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  • 101.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The environmental implications of depleted uranium in Iraq and the principles of isolating it2014Inngår i: Waste Management and the Environment VII / [ed] C.A. Beribba; G. Passerini; H. Itoh, Southanpton: WIT Press, 2014, s. 367-376Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq experienced two devastating wars in 1991 and 2003, during which massiveamounts of new weapons and sophisticated manufactured nuclear weaponscalled depleted uranium (DU) were used. DU is a by-product of the enrichmentof natural uranium for nuclear reactor-grade or nuclear weapons-grade uranium. Depleted uranium is chemically identical to natural uranium. During the second Gulf war in 2003 U.S. and British troops used more than 1100 to 2200 tons of DU. As a consequence the ruminants of wars are reported to have seriously affected people and the environment, causing cancer and abnormal birth defects. The water and soil all over most of Iraq is contaminated. There is no strategy, national or international program for cleaning Iraq of DU wastes. Site selection criteria have been suggested for the disposal of radioactive waste but no principle of designing and constructing disposals. The present paper describes a large geological feature, a deep natural depression, which would be useful for isolating DU by isolating it in smectitic Iraqi clay.

  • 102.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Fouad, Saffa
    Deformational Style of the Soft Sediment (SEISMITES) within the Uppermost Part of the Euphrates Formation, Western Iraq2014Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 71-86Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Euphrates Formation (Early Miocene) is wide spread formations in central western part of Iraq. It consists of basal conglomerate, well bedded, grey, fossiliferous and hard limestones (Lower Member), chalky like dolomitic limestone, white and massive, green marl, and deformed, brecciated dolomitic limestone and well bedded undulated limestone (Upper Member). The thickness of the formation Iraq is 35-110 m.The uppermost part of the Euphrates Formation includes Brecciated Unit. The fragments (size 1 – 3 cm) are semi angular to semi rounded, consist of very finely crystalline, silicified limestone, arranged in systematic form, which is parallel to the deformations and undulations that are present in both the brecciated mass and the overlying Undulated Limestone Unit. These characteristics of the fragments indicate that the breccia is not formed due to break in sedimentation, but it is syn-sedimentary breccia.The genesis and deformation style of the breccia is discussed in this study. The results indicate the seismic effect on the development of the breccia, during the deposition, which means syn-sedimentary origin of the breccia, most probably due to tectonic unrest, which has caused seismic shocks in the depositional area; such sediments are called "seismites".

  • 103.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Zakaria, Salih
    Mosul University.
    Ezz-Aldeen, Mohammad
    Mosul University.
    Feasibility of using small dams in water harvesting, Northern Iraq2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is experiencing water-resource shortages which are expected to become more severe in the future. Water harvesting techniques (WH) will definitely help to overcome or minimize the effect of this problem. Two areas (northwestern and northeastern part of Iraq) were tested for the feasibility of WH using small dams not more than 6m height. The locations of the dams and reservoirs were selected depending on the drainage area, the cross section of the valley (to ensure minimum construction material to be used for building the dams) and to minimize evaporation losses and insure the required storage was obtained; the ratio of surface area to storage volume was kept to a minimum. Watershed modeling system (WMS) and linear programming (LP) optimization techniques were applied to maximize the irrigated area, which could be supplied by each selected reservoir for the period 1990–2009.In northeastern part of Iraq, the technique was applied in Erbil and Sulaimaniyah. In the former, 22 dams (catchment areas ranged between 3.34 to 111.63 km2) were tested. While in the latter, five separated dams were used with total catchment area of 176.79 km2. Their area ranged between 7.35 to 98.08 km2. In northwestern part of Iraq, the technique was applied in Sinjar Mountain. At northern Sinjar Mountain, ten dams were selected, their catchment area ranged between 43.48 to197.7 km2.The results obtained from all areas were encouraging.

  • 104.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Suggested landfill sites for hazardous waste in Iraq2013Inngår i: Natural Science, ISSN 2150-4091, E-ISSN 2150-4105, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 463-477Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq experienced two devastating wars in 1991 and 2003, during which massive amounts of new weapons and sophisticated manufactured nuclear weapons were used called Depleted Uranium (DU). As a consequence of the radioactive contamination; the humans are suffering from various disease like cancer and the environment is polluted.In practice, there is no strategy and/or national program, not even well thought out plans and scientific personnel and technical equipment required to clean Iraq of these wastes. Reviewing the geological, topographical and hydrological data, it had been noticed that Umm Chaimin depression is a good candidate site to dump all contaminated radioactive scrap and soil. The suggested design of the landfill will ensure safe containment of the waste for hundreds of thousands of years even if significant climatic changes will take place.

  • 105.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Almuqdadi, Kadhim
    Arab Academy-Denmark.
    Effective isolation of radioactive military wastes in Iraq: a necessary humanitarian action2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq has been subject to a series of wars for more than fifty years, the latest one leaving large amounts of wrecked tanks, vehicles, weapons and ammunition. A considerable part of the waste has the form of, or contains, depleted uranium (DU), that is concluded to have cancerogenic effects through its radioactivity and toxicity. The DU exists in significant concentrations in areas where combat took place, mostly in and around the cities of Bagdad and Basra, the total number of particularly encountered areas being about 15. The way of long-term isolation of DU that is proposed in this paper is to construct relatively simple landfills of sandwiched contaminated soil and clay or clayey soil, covered by sand/gravel and erosion-resistant coarser material on top. The very low annual precipitation and long draught in the deserts, implying significant evaporation, means that the system of tight soil interlayered with contaminated soil, embedding wrecked military objects, minimizes percolation and release of DU, keeping it adsorbed on the finest soil particles. The clay-based material must be composed in a way that, i/ desiccation fractures are not formed in periods of long draught and ii/ not swell uncontrolled and loose strength in wet periods. The DU-contaminated soil is proposed to be scraped off and transported in closed trucks to four desert sites where landfills of the sandwich-type are proposed to be constructed.

  • 106.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Almuqdadi, Kadhim
    Arab Academy-Denmark.
    Isolation of radioactive military wastes in Iraq2013Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 1-10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq has been subject to a series of wars for more than fifty years, the latest one leaving large amounts of wrecked tanks, vehicles, weapons and ammunition. A considerable part of the waste has the form of, or contains, depleted uranium (DU), that is concluded to have cancerogenic effects through its radioactivity and toxicity. The DU exists in significant concentrations in areas where combat took place, mostly in and around the cities of Bagdad and Basra, the total number of particularly encountered areas being about 15. The way of long-term isolation of DU that is proposed in this paper is to construct relatively simple landfills of sandwiched contaminated soil and clay or clayey soil, covered by sand/gravel and erosion-resistant coarser material on top. The very low annual precipitation and long draught in the deserts, implying significant evaporation, means that the system of tight soil interlayered with contaminated soil, embedding wrecked military objects, minimizes percolation and release of DU, keeping it adsorbed on the finest soil particles. The clay-based material must be composed in a way that, i/ desiccation fractures are not formed in periods of long draught and ii/ not swell uncontrolled and loose strength in wet periods. The DU-contaminated soil is proposed to be scraped off and transported in closed trucks to four desert sites where landfills of the sandwich-type are proposed to be constructed.

  • 107.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Almuqdadi, Kadhim
    Arab Academy-Denmark.
    Saving Iraqi civilians and their environment from catastrophic implications of depleted uranium used in Gulf wars I and II2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Depleted uranium (DU) was used twice by the Americans and allied forces against Iraqi troops and personnel in 1991 and 2003. The largest single radionuclide contamination occurred in the Gulf during Gulf War II, 1991, where depleted uranium was used as an amour-penetrating ordnance. Due to this use the countryside of Iraq was contaminated to a significant extent and thus chronically exposed the civilian population and military personnel to different environmental loads i.e. DU dust, vapors, and aerosols etc. In addition to the radioactive contamination due to military activities in Gulf wars, other dangerous source of contamination has been reported from the material and equipment at the Iraqi Energy Authority. After the fall of the Baath regime in 2003, the Iraqi Energy Authority, like all other Ministries and governmental organizations, sustained immense losses due to the turmoil and looting. As an example the Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMI) reported in 2003 that uranium (as yellow cakes) as well as byproducts from processing activities in addition to tons of radioactive waste was stored in barrels. Simple citizens stole these barrels and used them for storing water. The radioactive materials in these barrels were in this way either spread in large quantities on the ground or taken to their homes. Other examples of how DU material is spread are given in the report as well. This report is highlighting the effect of radioactive waste on the people and the environment of Iraq and trying to find possible solutions to the problem. Special concerns are directed to the question of finding sustainable, environmentally acceptable and safe landfills for the final deposition of DU contaminated material.

  • 108.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Zakaria, Saleh
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mustafa, Yaseen
    University of Zakho.
    Ahmad, Payman
    Koya University.
    Ghafour, Bahra
    Koya University.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Development of Water Resources in Koya City, Iraq2013Inngår i: First International Symposium on Urban Development, UK: WIT Press, 2013, s. 91-98Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is facing water shortage problem, which is becoming more severe with time. Rain Water Harvesting (RWH) can help to minimize the water shortage problem. Seven years of rainfall records was used to find out the quantity of water that can be harvested using a Watershed modeling system (WMS).Koya city is located in the northern part of Iraq. The population of the city is about 39484.The application of the WMS model for rainfall records of seven years (2002-3 to 2010-11) showed that 275.51 million cubic meters of water can be harvested. This implies that annual average of rain harvested water is 39.4 million cubic meters and the allocation per capita to be 997 cubic meters per year. This amount of water can greatly help to the development of industry and agriculture in the city.

  • 109.
    Al-Dahan, Saadi
    et al.
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Alabidi, Abdelkadhum
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Relationship between Selected Hydrochemical Parameters in Springs of Najaf Province, Iraq2015Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 7, nr 6, s. 337-346Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several springs exist at the south-western desert of Iraq in Najaf Province at latitude 31˚00' -32˚15' and longitude 43˚30' - 44˚30'. They are almost parallel to Euphrates River on the eastern edge of western desert. General direction for the distribution of springs coincides with that of faults running northwest-southeast. The Hydrogen sulfide, temperature, pH and electrical conductivity were investigated in these springs. The analyses indicated that the concentration of H2S decreased from northwest toward southeast which is attributed to the escape of this gas to the atmosphere during the flow of groundwater near or on the earth surface. The surrounding geologic conditions did not affect the temperature and pH of the springs. Electrical conductivity showed an increase from northwest towards southeast which reflects dissolving more ions from the rocks of the aquifer. The electrical conductivity and hydrogen sulfide concentration had reverse relationship.

  • 110.
    al-Dahan, Saadi
    et al.
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    M., Hussain Hussain
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hydrochemistry of springs, Najaf area, Iraq2015Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 23, artikkel-id 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Springs exist in southwestern Iraq at Najaf area in southwestern desert (latitude 31º 00 ̄ – 32º 15 ̄ and longitude 43º 30 ̄ – 44º 30 ̄). Two aquifers exist in the area. The first is composed of recent deposits while the second aquifer is of Miocene deposits. The latter is important because it contains huge quantities of groundwater. Water of these springs is slightly brackish and very hard. The predominant salt in the water of these springs is magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) and sodium chloride (NaCl). The water type is sulfate. Most of water springs (70%) are of marine water origin, while the minority (30%) are of continental water origin.

  • 111.
    Al-Haidarey, Mohammed
    et al.
    Department of Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Abdumunem, Ibtihal
    Department of Biology, College of Science, Muthanna University.
    Abbas, Muhson
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The Trophic State Index of Bahr Al-Najaf Depression reservoir, Iraq2016Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 24, artikkel-id 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bahr Al-Najaf Depression Reservoir (BNDR) is located 5 kilometers south-southwest of Najaf city in central Iraq. It covers an area of approximately 360 square kilometers. Carlson’s Trophic State Index (CTSI) was applied to the BNDR. To do so, Chlorophyll (A), total phosphorus (TP), Secchi disc depth Transparency (SD) and some physiochemical parameters were measured. The mean value of Chl-a was 1,06 (±1,33), the maximum and minimum values of TSI based on total Chl-a were recorded during summer and spring respectively. The classification of trophic state using TSI (TP) and TSI (SD) was closed, but by using TSI (Chl-a) it was much higher, the value of TSI (Chl-a) > TSI (TP) >TSI (SD), the CTSI value of BNDR was between 35.11-71.33 (r2 = -27, 53), the highest value of CTSI was in summer while the lowest values were during winter, the average of physiochemical parameters (±standard deviation) were: 26,5 (±1,42), 7,6 (±0,88), 0,1 (±0,16), 71 (±16,57), 10100 (±5591), 1,55 (±2,26), 53350 (±24143), 243299 (±358773), 30752 (±44649), 20 (±13), 2499 (±1819), 2659 (±2561), 0,22 (±0,02), 0,32 (±0,06) for temperature, pH, DO, Ec, HCO- 3, TN, TH, Cl- SO= 4 , TOC, Na+, K+, Fe+, and Mn+ respectively. According to CTSI, BNDR can be classified as eutrophic. CTSI results were very close to those of lakes Sawa and Al-Razzazah, while there were some slight differences when compared with Al-Habbanayh and Derbandikhan lakes, where the level of trophic index was decreasing (56, and 52 for Al-Habbanayh lake and Derbandikhan lake respectively).

  • 112.
    Al-Hashimi, Shaymaa A.M.
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Al-Mustansiriayah University, Baghdad 1001, Iraq.
    Madhloom, Huda M.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Civil Engineering, Al-Mustansiriayah University, Baghdad 1001, Iraq.
    Khalaf, Rasul M.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Al-Mustansiriayah University, Baghdad 1001, Iraq.
    Nahi, Thameen N.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Al-Mustansiriayah University, Baghdad 1001, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir A.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Flow over Broad Crested Weirs: Comparison of 2D and 3D Models2017Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 11, nr 8, s. 769-779Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow over broad-crested weirs was simulated by computational fluid dynamic model. The water surface profile over broad crested weir was measured in a laboratory model and validated using two and three dimensional Fluent programs. The Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the turbulent standard (k-ε) model and volume of fluid method were applied to estimate the water surface profile. The results of numerical model were compared with experimental results to evaluate the ability of model in describing the behaviour of water surface profile over the weir. The results indicated that the 3D required more time in comparison with 2D results and the flow over weir changed from subcritical flow at the upstream (U/S) face of weir to critical flow over the crest and to supercritical flow at downstream (D/S). A reasonable agreement was noticed between numerical results and experimental observations with mean error less than 2 %.

  • 113.
    Al-Hashimi, Shaymaa
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Al -Mustansiriayah University, Baghdad.
    Madhloom, Huda
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Nahi, Thameen N.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Al -Mustansiriayah University, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Channel Slope Effect on Energy Dissipation of Flow over Broad Crested Weirs: Channel Slope Effect on Energy Dissipation of Flow over Broad Crested Weirs2016Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, Vol. 8, nr 12, s. 837-851Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of broad crested weir used in open channels is to raise and control upstream (U/S) water level. In this study a new performance was added to this weir, by making a step at downstream (D/S) of weir. The energy dissipation, the height of the weir/ the upstream water height ratio and Froude number relationships  (E% - P/h – Fr) for three range of flume slop S=0.0, 0.002 and 0.004 were simulated. The experiments were performed in a laboratory horizontal channel of 4.6 m length, 0.3 m width and   0.3 m depth for a wide range of discharge. The D/S step height of the weir was 7.5 cm. FLUENT software was used as numerical model which represent a type of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model in order to simulate flow over weirs. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) method with the Standard k–ε turbulence model was used to estimate the free surface profile and the structured mesh with high concentration near the wall regions. The experimental results of the water surface profile gave a high agreement with the results of the numerical models. The maximum value 28.78 of E % was obtained in single step broad crested weir in the experimental result and 27.35 in numerical result at S=0.004. Finally, the range of the relative error of the energy dissipation between experimental and numerical results was achieved and the maximum was 6.76 in all runs.

  • 114.
    Al-Hasnawi, Salwan
    et al.
    Chemistry Department, Collage of Science, Mustansirya University, Baghdad.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The Effect of the Industrial Activities on Air Pollution at Baiji and its surrounding areas, Iraq2016Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 34-44Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The polluters of total suspended particles (TSP) and some heavy metals (Cd, Co, and Ni) concentrations were studied in the areas of Al-Fatha, Al-Alam and Baiji, Iraq. These concentrations were measured for selected 22 sample locations for two periods, January and July 2013. The analyzed values of (TSP) and (Cd) exceeded the limits of Iraqi National and the World Health Organization (WHO) for the two periods. Also, (Ni) values exceeded the limits for July only, while (Co) values were under the limits for the two periods. The difference between the two periods reflects the effect of the wind speed and direction, rainfall, and the intensity of the dust storms during the two months respectively. GIS technique makes optimal predictions possible by examining the relationships between all the sample points and producing a continuous surface of polluter’s concentration. Therefore, GIS was used to produce predictions and probabilities maps for the critical polluter values in the study area

  • 115.
    Ali, Ammar A.
    et al.
    Water Resources, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Suhail, Qusay
    Earth Sciences, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Spatial Measurement of Bed Load Transport in Tigris River2017Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. 55-75Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using Helley-Smith sampler, 288 bed load samples were collected from 16 cross sections along 18 km reach length of Tigris River within Baghdad. The spatial distribution of sampling along the reach took into consideration the variance of river topography where 7 meanders, 2 islands and several bank depositions characterize the geometry of the river. The implemented regulation schemes on Tigris River have reduced 44% of water discharges compared to previous period. The spatial variance in topography was effectively scattering the results of the applied twenty bed load formulas. The study results indicated that the complicated geometry of the river reach makes finding a unique representative bed load formula along the study reach rather difficult, and there is no grantee to have good agreement with measurements in the irregular cross sections (meanders, sand bars, etc.). The closest bed load prediction formulas were van Rijn1984. The annual transported quantities of bed load were estimated to be 30 thousand tons (minimum) in 2009 and 50 thousand tons (maximum) in 2013.

  • 116.
    Ali, Ammar A.
    et al.
    College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Suhail, Qusay
    College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Spatial total load rating curve for a large river: A Case study of the Tigris River at Baghdad2019Inngår i: International Journal of River Basin Management, ISSN 1571-5124, E-ISSN 1814-2060Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Tigris River in Baghdad is a large sand-bed river, supply-limited because of the implementation of a water flow regulation scheme comprising a series of reservoirs and barrages.  The significant reduction in the water discharge has affected the hydraulic performance of the river and turned it into an under-fit river of complicated morphology where many islands and bank deposits have been showed up across an 18km reach in addition to the essential sinuosity. Measuring sediment load at individual cross-sections in the river gives misleading estimates and the corresponding sediment rating curve has a locally limited using. A spatially sediment rating by investigating sediment loads over the complicated reach is required to overcome the local limitations. Sediment transport rates have been investigated at 16 cross-sections along the study reach by collecting suspended load, bed load and bed material samples. Velocity profiles were measured at the sampling stations using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). The measurement results indicated that the suspended load is the dominant mode of transport (93.5%). However, bedloads were considered in determining the total loads. A spatial total load rating curve in the form of a power function was established and examined against the sediment measurements. Twenty-two previously published total load formulae where applied at the same sections and of these the Colby1964 formula gave the closest fit to the measured loads. Based on the results from this study a recommended procedure is established for using a spatial total load rating curve to estimate sediment transport rates for similar morphologically complicated rivers. Average annual transport rates during the period 2009-13 was estimated at 3.21 million tons.

  • 117.
    Ali, Ammar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. College of Engineering, Unive rsity of Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Suhail, Qusay
    College of Science, University of Baghdad.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Three-Dimensional Morphodynamic Modelling of TigrisRiver in Baghdad2017Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 11, nr 6, s. 571-594Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bathymetric and land surveys were conducted for the northern Tigris River reach (18 km length) in Baghdad, producing 180cross sections. A river bed topography map was constructed from these cross sections. The velocity profiles and the water discharges were measured using ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) at 16 cross sections, where intensive number of sediment samples was collected to determine riverbed characteristics and sediment transport rate. The three-dimensional morphodynamic model (SSIIM (simulation of sediment movements in water intakes with multiblock option)) was used to simulate the velocity field and the water surface profile along the river reach. The model was calibrated for the water levels, the velocity profiles and the sediment concentration profiles using different combinations of parameters and algorithms. The calibration and the validation results showed good agreement with field measurements, and the model was used to predict the future changes in river hydro-morphology for a period of 14 months. The results of the future predictions showed the Tigris River which behaved like an under-fit river, increases in depositions on the shallow part of the cross section having lower velocity, and the river deepens the incised route to fit its current hydrologic condition leaving the former wide section as a floodplain for the newer river. The net deposition/erosion rate was 67.44 kg/s in average and the total deposition quantity was 2.12 million ton annually. An expansion in the size of current islands was predicted. An indication of thepotential threats of the river banks’ collapse and the bridge piers’ instability was given by high erosion along the thalweg line.

  • 118.
    Ali, Ammar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Impact of Growing Islands on the Flood Capacity of Tigris River in Baghdad City2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing islands became noticeable phenomena in the channel of River Tigris within Baghdad City during recent years.Despite the fact that large amount of sediments are trapped in reservoirs on the River Tigris and its tributaries thenumber of islands are increasing with time. This is due to the debris of destroyed bridges in the wars of 1991 and 2003.As a consequence the ability of the river had been reduced to pass ood waves. This fact caused ooding parts of majorcities like Baghdad. Cross sections of the River Tigris were surveyed in dierent occasions (1976, 1991 and 2008). In1977 the survey was conducted by Geohydraulique and in 1991 by University of Technology - Baghdad (extended forthe previous study). The last survey was conducted in 2008 by Ministry of Water Resources extending 48 kilometersfrom Al-Muthana Bridge till the conuence with Diyala River at intervals having horizontal spacing of 250m. The datawas used to predict the maximum ood capacity for the river using HEC-RAS through performed a one- dimensionalhydraulic model for the ow. The average discharge of the river in Baghdad had been calculated for the past ten years.This value was introduced in the model. Then dierent scenarios were applied by increasing the discharge in orderto nd out the critical discharge that can cause inundation. The procedure continued to detect the areas that had beeninundated and the water level was recorded. The primary runs for the model showed a signicant reduction in thecurrent river capacity in comparison with what the river had used to hold during oods of 1971 and 1988. The threesurveys that had been conducted on the same reach of the River Tigris indicated that the capacity of the river to passwater had been decreased. In addition the changes in the morphology of the river cross sections were very clear.

  • 119.
    Ali, Ammar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Morphology of Tigris river within Baghdad city2012Inngår i: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, ISSN 1027-5606, E-ISSN 1607-7938, Vol. 16, nr 10, s. 3783-3790Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in the morphology of the River Tigris within Baghdad City are very noticeablein recent years. The number of islands is increasing with time despite the fact that hugeamount of sediments are trapped in reservoirs upstream Baghdad City. The debris of5 destroyed bridges in the wars of 1991 and 2003 had enhanced the development ofthese islands. As a consequence the ability of the river had been reduced to pass floodwaves. This fact caused partial flooding of parts of Baghdad City.Cross sections of the River Tigris were surveyed in three occasions (1976, 1991and 2008). The last survey conducted in 2008 by Ministry of Water Resources covered10 49 km of the river from Al-Muthana Bridge to its confluence with Diyala River at 250mintervals. The data was used to predict the maximum flood capacity for the river usingone-dimensional hydraulic model for steady flow “HEC-RAS”. Calibration was carriedout for the model using field measurements for water levels along the last 15 km fromits reach and the last 10 yr observations at Sarai Baghdad station.15 The average discharge of the river in Baghdad had been calculated for the past tenyears. This value was introduced in the model. Then different scenarios were appliedby increasing the discharge in order to find out the critical discharge that can causeinundation. The procedure continued to detect the areas that had been inundated andthe water level was recorded.20 The model showed a significant reduction in the current river capacity in comparisonwith what the river had used to hold during floods of 1971 and 1988. The three surveysconducted on the same reach of the River Tigris indicated that the capacity of the riverto pass water had been decreased. In addition the changes in the morphology of theriver cross sections were very clear.

  • 120.
    Ali, Ammar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Suhail, Qusay
    Baghdad University.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Evaluation of dredging operations for Tigris river within Baghdad, Iraq2014Inngår i: Journal of Water Resource and Protection, ISSN 1945-3094, E-ISSN 1945-3108, Vol. 6, nr 4, s. 202-213Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    River Tigris divides Baghdad, capital of Iraq, in two parts. The reach of the river within Baghdad is about 60 km long. Many islands and bars are obstructing the flow of the river within Baghdad. To overcome this problem, dredging operations started along most of Tigris River inside Baghdad City to remove many islands and side bars, which reduced the flooding capacity and the efficiency of water intakes. An examination for the dredging plan under process and two proposed additional plans were performed using HEC-RAS program for a 50km long river reach to investigate whether they can recover the designed flooding capacity of the river or just improving it. Calibration and verification processes were implemented in the model using observed water levels at Sarai Baghdad gauging station and along the last 15 km of the river reach. Comparisons of computed water levels were conducted with those of previous studies and historical data. Some improvement of flood capacity was achieved based on the recorded data of the last three decades. Cautions about the water intakes should be considered to maintain their function with the expected drop in water level due to dredging operations.

  • 121.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    et al.
    Department of Geology, School of Science, Faculty of Science and Science Education, University of Sulaimaniyah.
    Al-Umary, Foad A.
    Department of Geography, College of Education, University of Tikrit.
    Salar, Sarkawt G.
    Department of Geography, Faculty of Education/Kalar, University of Garmian.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    GIS Based Soil Erosion Estimation Using EPM Method, Garmiyan Area, Kurdistan Region, Iraq2016Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 10, s. 291-308Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using empirical model is one of the approaches of evaluating sediment yield. This research is aimed at predicting erosion and sedimentation in Garmiyan area at Kurdistan Region, Iraq used EPM (erosion potential model) incorporating into GIS (geographic information system) software. This basin area is about 1,620 km2. It has a range of vegetation, slope, geological, soil texture and land use types. The spatial distribution of gully erosion shows three main zones in the studied area (slight to moderate gully, high gully and sever fluvial erosion). They form about 10%, 89% and 1% of gully erosion in the studied area respectively. The results of the EPM model show that the values of the coefficient of erosion Z are classified as moderate to high erosion intensity. They increase northward due to increasing of slope, elevation and rate of precipitation that generate Hortonian overland flow, which is due to high discharge and huge fluvial erosion power that cause ground surface erosion to produce large quantity of sediment. The results of GSP (spatial sediment rate) are increasing northward similar to Z due the same reasons, while the value of total sediment rate, shows different values for each watershed because they are mainly affected by the total watershed area.

  • 122.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    et al.
    Department of Geology, School of Science, Faculty of Science and Science Education, University of Sulaimaniyah.
    Al-Umary, Foad
    Department of Geography, College of Education, University of Tikrit.
    Sarkawt, Salar
    Department of Geography, Faculty of Education/Kalar, University of Garmian.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Geomorphology of Garmiyan Area Using GIS Technique, Kurdistan Region, Iraq2016Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 63-87Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The goals of the present study are to investigate, explore and assess the geomorphologic characteristics of a part of Garmiyan area through highlighting the forming and controlling factors of the geomorphology, mapping the landforms and reveal the geomorphologic processes that created them in Garmiyan area. Geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing through satellite images and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) have facilitated the investigation in this large area with more accuracy.The Garmiyan area is a part of Garmiyan area located about (62 Km) south of Sulaimani City and (104 km) east of Kirkuk city. It lies between longitudes (45o10- - 45o32-) E and latitude (34o40-- 35o02-) N. It is within unstable shelf where 3.9% of it lie within the High Folded Zone and 96.1 % within the Foothill Zone. The geologic formations are forming 57.93% and the Quaternary deposits are forming 42.07%. Clastic sedimentary rocks are forming nearly 99% of the total area, while non clastic sedimentary rocks are forming nearly 1%. The topography of the studied area is greatly influenced by lithologic characteristics of the geologic units. The factors, which influence the geomorphology of the studied area, are tectonics, lithology, climate, vegetation and humans. Hence the geomorphologic evolution is controlled by many geomorphologic processes. The main endogenic process is uplifting of the western and north western sides of the studied area which was the final stage of Zagros Fold Thrust Belt formation during the Arabia–Eurasia collision. The main exogenic processes include weathering, erosion, fluvial, hillslope processes, karstification and anthropogenic processes. The main geomorphologic landforms recognized in the studied area are structural, denudational, fluvial, solutional and anthropogenic landforms. Anthropogenic landforms produced by excavation by road cuttings, quarrying and farming. The geomorphic landforms indicate that deformation is propagating from northeast to southwest.

  • 123. Ali, Salahaldin
    et al.
    Al-Umary, Foad
    Salar, Sarkawt
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Evaluation of selected site location for subsurface dam construction within Isayi watershed using GIS and RS Garmiyan area, Kurdistan region2014Inngår i: Journal of Water Resource and Protection, ISSN 1945-3094, E-ISSN 1945-3108, Vol. 6, nr 11, s. 972-987Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Garmiyan area suffers from many water problems such as poor rainfall rate, water shortage, aridity and absence of groundwater in many places. Hence the subsurface dam is the best solution due to many advantages such as; low cost of construction, least maintenance, low evaporation, no con-tamination, utilization of the land over the dam and better storage. The objective of this study is to evaluate the suitability of the selected site location for subsurface dam construction, to serve as strategic water supply storage, to solute the aridity and water shortage in this area of arid to semi arid climate in Isayi watershed within the stream deposits.Geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing through satellite images and Digital El-evation Model (DEM) interpretation and analysis have facilitated the investigation with more ac-curacy. ArcGIS helped in construction of thematic maps of the studied area.The geologic, structural, geomorphologic, hydrologic, hydrogeologic, characteristics with GPR survey show the suitability of the selected site location for construction of subsurface dam. According to the standard water quality for domestic, irrigation and livestock the water quality of all water samples are within the recommended range and the best time to be chosen, for construction of the subsurface dam, is during the autumn season from September to November.

  • 124.
    Al-Jabban, Wathiq
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Modification-Stabilization of Clayey Silt Soil Using Small Amounts of Cement2017Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 77-96Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the effects of using a small percentage of cement to stabilize clayey silt with a low organic content. Cement was added at percentages of 1, 2, 4 and 7% by dry weight. The physical and mechanical properties of the treated and untreated soil were evaluated by laboratory tests including tests of consistency limits, unconfined compressive strength, soil density, solidification and pH values. These tests have been conducted after 7, 14, 28, 60 and 90 days of curing time. Workability is defined as how easily the soil can be control or to handle physically. Results showed that the engineering properties of the clayey silt were improved. The soil exhibited better workability directly after treatment, and the workability increased with time. Soil density increased, while water content decreased, with increasing cement content and longer curing time. The pH value was immediately raised to 12 after adding 7% cement content, and then it gradually decreased as curing time increased. An increase of unconfined compressive strength and stiffness was observed, while strain at failure decreased. A gradual change in failure mode from ductile behavior to brittle failure was observed. The findings are useful when there is a need for modification and stabilization of clayey silt in order to increase the possibilities for different use which will reduce transportation and excavation.

  • 125.
    Al-Jabban, Wathiq
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Stabilization of Clayey Silt Soil UsingSmall Amounts of Petrit T2017Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 9, nr 6, s. 540-562Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of using small amounts of a Petrit T, a by-product of manufacture sponge iron, to modify clayey silt soil were investigated in this study. Petrit T was added at 2%, 4% and 7% of soil dry weight. A series of unconfined compressive strength tests, consistency limits tests and pH tests were conducted at 7, 14, 28, 60 and 90 days of curing periods to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of treated soil. Results indicated improving in the unconfined compressive strength, stiffness and workability of treated soil directly after treatment and over time. Increasing in soil density and decreasing in water content were observed, with increasing Petrit T content and curing time. The pH value was immediately increasing after treatment and then gradually decreased over time. Failure mode gradually changed from plastic to brittle behavior with increasing binder content and curing time. The outcomes of this research show a promising way of using a new by-product binder to stabilize soft soils in various engineering projects in order to reduce the costs which are associated with of excavation and transportation works.

  • 126.
    AlJawad, Sadeq
    et al.
    Expert and Consultant Hydrogeologists, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Expert and Consultant Hydrogeologists, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    LTU team.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG, Iraq and Private Con sultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Groundwater Quality and Their Uses in Iraq2018Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 123-144Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquifers are porous media with various physical criteria and hydraulic conditions that largely affect the quality of water they contain. When an aquifer is a sedimentary rock, its depositional environment draws along with its present recharge condition and the footprint of its groundwater quality. The geologic setting of Iraq consists of a sedimentary cover 4 – 13 km thick with a sequence of alternating pervious and impervious sedimentary rock beds of coarse clastics and fractured carbonates with fine clastics and hard rock carbonate. This succession has developed a successive multi aquifer systems. The present study has recognized the major formations that so far have been explored and sampled using available data to identify the probability of their water quality which might be obtained when drilling a well through any of the formations. From among tens of thousands of wells drilled to produce water from whatever horizons they encounter, only those wells which penetrate a single formation were considered. The results show that groundwater quality expressed as total dissolved solids in the explored 17 aquifers or aquifer systems are highly variable. Nevertheless, an indicative medium range value can be deduced for each. In principle, lower salinity values and carbonate water type associate with the unconfined aquifers that receive active contemporary recharge as in the case of the exposed aquifers in the High, and to less extend the Low Folded Zones. Even in the Stable Shelf where present recharge is limited, unconfined part of the aquifers is differentiated by their lower salinity and water type. On the other hand, a partial displacement of sea water in the marine deposit carbonates has as well occurred due to previous recharge periods. This was possible to the karstified carbonates of the Stable Shelf due to their high porosity. The finer marine deposits in the Mesopotamia Basin maintained their high groundwater salinity and marine water type. Water suitability for human drinking can be found in most of the aquifers especially aquifers in the High and Low Folded Zones. In the Stable Shelf, Al-Jazira, and even in the Mesopotamian Plain, recharge boundary conditions of the aquifer in the selected drilling spot should be carefully examined. The high variations of water quality in the aquifers in the latter zones requires an evaluation of water suitability well by well. However, most of the groundwater derived from the northern parts of the Stable Shelf and Al-Jazira Zones aquifers are suitable for agriculture, while that those of the southern parts and the Mesopotamian Plain are questionable or unsuitable.

  • 127. AlJawad, Sadeq B.
    et al.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Evaluation of Storm Runoff in Wadi Hauran, Western Iraq2017Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 25, artikkel-id 6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Arid and semi arid regions are characterized by low frequency monthly rainfall events and high evaporation during the remaining dry days. Utilizing monthly rainfall means for water balance calculation risks a high error margin. Even when daily rainfall analysis methods are used to evaluate the resulting runoff in a valley course, errors may still be committed when wrong values are assigned to important field elements such as soil cover type, vegetation and land use. Accordingly and when the Soil Conservation Service method (SCS) is applied, single storm rainfall and validation of the estimated Curve Number (CN) value using valley flow measurements is necessary. The evaluation of annual runoff volume in a major valley in the Western Iraqi desert using the SCS method applied to single rainfall storm events and validated by actual historical runoff measurements has revealed that Wadi Hauran would exhibit no runoff flow in one year out of three and that runoff may exceed 69 mm depth in a single water year but the average depth for those years with runoff events is only 11.1 mm

    which amounts to about 64 Mm3 at a location in the center of its catchment area.

    Journal

  • 128.
    Alkaradaghi, Karwan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Geology, College of Science, Sulaimani University.
    Ali, Salahalddin S.
    Department of Geology, College of Science, Sulaimani University.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Evaluation of Land Use & Land Cover Change Using Multi-Temporal Landsat Imagery: A Case Study Sulaimaniyah Governorate, Iraq2018Inngår i: Journal of Geographic Information System, ISSN 2151-1950, E-ISSN 2151-1969, Vol. 10, nr 6, s. 247-260Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Land use & land cover change detection in rapid growth urbanized area have been studied by many researchers and there are many works on this topic. Commonly, settlement sprawl in area depends on many factors such as economic prosperity and population growth. Iraq is one of the countries which witnessed rapid development in the settlement area. Remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) are analytical software technologies to evaluate this familiar worldwide phenomenon. This study illustrates settlement development in Sulaimaniyah Governorate from 2001 to 2017 using Landsat satellite imageries of different periods. All images had been classified using remote sensing software in order to proceed powerful mapping of land use classification. Maximum likelihood method is used in the accurately extracted solution information from geospatial imagery. Landsat images from the study area were categorized into four different classes. These are: forest, vegetation, soil, and settlement. Change detection analysis results illustrate that in the face of an explosive demographic shift in the settlement area where the record + 8.99 percent which is equivalent to 51.80 Km2 over a 16-year period and settlement area increasing from 3.87 percent in 2001 to 12.86 percent in 2017. Accuracy assessment model was used to evaluate (LULC) classified images. Accuracy results show an overall accuracy of 78.83% to 90.09% from 2001 to 2017 respectively while convincing results of Kappa coefficient given between substantial and almost perfect agreements. This study will help decision-makers in urban plan for future city development.

  • 129.
    Alkaradaghi, Karwan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Geology, College of Science, Sulaimani University, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq. Kurdistan Institution for Strategic Studies and Scientific Research, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq.
    Ali, Salahalddin S.
    Department of Geology, College of Science, Sulaimani University, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq. Komar University of Science and Technology, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq.Komar Research Center, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Chabuk, Ali
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Landfill Site Selection Using MCDM Methods and GIS in the Sulaimaniyah Governorate, Iraq2019Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, nr 17, artikkel-id 4530Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A shortage of land for waste disposal is one of the serious problems that faces urban areas in developing countries. The Sulaimaniyah Governorate, located in the north of Iraq, is one of the major cities in the Kurdistan Region of the country, covering an area of 2400 km2 with a population of 856,990 in 2016. Currently, there is no landfill site in the study area that meets scientific and environmental criteria, and inappropriate solid waste dumping is causing negative environmental impacts. The process of landfill site selection is considered a complex process and is restricted by numerous factors and regulations. This paper proposes multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods in a model for landfill site decision. The model assumes the input of two groups of factors that need to satisfy the optimal values of weight coefficients. These groups of constants are natural factors and artificial factors, and they included thirteen selected criteria: slope, geology, land use, urban area, villages, rivers, groundwater, slope, elevation, soil, geology, road, oil and gas, land use, archaeology and power lines. The criteria were used in the geographic information system (GIS), which has a high capacity to process and analyze various data. In addition, multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods followed by the weighted linear combination (WLC) method were used to derive criteria weightings using a matrix of pair-wise comparison. Finally, all the multi criteria decision methods were combined to obtain an intersection of the suitability index map for candidate landfill sites. Seven appropriate sites for landfill were suggested, all of which satisfied the scientific and environmental criteria which were adopted in this study.

  • 130.
    Al-Khateeb, Mukdad
    et al.
    University of Technology, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    A Spatial Sustainable Development Model Based on Partnership between Government, Community and Specialist in Baghdad2016Inngår i: Creative Education, ISSN 2151-4755, E-ISSN 2151-4771, Vol. 7, nr 14, s. 1881-1890Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is facing fatal challenges: internal, external and natural that are threatening the well-being of the Iraqi community at present and certainly jeopardizing the sustainable development at all levels of Sustainable Development (SD)-Capitals: natural, human and social, and manufactured/financial. This paper is intended to discuss on establishing a Sustainable Neighborhood in Baghdad, where it could serve as an experimental project to test the forms of expenditure that would guarantee the best eco-efficient transformation of expenditure to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The paper illustrates the challenges of SD and the factors that would exacerbate their effect unless dealing with through scientific-well managed procedures based on green growth policiesand sustainable development strategies.

  • 131.
    Al-Khateeb, Mukdad
    et al.
    University of Technology.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sustainable University Model for Higher Ed-ucation Iraq2014Inngår i: Creative Education, ISSN 2151-4755, E-ISSN 2151-4771, Vol. 5, nr 5, s. 318-328Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Education can become another burden on the development unless addresses the internal, external and natural challenges by Sustainable Universities that provide an educational, cultural and teaching model through a sustainable development strategy. This paper tends to illustrate the dif-ferent challenges of sustainable development in Iraq coupled with the full ignorance of the concept and principles of sustainability and suggests a model for a sustainable university. Although the suggested model is rather complicated, but it is crucial to encompass the different affects of human resources on the sustainable development capitals, at and beyond, the university campus.

  • 132.
    Al-Madhlom, Qais
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Department of Geology, College of Science, Kufa University.
    Assessment of Groundwater Vulnerability in Northern Babylon Governorate, Iraq2016Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, nr 12, s. 883-902Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater is one of the main resources from the earth, especially for arid or semiarid

    countries. For this reason, it is very important to keep it unpolluted. Drastic

    Model is one of the widely used models to detect groundwater vulnerability to the

    contaminants that are found on ground surface. In this model, it is assumed that the

    vulnerability of the groundwater is affected by seven hydrological parameters. They

    are: depth from the surface ground to groundwater, net recharge into the aquifer

    from the surface, aquifer media, soil media, area topography, impact of vadose zone

    and aquifer hydraulic conductivity. In this study, the DRASTIC model was applied

    on the northern part of Babylon governorate in Iraq, to predict the vulnerability of

    Groundwater in that area. The results indicate that the vulnerability is very low to

    low grade.

  • 133.
    Al-Madhlom, Qais
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. University of Babylon, Coolege of Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Department of Geology, College of Science, Kufa University.
    Lindblom, Jenny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Abdullah, Twana
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Abid Hamza, Basher
    University of Babylon, Coolege of Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Seepage Velocity of Dibdibba Formation in Karbala, Iraq2017Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 279-290Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq highly depends on its surface water resources. Now it is facing water shortage problems. For these reasons, the utilization of groundwater will be increasing with time. Karbala Governorate is located in the central part of Iraq. It covers an area of 5034 km2 and the population exceeds one million. It is characterized by an arid or semiarid environment. Karbala Governorate lack surface water resource and consequently, groundwater is the only available resource. The main groundwater aquifer within the area is Dibdibba formation. It is composed of poorly sorted sand and sand stone with gravel. In this research hydrological and hydrogeological information were used to find out the magnitude and the direction of groundwater seepage velocity. The results indicate that groundwater flow toward the flood plain to the east of the study region. The seepage velocity ranges from 0 to 0.18 m/d, with a general increase when moving from the west to the east.

  • 134.
    Al-Madhlom, Qais
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. College of Engineering/Al-Musaib, University of Babylon, Hillah, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Hussain, Hussain Musa
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq.
    Site Selection of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Systems in Shallow Groundwater Conditions2019Inngår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 7, artikkel-id 1393Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Underground thermal energy storage (UTES) systems are widely used around the world, due to their relations to heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) applications [1]. To achieve the required objectives of these systems, the best design of these systems should be accessed first. The process of determining the best design for any UTES system has two stages, the type selection stage and the site selection stage. In the type selection stage, the best sort of UTES system is determined. There are six kinds of UTES systems, they are: boreholes, aquifer, bit, tank, tubes in clay, and cavern [2–5]. The selection of a particular type depends on three groups of parameters. They are: Site specific, design, and operation parameters (Figure 1). Apart from site specific parameters, the other two types can be changed through the life time of the system. The site specific parameters, e.g., geological, hydrogeological, and metrological, cannot be changed during the service period of the  ystem. Therefore, the design of the best type should depend, at first consideration, on site specific parameters.

  • 135.
    Al-Madhlom, Qais
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq.
    Hamza, B.
    University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Kufa University, Kufa, Iraq.
    Site Selection Criteria of UTES Systems in Hot Climate2019Inngår i: Proceedings of the XVII ECSMGE-2019: Geotechnical Engineering foundation of the future, Iceland: The Icelandic Geotechnical Society (IGS) , 2019, Vol. 1, s. 1-8Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Underground Thermal Energy Storage UTES systems are widely used around the world. The reason is that UTES is essential in utilizing Renewable Energy sources (RE). The efficiency of the energy system relies strongly on the efficiency of the storage system. Therefore, in the installation of a hyper-energy system, a lot of attention is to be paid in improving the storage system. In order to design an efficient storage system, firstly, standard criteria are to be investigated. These explain the process of making high efficiency storage system that must be specified. The criteria, mainly, depends on: best type and best location. These two variables are in high interference with each other. The bond between the two variables is represented by the geological, hydrological, meteorological, soil, hydrogeological properties/factors of the site. These factors are specified by geo-energy mapping. Despite the importance of this type of mapping, there is no specific criteria/formula that defines the choice. This paper aims to: give a brief literature review for UTES systems (types, classification, advantages/disadvantages for each type, and examples of an installed system). In addition, some factors within geo-energy mapping are highlighted and standard criteria to achieve good storage system are suggested. The suggested criterion comprises a process to transfer the quantity values to quality values according to the expert opinion. The suggested criteria are defined through the following stages: selecting the best type of UTES systems according to hydro-geological in site conditions; using the analytical hierarchy process to rank the best location to install the storage system and then using ArcMap (GIS-Software) to provide representative results as maps. Karbala Province (Iraq) is the study area used here

  • 136.
    Al-Madhlom, Qais
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Chabuk, Ali
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. University of Babylon, Babylon, Hilla, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Lindblom, Jenny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    University of Kufa, Kufa, Najaf, Iraq.
    Potential use of UTES in Babylon Governorate, Iraq2019Inngår i: Groundwater for Sustainable Development, ISSN 2352-801XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a global attention that the future energy systems will be based on renewable energy like solar and wind. The large-scale utilization of renewables in space heating and cooling requires large Thermal Energy Storage TES to overcome the varying supply and demand. The process of producing the best Underground Thermal Energy Storage UTES system pass through two steps: first, finding the best type of UTES system, second, finding the best locations to install UTES system. Both of these two steps depend extremely on the site specific parameters such that the depth to the groundwater, transmissivity, type of soil, the depth to the bedrock, and seepage velocity. The purpose of this paper is to explain some of the site specific parameters that the type of UTES-system depends on and explain the suitable type of UTES systems. This study considers Babylon province (Iraq) as study area. This province has electricity deficiency due to Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning HVAC applications. The methodology of this study includes reviewing the literature that consider the study area, and using Arc Map/GIS to visualize some of the in-site parameters. The results indicate that the best type of UTES system for the considered region is either aquifer or pit type, due to the type of the soil and the depth to the crystalline bedrock. The hydraulic conductivity and the seepage velocity in the considered region are (0.0023–2.5) m/d and (1.3 × 10−6 – 3.45 × 10−3) m/d respectively. These conditions satisfy the standards which regard aquifer type.

  • 137.
    Al-Maliki, Laheab A. Jasem
    et al.
    Department of Hydraulic Engineering Structu res, Faculty of Water Resources Engine ering, Green University of Al Qasim, Baghdad.
    Al-Mamoori, Suhaib Kareem
    Department of Environmental Planning, Faculty of Physical Planning, University of Kufa, Najaf.
    El-Tawel, Khaled
    Lebanese University, Faculty of Engineering, Beirut.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Najaf.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al Ali, Mohammed Jawad
    Department of Environmental Planning, Faculty of Physical Planning, University of Kufa, Najaf.
    Bearing Capacity Map for An-Najaf and Kufa Cities Using GIS2018Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 10, nr 5, s. 262-269Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An-Najaf province is situated in south-western part of Iraq. It is 70 meters above the sea level in the dry desert environment. The city is considered as one of the most important cities in Iraq, facing a fast population growth and continuous development in constructions such as residential complexes, hotels, bridges and shopping malls. Soil investigation data for An-Najaf Province (An-Najaf and Kufa cities) from 464 boreholes drilled by the National Centre for Construction Laboratories & Researches (NCCLR)/Babylon laboratory were used in this research. The data were analysed and possessed using Excel program then represented on the Geographical Information System (GIS) program by Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) tool to create an allowable bearing capacity map for the soil at depths 0 - 2 meters. The allowable bearing capacity is one of the most important soil characteristics to be considered when making a database for An-Najaf city soil. Geographical Information System GIS program enables to create reliable database for any characteristic and it is one of the best programs to produce an accurate map and allow ease in dealing with it. Those maps cover all the studied areas and by using contour lines, approximate values for no-data areas can be obtained. The results show that the allowable bearing capacity range is 5 - 20 Ton/m2 for both An-Najaf and Kufa cities. Kufa city has the range 5 - 9 Ton/m2. An-Najaf city has the range 7 - 18 at the center, 8 - 10 Ton/m2 at the north eastern part, 7 - 14 Ton/m2 for the north western part, 6 - 12 Ton/m2 at the south eastern and 12 - 19 Ton/m2 at the south western.

  • 138.
    Al-Mamoori, Sohaib Kareem
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Planning, Faculty of Physical PlanningUniversity of KufaNajafIraq.
    Al-Maliki, Laheab A. Jasem
    Department of Hydraulic Engineering Structures, Faculty of Water Resources EngineeringGreen University of Al QasimBaghdadIraq.
    El-Tawel, Khaled
    Faculty of Engineering, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al Ali, Mohammed Jawad
    Department of Environmental Planning, Faculty of Physical PlanningUniversity of KufaNajafIraq.
    Chloride, Calcium Carbonate and Total Soluble Salts Contents Distribution for An-Najaf and Al-Kufa Cities’ Soil by Using GIS2019Inngår i: Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, ISSN 0960-3182, E-ISSN 1573-1529, Vol. 37, nr 3, s. 2207-2225Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of the paper is to create geotechnical maps for three soil chemical properties in An-Najaf and Kufa cities’ soil by utilizing of GIS tools. This properties are the chloride concentration, calcium carbonate (CaCO 3) and total soluble salts where they affect the durability of reinforced structural elements. This paper provides an easy accurate way to represent soil properties levels for different depths of soil and create reliable database that will help engineers and decision makers. The data included in this paper were collected for (464) boreholes with depths up to 35 m distributed on residential areas in all of An-Najaf and Kufa cities. Arc-Map of GIS 10.2.1 was used to produce the maps. It has been concluded that chloride content in the soil of the study area range from - 0.01 to 0.99% and with an average of 0.5. The maximum value found in at depth 4–6 m while the minimum value found in location at depth 4–6, 8–10 and 14–16 m. The chloride content in most of An-Najaf province has exceeded the permissible limit and for all, this required taking percussions to protect foundations. While calcium carbonate content in the soil of the study area range from 53 to 0.18 and with an average of 26.6. The maximum and the minimum values found at depth 4–6 m. Calcium carbonate content is within the permissible limits in most locations except in some locations.

  • 139.
    Almuqdadi, Kadhim
    et al.
    Arab Academy-Denmark.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The waste of wars in Iraq: its nature, size and contaminated areas2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1991, new weapons were used for the first time by the American and British troops in Iraq. These weapons proved to have high destructive capability against armored machinery and tanks. Later, there were many signs of being a weapon to destroy the human beings, animals and plants, which raised huge controversy and sharp criticism among scientists, doctors and environmentalists. Despite the opacity and deception, many of the secrets of depleted uranium ammunition were exposed, and confirmed the seriousness of use and serious repercussions on the environment and public health, which stepped up the international campaign against its manufacturing and use. However, the brilliant military success and profits of the military industry tempted the Pentagon and NATO to continue production and use of these weapons. Despite the high human and environment risks DU was used in various conflicts like Iraq, Bosnia, Kosovo and Serbia, Afghanistan, Gaza, Lebanon and recently in Libya. It is noteworthy to mention that the public and even some scientists, researchers and news media are ignorant of the effects and risks of the use of DU in military operations. This raises the point that there should be a large campaign to raise public awareness to prevent the risk of DU weapons. Based on scientific research and updates, we would like to high light the waste of wars in Iraq: Our paper shed the light on the size of depleted uranium(DU) weapons used in the wars on Iraq and the legacy of waste (their nature, size, and the contaminated regions), as high risks on humans and the environment. This is one of the leading environmental, health and social tragic problems in Iraq. This problem should be addressed immediately, seriously and effectively.

  • 140.
    Almuqdadi, Kadhum
    et al.
    Arab Academy-Denmark.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Nature, size and contaminated areas of the waste of war in Iraq2013Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 93-107Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1991, new weapons were used for the first time by the American and British troops in Iraq. These weapons proved to have high destructive capability against armored machinery and tanks. Later, there were many signs of being a weapon to destroy the human beings, animals and plants, which raised huge controversy and sharp criticism among scientists, doctors and environmentalists.Despite the opacity and deception, many of the secrets of depleted uranium ammunition were exposed, and confirmed the seriousness of use and serious repercussions on the environment and public health, which stepped up the international campaign against its manufacturing and use.However, the brilliant military success and profits of the military industry tempted the Pentagon and NATO to continue production and use of these weapons. Despite the high human and environment risks DU was used in various conflicts like Iraq, Bosnia, Kosovo and Serbia, Afghanistan, Gaza, Lebanon and recently in Libya.It is noteworthy to mention that the public and even some scientists, researchers and news media are ignorant of the effects and risks of the use of DU in military operations. This raises the point that there should be a large campaign to raise public awareness to prevent the risk of DU weapons.Based on scientific research and updates, we would like to high light the waste of wars in Iraq: Our paper shed the light on the size of depleted uranium(DU) weapons used in the wars on Iraq and the legacy of waste (their nature, size, and the contaminated regions), as high risks on humans and the environment. This is one of the leading environmental, health and social tragic problems in Iraq. This problem should be addressed immediately, seriously and effectively.

  • 141.
    Almuqdadi, Kadhum
    et al.
    Arab Academy-Denmark.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Risks of the military uses f depleted uranium on humans and the environment2013Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 163-203Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Great Development in the military industry had been witnessed in the past two decades, especially in depleted uranium weapons. These weapons were first used by USA and its allies in 1991 in Iraq. Later they were used in Bosnia (1995), Kosovo and Serbia (1999) Afghanistan (2001) and finally Iraq (2003).The manufacturers and users of these weapons continued to blackout the nature of these weapons and deny the harm caused on the public health, animals and the environment.After a short period of time, facts were revealed by the investigations and research executed by large number of scientists and investigators.This paper highlights the important effects caused by the use of depleted uranium weapons on human health and environment.

  • 142.
    Al-Rawabdeh, Abdulla M.
    et al.
    University of Calgary, Alberta.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Taani, Ahmed A.
    Yarmouk University.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    A GIS-based drastic model for assessing aquifer vulnerability in Amman-Zerqa groundwater basin, Jordan2013Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, nr 5, s. 490-504Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Amman-Zerqa Basin (AZB) is a major basin in Jordan. The concentration of economic, agricultural and social activities within the basin makes it of prime importance to Jordan. Intensive agricultural practices are widespread and located close to groundwater wells, which pose imminent threats to these resources. Groundwater contamination is of particular concern as groundwater resources are the principal source of water for irrigation, drinking and industrial activities. A DRASTIC model integrated with, and GIS tool has been used to evaluate the groundwater vulnerability of AZB. The Drastic index map showed that only 1.2% of the basin’s total area of 3792 km2 lies in the no vulnerable zone and about 69% is classified as having low pollution potential. The results also revealed that about 30% of the catchment area is moderately susceptible to pollution potential and slightly 1% is potentially under high pollution risk. These results suggest that almost one third of the AZB is at moderate risk of pollution potential. These areas are mainly in the north-east and central parts of the basin where the physical factors like gentle slope and high water table well support the chances of getting shallow aquifer water polluted. Areas with high vulnerable pollution are mainly the central of Amman old city.

  • 143.
    Al-Rawabdeh, Abdullah
    et al.
    Department of Geomatics Engineering, University of Calgary.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Taani, Ahmed
    Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Yarmouk University.
    Al-Khateeb, Fadi
    Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, Alberta.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Modeling the risk of groundwater contamination using modified DRASTIC and GIS in Amman-Zerqa basin, Jordan2014Inngår i: Central European Journal of Engineering, ISSN 1896-1541, E-ISSN 2081-9927, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 264-280Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Amman-Zerqa Basin (AZB) is the second largest groundwater basin in Jordan with the highest abstraction rate, where more than 28% of total abstractions in Jordan come from this basin. In view of the extensive reliance on this basin, contamination of AZB groundwater became an alarming issue. This paper develops a Modified DRASTIC model by combining the generic DRASTIC model with land use activities and lineament density for the study area with a new model map that evaluates pollution potential of groundwater resources in AZB to various types of pollution. It involves the comparison of modified DRASTIC model that integrates nitrate loading along with other DRASTIC parameters. In addition, parameters to account for differences in land use and lineaments density were added to the DRASTIC model to reflect their influences on groundwater pollution potential. The DRASTIC model showed only 0.08% (3 km2) of the AZB is situated in the high vulnerability area and about 30% of the basin is located in the moderately vulnerable zone (mainly in central basin). After modifying the DRASTIC to account for lineament density, about 87% of the area was classified as having low pollution potential and no vulnerability class accounts for about 5.01% of the AZB area. The moderately susceptible zone covers 7.83% of the basin’s total area and the high vulnerability area constitutes 0.13%. The vulnerability map based on land use revealed that about 71% of the study area has low pollution potential and no vulnerability area accounts for about 0.55%, whereas moderate pollution potential zone covers an area of 28.35% and the high vulnerability class constitutes 0.11% of AZB. The final DRASTIC model which combined all DRASTIC models shows that slightly more than 89% of the study area falls under low pollution risk and about 6% is considered areas with no vulnerability. The moderate pollution risk potential covers an area of about 4% of AZB and the high vulnerability class constitutes 0.21% of the basin. The results also showed that an area of about 1761 km2 of bare soils is of low vulnerability, whereas about 28 km2 is moderately vulnerable. For agriculture and the urban sector, approximately 1472 km2 are located within the low vulnerability zone and about 144 km2 are moderately vulnerable, which together account for about 8% of the total agriculture and urban area. These areas are contaminated with human activities, particularly from the agriculture. Management of land use must be considered when changing human or agricultural activity patterns in the study area, to reduce groundwater vulnerability in the basin. The results also showed that the wells with the highest nitrate levels (81-107 mg/l) were located in high vulnerable areas and are attributed to leakage from old sewage water.

  • 144.
    Al-Rawabdeh, bdullaabdulala
    et al.
    University of Calgary, Department of Geomatics Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Attya, Hussain
    University of Calgary, Department of Geomatics Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    GIS Applications for Building 3D Campus, Utilities and Implementation Mapping Aspects for University Planning Purposes2014Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 19-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In city planning managing the third dimension is becoming a necessity. Using 3D GIS modeling within a GIS environment offers a flexible interactive system for providing the best visual interpretation because it aids the planning and decision-process. Previous 3D virtual models did not have to be completely accurate. It did need to be a relatively accurate representation of the true simulation of reality. Every point in 3D GIS models has their true coordinates, so they can express terrain features in an intuitive way which enhances the management and analysis of a proposed project through 3D visualization.A university campus is a complex infrastructure. New students and first- time visitors have a hard time orientating themselves and finding places. This paper discusses the concept of 3D GIS modeling techniques using the following simple procedure to generate a university campus as a real 3D GIS model which will show the effectiveness of the 3D GIS modeling approach. The 3D GIS model provides access to mapping data to support planning, design, and data management. Intelligent GIS models and GIS tools help community planning and apply regional and discipline-specific standards. Integration of GIS spatial data with campus organization helps to improve quality, productivity, and asset management. The following study built 3D GIS map and all utility information for Al al-Bayt University campus as a case study. The primary objective is to establish a 3D GIS for the Al al-Bayt university campus, Jordan to improved data management (e.g., maps, plans, usage of facilities, services) and to develop methods using 3D spatial analysis for specific applications.

  • 145.
    Al-Taie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Bearing Capacity Affecting the Design of Shallow Foundation in Various Regions of Iraq Using SAP200 & SAFE softwares2014Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 35-52Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bearing pressure is the load per unit area along the foundation bottom. The value of bearing pressure can be obtained from soil exploration. In this research, three sites in Iraq were tested (Mosul at north, Baghdad at middle and Basrah at south) for the best type of foundation to be chosen. Seventy nine samples were taken from twenty three boreholes drilled to a depth ranging from 1to 24m, from various sites for the three sites. Samples were tested for their size; Atterberg limits; direct shear; unconfined compression; consolidation and SPT tests. The results showed that the nature of soil in Mosul was generally were silty clay to clay (in some areas silt or sand) with high to very high plasticity. In Baghdad, it was loam clay, silty clay, and in some areas silt. Its plasticity range was medium to high and non-plastic in few sites. For Basrah, the soil type was clay loam and in many places was sand or silt. The value of plasticity was medium. The average and the worst values of bearing capacity were: 177KN/m2 and 77KN/m2 for Mosul; 125 KN/m2 and 68 KN/m2 for Baghdad; and 84KN/m2 and 24 KN/m2 for Basrah. These values were used in a computer model (SAP2000 and SAFE softwares) to find the best suitable foundation in each site. The model suggests that spread or continuous and raft (if basement is used for building with many floors) are suitable for Mosul. For Baghdad, spread and raft type of foundations are suitable. While, for Basrah, raft foundation type are to be used in some areas where building should be less than three floors and for other areas, deep foundation (piles or pier) can only to be used.

  • 146.
    Al-Taie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Effect of bearing capacity on designing foundations in Iraq using STAAD Pro- v8i2014Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 2014, nr 6, s. 292-303Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of Iraqi soil is classified as Quaternary deposits, especially in the Mesopotamian plain and tributaries of the River Tigris. Soil varies from north to south of Iraq. These differences in soil af-fected the process to select the suitable type of foundation. This research is to study the effect of bearing capacity on shallow foundations in different regions of Iraq. Seventy nine samples were collected from 23 boreholes at three different locations (Mosul at the North, Baghdad at the middle and Basrah at the south of Iraq). The samples were collected at varying depth between 1 to 24m. They were subjected to the following testes: Atterberg limits, sieve and hydrometers, consolidation, direct shear, unconfined compression and the filed (SPT test). The values of the bearing capacity parameters (ϕ and c) were obtained from the above tests. The results obtained were used in the application of the general equation of the bearing capacity. Then, the model of a building was designed (two floors, with mat foundation type) using STAAD Pro software. The average values of bearing capacity in each region were applied in the program (Mosul= 177KPa, Baghdad= 125KPa and Basrah= 84KPa). In addition, the worst bearing capacity values were also used for the three regions (Mosul = 77KPa, Baghdad= 68 KPa and Basrah= 24KPa). The results obtained from the average and worst bearing capacity indicated that for Mosul, we could use shallow foundation (spread and mat used if there was basement) for different areas and for buildings with many sto-ries. For Baghdad region, shallow foundation was more suitable for building not higher than five stories. Finally, for Basrah region, shallow foundations were an appropriate selection, but for most areas deep foundation was the right choice.

  • 147.
    Altaie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Effect of Material Used in Concrete Mixture on the Foundation Stresses on Soil2015Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 7, nr 10, s. 668-675Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable design, green architecture and sustainable construction are new methods for design and construction that are employed for environmental and economic challenges. Clay and bricks proved as sustainable building materials. In this paper, crush brick in the concrete mixture instead of normal coarse aggregate will be used. STAAD Prov8i software was applied for the designed of a hypothetical building in different sites of the three locations in Iraq (Mosul at the north, Baghdad at the center and Basrah at the south). The input model data used in the software were depending on the field and laboratory tests done for twenty three sites in the three locations of Iraq. Concrete properties values were used in the software for concrete mixture with crushed bricks. The results values of base pressure obtained from the software were low for the three locations. The maximum values of base pressure under the foundation for both the average and the minimum bearing capacity values for Mosul region for the normal strength concrete and air-entrained were (94, 84) kPa and (91, 82) kPa respectively, for Baghdad region were (89, 82) kPa and (86, 81) kPa respectively. Finally, for Basrah, the results for the base pressure were (84, 77) kPa and (82, 76) kPa, respectively. The results values of the base pressure were less for all locations compared with the base pressure values obtained from a previous work for the same locations. The use of crushed brick as aggregate in the concrete mixture is economical due to its availability as local material and it is durable materials with low weight.

  • 148.
    Altaie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Estimation of Settlement under Shallow Foundation for Different Regions in Iraq Using SAFE Software2015Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 7, nr 7, s. 379-386Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Foundation design must satisfy limited values of settlement. Settlement is an essential criterion in the design process of shallow foundations. To calculate the settlement under different types of shallow foundations, 79 samples were taken from twenty-three sites distributed in three regions:Mosul, Baghdad and Basrah in the northern, central and southern parts of Iraq. Field and laboratory tests were performed to obtain the strength parameters to calculate the bearing capacity. The results obtained for the bearing capacity were used in SAFE software. The software was used to design and analyze the foundation and to calculate the settlements under two types of foundations (raft and continuous) for the three regions. Average and minimum values of bearing capacity wereused. The software used subgrade reaction modules values for the design and analysis. According to the results, the suitable, safe and economical type of foundation to be used in Mosul, Baghdad and Basrah regions for the average value of bearing capacity is the continuous type for the first two regions while the raft type is recommended for Basrah region. In case that the minimumbearing capacity values are used, raft foundation is recommended for Mosul and Baghdad. While deep foundation is the suitable type of foundation for Basrah region.

  • 149.
    Al-Taie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Reconstruction and Projects Department, Minister of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Evaluation of Foundation Settlement under Various Added Loads in Different Locations of Iraq Using Finite Element2016Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, nr 5, s. 257-268Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Settlement is an important criterion in the design of the foundations. It is classifying into immedi-ate (or elastic) settlement and consolidated settlement (primary and secondary). The factors that affect the shallow foundation settlement are the applied loads, soil stiffness, and geometric shape of foundation. Calculations of settlement depend on the parameters of soil which can be obtained from field and laboratory tests. Field and laboratory tests were conducted for twenty three sites in three different regions in Iraq (Mosul, Baghdad, and Basrah). In this research, field and laboratory tests results adopted for two sites from each region depended on the maximum and minimum bearing capacity values. Settlement for each site was calculated using numerical (mathematical) calculations and PLAXIS software under different added loads. The results of settlements beneath the foundation were competing for the sites with maximum value of bearing capacity in Mosul; Baghdad and Basrah. Also, the comparison conducted for sites of minimum bearing capacity value and the results showed different settlement values of each site. The change of settlement values under different loads was linearly in the six sites using numerical (mathematical) calculations. While, the settlement values obtained from PLAXIS software for sites with maximum bearing ca- pacity value showed that Mosul site had the highest value due to the type of soil layers and the dif- ference models of soil used in the software. Basrah site had a settlement value higher than Bagh- dad site due to the soil layers of sand type only. PLAXIS results for sites with minimum bearing capacity showed that for Basrah site the soil went to failure. While, the settlement values for Mosul and Baghdad sites were close to each other due to have nearly same soil layers. Therefore, high rise buildings could not be used in some sites. Also, soil in some locations and under some added loads needed to be improved before the implementation of any constructions.

  • 150.
    Altaie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Materials and the style of buildings used in Iraq during the Islamic period2012Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 2, nr 2, s. 69-97Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Islamic period in Iraq lasted 1002 years (637-1639 AD). During this period big cities were constructed and old cities were reconstructed. There was development of the materials used and the design. Bricks, grill wage, plaster, gypsum and marble and stones were used. The environmental conditions were taken in the design of the buildings. The walls were thick and basements and badgur were established. This makes it easier to cool or heat the house. Tar was used to protect the buildings from moisture. New style of buildings was established using new engineering innovations. Well-designed arches and domes were noticed during this period. Islamic buildings had special features such as minarets, arches, domes, vaults, gilding, patterns and decorations.

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