Endre søk
Begrens søket
1234 101 - 150 of 197
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Treff pr side
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
Merk
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 101.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    et al.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Zorzano, María-Paz
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Gómez-Elvira, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    The Ultraviolet Sensor on REMS/MSL as a detector of high solar activity events2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 102.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    et al.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Zorzano, María-Paz
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Lemmon, Mark
    Texas A&M University, College Station.
    Gómez-Elvira, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Effects of Phobos and Deimos Eclipses on Mars UV surface radiation2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 103.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    et al.
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Zorzano, María-Paz
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Lepinette, Alain
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Sebastián, Eduardo
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Gómez-Elvira, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Atmospheric UV opacity evolution and correlation with visible opacity and total atmospheric irradiance2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 104.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Zorzano, María-Paz
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid , Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial, Madrid, Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Valentin-Serrano, Patricia
    CSIC-UGR - Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (IACT), Granada.
    Harri, Ari-Matti
    Earth Observation Research Division, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Genzer, Maria
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Earth Observation Research Division, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Kemppainen, Osku
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Earth Observation Research Division, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.
    Arecibo Observatory, Universities Space Research Association, Arecibo, Puerto Rico.
    Jun, Insoo
    California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
    Wray, James J.
    School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta.
    Madsen, Morten B.
    Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen.
    Goetz, Walter
    Max-Planck-Institut für Solar System Research.
    McEwen, Alfred S,
    Lunar and Planetary Lab, University of Arizona, Tucson.
    Hardgrove, Craig
    Arizona State University, Department of Earth & Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Malin Space Science Systems.
    Renno, Nilton
    University of Michigan, College of Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
    Chevrier, Vincent F.
    Arkansas Center for Space and Planetary Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville.
    Mischna, Michael A.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael
    Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid , Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico D.F., Laboratorio de Química de Plasmas y Estudios Planetarios, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    Martínez-Frías, Jesús
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid , Instituto de Geociencias (CSIC-UCM), 28040 Madrid.
    Conrad, Pamela G.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Solar System Exploration Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    McConnochie, Timothy H.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park.
    Cockell, Charles
    ESO, UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy,.
    Berger, Gilles
    IRAP/CNRS, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse, Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP.
    Vasavada, Ashwin
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Sumner, Dawn Y.
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California, Davis, Department of Geology, University of California, Davis.
    Vaniman, David T.
    Planetary Science Institute, Tucson.
    Transient liquid water and water activity at Gale crater on Mars2015Inngår i: Nature Geoscience, ISSN 1752-0894, E-ISSN 1752-0908, Vol. 8, nr 5, s. 357-361Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Water is a requirement for life as we know it1. Indirect evidence of transient liquid water has been observed from orbiter on equatorial Mars2, in contrast with expectations from large-scale climate models. The presence of perchlorate salts, which have been detected at Gale crater on equatorial Mars by the Curiosity rover3, 4, lowers the freezing temperature of water5. Moreover, perchlorates can form stable hydrated compounds and liquid solutions by absorbing atmospheric water vapour through deliquescence6, 7. Here we analyse relative humidity, air temperature and ground temperature data from the Curiosity rover at Gale crater and find that the observations support the formation of night-time transient liquid brines in the uppermost 5 cm of the subsurface that then evaporate after sunrise. We also find that changes in the hydration state of salts within the uppermost 15 cm of the subsurface, as measured by Curiosity, are consistent with an active exchange of water at the atmosphere–soil interface. However, the water activity and temperature are probably too low to support terrestrial organisms8. Perchlorates are widespread on the surface of Mars9 and we expect that liquid brines are abundant beyond equatorial regions where atmospheric humidity is higher and temperatures are lower.

  • 105.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    et al.
    Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, Granada.
    Zorzano, M.-P.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Armiens, C.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Carrasco, I.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Delgado-Bonal, A.
    Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, Granada.
    Genzer, M.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Gómez, F.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Gómez-Elvira, J.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Haberle, R.
    NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field.
    Hamilton, V.E.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Harri, A.-M.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Kahanpää, H.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Kemppinen, O.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Lemmon, M.T.
    Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A&M University.
    Lepinette, A.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Soler, J. Martín
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Martínez-Frías, J.
    Instituto Geociencias, Madrid.
    Mischna, M.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Mora, L.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Navarro, S.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Newman, C.
    Ashima Research, Pasadena.
    Pablo, M.A. de
    Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Madrid.
    Pla-García, J.
    Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, Granada.
    Peinado, V.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Polkko, J.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Vasavada, A.R.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Highlights from the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on Board the Mars Science Laboratory: New Windows for Atmospheric Research on Mars2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 106.
    Martorell, José Antonio Gordillo
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Israel Nazarious, Miracle
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Mathanlal, Thasshwin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Granada, Spain.
    Zorzano, María Paz
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, Spain.
    Thurfjell, Magnus
    Porsöskolan, Lulea, Sweden.
    Antich Lunqvist, Margaretta
    Porsöskolan, Lulea, Sweden.
    Metabolizing science from the laboratory to the classroom: The Metabolt Educational Experience2019Inngår i: Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, Vol. 2, nr 7, s. 9-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article summarizes a pilot knowledge co-creation process experience done with a group of 15 eleven and twelve years old students of Porsöskolan, a public school near Luleå Tekniska Universitet from September 2018 to January 2019. The experience is based on a true research project of the Group of Atmospheric Science (GAS) called METABOLT, an instrument to investigate the metabolic activity of microorganisms in soils by measuring the electrochemical and gaseous bio signatures. In this paper, we explain how we have designed, developed, applied and evaluated a complete learning and engagement strategy to bring science from the laboratory to the classroom. The experience adapts the scientific method to the primary classroom level, taking as practical case the METABOLT experiment: identification of a problem, hypothesis design, experiment creation to get results, analysis and confrontation with the hypothesis and provisional conclusions to verify or discard them. After the experience a set of surveys were given to all the stakeholders, students, teachers and researchers to evaluate their perception of the effects of the activity. One unexpected result is the difference in perception between the teachers and students on the learning experience. This project demonstrates that professional researchers with the adequate communication strategy, training and tracking can promote a relevant learning process and achieve a social impact in different audiences

  • 107.
    Martín-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    A space rose by another name smells sweeter2017Inngår i: New scientist (1971), ISSN 0262-4079, Vol. 233, nr 3116, s. 52-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 108.
    Martín-Torres, Javier
    Rover Environmental Monitoring Station.
    Life on Mars2012Inngår i: New scientist (1971), ISSN 0262-4079, Vol. 215, nr 2881Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 109.
    Martín-Torres, Javier
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Zorzano Mier, Maria-Paz
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Should We Invest in Martian Brine Research to Reduce Mars Exploration Costs?2017Inngår i: Astrobiology, ISSN 1531-1074, E-ISSN 1557-8070, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 3-7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 110.
    Mathanlal, Thasshwin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Vakkada Ramachandran, Abhilash
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Zorzano, María-Paz
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejon de Ardoz, 28850 Madrid, Spain.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), 18100 Granada, Spain.
    Cockell, Charles
    UK Centre of Astrobiology, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, UK .
    Paling, Sean
    Boulby Underground Laboratory, Boulby, UK.
    Edwards, Tom
    Boulby Underground Laboratory, Boulby, UK.
    Subsurface robotic exploration for geomorphology, astrobiology and mining during MINAR6 campaign, Boulby Mine, UK: part I (Rover development)2020Inngår i: International Journal of Astrobiology, ISSN 1473-5504, E-ISSN 1475-3006, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 110-125Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous exploration requires the use of movable platforms that carry a payload of instruments with a certain level of autonomy and communication with the operators. This is particularly challenging in subsurface environments, which may be more dangerous for human access and where communication with the surface is limited. Subsurface robotic exploration, which has been to date very limited, is interesting not only for science but also for cost-effective industrial exploitation of resources and safety assessments in mines. Furthermore, it has a direct application to exploration of extra-terrestrial subsurface environments of astrobiological and geological significance such as caves, lava tubes, impact or volcanic craters and subglacial conduits, for deriving in-situ mineralogical resources and establishing preliminary settlements. However, the technological solutions are generally tailor-made and are therefore considered as costly, fragile and environment-specific, further hindering their extensive and effective applications. To demonstrate the advantages of rover exploration for a broad-community, we have developed KORE (KOmpact Rover for Exploration); a low-cost, re-usable, rover multi-purpose platform. The rover platform has been developed as a technological demonstration for extra-terrestrial subsurface exploration and terrestrial mining operations pertaining to geomorphological mapping, environmental monitoring, gas leak detections and search and rescue operations in case of an accident. The present paper, the first part of a series of two, focuses on describing the development of a robust rover platform to perform dedicated geomorphological, astrobiological and mining tasks. KORE was further tested in the Mine Analogue Research 6 (MINAR6) campaign during September 2018 in the Boulby mine (UK), the second deepest potash mine in Europe at a subsurface depth of 1.1 km, the results of which will be presented in the second paper of this series. KORE is a large, semi-autonomous rover weighing 160 kg with L × W × H dimensions 1.2 m × 0.8 m × 1 m and a payload carrying capacity of 100 kg using 800 W traction power that can power to a maximum speed of 8.4 km h−1. The rover can be easily dismantled in three parts facilitating its transportation to any chosen site of exploration. Presently, the main scientific payloads on KORE are: (1) a three-dimensional mapping camera, (2) a methane detection system, (3) an environmental station capable of monitoring temperature, relative humidity, pressure and gases such as NO2, SO2, H2S, formaldehyde, CO, CO2, O3, O2, volatile organic compounds and particulates and (4) a robotic arm. Moreover, the design of the rover allows for integration of more sensors as per the scientific requirements in future expeditions. At the MINAR6 campaign, the technical readiness of KORE was demonstrated during 6 days of scientific research in the mine, with a total of 22 h of operation.

  • 111.
    Mathanlal, Thasshwin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Israel Nazarious, Miracle
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Vakkada Ramachandran, Abhilash
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Zorzano, Maria-Paz
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejon de Ardoz, 28850, Madrid, Spain.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), 18100, Granada, Spain.
    Rettberg, Petra
    German Aerospace Center, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Radiation Biology, Linder Höhe, 51147, Köln, Germany.
    Implementing bioburden reduction and control on the deliquescent hydrogel of the HABIT/ExoMars 2020 instrument2020Inngår i: Acta Astronautica, ISSN 0094-5765, E-ISSN 1879-2030, Vol. 173, s. 232-239Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The HabitAbility: Brines, Irradiation and Temperature (HABIT) instrument will be part of the ExoMars 2020 mission (ESA/Roscosmos) and will be the first European In-situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) instrument capable of producing liquid water on Mars. HABIT is composed by two modules: Environmental Package (EnvPack) and Brine Observation Transition To Liquid Experiment (BOTTLE). EnvPack will help to study the current habitability conditions on Mars investigating the air and surface thermal ranges and Ultraviolet (UV) irradiance; and BOTTLE is a container with four independent vessels housing deliquescent salts, which are known to be present on Mars, where the liquid water will be produced after deliquescence. In order to prevent capillarity of deliquescent or hydrated salts, a mixture of deliquescent salts with Super Absorbent Polymer (SAP) based on polyacrylamide is utilized. This mixture has deliquescent and hydrogel properties and can be reused by applying a thermal cycle, complying thus with the purpose of the instrument. A High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) grade filter made of polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE) porous membrane sandwiched between spunbounded non-woven fabric stands as a physical barrier allowing interaction between the gaseous molecules of the Martian atmosphere and the salt mixtures, and at the same time preventing the passage of any potential biological contamination from the cells to the outside or vice-versa. In addition to the physical barrier, a strict bioburden reduction and analysis procedure is applied to the hardware and the contained salt mixtures adhering to the European Cooperation for Space Standardization protocol of microbial examination of flight hardware (ECSS-Q-ST-70-55C). The deliquescent salts and the SAP products need to be properly treated independently to adhere to the planetary protection protocols. In this manuscript, we describe the bioburden reduction process utilized to sterilize the salt mixtures in BOTTLE and the assays adopted to validate the sterilization. We also describe the construction of a low-cost, portable ISO 7 cleanroom tent, exclusively designed for planetary protection tests. The sterilization process involves Dry Heat Microbial Reduction (DHMR) of the deliquescent salts and the SAP mixtures. The performance of SAP after DHMR is validated to ensure its working efficiency after sterilization. A slightly modified version of the standard swab assay is used in the validation process and a comparison is made between samples exposed to a thermal shock treatment and those without thermal shock, to determine the best assay to be applied for future space hardware utilizing such salt mixtures for planetary investigation and In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). The demonstration of the compatibility of these products with the processes commonly required for space applications has implications for the future exploration of Mars.

  • 112.
    Mathanlal, Thasshwin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Self-Sustainable Monitoring Station for Extreme Environments (S3ME2): Design and validation2019Inngår i: 2018 Second International Conference on Green Computing and Internet of Things (ICGCIoT), IEEE, 2019, s. 240-245Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe the development of a robust, self-sustainable, versatile environmental monitoring station, the S3ME2, with a multitude of sensors capable of operating in extreme environments (from cold arid sub-arctic regions to hot deserts and high-altitude mountain terrains), providing realtime quality data of critical climate and geophysical parameters for a wide field of research such as pressure, surface and subsurface temperature and humidity, magnetic field and seismic activity. The dedicated communication modem utilizes IoT technology and can deliver this data from remote regions. The S3ME2 has been designed as a low-cost instrument to facilitate the production of multiple units. During the pilot phase, it has demonstrated continuous operability for up to 6 months, including survival during extremely cold, snowy, and low insolation, and low wind periods in the Sub-Arctic region. With its robust design, S3ME2 exploits the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar and wind power to power the system. The S3ME2 has also been designed from a modular point of view with commercial off the shelf components (COTS) and open source hardware, considering long term operability of the station. The sensor modules can be easily added, replaced, or upgraded such that a stable functioning of the system is guaranteed.

  • 113.
    McLennan, S.M.
    et al.
    Department of Geosciences, State University of New York, Stony Brook.
    Anderson, R.B.
    U.S. Geological Survey, Astrogeology Science Center, Flagstaff.
    III, J.F. Bell
    School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University.
    Bridges, J.C.
    Space Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester.
    III, F. Calef
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
    J.L., Campbell
    Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Ontario.
    Clark, B.C.
    Space Science Institute.
    Clegg, S.
    Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Conrad, P.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Cousin, A.
    Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Marais, D.J. Des
    Department of Space Sciences, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field.
    Dromart, G.
    Laboratoire de Geologié de Lyon, Université de Lyon.
    Dyar, M.D.
    Department of Astronomy, Mt. Holyoke College, South Hadley.
    Edgar, L.A.
    School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University.
    Ehlmann, B.L.
    Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Fabre, C.
    UMR 7359 CNRS-Georesources, Campus des Aiguillettes, Faculté des Sciences, Vandoeuvre Les Nancy.
    Forni, O.
    IRAP/CNRS.
    Gasnault, O.
    IRAP/CNRS.
    Gellert, R.
    Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Ontario.
    Gordon, S.
    Institute of Meteoritics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.
    Grant, J.A.
    Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington.
    Grotzinger, J.P.
    Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology.
    Gupta, S.
    Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London.
    Herkenhoff, K.E.
    U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff.
    Hurowitz, J.A.
    Department of Geosciences, State University of New York, Stony Brook.
    Yingst, R.A.
    Planetary Science Institute, Tucson.
    Elemental Geochemistry of Sedimentary Rocks at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars2014Inngår i: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 343, nr 6169, artikkel-id 1244734Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sedimentary rocks examined by the Curiosity rover at Yellowknife Bay, Mars, were derived from sources that evolved from an approximately average martian crustal composition to one influenced by alkaline basalts. No evidence of chemical weathering is preserved, indicating arid, possibly cold, paleoclimates and rapid erosion and deposition. The absence of predicted geochemical variations indicates that magnetite and phyllosilicates formed by diagenesis under low-temperature, circumneutral pH, rock-dominated aqueous conditions. Analyses of diagenetic features (including concretions, raised ridges, and fractures) at high spatial resolution indicate that they are composed of iron- and halogen-rich components, magnesium-iron-chlorine–rich components, and hydrated calcium sulfates, respectively. Composition of a cross-cutting dike-like feature is consistent with sedimentary intrusion. The geochemistry of these sedimentary rocks provides further evidence for diverse depositional and diagenetic sedimentary environments during the early history of Mars.

  • 114.
    Melikechi, N.
    et al.
    Optical Science Center for Applied Research, Delaware State University, Dover.
    Mezzacappa, A.
    Optical Science Center for Applied Research, Delaware State University, Dover.
    Cousin, A.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Lanza, N.L.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Lasue, J.
    Institut de Recherche en Astophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Universite' Paul Sabatier, Toulouse.
    Clegg, S.M.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Berger, G.
    Institut de Recherche en Astophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Universite' Paul Sabatier, Toulouse.
    Wiens, R.C.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Maurice, S.
    Institut de Recherche en Astophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Universite' Paul Sabatier, Toulouse.
    Tokar, R.L.
    Planetary Science Institute, Flagstaff, Arizona.
    Bender, S.
    Planetary Science Institute, Tucson.
    Forni, O.
    Institut de Recherche en Astophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Universite' Paul Sabatier, Toulouse.
    Breves, E.A.
    Department of Astronomy, Mt. Holyoke College, South Hadley.
    Dyar, M.D.
    Department of Astronomy, Mt. Holyoke College, South Hadley.
    Frydenvang, J.
    Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen.
    Delapp, D.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Gasnault, O.
    Institut de Recherche en Astophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Universite' Paul Sabatier, Toulouse.
    Newsom, H.
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.
    Ollila, A.M.
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.
    Lewin, E.
    Institut des Sciences de la Terre, Universite Grenoble l-CNRS, Grenoble.
    Clark, B.C.
    Space Science Institute.
    Ehlmann, B.L.
    California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Blaney, D.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Fabre, C.
    CNRS, Georessources, Vandoeuvre les Nancy.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Correcting for variable laser-target distances of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements with ChemCam using emission lines of Martian dust spectra2014Inngår i: Spectrochimica Acta Part B - Atomic Spectroscopy, ISSN 0584-8547, E-ISSN 1873-3565, Vol. 96, s. 51-60Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of the Mars Science Laboratory, the ChemCam instrument acquires remote laser induced breakdown spectra at distances that vary between 1.56 m and 7 m. This variation in distance affects the intensities of the measured LIBS emission lines in non-trivial ways. To determine the behavior of a LIBS emission line with distance, it is necessary to separate the effects of many parameters such as laser energy, laser spot size, target homogeneity, and optical collection efficiency. These parameters may be controlled in a laboratory on Earth but for field applications or in space this is a challenge. In this paper, we show that carefully selected ChemCam LIBS emission lines acquired from the Martian dust can be used to build an internal proxy spectroscopic standard. This in turn, allows for a direct measurement of the effects of the distance of various LIBS emission lines and hence can be used to correct ChemCam LIBS spectra for distance variations. When tested on pre-launch LIBS calibration data acquired under Martian-like conditions and with controlled and well-calibrated targets, this approach yields much improved agreement between targets observed at various distances. This work lays the foundation for future implementation of automated routines to correct ChemCam spectra for differences caused by variable distance.

  • 115.
    Mendaza de Cal, Maria Teresa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Blanco-Ávalos, J.J.
    Universidad Alcalá de Henares (UAH) Dpto. Física y Matemáticas, Campus Científico-Tecnológico (Externo) Alcalá de Henares (Madrid).
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (UGR-CSIC), Avenida de las Palmeras 4, Armilla, Granada, Spain.
    Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection effects on thermospheric density as inferred from International Space Station orbital data2017Inngår i: Advances in Space Research, ISSN 0273-1177, E-ISSN 1879-1948, Vol. 60, nr 10, s. 2233-2251Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The solar activity induces long term and short term periodical variations in the dynamics and composition of Earth’s atmosphere. The Sun also shows non periodical (i.e., impulsive) activity that reaches the planets orbiting around it. In particular, Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs) reach Earth and interact with its magnetosphere and upper neutral atmosphere. Nevertheless, the interaction with the upper atmosphere is not well characterized because of the absence of regular and dedicated in situ measurements at high altitudes; thus, current descriptions of the thermosphere are based on semi empirical models.

    In this paper, we present the total neutral mass densities of the thermosphere retrieved from the orbital data of the International Space Station (ISS) using the General Perturbation Method, and we applied these densities to routinely compiled trajectories of the ISS in low Earth orbit (LEO). These data are explicitly independent of any atmospheric model. Our density values are consistent with atmospheric models, which demonstrates that our method is reliable for the inference of thermospheric density. We have inferred the thermospheric total neutral density response to impulsive solar activity forcing from 2001 to the end of 2006 and determined how solar events affect this response. Our results reveal that the ISS orbital parameters can be used to infer the thermospheric density and analyze solar effects on the thermosphere.

  • 116.
    Meslin, Pierre-Yves
    et al.
    IRAP, CNRS/UPS, Toulouse.
    Cousin, Agnès
    IRAP, CNRS/UPS, Toulouse.
    Berger, Gilles
    IRAP, CNRS/UPS, Toulouse.
    Forni, Olivier
    IRAP, CNRS/UPS, Toulouse.
    Gasnault, Olivier
    IRAP, CNRS/UPS, Toulouse.
    Lasue, Jeremie
    IRAP, CNRS/UPS, Toulouse.
    Mangold, Nicolas
    Université de Nantes.
    Schröder, Susanne
    IRAP, CNRS/UPS, Toulouse.
    Maurice, Sylvestre
    IRAP, CNRS/UPS, Toulouse.
    Wiens, Roger
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Vaniman, Dave
    Planetary Science Institute.
    Anderson, Ryan
    U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff.
    Blaney, Diana
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Newsom, Horton
    Applied Physics Laboratory.
    Ollila, Ann
    Applied Physics Laboratory.
    Clegg, Sam
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Ehlmann, Bethany
    California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Fabre, Cécile
    Université de Lorraine.
    Lanza, Nina
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    ChemCam Analysis of Soil Diversity along Bradbury-Glenelg Traverse2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 117.
    Meslin, P.-Y.
    et al.
    Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP.
    Gasnault, O.
    Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP.
    Forni, O.
    Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP.
    Schröder, S.
    Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP.
    Cousin, A.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Berger, G.
    Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP.
    Clegg, S.M.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Lasue, J.
    Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP.
    Maurice, S.
    Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP.
    Sautter, V.
    Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Laboratoire de Minéralogie et Cosmochimie du Muséum, Paris.
    Mouélic, S. Le
    Laboratoire Planétologie et Géodynamique, LPGNantes, CNRS UMR 6112, Université de Nantes.
    Wiens, R.C.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Fabre, C.
    GeoResources, CNRS, UMR7356, Université de Lorraine, Vandoeuvre lès Nancy.
    Goetz, W.
    Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Katlenburg-Lindau.
    Bish, D.
    Indiana University, Bloomington.
    Mangold, N.
    Laboratoire Planétologie et Géodynamique, LPGNantes, CNRS UMR 6112, Université de Nantes.
    Ehlmann, B.
    California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Lanza, N.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Harri, A.-M.
    Earth Observation Research Division, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Anderson, R.
    U.S. Geological Survey, Astrogeology Science Center, Flagstaff.
    Rampe, E.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    McConnochie, T.H.
    University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland.
    Pinet, P.
    Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP.
    Blaney, D.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Leveille, R.
    Canadian Space Agency, St-Hubert.
    Yingst, A
    Planetary Science Institute, Tucson.
    Soil Diversity and Hydration as Observed by ChemCam at Gale Crater, Mars2013Inngår i: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 341, nr 6153, artikkel-id 1238670Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ChemCam instrument, which provides insight into martian soil chemistry at the submillimeter scale, identified two principal soil types along the Curiosity rover traverse: a fine-grained mafic type and a locally derived, coarse-grained felsic type. The mafic soil component is representative of widespread martian soils and is similar in composition to the martian dust. It possesses a ubiquitous hydrogen signature in ChemCam spectra, corresponding to the hydration of the amorphous phases found in the soil by the CheMin instrument. This hydration likely accounts for an important fraction of the global hydration of the surface seen by previous orbital measurements. ChemCam analyses did not reveal any significant exchange of water vapor between the regolith and the atmosphere. These observations provide constraints on the nature of the amorphous phases and their hydration.

  • 118.
    Ming, D.W.
    et al.
    Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Jr., P.D. Archer
    Jacobs Technology, NASA Johnson Space Center.
    Glavin, D.P.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Eigenbrode, J.L.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Franz, H.B.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Sutter, B.
    Jacobs Technology, NASA Johnson Space Center.
    Brunner, A.E.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Stern, J.C.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Freissinet, C.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    McAdam, A.C.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Mahaffy, P.R.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Cabane, M.
    Laboratoire Atmospheres, Milieux, Observations Spatiales, Université Pierre Marie Curie, Univ. Paris 06, Université Versailles St-Quentin.
    Coll, P.
    Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, Université Paris-Est Créteil, Univ. Paris Diderot and CNRS.
    J.L., Campbell
    Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Ontario.
    Atreya, S.K.
    Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
    Niles, P.B.
    Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    III, J.F. Bell
    School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University.
    Bish, D.L.
    Indiana University, Department of Geological Sciences, Bloomington.
    Brinckerhoff, W.B.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Buch, A.
    Laboratoire de Génie des Procédés et les Matériaux, Ecole Centrale Paris.
    Conrad, P.G.
    Planetary Environments Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Marais, D.J. Des
    Department of Space Sciences, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field.
    Ehlmann, B.L.
    Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology.
    Fairén, A.G.
    Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.
    Farley, K.
    Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology.
    Yingst, R.A
    Planetary Science Institute, Tucson.
    Volatile and organic compositions of sedimentary rocks in Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars2014Inngår i: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 343, nr 6169, artikkel-id 1245267Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    H2O, CO2, SO2, O2, H2, H2S, HCl, chlorinated hydrocarbons, NO, and other trace gases were evolved during pyrolysis of two mudstone samples acquired by the Curiosity rover at Yellowknife Bay within Gale crater, Mars. H2O/OH-bearing phases included 2:1 phyllosilicate(s), bassanite, akaganeite, and amorphous materials. Thermal decomposition of carbonates and combustion of organic materials are candidate sources for the CO2. Concurrent evolution of O2 and chlorinated hydrocarbons suggests the presence of oxychlorine phase(s). Sulfides are likely sources for sulfur-bearing species. Higher abundances of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the mudstone compared with Rocknest windblown materials previously analyzed by Curiosity suggest that indigenous martian or meteoritic organic carbon sources may be preserved in the mudstone; however, the carbon source for the chlorinated hydrocarbons is not definitively of martian origin.

  • 119.
    Mischna, M.A.
    et al.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Gómez-Elvira, J.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Armiens, C.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Carrasco, I.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Genzer, M.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Gómez, F.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Haberle, R.
    NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field.
    Hamilton, V.E.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Harri, A.-M.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Kahanpää, H.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Kemppinen, O.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Lepinette, A.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Soler, J. Martín
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Martínez-Frías, J.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Mora, L.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Navarro, S.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Newman, C.
    Ashima Research, Pasadena.
    Pablo, M.A. de
    Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Madrid.
    Peinado, V.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Polkko, J.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Rafkin, S.C.R.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Ramos, M.
    Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Madrid.
    Rennó, N.O.
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
    Richardson, M.
    Ashima Research, Pasadena.
    Zorzano, M.-P.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Results from the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on Board the Mars Science Laboratory2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 120.
    Mlynczak, Martin G.
    et al.
    NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton.
    Hunt, Linda A.
    Science Systems and Applications Inc., Hampton.
    Marshall, B. Thomas
    GATS Inc., Newport News.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Mertens, Christopher J.
    NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton.
    III, James M. Russell
    Hampton University.
    Remsberg, Ellis E.
    NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton.
    López-Puertas, Manuel
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    Picard, Richard
    AFRL, Hanscom AFB, Bedford.
    Jeremy, Winick
    AFRL, Hanscom AFB, Bedford.
    Peter, Wintersteiner
    ARCON Corp., Waltham.
    Thompson, R. Earl
    G & A Technical Software, Newport News.
    Gordley, Larry L.
    G & A Technical Software, Newport News.
    Observations of infrared radiative cooling in the thermosphere on daily to multiyear timescales from the TIMED/SABER instrument2010Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 115, nr A3, artikkel-id A03309Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present observations of the infrared radiative cooling by carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitric oxide (NO) in Earth's thermosphere. These data have been taken over a period of 7 years by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on the NASA Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite and are the dominant radiative cooling mechanisms for the thermosphere. From the SABER observations we derive vertical profiles of radiative cooling rates (W m−3), radiative fluxes (W m−2), and radiated power (W). In the period from January 2002 through January 2009, we observe a large decrease in the cooling rates, fluxes, and power consistent with the declining phase of solar cycle 23. The power radiated by NO during 2008 when the Sun exhibited few sunspots was nearly one order of magnitude smaller than the peak power observed shortly after the mission began. Substantial short-term variability in the infrared emissions is also observed throughout the entire mission duration. Radiative cooling rates and radiative fluxes from NO exhibit fundamentally different latitude dependence than do those from CO2, with the NO fluxes and cooling rates being largest at high latitudes and polar regions. The cooling rates are shown to be derived relatively independent of the collisional and radiative processes that drive the departure from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) in the CO2 15 μm and the NO 5.3 μm vibration-rotation bands. The observed NO and CO2 cooling rates have been compiled into a separate data set and represent a climate data record that is available for use in assessments of radiative cooling in upper atmosphere general circulation models.

  • 121.
    Mlynczak, Martin G.
    et al.
    NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton.
    Hunt, Linda A.
    Science Systems and Applications Inc., Hampton.
    Mast, Jeffrey C.
    Science Systems and Applications Inc., Hampton.
    Marshall, B. Thomas
    G & A Technical Software, Newport News.
    III, James M. Russell
    Hampton University.
    Smith, Anne K.
    National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado.
    Siskind, David E.
    Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC.
    Yee, Jen-Hwa
    Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel.
    Mertens, Christopher J.
    NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Thompson, R. Earl
    G & A Technical Software, Newport News.
    Drob, Douglas P.
    Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC.
    Gordley, Larry L.
    G & A Technical Software, Newport News.
    Atomic oxygen in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere derived from SABER: Algorithm theoretical basis and measurement uncertainty2013Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, ISSN 2169-897X, E-ISSN 2169-8996, Vol. 118, nr 11, s. 5724-5735Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Atomic oxygen (O) is a fundamental component in chemical aeronomy of Earth's mesosphere and lower thermosphere region extending from approximately 50 km to over 100 km in altitude. Atomic oxygen is notoriously difficult to measure, especially with remote sensing techniques from orbiting satellite sensors. It is typically inferred from measurements of the ozone concentration in the day or from measurements of the Meinel band emission of the hydroxyl radical (OH) at night. The Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on the NASA Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite measures OH emission and ozone for the purpose of determining the O-atom concentration. In this paper, we present the algorithms used in the derivation of day and night atomic oxygen from these measurements. We find excellent consistency between the day and night O-atom concentrations from daily to annual time scales. We also examine in detail the collisional relaxation of the highly vibrationally excited OH molecule at night measured by SABER. Large rate coefficients for collisional removal of vibrationally excited OH molecules by atomic oxygen are consistent with the SABER observations if the deactivation of OH(9) proceeds solely by collisional quenching. An uncertainty analysis of the derived atomic oxygen is also given. Uncertainty in the rate coefficient for recombination of O and molecular oxygen is shown to be the largest source of uncertainty in the derivation of atomic oxygen day or night.

  • 122.
    Mlynczak, Martin G.
    et al.
    NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton.
    Marshall, B. Thomas
    G & A Technical Software, Newport News.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Analytical Services and Materials Inc., Hampton.
    III, James M. Russell
    Department of Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Hampton University.
    Thompson, R. Earl
    G & A Technical Software, Newport News.
    Remsberg, Ellis E.
    NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton.
    Gordley, Larry L.
    G & A Technical Software, Newport News.
    Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry observations of daytime mesospheric O2(1Δ) 1.27 μm emission and derivation of ozone, atomic oxygen, and solar and chemical energy deposition rates2007Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, ISSN 2169-897X, E-ISSN 2169-8996, Vol. 112, nr D15, artikkel-id D15306Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We report observations of the daytime O2(1Δ) airglow emission at 1.27 μm recorded by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on the NASA Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite. The measured limb radiances are inverted to yield vertical profiles of the volume emission rate of energy from the O2 molecule. From these emission rates we subsequently derive the mesospheric ozone concentrations using a nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) radiative and kinetic model. Rates of energy deposition due to absorption of ultraviolet radiation in the Hartley band of ozone are also derived, independent of knowledge of the ozone abundance and solar irradiances. Atomic oxygen concentrations are obtained from the ozone abundance using photochemical steady state assumptions. Rates of energy deposition due to exothermic chemical reactions are also derived. The data products illustrated here are from a test day (4 July 2002) of SABER Version 1.07 data which are now becoming publicly available. This test day illustrates the high quality of the SABER O2(1Δ) airglow and ozone data and the variety of fundamental science questions to which they can be applied.

  • 123.
    Mlynczak, Martin G.
    et al.
    Climate Science Branch, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Analytical Materials and Services Corporation, Hampton.
    Johnson, David G.
    Climate Science Branch, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton.
    Kratz, David P.
    Climate Science Branch, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton.
    Traub, Wesley A.
    Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.
    Jucks, Ken
    Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.
    Observations of the O(3P) fine structure line at 63 μm in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere2004Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 109, nr A12, artikkel-id A12306Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Observations of the O(3P) fine structure line at 63 μm originating in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere have been obtained by the far-infrared spectrometer (FIRS-2) instrument, a Fourier transform spectrometer that flies periodically on high-altitude balloons. FIRS-2 primarily observes stratospheric ozone photochemistry using the technique of limb emission spectroscopy. As part of the routine operation of FIRS-2, up-looking views are made, during which the emission from the atomic oxygen is recorded. Using the Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter (MSIS) empirical model to provide temperature and atomic oxygen concentrations, we compute radiances for comparison with the FIRS-2 observations. The computed radiances agree with the FIRS-2 measurements, which encompass 31 observations during nine flights over a span of 14 years, to within 10% on average, with 23 of the 31 observations agreeing to within measurement and calculation uncertainty. The consistency between the observed and computed radiances suggests that the MSIS model provides a reasonably accurate representation of temperature and atomic oxygen in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere.

  • 124.
    Mlynczak, Martin G.
    et al.
    NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Analytical Services and Materials Inc., Hampton.
    Marshall, B. Thomas
    G & A Technical Software, Newport News.
    Thompson, R. Earl
    G & A Technical Software, Newport News.
    Joshua, Williams
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Utah State University, Logan.
    Turpin, Timothy
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Utah State University, Logan.
    Kratz, David P.
    NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton.
    III, James M. Russell
    Center for Atmospheric Sciences, Hampton University.
    Woods, Tom
    Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.
    Gordley, Larry L.
    G & A Technical Software, Newport News.
    Evidence for a solar cycle influence on the infrared energy budget and radiative cooling of the thermosphere2007Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 112, nr A12, artikkel-id A12302Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present direct observational evidence for solar cycle influence on the infrared energy budget and radiative cooling of the thermosphere. By analyzing nearly five years of data from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument, we show that the annual mean infrared power radiated by the nitric oxide (NO) molecule at 5.3 μm has decreased by a factor of 2.9. This decrease is correlated (r = 0.96) with the decrease in the annual mean F10.7 solar index. Despite the sharp decrease in radiated power (which is equivalent to a decrease in the vertical integrated radiative cooling rate), the variability of the power as given in the standard deviation of the annual means remains approximately constant. A simple relationship is shown to exist between the infrared power radiated by NO and the F10.7 index, thus providing a fundamental relationship between solar activity and the thermospheric cooling rate for use in thermospheric models. The change in NO radiated power is also consistent with changes in absorbed ultraviolet radiation over the same time period. Computations of radiated power using an empirical model show much less variability than observed by SABER.

  • 125.
    Mlynczak, Martin G.
    et al.
    NASA Langley Research Center.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Analytical Services and Materials Inc., Hampton.
    Mertens, Christopher J.
    NASA Langley Research Center.
    Marshall, B. Thomas
    G & A Technical Software.
    Thomspn, R. Earl
    G & A Technical Software.
    Kozyra, Janet U.
    Michigan University.
    Remsberg, Ellis E.
    NASA Langley Research Center.
    Gordley, Larry L.
    G & A Technical Software.
    Russell, James M.
    Hampton University.
    Woods, Thomas
    Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.
    Solar-terrestrial coupling evidenced by periodic behavior in geomagnetic indexes and the infrared energy budget of the thermosphere2008Inngår i: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 35, nr 5, artikkel-id L05808Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine time series of the daily global power (W) radiated by carbon dioxide (at 15 μm) and by nitric oxide (at 5.3 μm) from the Earth's thermosphere between 100 km and 200 km altitude. Also examined is a time series of the daily absorbed solar ultraviolet power in the same altitude region in the wavelength span 0 to 175 run. The infrared data are derived from the SABER instrument and the solar data are derived from the SEE instrument, both on the NASA TIMED satellite. The time series cover nearly 5 years from 2002 through 2006. The infrared and solar time series exhibit a decrease in radiated and absorbed power consistent with the declining phase of the current 11-year solar cycle. The infrared time series also exhibits high frequency variations that are not evident in the solar power time series. Spectral analysis shows a statistically significant 9-day periodicity in the infrared data but not in the solar data. A very strong 9-day periodicity is also found to exist in the time series of daily Ap and Kp geomagnetic indexes. These 9-day periodicities are linked to the recurrence of coronal holes on the Sun. These results demonstrate a direct coupling between the upper atmosphere of the Sun and the infrared energy budget of the thermosphere. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  • 126. Mlynczak, Martin G.
    et al.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    CSIC-UGR - Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (IACT), Granada.
    Russell, James M.
    Correction to “Energy transport in the thermosphere during the solar storms of April 2002”2007Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 112, nr 2, artikkel-id A02303Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 127.
    Mlynczak, Marty
    et al.
    NASA Langley Research Center.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Analytical Services and Materials Inc., Hampton.
    Rusell, James
    Hampton University.
    Beaumont, Ken
    G & A Technical Software.
    Jacobson, Steven
    G & A Technical Software.
    Kozyra, Janet
    Michigan University.
    Lopez-Puertas, Manuel
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    Funke, Bernd
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    Mertens, Christopher
    NASA Langley Research Center.
    Gordley, Larry
    G & A Technical Software.
    Picard, Richard
    Air Force Research Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts.
    Winick, Jeremy
    Air Force Research Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts.
    Wintersteiner, Peter
    ARCON Corporation.
    Paxton, Larry
    Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel.
    The natural thermostat of nitric oxide emission at 5.3 μm in the thermosphere observed during the solar storms of April 20022003Inngår i: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 30, nr 21Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) experiment on the Thermosphere-Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite observed the infrared radiative response of the thermosphere to the solar storm events of April 2002. Large radiance enhancements were observed at 5.3 μm, which are due to emission from the vibration-rotation bands of nitric oxide (NO). The emission by NO is indicative of the conversion of solar energy to infrared radiation within the atmosphere and represents a "natural thermostat" by which heat and energy are efficiently lost from the thermosphere to space and to the lower atmosphere. We describe the SABER observations at 5.3 μm and their interpretation in terms of energy loss. The infrared enhancements remain only for a few days, indicating that such perturbations to the thermospheric state, while dramatic, are short-lived. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  • 128.
    Mlynczak, M.G.
    et al.
    Science Directorate, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    AS&M Inc., Hampton.
    Crowley, Geoff
    Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas.
    Kratz, David P.
    Science Directorate, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton.
    Funke, Bernd
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    Lu, Gang
    National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado.
    López-Puertas, Manuel
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    III, James M. Russell
    Hampton University.
    Kozyra, Janet
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
    Mertens, Chris
    Science Directorate, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton.
    Sharma, Ramesh
    Air Force Research Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts.
    Gordley, Larry
    G & A Technical Software, Newport News.
    Picard, Richard
    AFRL, Hanscom AFB, Bedford.
    Winick, Jeremy
    Air Force Research Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts.
    Paxton, Larry
    Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel.
    Energy transport in the thermosphere during the solar storms of April 20022005Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 110, nr A12, artikkel-id A12S25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The dramatic solar storm events of April 2002 deposited a large amount of energy into the Earth's upper atmosphere, substantially altering the thermal structure, the chemical composition, the dynamics, and the radiative environment. We examine the flow of energy within the thermosphere during this storm period from the perspective of infrared radiation transport and heat conduction. Observations from the SABER instrument on the TIMED satellite are coupled with computations based on the ASPEN thermospheric general circulation model to assess the energy flow. The dominant radiative response is associated with dramatically enhanced infrared emission from nitric oxide at 5.3 μm from which a total of ∼7.7 × 1023 ergs of energy are radiated during the storm. Energy loss rates due to NO emission exceed 2200 Kelvin per day. In contrast, energy loss from carbon dioxide emission at 15 μm is only ∼2.3% that of nitric oxide. Atomic oxygen emission at 63 μm is essentially constant during the storm. Energy loss from molecular heat conduction may be as large as 3.8% of the NO emission. These results confirm the “natural thermostat” effect of nitric oxide emission as the primary mechanism by which storm energy is lost from the thermosphere below 210 km.

  • 129.
    Montanes-Rodriguez, Pilar
    et al.
    Big Bear Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark.
    Pallé, E.
    Big Bear Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark.
    Goode, P. R.
    Big Bear Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Analytical Services and Materials Inc., Hampton.
    Vegetation signature in the observed globally integrated spectrum of earth considering simultaneous cloud data: Applications for extrasolar planets2006Inngår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 651, nr 1 I, s. 544-552Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of missions will be launched over the next few decades that will be designed to detect and characterize extrasolar planets around nearby stars. These missions will search for habitable environments and signs of life (biosignatures) in planetary spectra. The vegetation's "red edge," an enhancement in the Earth's spectrum near 700 nm when sunlight is reflected from greenery, is often suggested as a tool in the search for life in terrestrial-like extrasolar planets. Here, through ground-based observations of the Earth's spectrum, satellite observations of clouds, and an advanced atmospheric radiative-transfer code, we determine the temporal evolution of the vegetation signature of Earth. We find a strong correlation between the evolution of the spectral intensity of the red edge and changes in the cloud-free vegetated area over the course of observations. This relative increase for our single day corresponds to an apparent reflectance change of about 0.0050 ± 0.0005 with respect to the mean albedo of 0.25 at 680 nm (2.0% ± 0.2%). The excellent agreement between models and observations motivated us to probe more deeply into the red-edge detectability using real cloud observations at longer timescales. Overall, we find the evolution of the red-edge signal in the globally averaged spectra to be weak, and only attributable to vegetation changes when the real land and cloud distributions for the day are known. However, it becomes prominent under certain Sun-Earth-Moon orbital geometries that are applicable to the search for life in extrasolar planets. Our results indicate that vegetation detection in Earth-like planets will require a considerable level of instrumental precision and will be a difficult task, but not as difficult as the normally weak earthshine signal might seem to suggest.

  • 130.
    Moore, Casey A.
    et al.
    Centre for Research in Earth and Space Sciences, York University, Earth and Space Sciences, Toronto.
    Moores, John E.
    York University, Toronto, Centre for Research in Earth and Space Sciences, York University, Earth and Space Sciences, Toronto.
    Lemmon, Mark T.
    Texas A&M University, College Station.
    Rafkin, Scot C.R.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Francis, Raymond
    University of Western Ontario, Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration, University of Western Ontario, London.
    Pla-Garcia, Jorge
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Haberle, Robert
    Ames Research Centre, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field.
    Zorzano, María-Paz
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid , Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial, Madrid, Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid, Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Burton, John R.
    Centre for Research in Earth and Space Sciences, York University, Earth and Space Sciences, Toronto.
    A Full Martian Year of Line-of-Sight Extinction within Gale Crater, Mars as Acquired by the MSL Navcam through sol 9002016Inngår i: Icarus (New York, N.Y. 1962), ISSN 0019-1035, E-ISSN 1090-2643, Vol. 264, s. 102-108Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on line-of-sight extinction in northern Gale Crater, Mars as seen by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity from sol 100 to sol 900; a little more than an entire martian year. Navcam images oriented due north, which show the distant crater rim, the near ground and the sky allow the extinction due to dust within the crater to be determined. This line-of sight extinction is compared to a complementary dataset of column extinctions derived from Mastcam. The line-of-sight extinction within the crater is less than the column extinction for the majority of the martian year. This implies that the relatively low mixing ratio of dust within the crater as compared to the atmosphere above the crater rim persists through most of the year. This suggests relatively little mixing between the atmosphere above the crater and the atmosphere inside the crater and suggests that northern Gale Crater is a net sink of dust in the current era. The data does however show a yearly convergence of the line-of-sight extinction and the column-averaged extinction around Ls = 270° – 290°. This suggests that air above the crater mixes with air in the crater at this time, as predicted by mesoscale models. Matching line-of-sight and column extinction values are also seen around Ls ≈ 135°, a season that has only been observed once in this dataset, this is particularly interesting as the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station onboard Curiosity reports increased convective boundary layer heights in the same season.

  • 131.
    Moores, John E.
    et al.
    York University.
    Lemmon, Mark T.
    Texas A&M University.
    Kahanpää, Henrik
    Finnish Meteorological Institute.
    Rafkin, Scot C R
    Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas.
    Francis, Raymond
    University of Western Ontario.
    Pla-Garcia, Jorge
    Centro de Astrobiología, Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial.
    Bean, Keri
    Texas A&M University.
    Haberle, Robert
    Ames Research Centre, Naval Air Station, Moffett Field.
    Newman, Claire
    Ashima Research, Pasadena.
    Mischna, Michael
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Vasavada, Ashwin R.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Juárez, Manuel de la Torre
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Rennó, Nilton
    University of Michigan.
    Bell, Jim
    Arizona State University.
    Calef, Fred
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Cantor, Bruce
    Malin Space Science Systems.
    Mcconnochie, Timothy H.
    GSFC/U Maryland.
    Harri, Ari Matti
    Finnish Meteorological Institute.
    Genzer, Maria
    Finnish Meteorological Institute.
    Wong, Michael H.
    University of Michigan.
    Smith, Michael D.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Instituto Andaluz de Cienccias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Grenada.
    Zorzano, María-Paz
    Centro de Astrobiología, Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial.
    Kemppinen, Osku
    Finnish Meteorological Institute.
    McCullough, Emily
    University of Western Ontario.
    Observational evidence of a suppressed planetary boundary layer in northern Gale Crater, Mars as seen by the Navcam instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover2015Inngår i: Icarus (New York, N.Y. 1962), ISSN 0019-1035, E-ISSN 1090-2643, Vol. 249, s. 129-142Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Navigation Cameras (Navcam) of the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, have been used to examine two aspects of the planetary boundary layer: vertical dust distribution and dust devil frequency. The vertical distribution of dust may be obtained by using observations of the distant crater rim to derive a line-of-sight optical depth within Gale Crater and comparing this optical depth to column optical depths obtained using Mastcam observations of the solar disc. The line of sight method consistently produces lower extinctions within the crater compared to the bulk atmosphere. This suggests a relatively stable atmosphere in which dust may settle out leaving the air within the crater clearer than air above and explains the correlation in observed column opacity between the floor of Gale Crater and the higher elevation Meridiani Planum. In the case of dust devils, despite an extensive campaign only one optically thick vortex (τ=1.5±0.5×10-3) was observed compared to 149 pressure events > 0.5Pa observed in REMS pressure data. Correcting for temporal coverage by REMS and geographic coverage by Navcam still suggests 104 vortices should have been viewable, suggesting that most vortices are dustless. Additionally, the most intense pressure excursions observed on other landing sites (pressure drop >2.5Pa) are lacking from the observations by the REMS instrument. Taken together, these observations are consistent with pre-landing circulation modeling of the crater showing a suppressed, shallow boundary layer. They are further consistent with geological observations of dust that suggests the northern portion of the crater is a sink for dust in the current era.

  • 132.
    Moores, John E.
    et al.
    York University, Toronto.
    Lemmon, Mark T.
    Texas A&M University, College Station.
    Rafkin, Scot C R
    Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas.
    Francis, Raymond
    University of Western Ontario.
    Pla-Garcia, Jorge
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Juárez, Manuel De La Torre
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Bean, Keri
    Texas A&M University.
    Kass, David
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Haberle, Robert
    Ames Research Centre.
    Newman, Claire .E.
    Ashima Research, Pasadena.
    Mischna, Michael A.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Vasavada, Ashwin R.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Rennó, Nilton
    University of Michigan.
    Bell, Jim
    Arizona State University.
    III, Fred .J. Calef
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Cantor, Bruce
    Malin Space Science Systems.
    McConnochie, Timothy H.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park.
    Harri, Ari-Matti
    Finnish Meteorological Institute.
    Genzer, Maria
    Finnish Meteorological Institute.
    Wong, Michael
    University of Michigan.
    Smith, Michael D.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Zorzano, María-Paz
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid , Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial, Madrid.
    Kemppainen, Osku
    Finnish Meteorological Institute.
    McCullough, Emily
    University of Western Ontario.
    Atmospheric movies acquired at the Mars Science Laboratory landing site: Cloud Morphology, Frequency and Significance to the Gale Crater Water Cycle and Phoenix Mission Results2015Inngår i: Advances in Space Research, ISSN 0273-1177, E-ISSN 1879-1948, Vol. 55, nr 9, s. 2217-2238Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the first 360 sols (LS 150° to 5°), representing just over half a Martian year, of atmospheric monitoring movies acquired using the NavCam imager from the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover Curiosity. Such movies reveal faint clouds that are difficult to discern in single images. The data set acquired was divided into two different classifications depending upon the orientation and intent of the observation. Up to sol 360, 73 Zenith Movies and 79 Supra-Horizon Movies have been acquired and time-variable features could be discerned in 25 of each. The data set from MSL is compared to similar observations made by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) onboard the Phoenix Lander and suggests a much drier environment at Gale Crater (4.6°S) during this season than was observed in Green Valley (68.2°N) as would be expected based on latitude and the global water cycle. The optical depth of the variable component of clouds seen in images with features are up to 0.047 ± 0.009 with a granularity to the features observed which averages 3.8 degrees. MCS also observes clouds during the same period of comparable optical depth at 30 and 50 km that would suggest a cloud spacing of 2.0 to 3.3 km. Multiple motions visible in atmospheric movies support the presence of two distinct layers of clouds. At Gale Crater, these clouds are likely caused by atmospheric waves given the regular spacing of features observed in many Zenith movies and decreased spacing towards the horizon in sunset movies consistent with clouds forming at a constant elevation. Reanalysis of Phoenix data in the light of the NavCam equatorial dataset suggests that clouds may have been more frequent in the earlier portion of the Phoenix mission than was previously thought.

  • 133.
    Mouelic, Stephane Le
    et al.
    Laboratoire Planétologie et Géodynamique, LPGNantes, CNRS UMR 6112, Université de Nantes.
    Gasnault, Olivier
    Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse.
    Herkenhoff, Ken
    U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff.
    Langevin, Yves
    IAS, Orsay.
    Maurice, Sylvestre
    Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse.
    Bridges, Nathan
    Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel.
    Pinet, Patrick
    Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse.
    Mangold, Nicolas
    Laboratoire Planétologie et Géodynamique, LPGNantes, CNRS UMR 6112, Université de Nantes.
    Johnson, Jeffrey
    Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel.
    Wiens, Roger
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Bell, Jim
    School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University.
    Dromart, Gilles
    Université de Lyon.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    ChemCam Remote Microscopic Imager (RMI) Onboard Curiosity: Results of the First Three Months on Mars2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 134.
    Moyano-Cambero, Carles E.
    et al.
    Institute of Space Sciences (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans.
    Trigo-Rodríguez, Josep M.
    Institute of Space Sciences (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans.
    Benito, M. Isabel
    Departamento de Estratigrafía-IGEO, Facultad de Ciencias Geológicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid-CSIC.
    Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto
    Fac. de Ciencias Ambientales y Bioquímica, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha.
    Lee, Martin R.
    School of Geographical and Earth Sciences, University of Glasgow.
    Mestres, Narcís
    Institut de Cìencia de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC) .
    Martínez-Jiménez, Marina
    Institute of Space Sciences (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Fraxedas, Jordi
    Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2), CSIC and the Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Campus UAB.
    Petrographic and geochemical evidence for multiphase formation of carbonates in the Martian orthopyroxenite Allan Hills 840012017Inngår i: Meteoritics and Planetary Science, ISSN 1086-9379, E-ISSN 1945-5100, Vol. 52, nr 6, s. 1030-1047Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Martian meteorites can provide valuable information about past environmental conditions on Mars. Allan Hills 84001 formed more than 4 Gyr ago, and owing to its age and long exposure to the Martian environment, and this meteorite has features that may record early processes. These features include a highly fractured texture, gases trapped during one or more impact events or during formation of the rock, and spherical Fe-Mg-Ca carbonates. In this study, we have concentrated on providing new insights into the context of these carbonates using a range of techniques to explore whether they record multiple precipitation and shock events. The petrographic features and compositional properties of these carbonates indicate that at least two pulses of Mg- and Fe-rich solutions saturated the rock. Those two generations of carbonates can be distinguished by a very sharp change in compositions, from being rich in Mg and poor in Fe and Mn, to being poor in Mg and rich in Fe and Mn. Between these two generations of carbonate is evidence for fracturing and local corrosion

  • 135.
    Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael
    et al.
    Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    Sutter, Brad
    Jacobs-ESCG, Houston, Texas.
    Archer, Doug
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Ming, Doug
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Eigenbrode, Jennifer
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Franz, Heather
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Glavin, Daniel
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    McAdam, Amy
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Stern, Jennifer
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    McKay, Christopher
    NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field.
    Coll, Patrice
    Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, Université Paris-Est Créteil, Université Paris Diderot and CNRS, Créteil.
    Cabane, Michel
    LATMOS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Versailles Saint-Quentin & CNRS, Paris.
    Conrad, Pamela
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Mahaffy, Paul
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Zorzano-Mier, Maria
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Grotzinger, John
    California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Possible detection of perchlorates by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument: Comparison with previous missions2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 136.
    Navarro‐González, Rafael
    et al.
    Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico.
    Navarro, Karina F.
    Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico.
    Coll, Patrice
    Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, CNRS UMR 7583, Université Paris‐Est Créteil, Université Paris Diderot, Créteil, France.
    McKay, Christopher P.
    NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA.
    Stern, Jennifer C.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Sutter, Brad
    Jacobs, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA.
    Archer Jr, P. Douglas
    Jacobs, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA.
    Buch, Arnaud
    Ecole Centrale Paris, Châtenay‐Malabry, France.
    Cabane, Michel
    Laboratoire Atmosphère, Milieux, Observations Spatiales, UMR CNRS 8190, Université Versailles Saint‐Quentin en Yvelines, UPMC Université Paris 06, Guyancourt, France.
    Conrad, Pamela G
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Franz, Heather B.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Freissinet, Caroline
    Laboratoire Atmosphère, Milieux, Observations Spatiales, UMR CNRS 8190, Université Versailles Saint‐Quentin en Yvelines, UPMC Université Paris 06, Guyancourt, France.
    Glavin, Daniel P.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Hogancamp, Joanna V.
    Jacobs, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA.
    McAdam, Amy C.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Malespin, Charles A.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Granada, Spain.
    Ming, Douglas W.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA.
    Morris, Richard V.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA.
    Prats, Benny
    NASA/eINFORMe, Inc., Goddard Space Flight Center, Planetary Environments Laboratory, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Raulin, François
    Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, CNRS UMR 7583, Université Paris‐Est Créteil, Université Paris Diderot, Créteil, France.
    Rodríguez‐Manfredi, José Antonio
    Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Madrid, Spain.
    Szopa, Cyril
    Laboratoire Atmosphère, Milieux, Observations Spatiales, UMR CNRS 8190, Université Versailles Saint‐Quentin en Yvelines, UPMC Université Paris 06, Guyancourt, France.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Madrid, Spain.
    Mahaffy, Paul R.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Atreya, Sushil
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Trainer, Melissa G.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Vasavada, Ashwin R.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    Abiotic Input of Fixed Nitrogen by Bolide Impacts to Gale Crater During the Hesperian: Insights From the Mars Science Laboratory2019Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 124, nr 1, s. 94-113Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular hydrogen (H2) from volcanic emissions is suggested to warm the Martian surface when carbon dioxide (CO2) levels dropped from the Noachian (4100 to 3700 Myr) to the Hesperian (3700 to 3000 Myr). Its presence is expected to shift the conversion of molecular nitrogen (N2) into different forms of fixed nitrogen (N). Here we present experimental data and theoretical calculations that investigate the efficiency of nitrogen fixation by bolide impacts in CO2‐N2 atmospheres with or without H2. Surprisingly, nitric oxide (NO) was produced more efficiently in 20% H2 in spite of being a reducing agent and not likely to increase the rate of nitrogen oxidation. Nevertheless, its presence led to a faster cooling of the shock wave raising the freeze‐out temperature of NO resulting in an enhanced yield. We estimate that the nitrogen fixation rate by bolide impacts varied from 7 × 10−4 to 2 × 10−3 g N·Myr−1·cm−2 and could imply fluvial concentration to explain the nitrogen (1.4 ± 0.7 g N·Myr−1·cm−2) detected as nitrite (NO2−) and nitrate (NO3−) by Curiosity at Yellowknife Bay. One possible explanation is that the nitrogen detected in the lacustrine sediments at Gale was deposited entirely on the crater's surface and was subsequently dissolved and transported by superficial and ground waters to the lake during favorable wet climatic conditions. The nitrogen content sharply decreases in younger sediments of the Murray formation suggesting a decline of H2 in the atmosphere and the rise of oxidizing conditions causing a shortage in the supply to putative microbial life.

  • 137.
    Newsom, H.E.
    et al.
    Institute of Meteoritics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.
    Gordon, S.
    Institute of Meteoritics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.
    Jackson, R.
    Institute of Meteoritics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.
    Wiens, R.C.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Lanza, N.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Cousin, A.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Clegg, S.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Sautter, V.
    MNHN, CNRS.
    Bridges, J.
    University of Leicester.
    Mangold, N.
    Laboratorie de Planetologie et Geodynamique de Nantes.
    Gasnault, O.
    IRAP/CNRS.
    Maurice, S.
    IRAP/CNRS.
    D'Uston, C.
    IRAP/CNRS.
    Berger, G.
    IRAP/CNRS.
    Forni, O.
    IRAP/CNRS.
    Lasue, J.
    IRAP/CNRS.
    Meslin, P.-Y.
    Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier, Toulouse.
    Clark, B.
    Planetary Science Institute, Tucson.
    Anderson, R.
    U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff.
    Gellert, R.
    University of Guelph.
    Schmidt, M.
    Brock University.
    Berger, J.
    Brock University.
    McLennan, S.
    Stony Brook University, NY.
    Boynton, W.
    University of Arizona.
    Fisk, M.
    University of Oregon.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Instituto Andaluz de Cienccias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Grenada.
    Karunatillake, S.
    Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA.
    Regional context of soil and rock chemistry at Gale and Gusev Craters, Mars2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 138.
    Newsom, Horton E.
    et al.
    Institute of Meteoritics, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
    Mangold, Nicolas
    LPGN, CNRS, UMR 6112, Université Nantes.
    Kah, Linda C.
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
    Williams, Joshua M.
    Institute of Meteoritics, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
    Arvidson, Ray E.
    Washington University, St. Louis.
    Stein, Nathan
    Washington University, St. Louis.
    Ollila, Ann M.
    Institute of Meteoritics, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
    Bridges, John C.
    Space Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester.
    Schwenzer, Susanne P.
    Department of Physical Science, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes.
    King, Penelope L.
    Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra.
    Grant, John A.
    Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington.
    Pinet, Patrick
    Université Paul Sabatier, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie (IRAP), Toulouse.
    Bridges, Nathan T.
    Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Maryland.
    III, Fred Calef
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Wiens, Roger C.
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    Spray, John G.
    Planetary and Space Science Centre, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton.
    Vaniman, David T.
    Planetary Science Institute, Tucson.
    Elston, Wolf E.
    Institute of Meteoritics, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
    Berger, Jeff A.
    University of Western Ontario, London.
    Garvin, James B.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.
    Palucis, Marisa C.
    Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Gale crater and impact processes: Curiosity's first 364 Sols on Mars2015Inngår i: Icarus (New York, N.Y. 1962), ISSN 0019-1035, E-ISSN 1090-2643, Vol. 249, s. 108-128Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Impact processes at all scales have been involved in the formation and subsequent evolution of Gale crater. Small impact craters in the vicinity of the Curiosity MSL landing site and rover traverse during the 364 Sols after landing have been studied both from orbit and the surface. Evidence for the effect of impacts on basement outcrops may include loose blocks of sandstone and conglomerate, and disrupted (fractured) sedimentary layers, which are not obviously displaced by erosion. Impact ejecta blankets are likely to be present, but in the absence of distinct glass or impact melt phases are difficult to distinguish from sedimentary/volcaniclastic breccia and conglomerate deposits. The occurrence of individual blocks with diverse petrological characteristics, including igneous textures, have been identified across the surface of Bradbury Rise, and some of these blocks may represent distal ejecta from larger craters in the vicinity of Gale. Distal ejecta may also occur in the form of impact spherules identified in the sediments and drift material. Possible examples of impactites in the form of shatter cones, shocked rocks, and ropy textured fragments of materials that may have been molten have been observed, but cannot be uniquely confirmed. Modification by aeolian processes of craters smaller than 40 m in diameter observed in this study, are indicated by erosion of crater rims, and infill of craters with aeolian and airfall dust deposits. Estimates for resurfacing suggest that craters less than 15 m in diameter may represent steady state between production and destruction. The smallest candidate impact crater observed is ∼0.6 m in diameter. The observed crater record and other data are consistent with a resurfacing rate of the order of 10 mm/Myr; considerably greater than the rate from impact cratering alone, but remarkably lower than terrestrial erosion rates.

  • 139.
    Niles, P.B.
    et al.
    Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Archer, P.D.
    Jacobs Technology, NASA Johnson Space Center.
    Heil, E.
    HX5-Jacobs JETS Contract, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Eigenbrode, J.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    McAdam, A.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Sutter, B.
    Jacobs Technology, NASA Johnson Space Center.
    Franz, H.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Navarro-Gonzalez, R.
    Instituto Andaluz de Cienccias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Grenada.
    Ming, D.
    Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Mahaffy, P.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Instituto Andaluz de Cienccias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Grenada.
    Zorzano, M.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Investigating CO2 reservoirs at Gale Crater and evidence for a dense early atmosphere2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 140. Noelle, A
    et al.
    Hartmann, G.K
    Fahr, A
    Larry, D
    Lee, Y.P
    Locht, R
    Limao-Vieira, P
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Orlando, J.J
    Salama, F
    Vandaele, A.C
    Wayne, R.P
    Wu, C.Y.R
    UV/Vis+ Spectra Data base2015Dataset (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 141.
    Ortiz, J.L.
    et al.
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    Aceituno, F.J.
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    Quesada, J.A.
    Huétor Santillán Observatory, Granada.
    Aceituno, J.
    Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán de Calar Alto, Almería.
    Fernández, M.
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    Santos-Sanz, P.
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    Trigo-Rodríguez, J.M.
    Institut de Ciències de l'Espai (CSIC) Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Bellaterra, Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Bellaterra.
    Llorca, J.
    Institut de Tècniques Energètiques, Univ. Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Bellaterra.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Analytical Services and Materials Inc., Hampton.
    Montañés-Rodríguez, P.
    Big Bear Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark.
    Pallé, E.
    Big Bear Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark.
    Detection of sporadic impact flashes on the Moon: Implications for the luminous efficiency of hypervelocity impacts and derived terrestrial impact rates2006Inngår i: Icarus (New York, N.Y. 1962), ISSN 0019-1035, E-ISSN 1090-2643, Vol. 184, nr 2, s. 319-326Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the first redundant detection of sporadic impact flashes on the Moon from a systematic survey performed between 2001 and 2004. Our wide-field lunar monitoring allows us to estimate the impact rate of large meteoroids on the Moon as a function of the luminous energy received on Earth. It also shows that some historical well-documented mysterious lunar events fit in a clear impact context. Using these data and traditional values of the luminous efficiency for this kind of event we obtain that the impact rate on Earth of large meteoroids (0.1–10 m) would be at least one order of magnitude larger than currently thought. This discrepancy indicates that the luminous efficiency of the hypervelocity impacts is higher than 10−2, much larger than the common belief, or the latest impact fluxes are somewhat too low, or, most likely, a combination of both. Our nominal analysis implies that on Earth, collisions of bodies with masses larger than 1 kg can be as frequent as 80,000 per year and blasts larger than 15-kton could be as frequent as one per year, but this is highly dependent on the exact choice of the luminous efficiency value. As a direct application of our results, we expect that the impact flash of the SMART-1 spacecraft should be detectable from Earth with medium-sized telescopes.

  • 142.
    Orton, Glenn S.
    et al.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Fletcher, Leigh N.
    Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford.
    Moses, Julianne I.
    Space Science Institute.
    Mainzer, Amy K.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Hines, Dean
    Space Telescope Science Institute, Boulder.
    Hammel, Heidi B.
    Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Washington DC.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Instituto Andaluz de Cienccias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Grenada.
    Burgdorf, Martin
    HE Space Operations.
    Merlet, Cecile
    Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford.
    Line, Michael R.
    Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California - Santa Cruz.
    Mid-infrared spectroscopy of Uranus from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrometer: 1. Determination of the mean temperature structure of the upper troposphere and stratosphere2014Inngår i: Icarus (New York, N.Y. 1962), ISSN 0019-1035, E-ISSN 1090-2643, Vol. 243, s. 494-513Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    On 2007 December 16-17, spectra were acquired of the disk of Uranus by the Spitzer Infrared Spectrometer (IRS), ten days after the planet's equinox, when its equator was close to the sub-Earth point. This spectrum provides the highest-resolution broad-band spectrum ever obtained for Uranus from space, allowing a determination of the disk-averaged temperature and molecule composition to a greater degree of accuracy than ever before. The temperature profiles derived from the Voyager radio occultation experiment by Lindal et al. (Lindal, G.F., Lyons, J.R., Sweetnam, D.N., Eshleman, V.R., Hinson, D.P. [1987]. J. Geophys. Res. 92, 14987-15001) and revisions suggested by Sromovsky et al. (Sromovsky, L.A., Fry, P.A., Kim, J.H. [2011]. Icarus 215, 292-312) that match these data best are those that assume a high abundance of methane in the deep atmosphere. However, none of these model profiles provides a satisfactory fit over the full spectral range sampled. This result could be the result of spatial differences between global and low-latitudinal regions, changes in time, missing continuum opacity sources such as stratospheric hazes or unknown tropospheric constituents, or undiagnosed systematic problems with either the Voyager radio-occultation or the Spitzer IRS data sets. The spectrum is compatible with the stratospheric temperatures derived from the Voyager ultraviolet occultations measurements by Herbert et al. (Herbert, F. et al. [1987]. J. Geophys. Res. 92, 15093-15109), but it is incompatible with the hot stratospheric temperatures derived from the same data by Stevens et al. (Stevens, M.H., Strobel, D.F., Herbert, F.H. [1993]. Icarus 101, 45-63). Thermospheric temperatures determined from the analysis of the observed H2 quadrupole emission features are colder than those derived by Herbert et al. at pressures less than ~1μbar. Extrapolation of the nominal model spectrum to far-infrared through millimeter wavelengths shows that the spectrum arising solely from H2 collision-induced absorption is too warm to reproduce observations between wavelengths of 0.8 and 3.3mm. Adding an additional absorber such as H2S provides a reasonable match to the spectrum, although a unique identification of the responsible absorber is not yet possible with available data. An immediate practical use for the spectrum resulting from this model is to establish a high-precision continuum flux model for use as an absolute radiometric standard for future astronomical observations.

  • 143.
    Orton, Glenn S.
    et al.
    MS 183-501, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.
    Moses, Julianne I.
    Space Science Institute.
    Fletcher, Leigh N.
    Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford.
    Mainzer, Amy K.
    MS 321-535, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.
    Hines, Dean
    Space Telescope Science Institute, Boulder.
    Hammel, Heidi B.
    Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Washington DC.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Instituto Andaluz de Cienccias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Grenada.
    Burgdorf, Martin
    HE Space Operations.
    Merlet, Cecile
    Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford.
    Line, Michael R.
    Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California - Santa Cruz.
    Mid-infrared spectroscopy of Uranus from the Spitzer infrared spectrometer: 2. Determination of the mean composition of the upper troposphere and stratosphere2014Inngår i: Icarus (New York, N.Y. 1962), ISSN 0019-1035, E-ISSN 1090-2643, Vol. 243, s. 471-493Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mid-infrared spectral observations Uranus acquired with the Infrared Spectrometer (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope are used to determine the abundances of C2H2, C2H6, CH3C2H, C4H2, CO2, and tentatively CH3 on Uranus at the time of the 2007 equinox. For vertically uniform eddy diffusion coefficients in the range 2200-2600cm2s-1, photochemical models that reproduce the observed methane emission also predict C2H6 profiles that compare well with emission in the 11.6-12.5μm wavelength region, where the υ9 band of C2H6 is prominent. Our nominal model with a uniform eddy diffusion coefficient Kzz=2430cm2s-1 and a CH4 tropopause mole fraction of 1.6×10-5 provides a good fit to other hydrocarbon emission features, such as those of C2H2 and C4H2, but the model profile for CH3C2H must be scaled by a factor of 0.43, suggesting that improvements are needed in the chemical reaction mechanism for C3Hx species. The nominal model is consistent with a CH3D/CH4 ratio of 3.0±0.2×10-4. From the best-fit scaling of these photochemical-model profiles, we derive column abundances above the 10-mbar level of 4.5+01.1/-0.8×1019molecule-cm-2 for CH4, 6.2±1.0×1016molecule-cm-2 for C2H2 (with a value 24% higher from a different longitudinal sampling), 3.1±0.3×1016molecule-cm-2 for C2H6, 8.6±2.6×1013molecule-cm-2 for CH3C2H, 1.8±0.3×1013molecule-cm-2 for C4H2, and 1.7±0.4×1013molecule-cm-2 for CO2 on Uranus. A model with Kzz increasing with altitude fits the observed spectrum and requires CH4 and C2H6 column abundances that are 54% and 45% higher than their respective values in the nominal model, but the other hydrocarbons and CO2 are within 14% of their values in the nominal model. Systematic uncertainties arising from errors in the temperature profile are estimated very conservatively by assuming an unrealistic "alternative" temperature profile that is nonetheless consistent with the observations; for this profile the column abundance of CH4 is over four times higher than in the nominal model, but the column abundances of the hydrocarbons and CO2 differ from their value in the nominal model by less than 22%. The CH3D/CH4 ratio is the same in both the nominal model with its uniform Kzz as in the vertically variable Kzz model, and it is 10% lower with the "alternative" temperature profile than the nominal model. There is no compelling evidence for temporal variations in global-average hydrocarbon abundances over the decade between Infrared Space Observatory and Spitzer observations, but we cannot preclude a possible large increase in the C2H2 abundance since the Voyager era. Our results have implications with respect to the influx rate of exogenic oxygen species and the production rate of stratospheric hazes on Uranus, as well as the C4H2 vapor pressure over C4H2 ice at low temperatures.

  • 144.
    Pandey, Siddharth
    et al.
    Mars Society Australia, Clifton Hill, VIC, Australia. Amity Centre of Excellence in Astrobiology, Amity University Mumbai, Mumbai, India. Blue Marble Space Institute of Science, Seattle, WA, United States.
    Clarke, Jonathan
    Mars Society Australia, Clifton Hill, VIC, Australia. Australian Centre of Astrobiology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Nema, Preeti
    Blue Marble Space Institute of Science, Seattle, WA, United States.
    Bonaccorsi, Rosalba
    Space Sciences Division, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, United States. SETI Institute, Carl Sagan Center, Mountain View, CA, United States.
    Som, Sanjoy
    Blue Marble Space Institute of Science, Seattle, WA, United States.
    Sharma, Mukund
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India.
    Phartiyal, Binita
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India.
    Rajamani, Sudha
    Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune, India.
    Mogul, Rakesh
    Blue Marble Space Institute of Science, Seattle, WA, United States. California Polytechnic University, Pomona, CA, United States.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Armilla, Granada, Spain.
    Vaishampayan, Parag
    Blue Marble Space Institute of Science, Seattle, WA, United States.
    Blank, Jennifer
    Blue Marble Space Institute of Science, Seattle, WA, United States. Space Sciences Division, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, United States.
    Steller, Luke
    Australian Centre of Astrobiology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Srivastava, Anushree
    Mars Society, Lakewood, CO, United States.
    Singh, Randheer
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India.
    McGuirk, Savannah
    Mars Society Australia, Clifton Hill, VIC, Australia. Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University, Australian Capital Territory, Australia.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain.
    Güttler, Johannes Milan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Cal, Maria Teresa Mendaza de
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Soria-Salinas, Álvaro
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Ahmad, Shamim
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India.
    Ansari, Arif
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India.
    Singh, Veeru Kant
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India.
    Mungi, Chaitanya
    Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune, India.
    Bapat, Niraja
    Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune, India.
    Ladakh: diverse, high-altitude extreme environments for off-earth analogue and astrobiology research2020Inngår i: International Journal of Astrobiology, ISSN 1473-5504, E-ISSN 1475-3006, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 78-98Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper highlights unique sites in Ladakh, India, investigated during our 2016 multidisciplinary pathfinding expedition to the region. We summarize our scientific findings and the site's potential to support science exploration, testing of new technologies and science protocols within the framework of astrobiology research. Ladakh has several accessible, diverse, pristine and extreme environments at very high altitudes (3000–5700 m above sea level). These sites include glacial passes, sand dunes, hot springs and saline lake shorelines with periglacial features. We report geological observations and environmental characteristics (of astrobiological significance) along with the development of regolith-landform maps for cold high passes. The effects of the diurnal water cycle on salt deliquescence were studied using the ExoMars Mission instrument mockup: HabitAbility: Brines, Irradiance and Temperature (HABIT). It recorded the existence of an interaction between the diurnal water cycle in the atmosphere and salts in the soil (which can serve as habitable liquid water reservoirs). Life detection assays were also tested to establish the best protocols for biomass measurements in brines, periglacial ice-mud and permafrost melt water environments in the Tso-Kar region. This campaign helped confirm the relevance of clays and brines as interest targets of research on Mars for biomarker preservation and life detection.

  • 145.
    Pla-García, J.
    et al.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Rafkin, S.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Instituto Andaluz de Cienccias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Grenada.
    Valentin-Serrano, P.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Zorzano, M.-P.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Gomez-Elvira, J.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Preliminary Interpretation of the Meteorological Environment Through Mars Science Laboratory Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Observations and Mesoscale Modeling2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 146.
    Pla-García, J.
    et al.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Rafkin, S.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Instituto Andaluz de Cienccias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Grenada.
    Zorzano, M.-P.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Elvira-Gómez, J.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Preliminary Interpretation of the Meteorological Environment Through Mars Science Laboratory Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Observations and Mesoscale Modeling2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the Mars Regional AtmosphericModeling System (MRAMS) has been applied to theGale Crater region, the landing site of the Mars ScienceLaboratory (MSL) Rover Curiosity. The landingsite is at one of the lowest elevations in Gale,between the crater rim and the ~4 km high centralmound known as Mt. Sharp. As Curiosity headstoward its long term target of Mt. Sharp, the meteorologicalconditions are expected to change due to theincreasing influence of topographically-inducedthermal circulations that have been predicted by numerousprevious studies [1, 2, 3, 4]. The types ofperturbations of pressure, air and ground temperatureand wind measured by the Rover EnvironmentalMonitoring Station (REMS) [5] have never beenobserved at other locations and these data provide agreat opportunity to test the models at the most meteorologicalinteresting area measured to date. Weprovide a comparison of MRAMS predictions (pressure,air temperature, winds and ground temperature)to the REMS data available at the location of theRover for sols 21-25 (when first regular REMSmeasurements were obtained, Ls=163), sols 51-55(Ls=180), sol 215 (Ls=270) and sols 348-352 (Ls=0),in order to provide a baseline of model performance.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 147.
    Pla-García, Jorge
    et al.
    Southwest Research Institute, Department of Space Studies, Boulder.
    Rafkin, Scot
    Southwest Research Institute, Department of Space Studies, Boulder.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Elvira-Gómez, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Lepinette, Alain
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Kahanpää, Henrik
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Rodríguez-Manfredi, Jose
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Navarro, Sara
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Sebastián, Eduardo
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Prediction of Meteorological Conditions for the Mars Science Laboratory Rover Curiosity and comparisons with the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) measurements2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 148.
    Rafkin, Scot C.R.
    et al.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Zeitlin, Cary
    Southwest Research Institute, Durham, New Hampshire.
    Ehresmann, Bent
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Hassler, Don
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Guo, Jingnan
    Department of Extraterrestrial Physics, Christian-Albrecths University, Kiel.
    Köhler, Jan
    Department of Extraterrestrial Physics, Christian-Albrecths University, Kiel.
    Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert
    Department of Extraterrestrial Physics, Christian-Albrecths University, Kiel.
    Gomez-Elvira, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid.
    Harri, Ari-Matti
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Kahanpää, Henrik
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki.
    Brinza, David E.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Weigle, Gerald
    Big Head Endian, Burden, Kansas, USA.
    Böttcher, Stephan
    Department of Extraterrestrial Physics, Christian-Albrecths University, Kiel.
    Böhm, Eckart
    Department of Extraterrestrial Physics, Christian-Albrecths University, Kiel.
    Burmeister, Söenke
    Department of Extraterrestrial Physics, Christian-Albrecths University, Kiel.
    Martin, Cesar
    Department of Extraterrestrial Physics, Christian-Albrecths University, Kiel.
    Reitz, Guenther
    German Aerospace Center (DLR), Cologne.
    Cucinotta, Francis A.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Kim, Myung-Hee
    Universities Space Research Association, Houston, Texas.
    Grinspoon, David
    Library of Congress, Washington, District of Columbia.
    Bullock, Mark A.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder.
    Posner, Arik
    NASA Headquarters, Washington.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid.
    Diurnal variations of energetic particle radiation at the surface of Mars as observed by the Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector2014Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 119, nr 6, s. 1345-1358, artikkel-id 14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Radiation Assessment Detector onboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity is detecting the energetic particle radiation at the surface of Mars. Data collected over the first 350 Martian days of the nominal surface mission show a pronounced diurnal cycle in both the total dose rate and the neutral particle count rate. The diurnal variations detected by the Radiation Assessment Detector were neither anticipated nor previously considered in the literature. These cyclic variations in dose rate and count rate are shown to be the result of changes in atmospheric column mass driven by the atmospheric thermal tide that is characterized through pressure measurements obtained by the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station, also onboard the rover. In addition to bulk changes in the radiation environment, changes in atmospheric shielding forced by the thermal tide are shown to disproportionately affect heavy ions compared to H and He nuclei.

  • 149.
    Rampe, E.B.
    et al.
    Aerodyne Industries – Jacobs JETS Contract, NASA-JSC, Houston.
    Morris, R.V.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Bish, D.L.
    Indiana University.
    Chipera, S.J.
    CHK Energy.
    Ming, D.W.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston.
    Blake, D.F.
    NASA Ames.
    Vaniman, D.T.
    Planetary Science Institute, Tucson.
    Bristow, T.F.
    NASA Ames.
    Cavanagh, P.
    Indiana University.
    Farmer, J.D.
    Arizona State University.
    Morrison, S.M.
    University of Arizona.
    Siebach, K.
    Caltech, Pasadena.
    Treiman, A.H.
    Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston.
    Achilles, C.N.
    Indiana University.
    Blaney, D.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Crisp, J.A.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Marais, D.J. Des
    NASA Ames.
    Downs, R.T.
    University of Arizona.
    Fendrich, K.
    University of Arizona.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Instituto Andaluz de Cienccias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Grenada.
    Morookian, J.M.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Zorzano, M.-P.
    Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, Madrid.
    Sarrazin, P.
    SETI Institute, Mountain View.
    Spanovich, N.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Yen, A.S.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.
    Potential cement phases in sedimentary rocks drilled by Curiosity at Gale Crater, Mars2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 150.
    Remsberg, E.E.
    et al.
    Science Directorate, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton.
    Marshall, B.T.
    G & A Technical Software, Inc., Hampton.
    Garcia-Comas, M.
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    Kreuger, D.
    Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.
    Lingenfelser, G.S.
    Science Systems and Applications Inc., Hampton.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Science Systems and Applications Inc., Hampton.
    Mlynczak, M.G.
    Science Directorate, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton.
    III, J.M. Russell
    Center for Atmospheric Sciences, Hampton University.
    Smith, A.K.
    National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado.
    Zhao, Y.
    Center for Atmospheric and Space Sciences, Utah State University, Logan.
    Brown, C.
    G & A Technical Software, Inc., Hampton.
    Gordley, L.L.
    G & A Technical Software, Inc., Hampton.
    Lopez-Gonzalez, M.J.
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    López-Puertas, M.
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    She, C.-Y.
    Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.
    Taylor, M.J.
    Center for Atmospheric and Space Sciences, Utah State University, Logan.
    Thompson, R.E.
    G & A Technical Software, Inc., Hampton.
    Assessment of the quality of the Version 1.07 temperature-versus-pressure profiles of the middle atmosphere from TIMED/SABER2008Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, ISSN 2169-897X, E-ISSN 2169-8996, Vol. 113, nr D17, artikkel-id D17101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality of the retrieved temperature-versus-pressure (or T(p)) profiles is described for the middle atmosphere for the publicly available Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) Version 1.07 (V1.07) data set. The primary sources of systematic error for the SABER results below about 70 km are (1) errors in the measured radiances, (2) biases in the forward model, and (3) uncertainties in the corrections for ozone and in the determination of the reference pressure for the retrieved profiles. Comparisons with other correlative data sets indicate that SABER T(p) is too high by 1–3 K in the lower stratosphere but then too low by 1 K near the stratopause and by 2 K in the middle mesosphere. There is little difference between the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) algorithm results below about 70 km from V1.07 and V1.06, but there are substantial improvements/differences for the non-LTE results of V1.07 for the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere (UMLT) region. In particular, the V1.07 algorithm uses monthly, diurnally averaged CO2 profiles versus latitude from the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model. This change has improved the consistency of the character of the tides in its kinetic temperature (Tk). The Tk profiles agree with UMLT values obtained from ground-based measurements of column-averaged OH and O2 emissions and of the Na lidar returns, at least within their mutual uncertainties. SABER Tk values obtained near the mesopause with its daytime algorithm also agree well with the falling sphere climatology at high northern latitudes in summer. It is concluded that the SABER data set can be the basis for improved, diurnal-to-interannual-scale temperatures for the middle atmosphere and especially for its UMLT region.

1234 101 - 150 of 197
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf