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  • 101. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Anaerobic treatment of hexavalent chromium- and chlorate-bearing industrial filter sludge1996Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 102. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Anaerobic treatment of hexavalent chromium- and chlorate-bearing leachate1996Ingår i: 12th International conference on solid waste technology and management, 1996Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 103. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Anaerobic treatment of putrescible refuse (ATPR): a review1997Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 104. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Analysis of anaerobically treated MSW by sequential leaching1993Ingår i: Sardinia '93: barrier systems, environmental aspects, upgrading and remediating, siting, monofills, effects of waste pretreatment, landfilling in developing countries ; 11 - 15 October 1993, S. Margherita di Pula (Cagliari), Sardinia, Italy ; proceedings / [ed] Thomas H. Christensen, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 1993, s. 1779-1785Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 105. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Karbonatstabilisering av flygaska: lovande metod som måste utvecklas vidare2002Ingår i: RVF-nytt, ISSN 0284-1827, nr 2, s. 12-13Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 106. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Koldioxid stabiliserar aska i försök2000Ingår i: RVF-nytt, ISSN 0284-1827, nr 5, s. 23-24Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    I förbränningsanläggningarnas flygaska koncentreras föroreningar från det avfall som förbränts. För att förhindra att dessa föroreningar sprids i samband med deponering kan askan stabiliseras. I Luleå utvecklas en ny metod för stabilisering av flygaska där koldioxid används i en process, så kallad karbonatisering, för att förhindra utlakning av bland annat miljöstörande metaller. Metoden utnyttjar den höga pH-halten i askan. Det är en betydligt enklare och billigare metod än de som tidigare prövats.

  • 107. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Landfill systems for waste conversion1997Ingår i: Sardinia 97: proceedings ; [13 - 17 October 1997, S. Margherita di Pula - Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy] / [ed] Thomas H. Christensen, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 1997, s. 281-292Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 108. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Swedish city uses anaerobic technology1999Ingår i: Biocycle, ISSN 0276-5055, Vol. 40, nr 6, s. 55-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Discusses the two-step anaerobic degradation (TSAAD) system of the Boras plant in Sweden. Reasons for the decision of the municipality of Boras to choose the source separation refuse system; Anaerobic digestion technology used by the Boras plant; How the TSAAD works; Results of the evaluation of the operation.

  • 109. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lundeberg, S.
    Assarsson, A.
    Full-scale anaerobic digestion and composting of source-separated organic municipal solid waste in a novel process1997Ingår i: ORBIT 97: Organic recovery & biological treatment / [ed] E.I. Stentiford, NCDA , 1997Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 110. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Matsuto, T.
    Sakanakura, H.
    Tanaka, N.
    Pretreatment and sanitary landfilling of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Japan1999Ingår i: Copenhagen Waste and Water '99 including EcoProcura Copenhagen '99: conference proceedings, 1999Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 111. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Maurice, Christian
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Anaerobic digestion plants for the treatment of organic MSW1996Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 112. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Menad, Nourreddine
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Carbonation of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash and the impact on metal mobility2003Ingår i: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 129, nr 5, s. 435-440Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is considered as hazardous waste that calls for a robust, reliable, and reasonable treatment technique. This investigation aims to assess the impact of CO2 partial pressure, water addition, time, and temperature on the stabilization of MSWI fly ash with particular emphasis on Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr. Carbonation and element mobility were studied by applying thermal analysis and leaching assays on fly ash samples treated according to a 24 factorial design. The relationship between the factors and the response variables was evaluated using partial least squares modeling. Chemical equilibrium calculations were performed so as to complement the experimental findings. Decalcification of carbonated fly ash in a typical Swedish landfill was estimated at 0.13 mm.yr(-1) Treatment through carbonation reduced the availability of Pb and Zn about 100 times and also the carbonate alkalinity of 7.4 eq. (kg.FS)(-1) (FS represents the fixed solids) was remedied successfully. However, shortcomings that need to be resolved are the remobilization of Cr with time and the mobilization of Cd.

  • 113. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Menad, Nourreddine
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Treatment-oriented characterization of dry scrubber residue from municipal solid waste incineration2002Ingår i: Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, ISSN 1438-4957, E-ISSN 1611-8227, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 117-126Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dry scrubber residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) was characterized to identify critical inorganic pollutants and to suggest a conceptual treatment method. The key methods used were thermal analysis, including thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), pHstat titration, qualitative X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), chemical equilibrium calculations, and statistics such as error propagation, principal component analysis (PCA), and empirical modeling based on factorial designs. Based on EU directives, the major inorganic pollutants Cd, Cr, Pb, and Zn were found. In addition, the pH was too high. With dry scrubber residue stabilization in mind, the impact of carbonation and hydration was assessed and judged to be encouraging. In particular, chemical equilibrium calculations showed that carbonation has considerable potential to lower the pH and the availability of Pb, Zn, and Cr. The impact of carbonation on the mobility of Cd was found to be small. During carbonation, a metal-trapping calcium aluminosilicate hydrate (C–A–S–H) phase is also formed. Both processes together have the potential to lead to a robust, reliable, and reasonable stabilization method for dry scrubber residue. However, to control these processes, the decisive factors need to be identified and their effects need to be quantified. Ca, Cl, Na, and K might be abundant components which would be mobile even after stabilization.

  • 114. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Sakanakura, H.
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Matsuto, T.
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Tanaka, N.
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    State-of-the-art treatment processes for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues in Japan1989Ingår i: Svenskt symposium om upplagsforskning 1998: Third Swedish landfill research symposia 1998, 1989, s. 23-24Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 115. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Sakanakura, H.
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Matsuto, T.
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Tanaka, N.
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    State-of-the-art treatment processes for municipal solid waste incineration residues in Japan2000Ingår i: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 41-51Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) can be categorized as air pollution control residues (AR) and bottom ash (BA). Both categories pose a particular environmental threat on account of the risk of the release of dioxins and metals. In Japan, handling of MSWI residues is of major concern and the treatment of AR prior to landfilling is stipulated. Accepted treatment: techniques are melting, cementitious S/S (stabilization and solidification), stabilization with a chemical agent and acid extraction. These methods are reviewed and evaluated in this paper with respect to: quality; quantity and utilization of end products; treatment costs; energy demand and process reliability. Thermal processes are superior regarding dioxin removal as well as material recovery and reuse, but treatment costs can be as high as 60 000 Y t(-1), i.e. one order of magnitude higher than for other processes. Cementitious SIS and chemical stabilization are characterized by the ease of operation, but the solid waste mass is increased by up to 40 and 10 wt.-%, respectively. Acid extraction is a proven and reliable technique and is inexpensive: nevertheless, it has the smallest share of the market.

  • 116. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Sakanakura, H.
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Matsuto, T.
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Tanaka, N.
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    The effect of electric arc vitrification on the chemical stability ot bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI)1998Ingår i: Svenskt symposium om upplagsforskning 1998: Third Swedish landfill research symposia 1998, 1998, s. 135-136Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 117. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Sakanakura, Hirofumi
    Matsuto, Toshihiko
    Tanaka, Nobutoshi
    State-of-the-art treatment processes for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues in Japan1999Ingår i: Svenskt symposium om upplagsforskning 1998: Third Swedish landfill research symposia 1998, 1999, s. 23-24Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 118. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Sakanakura, Hirofumi
    Matsuto, Toshihiko
    Tanaka, Nobutoshi
    The effect of electric arc vitrification on the chemical stability of bottom ash from municipal waste incineration (MSWI)1999Ingår i: Svenskt symposium om upplagsforskning 1998: Third Swedish landfill research symposia 1998, 1999, s. 135-136Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 119.
    Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Svensson, Malin
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Mobility of organic carbon from incineration residues2008Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 28, nr 8, s. 1301-1309Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may affect the transport of pollutants from incineration residues when landfilled or used in geotechnical construction. The leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and air pollution control residue (APC) from the incineration of waste wood was investigated. Factors affecting the mobility of DOC were studied in a reduced 26-1 experimental design. Controlled factors were treatment with ultrasonic radiation, full carbonation (addition of CO2 until the pH was stable for 2.5 h), liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, pH, leaching temperature and time. Full carbonation, pH and the L/S ratio were the main factors controlling the mobility of DOC in the bottom ash. Approximately 60 weight-% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the bottom ash was available for leaching in aqueous solutions. The L/S ratio and pH mainly controlled the mobilization of DOC from the APC residue. About 93 weight-% of TOC in the APC residue was, however, not mobilized at all, which might be due to a high content of elemental carbon. Using the European standard EN 13 137 for determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in MSWI residues is inappropriate. The results might be biased due to elemental carbon. It is recommended to develop a TOC method distinguishing between organic and elemental carbon.

  • 120. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Svensson, Malin
    Todorovic, Jelena
    Herrmann, Inga
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Artificial carbonation for controlling the mobility of critical elements in incineration residues2005Ingår i: Waste Management in the Focus of Controversial Interests: 1st BOKU Waste Conference 2005 / [ed] Peter Lechner, Facultas Universitätsverlag , 2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 121.
    Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Åberg, Annika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Quantification of the effects of environmental leaching factors on emissions from bottom ash in road construction2006Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 362, nr 1-3, s. 42-49Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The re-use of bottom ash in road construction necessitates a tool to predict the impact of trace metals on the surroundings over the lifetime of the road. The aim of this work was to quantify the effect of environmental factors that are supposed to influence leaching, so as to suggest guidelines in developing a leaching procedure for the testing of incineration residues re-used in road constructions. The effects of pH, L / S (liquid-to-solid ratio), leaching time, and leaching atmosphere on the leachate concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were studied using a two-level full factorial design. The most significant factor for all responses was the pH, followed by L / S, though the importance of pH and L / S is often ignored in leaching tests. Multiple linear regression models describing the variation in leaching data had R2 values ranging from 61-97%. A two-step pH-stat leaching procedure that considers pH as well as L / S and leaching time was suggested.

  • 122.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Karlsson, Annelie
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Hjertberg, T.
    Department of Water and Environmental Studies, Linköping University.
    Svensson, B. H.
    Department of Water and Environmental Studies, Linköping University.
    Effects of co-disposal of wastes containing organic pollutants with municipal solid waste: a landfill simulation reactor study2003Ingår i: Advances in Environmental Research, ISSN 1093-0191, E-ISSN 1093-7927, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. 949-960Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Different phases of the life cycle of a landfill receiving municipal solid waste (MSW) were monitored in landfill simulation reactors (LSRs) with the aim of investigating the effects of co-disposal of wastes containing organic pollutants (OPs) with MSW. Two LSRs out of four filled with well-characterised MSW received waste materials containing OPs. These included two types of plasticised PVC flooring materials, freon-blown insulation and phosphorus- and nitrogen-based flame-protected materials. Each of the two LSRs was operated under acid fermentative and neutral methanogenic conditions, respectively as were their corresponding controls, i.e. without extra OP. The methanogenic consortia degrading MSW were hampered by the addition of wastes containing OPs, probably due to the presence of Freon R11 and its degradation product, R21. The concentrations of R11 and R21 ranged between 0.1 and 1800 mg m super(-3) depending on the biogas production rate in the OP-amended LSRs. Losses of butylbenzyl- (26%) and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (15%) from one of two flooring materials was observed, whereas the other remained unaffected. Methanogenic conditions favoured the loss of plasticisers as compared to acidogenic conditions. Total phosphorus was significantly higher in the OP-spiked LSRs, which indicated a transformation of the non-halogenated flame-retardants.

  • 123.
    Eriksson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Tiberg, Nils
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Delin, Staffan
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Fysisk redovisning för Norrbottens län och två perspektiv på bärkraftig utveckling1996Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 124. Evertsson, U.
    et al.
    Höbeda, P.
    Tiberg, Nils
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Utnyttjning av slagg från avfallsförbränning: och miljömässiga undersökningar och praktiska erfarenheter1986Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 125. Fischer, Christine
    et al.
    Maurice, Christian
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Gas emission from landfills: an overview of issues and research needs : survey1999Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 126. Gabrielson, Göran
    et al.
    Grennberg, Kerstin
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Källsortering och lokal kompostering på Landbovägen, S:a Sunderbyn1990Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 127.
    Grennberg, Kerstin
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Resursbevarande byggteknik1996Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 128.
    Grennberg, Kerstin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Nilsson, Ragnar
    Småskalig kompostering: en förstudie1990Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 129.
    Grennberg, Kerstin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Sandström, Peter
    Tillväxt för björkplantor odlade i torv med restprodukter som gödselmedel1990Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 130. Gustavsson, Björn
    Estimating and reducing errors in soil sampling2004Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Contaminated sites are sampled and analysed to assess their remediation need. In the process the question arises if the results of the analysis represents the site they are taken from properly. Sampling and preparation is known to induce errors. Results from the analysis of soil samples may be expected to include errors. For a heterogeneous material like soil, much of the overall errors may be associated with the sampling and sample handling. To improve the reliability of the results, the sampling and preparation procedure need to be evaluated and improved. This thesis focus on how to estimate and reduce sampling errors. According to the Theory of Sampling (TOS), also known as Pierre Gy's Sampling Theory, the total sampling error is a sum of seven different errors. The theory describes how to calculate the uncertainty of some errors. It also describes how to reduce the errors. A case study were used for calculating the sampling error and make comparisons with the analytical error. Ways to reduce sampling errors are presented and discussed as application of TOS on the sampling of contaminated soil. The errors can be reduced by means like: Grinding or milling the samples Increase the sample size Taking several small increments to compose a sample Avoiding bias during sub-sampling through selection of equipment

  • 131.
    Gustavsson, Björn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Heterogeneities in samples of contaminated soil2007Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Many factors are important during sampling of contaminated soil. One of these is the sample sizes used. By estimation of the Heterogeneity Invariant (HI) it is possible to balance the sample size to one uncertainty contribution that is attached to sampling and sample handling. This is called the Fundamental error. Large overestimation of HI leads to larger samples and increased cost for sample handling. Large underestimation of HI leads to too small samples and to a larger uncertainty contribution, and possible skewed samples. Some methods to estimate HI is described and discussed from the perspective of contaminated soil sampling. Contaminated soil is a widely used concept, it is quite different challenges to sample if the contaminant is e.g. metallic particles, in-evaporated solutions or oils. None of the discussed methods is without any limitation. Field portable X-ray spectroscopy fluorescence is (XRF) is a popular instrument to analyse for metals in contaminated soils. It can provide quick and cheap analysis. The most prepared samples are dried, ground finely and put into Mylar thin film XRF sample cups. The sample volume is about 5-7 cm3, but the actually measured volume is only a fraction thereof. In the, likely, case of segregation in the sample volume this can lead to a biased measurement. Mechanisms for segregation in the XRF sample cup are discussed. Further suggestions are made to reduce the segregation. Despite precautions to reduce the effect of segregation it is difficult to eliminate it.

  • 132. Gustavsson, Björn
    et al.
    Luthbom, Karin
    Ramböll Sverige AB, Luleå.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Comparison of analytical error and sampling error for contaminated soil2006Ingår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 138, nr 2, s. 252-260Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigation of soil from contaminated sites requires several sample handling steps that, most likely, will induce uncertainties in the sample. The theory of sampling describes seven sampling errors that can be calculated, estimated or discussed in order to get an idea of the size of the sampling uncertainties. With the aim of comparing the size of the analytical error to the total sampling error, these seven errors were applied, estimated and discussed, to a case study of a contaminated site. The manageable errors were summarized, showing a range of three orders of magnitudes between the examples. The comparisons show that the quotient between the total sampling error and the analytical error is larger than 20 in most calculation examples. Exceptions were samples taken in hot spots, where some components of the total sampling error get small and the analytical error gets large in comparison. Low concentration of contaminant, small extracted sample size and large particles in the sample contribute to the extent of uncertainty.

  • 133. Gustavsson, Björn
    et al.
    Luthbom, Karin
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Uncertainty in soil sampling: a case study2005Ingår i: Second World Conference on Sampling and Blending: 10-12 May 2005, Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia. / [ed] Ralph J Holmes, Carlton, Vic: The Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy , 2005, artikel-id 504021Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, the number of potentially contaminated sites in Sweden is approximately 40 000. The funding for remediation from the Swedish Government alone amounts to $A 60 - 80 M (300 - 400 MSEK) annually for the period 2003 - 2006.Uncertainties will arise when obtaining samples in field, preparing them in laboratories and analysing them. Different procedures give rise to varying errors. Using data for decision-making that does not truly represent the site could be fatal. Misclassification of soil could lead to unnecessary costs or to risks to human health and the environment.The total uncertainty of an environmental sample can be split into analytical uncertainty and sampling uncertainty. The analytical uncertainty is usually known and reported from routine analysis. The size of the sampling uncertainty is less well known. Hence, the question is how big are the sampling uncertainties for contaminated soil and how big is the analytical error compared to the total sampling error?A scrap yard and two landfills within a workshop area were investigated. An excavator dug trial pits and samples were taken with a trowel from the walls of the trial pits. Samples were put into plastic bags and taken off site for preparation and analysis using XRF. Sample preparation included drying and sieving. The samples were homogenised by kneading the sample bags prior to analysis.The sampling and sample handling were performed in an intuitively way without knowledge of sampling theory. However, Pierre Gy's sampling theory was used for subsequent evaluation of the data from the site investigation. The theory defines seven sampling errors, which can be applied to sampling of soil. Some errors have a variance that can be calculated or at least estimated, while other errors can give some idea whether the bias is positive or negative. The total sampling error varied over three orders of magnitudes from sample to sample. The single largest contributor to the large variation in error was the contaminant level. When comparing the analytical error and the total sampling error the ratio varies more than three orders of magnitude.

  • 134.
    Hage, Olle
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Viktbaserad renhållningstaxa som styrmedel2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 135.
    Hagelberg, M.
    et al.
    Vattenfall Engergisystem AB.
    Chen, H.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Pousette, Kerstin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Tvåstegs anaerob nedbrytning av mekaniskt avskild råkompost vid Björnhyttans avfallsanläggning i Ludvika kommun: utvärdering och provdrift1995Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 136.
    Harder, Robin C.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Kalmykova, Yuliya
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Morrison, Gregory M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Feng, Fen
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Mangold, Mikael
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Quantification of goods purchases and waste generation at the level of individual households2014Ingår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 18, nr 2, s. 227-241Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantifying differences in resource use and waste generation between individual households and exploring the reasons for the variations observed implies the need for disaggregated data on household activities and related physical flows. The collection of disaggregated data for water use, gas use, electricity use, and mobility has been reported in the literature and is normally achieved through sensors and computational algorithms. This study focuses on collecting disaggregated data for goods consumption and related waste generation at the level of individual households. To this end, two data collection approaches were devised and evaluated: (1) triangulating shopping receipt analysis and waste component analysis and (2) tracking goods consumption and waste generation using a smartphone. A case study on two households demonstrated that it is possible to collect quantitative data on goods consumption and related waste generation on a per unit basis for individual households. The study suggested that the type of data collected can be relevant in a number of different research contexts: eco-feedback; user-centered research; living-lab research; and life cycle impacts of household consumption. The approaches presented in this study are most applicable in the context of user-centered or living-lab research. For the other contexts, alternative data sources (e.g., retailers and producers) may be better suited to data collection on larger samples, though at a lesser level of detail, compared with the two data collection approaches devised and evaluated in this study

  • 137.
    Herrmann, Inga
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Use of sedondary construction material in landfill cover liners2006Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The applicability of fly ash - sewage sludge and steel slag mixtures in landfill cover liners was investigated putting special emphasis on the hydraulic conductivity (HC) of the materials. The objective was to identify the factors significantly affecting the HC of the materials and to quantify their effects using multiple linear regression (MLR). It was discussed what impact low-HC liners might have on the landfill system and the environment. Although mainly affected by the COMPACTION ENERGY used, the HC of the fly ash - sewage sludge samples were also affected by DRYING and the factor interactions MATERIAL×ASH RATIO and ASH RATIO×COMPACTION ENERGY. The models derived using multiple linear regression could be used to predict an HC between 1.7×10-11 m s-1 and 9.5×10-10 m s-1, if a compaction energy of 2.4 J cm-3 was applied and no drying occurred. TIME between the addition of water and compaction mainly affected the HC of the steel slag samples. The HC of the steel slag mixtures was between 10-8 and 10-12 m s-1 if they were compacted immediately after water addition. The HC showed a decreasing trend during the measurement period of 53±1 days. It was suspected that cement reactions in the material influenced HC. Low-HC liners are a potential environmental hazard. Monitoring of landfill emissions is prescribed for about 30 years though contaminated landfill leachate is generated for at least one human generation. As the failing of the liner can go along with a sudden increase of leachate release from the landfill and thus with severe environmental pollution, the concept of applying low-HC liners needs to be reconsidered.

  • 138. Herrmann, Inga
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Lidström-Larsson, Margareta
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Reuse of steel industry slag in a landfill top cover2006Ingår i: Abstract proceedings of the 4th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium, [June 14th to 16th 2006, Gällivare, Sweden] / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2006, s. 88-89Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 139. Herrmann, Inga
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lidström-Larsson, Margareta
    Gustafsson, G.
    Reuse of steel industry slags in landfill top cover constructions2005Ingår i: Securing the future: international conference on mining and the environment, metals and energy recovery : proceedings, Stockholm: SweMin , 2005, s. 409-416Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 140. Herrmann, Inga
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lidström-Larsson, Margareta
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Physical properties of steel slag to be reused in a landfill cover2005Ingår i: SARDINIA 2005: Tenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; S. Margerita di Pula, Sardinia, Italy, 3 - 7 October 2005 / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 141.
    Herrmann, Inga
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Diener, Silvia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lind, Lotta
    Steel slag used in landfill cover liners: laboratory and field tests2010Ingår i: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 28, nr 12, s. 1114-1121Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Stricter rules for landfilling within the EU have led to the closure of many landfills and a need for large amounts of cover liner materials. Therefore, the potential utilization of mixtures of electric arc furnace slag (EAFS) and ladle slag (LS), which are currently deposited in landfills, as a material for use as landfill liner was investigated. Laboratory analyses showed the mixtures to have similar compression strength to that of high-strength concrete and low hydraulic conductivity (<10-11 m s-1 in some cases). However, both their hydraulic conductivity and compaction properties were strongly affected by the time between adding water to the mixtures and compacting them (tests showed that a delay of 24 h can lead to an increase in hydraulic conductivity, so it should be compacted as soon as possible after mixing the material with water). In addition, the performance of a cover liner constructed using EAFS and LS was studied in a 2-year field trial on a landfill for municipal solid waste, in which the average amount of leachate collected from ten lysimeters was only 27 L m-2 year-1, easily meeting Swedish criteria for the permeability of covers on non-hazardous waste landfills (≤50 L m-2 year-1). Thus, the material seems to have promising potential for use in barrier constructions.

  • 142.
    Herrmann, Inga
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Larsson, Charlotta
    Wilen, Britt-
    Slambildning och mikrobiell sammansättning av biofilm i infiltrationsanläggningar2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 143.
    Herrmann, Inga
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Svensson, Malin
    Ecke, Holger
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Hydraulic conductivity of fly ash: sewage sludge mixes for use in landfill cover liners2009Ingår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 43, nr 14, s. 3541-3547Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Secondary materials could help meeting the increasing demand of landfill cover liner materials. In this study, the effect of compaction energy, water content, ash ratio, freezing, drying and biological activity on the hydraulic conductivity of two fly ash - sewage sludge mixes was investigated using a 27-1 fractional factorial design. The aim was to identify the factors that influence hydraulic conductivity, to quantify their effects and to assess how a sufficiently low hydraulic conductivity can be achieved. The factors compaction energy and drying, as well as the factor interactions material×ash ratio and ash ratio×compaction energy affected hydraulic conductivity significantly (α = 0.05). Freezing on 5 freeze-thaw cycles did not affect hydraulic conductivity. Water content affected hydraulic conductivity only initially. The hydraulic conductivity data were modelled using multiple linear regression. The derived models were reliable as indicated by R2adjusted values between 0.75 and 0.86. Independent on the ash ratio and the material, hydraulic conductivity was predicted to be between 1.7 × 10-11 m s-1 and 8.9 × 10-10 m s-1 if the compaction energy was 2.4 J cm-3, the ash ratio between 20 and 75 % and drying did not occur. Thus, the investigated materials met the limit value for non-hazardous waste landfills of 10-9 m s-1.

  • 144.
    Herrmann, Inga
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Vidal, Brenda
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Slutrapport av projekten "Fosforfällor för små avlopp - hur länge fungerar de?" och "Bakterieutsläpp från små avlopp"2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Små enskilda avloppsanläggningar i Sverige består ofta av en slamavskiljare med markbädd eller infiltration. I områden med hög skyddsnivå har på senare år ett stort antal fosforfilter installerats. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka markbäddars och fosforfilters förmåga att reducera halten bakterier och fosfor i avloppsvattnet. Avloppsanläggningar i Västerbotten, Norrbotten och Norrtälje kommun identifierades och inspekterades. Prover togs mellan september 2015 och september 2016 från tolv avloppsanläggningar, åtta markbäddar och nio fosforfilter. Provtagning skedde minst tre gånger vid varje anläggning, och varje provtagningstillfälle varade cirka 3–4 timmar då det togs två stickprover från slamavskiljarens tredje kammare alternativt från fördelningsbrunnen, samt två flödesproportionella samlingsprover efter den biologiska reningen (det vill säga efter markbädden eller biosteget i minireningsverket) och efter fosforfiltret. I proverna mättes pH, mängden suspenderat material, temperatur, indikatorbakterier (E. coli, totala koliforma, intestinala enterokocker och Clostridium perfringens/C. perfringens), halten löst och total fosfor, halten löst och totalt organiskt kol (DOC, TOC) samt BOD. Spårämnesförsök genomfördes i tre fosforfilter med färgen rhodamin.

     

    22 av de 34 inspekterade avloppsanläggningarna (65 procent) lämpade sig inte för flödesproportionell provtagning, vilket visar på svårigheten med att kontrollera funktionen av små avloppsanläggningar med hjälp av provtagning. Nio av 21 inspekterade fosforfilter lämpade sig inte för provtagning på grund av att det inte fanns något vattenflöde genom filtret, vilket indikerar att filtren inte fungerade som avsett.

     

    I utloppen från tre av de åtta undersökta markbäddarna var medelkoncentrationen intestinala enterokocker högre än badvattendirektivets gränsvärde för inlandsvatten med utmärkt vattenkvalitet. För E. coli-koncentrationer var detta fallet bara i en enda markbädd, men detta trots att det utgående vattnet var klart och hade TOC koncentrationer på en acceptabel nivå. Det här visar att bakteriekoncentrationer kan vara höga även om markbädden ser ut att fungera.

     

    Efter de nio undersökta fosforfiltren var bakteriekoncentrationen särskilt hög efter fosforfilter utan markbädd som förbehandlingssteg. I flera fall översteg koncentrationerna gränsvärdet för utmärkt badvattenkvalitet enligt badvattendirektivet; i tre fosforfilter med avseende på E. coli och i fyra fosforfilter med avseende på intestinala enterokocker. Medelkoncentrationen av E. coli-bakterier reducerades signifikant (p = 0,044) i fosforfiltren, vilket tyder på att fosforfilter kan tjäna som ett reningssteg som ytterligare reducerar bakterier. Detta kunde dock inte påvisas för intestinala enterokocker, totala koliforma eller C. perfringens. Koncentrationen av koliforma bakterier var beroende av fosforfiltrets hydrauliska belastning, vilket tyder på att flödesregimen och vattnets uppehållstid i filtret är viktiga parametrar som påverkar bakteriereduktionen. Både för markbäddarna och för fosforfiltren fanns ett samband mellan koncentrationen av indikatorbakterierer och utloppskoncentrationen av TOC och DOC, vilket tyder på att en högre halt av organiskt kol i utgående vatten visar på en sämre bakteriereduktion.

     

    Två av de åtta undersökta markbäddarna visade på god fosforreduktion som uppgick till 70 procent (slamavskiljare exkluderad) vilket krävs vid normal skyddsnivå enligt nuvarande regelverk. Fosforreduktionen i tre andra markbäddar var lägre (21–29 procent). Övriga tre markbäddar kunde inte betraktas vara godtagbara reningsanläggningar eftersom det troligtvis skedde en betydande inströmning av vatten in i dessa markbäddar med utspädning som följd.

     

    Den högsta koncentrationen av fosfor i utgående vatten från en markbädd var omkring 15 mg/l. Dock var utgående fosforkoncentrationer från de undersökta markbäddarna endast i fyra av åtta fall så höga (>2mg/l) att ett efterföljande fosforfilter skulle vara meningsfullt. Därför är det viktigt att markbäddar med efterföljande rening i fosforfilter byggs med tätskikt för att undvika in- och exfiltration.

     

    Fem av de nio utvärderade fosforfiltren reducerade (tillsammans med den biologiska förbehandlingen) mer än 90 procent av den inkommande fosforn från slamavskiljaren. Det betyder att de klarade reningskravet för fosfor i områden med hög skyddsnivå. Två av filtren uppvisade utgående koncentrationer av totalfosfor på 1–3 mg/l och den högsta utgående medelkoncentrationen var 4,4 mg/l. I anläggningar med biologiska behandlingsenheter som inte var markbäddar stod fosforfiltren för merparten av fosforavskiljningen.

     

    Fosforreduktionen i fosforfiltren korrelerade med pH i utgående vatten från filtren, med en beräknad korrelationskoefficient på 74 procent, vilket indikerar att pH kan användas som indikator på filtrets funktion. Dock visade resultaten också att fosforfilter med liknande pH-värde (nära 9) kan skilja sig mycket med avseende på fosforreduktion.

     

    Koncentration av organiskt kol eller fosfor i inkommande vatten till fosforfiltren kunde inte korreleras till filtrens fosforreducerade förmåga. En hög hydraulisk belastning påverkade dock fosforfiltrens funktion negativt. Liknande effekt hade filtrets ålder, om än inte lika tydligt. De preliminära resultaten från spårämnesförsöken indikerar att de fosforfilter som hade längre uppehållstid också hade högre fosforavskiljning än filter med kortare uppehållstid.

  • 145.
    Herrmann, Inga
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Vidal, Brenda
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Treatment of Phosphorus and Bacteria in Filters used for On-Site Sanitation in Cold Climate2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish rural on-site wastewater facilities need to reduce the phosphorus (P) concentrations in the wastewater to prevent eutrophication of the Baltic Sea, as well as the bacteria concentrations to comply with EU standards for bathing water quality. The aim of this study was to investigate two different on-site filter systems at full-scale, sand filters and (often subsequently used) alkaline P filters towards their performance to treat P and bacteria from domestic wastewater. Flow-proportional composite samples were taken from five sand filter beds and two P filters. Four of the five investigated sand filters considerably reduced the concentration of total P in the wastewater. However, infiltrating soil / ground water may have diluted the effluents. The investigated P filters varied in performance. While one of them treated P effectively, the other one performed poorly, probably due to old age and clogging. Low inlet P concentrations impeded the general assessment of the P filters’ efficiency. Concentrations of four indicator bacteria, intestinal enterococci, E. coli, total coliforms and C. perfringens, were considerably reduced in four of the five investigated sand filter beds. Bacteria removal in the two investigated P filters was difficult to assess because of low bacteria concentrations in the influents.

  • 146.
    Holmberg, John
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Resursbalans och miljöpåverkan i Övertorneå och Luleå1989Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 147.
    Johansson, Björn
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Selektiv rivning av ett hus på Hertsön, Luleå1999Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 148.
    Johansson, Martina
    et al.
    Norrbottens Läns Landsting.
    Asplund, Erik
    Inno group.
    Kajava, Malin
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ung framsyn: en idéskrift om attraktionskraft - utvecklingsinsatser och åtgärdsförslag2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 149.
    Kasiuliene, Alfreda
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Peat Coated with Iron Oxides: Purification of Metal(loid)-Contaminated Water and Treatment of the Spent Adsorbent2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden due to the industrial activities, such as wood impregnation, multiple point sources of arsenic (As) contamination in soil and water bodies are scattered over the country. Metals, such as chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd) or zinc (Zn) at varying concentrations are usually present as well. Since adsorption is a common method to purify contaminated water, research and development of adsorbents have been actively carried out in the last few decades. However, seldom spent sorbent is safely handled afterwards and often end up in landfill, thus creating new problems and posing new risks to humans and environment.

    The aim of this study was to develop a waste-based adsorbent for simultaneous removal of As and associated metals: Cr, Cu and Zn, and to analyse sustainable ways how to manage the spent adsorbent without creating secondary pollution.

    In the model system two well-establish adsorbents: Fe oxides (deriving from FeCl3) and peat (waste-based), were combined and the concept of simultaneous removal of cationic and anionic contaminants was tested in a batch adsorption experiment. Due to Fe coating, removal of As and Cr increased by 80% and 30%, respectively, as compared to non-coated peat. Removal of Cu and Zn was higher (up to 15%) on non-coated peat than on Fe-coated peat. Similar results were obtained in the up-scaled column adsorption experiment, where Fe salt was substituted with a waste-based Fe hydrosol. Within the same pH environment (pH=5), Fe-coated peat effectively adsorbed all four investigated contaminants (As, Cr, Cu and Zn). Non-coated peat was effective for Cr, Cu and Zn. While, Fe oxides (coated on sand) adsorbed only As.

    Three management strategies for spent adsorbents, obtained after column adsorption experiment, were investigated in this study. i) Long-term deposit in a landfill was simulated by exposing spent adsorbents to a reducing environment and evaluating metal(loid) leaching. Leaching of As increased manifold (up to 60% in a 200-day experiment) as compared to the standardized batch leaching experiment under oxidizing conditions. It was determined that about one third of As(V) was reduced to As(III), which is more mobile and toxic. ii) Valorisation of the spent adsorbent was attempted through hydrothermal carbonisation. It was expected that obtained hydrochar could be used as a beneficial soil amendment. However, treatment resulted in the process liquid and the hydrochar both having high loads of As, Cu and Zn. Additional treatment of process water and hydrochar imply higher management costs for spent adsorbents. iii) Possibility of thermal destruction was investigated by combusting spent adsorbents. After the treatment volume of the waste (ash) was by 80-85% smaller as compared to spent adsorbents. Combustion at higher temperature (1100 °C vs 850 °C) resulted into a weaker metal(loid) leaching from ashes. Furthermore, co-combustion with calcium (Ca)-rich lime (waste-based) decreased leaching of all four investigated elements, Cr in particular, below the limit values for waste being accepted at landfills for hazardous waste. Therefore, combustion enabled possibility of safe and long-term deposit of As-bearing ashes. At the same time, less As would be circulating in society. 

    For the future work, studies that could broaden the spectrum of contaminants targeted by Fe-coated peat would be beneficial. At the same time it is important not only to find alternative utilisation methods for Fe-coated peat, but also investigate other management options for the spent adsorbents.

  • 150.
    Kasiuliene, Alfreda
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Carabante, Ivan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Hydrothermal carbonisation of peat-based spent sorbents loaded with metal(loid)s2019Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 26, nr 23, s. 23730-23738Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) is a wet and relatively low-temperature process where, under autogenous pressures, biomass undergoes a chain of reactions leading to the defragmentation of organic matter. As well as its other uses (e.g. for producing low-cost carbon-based nano-compounds), HTC is utilised for the treatment of wet wastes, such as manure and biosludge. This study aimed to determine if hydrothermal carbonisation is a feasible treatment method for spent sorbents that are highly enriched with arsenic, chromium, copper, and zinc. The chemical properties of hydrochar and process liquid were evaluated after HTC treatment, where peat-based spent sorbents were carbonised at 230 °C for 3 h. Analysis of Fourier transform-infrared spectra revealed that during HTC, the oxygenated bonds of ethers, esters, and carboxylic groups were cleaved, and low-molecular-weight organic fragments were dissolved in the process liquid. A large fraction of arsenic (up to 62%), copper (up to 25%), and zinc (up to 36%) were transferred from the solids into the process water. Leaching of these elements from the hydrochars increased significantly in comparison with the spent sorbents.

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