinguish between whitening fingers and controls.

    The conclusion of this thesis is that it is necessary to engage in thorough planning before an investigation in order to choose the most adequate method for evaluating peripheral skin temperature response depending on the question asked.

  • 142.
    Leijon-Sundqvist, Katarina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Activity: Cold-water provocation of hands: An evaluation of different provocations2015Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 143.
    Leijon-Sundqvist, Katarina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Activity: Peripheral rewarming after cold stress- thermal imaging2016Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 144.
    Leijon-Sundqvist, Katarina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Aktivitet: Hon handskas med kylan2011Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 145.
    Leijon-Sundqvist, Katarina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Aktivitet: Kalla fingrar - en förlorad OS-medalj?2011Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Öppna föreläsningar: vetenskapslunchOkt 2011

  • 146.
    Leijon-Sundqvist, Katarina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Aktivitet: Kyla, snö och värme2012Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 147.
    Leijon-Sundqvist, Katarina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Lehto, Niklas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Juntti, Ulla
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik. Performance in Cold AB, Luleå.
    Karp, Kjell
    Heart Centre, Clinical Physiology, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Umeå University.
    Andersson, Staffan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Thermal response after cold-water provocation of hands in healthy young men2015Inngår i: Thermology International, ISSN 1560-604X, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 48-53Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermal response in hands provoked by cold water was investigated with infrared thermography. In 26 healthy young men, the response of hand skin temperature to cold water provocation was measured twice on consecutive days. An infrared thermographic camera was used and data were processed in real time. The software divides each hand into 18 predefined regions of interest (ROI). The average temperature in each ROI was stored every 10th second. Baseline hand skin temperature was recorded for two minutes. The bare hands were then immersed for 30 seconds in water at 10°C × 0.5°C and carefully dried. Thereafter, the cooled and final hand skin temperature was measured. The baseline showed a higher average temperature of 0.3°C on day 2 and the 95% limits of agreement (LOA) were - 5.2-5.8, the cooled average temperatures showed no significant difference between the two days (LOA: - 4.8-4.6) and the average final hand skin temperature was 0.8°C higher on day 2 (LOA: - 5.2-6.4). In conclusion, there was variability between the two measurements, small differences in the temperature response to the reaction to cold-water provocation - probably due to Day 1 stress factor.

  • 148.
    Leijon-Sundqvist, Katarina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Lehto, Niklas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Juntti, Ulla
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Karp, Kjell
    Umeå university.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Cold-water provocation of hands: An evaluation of different provocations2015Inngår i: Thermology International, ISSN 1560-604X, Vol. 25, nr 3, s. 122-123Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 149.
    Leijon-Sundqvist, Katarina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Lehto, Niklas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Juntti, Ulla
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Linné, Anders
    Karp, Kjell
    Andersson, Staffan
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Thermal response after cold-water provocation of hands of healthy young men: A test-retest investigation2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 150.
    Leijon-Sundqvist, Katarina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Juntti, Ulla
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik. Performance in Cold AB, Luleå.
    Karp, Kjell
    Division of Clinical Physiology, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Umeå University.
    Lehto, Niklas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Hand skin temperature: are there warm and cold rewarming patterns after cold stress test?2016Inngår i: Thermology International, ISSN 1560-604X, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 81-87Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 116 thermographic measurements of 66 healthy male participants, 44 of whom were measured at least twice, hand skin temperature distributions before and after a cold stress test (CST) were examined to identify any typical characteristics of hand skin rewarming. On each hand, measurements from 18 regions of interest recorded every 10 s were used to calculate the surface average temperature. Temperatures at baseline (Tb), directly after cooling (Tc), and after 15 min of rewarming (Tf) were used for comparison and the averages of each finger, palm, and hand were analyzed. Using fits of normal distribution for the measured data, final hand skin temperatures were divided into two groups, A and B, with a calculated boundary at 25.4 °C. Digital analyses of all thermograms were performed to describe the process, and each group's rewarming patterns were observed. Group A was considered to demonstrate warm rewarming, since the whole hands reached a Tf approximately equal to the Tb. By contrast, Group B demonstrated cold rewarming and had whole hand Tf less than Tb. The predictive value of Tc was lower than that of Tb in Group A, whereas the opposite occurred in Group B. Altogether, the findings suggest different hand skin temperature rewarming patterns in healthy males.

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