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  • 101.
    Gulzar, Kashif
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Sierla, Seppo
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Papakonstantinou, Nikolaos
    Aalto University, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.
    Flikkema, Paul G.
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    An auction-based smart district heating grid2015Ingår i: Proceedings of 2015 IEEE 20th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2015): Luxembourg, 8-11 Sept. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, artikel-id 7301528Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A district heating grid is a hot water pipeline grid used to transmit waste heat from CHP (Combined Heat and Power) production plants to buildings, where it is used for service water and space heating. Currently, broad use of district heating is limited to Northern Europe and some regions in Central Europe, but the European Union Energy Efficiency Directive 2012/27/EU and Energy Performance of Buildings Directive 2010/31/EU drive the widespread adoption of this technology in member states. Further, these directives push the introduction of significant renewable local energy production into these grids, creating a need for a smart district heating grid that is in many ways analogous to the smart electric grid. One major difference is that in a hot water pipeline grid, there are significant delays in energy propagation, so algorithms developed for the smart electric grid are not directly applicable. In this paper, an auction based heat trade mechanism is proposed between an auctioneer agent representing the CHP plant operator and prosumer agents representing end users with local solar thermal generation capacity. A predictive simulation is used by an auctioneer to account for the said delays in energy production and to determine the market price that best satisfies the performance indicators defined by the CHP plant operator. The proposed multi-agent system is demonstrated by co-simulating it against a model of a part of a Finnish municipality's district heating grid

  • 102.
    Hanisch, Hans Michael
    et al.
    Department of Engineering Sciences, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg.
    Lobov, Andrei
    Institute of Production Engineering, Tampere University of Technology.
    Lastra, José Luis Martínez
    Institute of Production Engineering, Tampere University of Technology.
    Tuokko, Reijo O.
    Institute of Production Engineering, Tampere University of Technology.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Formal validation of intelligent-automated production systems: Towards industrial applications2006Ingår i: International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management (IJMTM), ISSN 1368-2148, E-ISSN 1741-5195, Vol. 8, nr 1-3, s. 75-106Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a framework for formal modelling and validation of automation systems destined to be used directly by control engineers. The framework is based on a modelling formalism of Net Condition/Event Systems (NCES), which is graphical, modular and typed. This allows for the modelling of realistic hierarchically organised automation systems in a closed plant-controller loop. The framework consists of methodologies and tools, which enable formal analysis of automation systems. The framework is to be used for the improvement of safety characteristics, reliability and robustness of such systems by means of prediction of potential faults and deadlocks

  • 103.
    Higgins, N.
    et al.
    Energex, Brisbane.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Nair, N.C.
    Schwarz, K.
    Distributed power system automation with IEC 61850, IEC 61499, and intelligent control2011Ingår i: IEEE transactions on systems, man and cybernetics. Part C, Applications and reviews, ISSN 1094-6977, E-ISSN 1558-2442, Vol. 41, nr 1, s. 81-92Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new approach to power system automation, based on distributed intelligence rather than traditional centralized control. The paper investigates the interplay between two international standards, IEC 61850 and IEC 61499, and proposes a way of combining of the application functions of IEC 61850-compliant devices with IEC 61499-compliant “glue logic,” using the communication services of IEC 61850-7-2. The resulting ability to customize control and automation logic will greatly enhance the flexibility and adaptability of automation systems, speeding progress toward the realization of the smart grid concept.

  • 104. Higgins, Neil
    et al.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Nair, Nirmal Kumar C
    Schwarz, Karlheinz
    Concept for intelligent distributed power system automation with IEC 61850 and IEC 614992008Ingår i: IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics: SMC 2008, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2008, s. 36-41Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents new approach to power system automation, based on distributed intelligence rather than traditional centralised control. The paper investigates the interplay between two international standards, IEC 61850 and IEC 61499, and proposes a way of combining of the application functions of IEC 61850-compliant devices with IEC 61499-compliant ldquoglue logic,rdquo using the communication services of IEC 61850-7-2. The resulting ability to customise control and automation logic will greatly enhance the flexibility and adaptability of automation systems, speeding progress toward the realisation of the smart grid concept.

  • 105.
    Hirsch, Martin R.
    et al.
    Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenherg.
    Gerber, Christian N.
    University of Auckland.
    Hanisch, Hans Michael
    Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenherg.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Design and implementation of heterogeneous distributed controllers according to the IEC 61499 standard: A case study2007Ingår i: 2006 4th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics: Singapore, 16 - 18 August 2006, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2007, s. 829-834Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses solutions on integration and reuse of heterogeneous distributed controllers. In particular it shows the way to integrate the emerging IEC 61499 standard into the established IEC 61131 automation frameworks. It is illustrated on example of a modular manufacturing cell with distributed control units, how to realize distribution of heterogeneous controllers using the IEC 61499 standard and how to integrate these controllers into the plant formerly controlled by distributed PLCs. Therefore, methodologies and patterns for the design of distributed controllers and their implementation variants are introduced. In addition, the paper describes the details of a higher level communication protocol used to implement interaction between the modules. A framework for the simulation of IEC 61499 applications is also introduced

  • 106.
    Hirsch, Martin R.
    et al.
    Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenherg.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Hanisch, Hans Michael
    Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenherg.
    IEC 61499 function blocks for distributed networked embedded applications2007Ingår i: 2006 4th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics: Singapore, 16 - 18 August 2006, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2007, s. 670-675Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a case study on the use of the IEC61499 reference component architecture in automotive electronics that is a traditional domain of embedded systems application. The proposed design approach allows for combination of distributed embedded control with off-line and on line simulation. The benefits of the approach are: the higher level of design leading to the increased level of component re-use, the flexibility and hardware independence, increased reliability on account of the use of predictive control and formal verification

  • 107.
    Huang, Wanqi
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Dai, Wenbin
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Wang, Peng
    Shenyang Institute of Automation, China Academy of Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Aalto University.
    Real-time data acquisition support for IEC 61499 based industrial cyber-physical systems2017Ingår i: Proceedings IECON 2017: 43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 6689-6694Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems enhance physical devices with control, computing and communication abilities to provide smart solutions for industrial applications. In industrial applications, data acquisition is an important topic. Based on feedback data from sensors and equipment, industrial processes could be optimized either by experienced engineers manually or smart agents automatically. The IEC 61499 standard is designed for modeling distributed automation systems that perfectly fits the scope of industrial CPS. However, real-time data acquisition is not supported by the IEC 61499 standard currently. In this paper, an extension to IEC 61499 compliance profile is proposed to support real-time data acquisition. Both client/server and peer-to-peer model are supported. The proposed extension is demonstrated using a demo car manufacturing line.

  • 108.
    Hurkala, Marcin
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Nikula, Heikki
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Sierla, Seppo
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Karhela, Tommi
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    O’Halloran, Bryan
    School of Mechanical, Industrial, & Manufacturing Engineering, Oregon State University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Evaluation of electric grid automation under flood hazards2013Ingår i: IECON 2013: 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, s. 2124-2136Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 109.
    Jarvis, Dennis
    et al.
    Cent Queensland Univ, Sch Engn & Technol, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    Jarvis, Jacqueline
    Cent Queensland Univ, Sch Engn & Technol, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    Kalachev, Andrei
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Aalto Univ, Dept Elect Engn & Automat, Espoo, Finland.
    PROSA/G: An architecture for agent-based manufacturing execution2018Ingår i: 2018 IEEE 23RD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND FACTORY AUTOMATION (ETFA), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2018, s. 155-160Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It had always been the intention of the agent-based manufacturing community that software agents would provide a vertical integration capability for manufacturing enterprises by linking the control world with the business world. In this paper, we introduce the PROSA/G conceptual model, which extends the widely used PROSA reference architecture with a goal-based execution model that employs both BDI semantics and a business process modelling metaphor. PROSA/G is is grounded in the GORITE software framework and its efficacy is demonstrated through the implementation of an agent-based execution system for a simple manufacturing system controlled by IEC 61499 function blocks.

  • 110. Jarvis, Dennis
    et al.
    Jarvis, Jaqueline
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Sinha, Roopak
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Janus: A Systems Engineering Approach to the Design of Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The benefits that arise from the adoption of a systems engineering approach to the design of engineered systems are well understood and documented. However, with software systems, different approaches are required given the changeability of requirements and the malleability of software. With the design of industrial cyber-physical systems, one is confronted with the challenge of designing engineered systems that have a significant software component. Furthermore, that software component must be able to seamlessly interact with both the enterprise’s business systems and industrial systems. In this paper, we present Janus, which together with the GORITE BDI agent framework, provides a methodology for the design of agent-based industrial cyber-physical systems. Central to the Janus approach is the development of a logical architecture as in traditional systems engineering and then the allocation of the logical requirements to a BDI (Belief Desire Intention) agent architecture which is derived from the physical architecture for the system. Janus has its origins in product manufacturing; in this paper, we apply it to the problem of Fault Location, Isolation and Service Restoration (FLISR) for power substations. 

  • 111. Kalachev, Andrei
    et al.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Intelligent mechatronic system with decentralised control and multi-agent planning2018Ingår i: IECON 2018: 44th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 112.
    Kilkki, Olli
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Giovanelli, Christian
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University School of Electrical Engineering, Espoo.
    Seilonen, Ilkka
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University School of Electrical Engineering, Espoo.
    Optimization of Decentralized Energy Storage Flexibility for Frequency Reserves2016Ingår i: Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2015: Yokohama, Japan, 9-12 Nov. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, s. 2219-2224Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a cost optimization scheme for an electricity aggregator. The aggregator schedules the charging of the energy storages of its aggregated group of consumers to minimize the hourly spot market costs, while simultaneously maximizing its potential for participation in the reserve market. The optimization is formulated as a distributed iterative algorithm and its performance on the day-ahead and regulating power markets are evaluated based on simulations using actual market data. It was shown that increasing the consumption flexibility increased the overall profits markedly, while increasing their variance, up to a point

  • 113.
    Kleyko, Denis
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Papakonstantinou, Nikolaos
    VTT Technical Research Center of Finland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Finland.
    Hyperdimensional computing in industrial systems: the use-case of distributed fault isolation in a power plant2018Ingår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 6, s. 30766-30777Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an approach for distributed fault isolation in a generic system of systems. The proposed approach is based on the principles of hyperdimensional computing. In particular, the recently proposed method called Holographic Graph Neuron is used. We present a distributed version of Holographic Graph Neuron and evaluate its performance on the problem of fault isolation in a complex power plant model. Compared to conventional machine learning methods applied in the context of the same scenario the proposed approach shows comparable performance while being distributed and requiring simple binary operations, which allow for a fast and efficient implementation in hardware.

  • 114.
    Kleyko, Denis
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Papakonstantinou, Nikolaos
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Mousavi, Arash
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Fault Detection in the Hyperspace: Towards Intelligent Automation Systems2015Ingår i: IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics: INDIN 2015, Cambridge, UK, July 22-24, 2015. Proceedings, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 1219-1224, artikel-id 7281909Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a methodology for intelligent, biologically inspired fault detection system for generic complex systems of systems. The proposed methodology utilizes the concepts of associative memory and vector symbolic architectures, commonly used for modeling cognitive abilities of human brain. Compared to classical methods of artificial intelligence used in the context of fault detection the proposed methodology shows an unprecedented performance, while featuring zero configuration and simple operations.

  • 115.
    Kleyko, Denis
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Pang, Zhibo
    ABB AB, Corporate research.
    On Methodology of Implementing Distributed Function Block Applications using TinyOS WSN nodes2014Ingår i: Proceedings of 2014 IEEE 19th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2014): Barcelona, Spain, 16-19 Sept. 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, artikel-id 7005107Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a feasibility study of implementing parts of a distributed function block application as TinyOS modules running on Wireless Sensors as a part of Wireless Sensor Network. The paper first briefly describes underlying technologies and gives motivation for implementation of function blocks in TinyOS. The paper then presents implementation details about TinyOS realization of the one of the function block, which is a part of bigger distributed control application with the help of distributed function block application.

  • 116.
    Kunz, Guilherme
    et al.
    Mechanical Engineering Department, Western Parana State University, Foz do Iguazu, Brazil.
    Machado, José
    Mechanical Engineering Department and MEtRICs Research Centre, University of Minho, Guimaraes, Portugal.
    Perondi, Eduardo
    Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    A Formal Methodology for Accomplishing IEC61850 Real-Time Communication Requirements2017Ingår i: IEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print), ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 64, nr 8, s. 6582-6590, artikel-id 7878522Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliability is extremely important for control systems of energy distribution and generation. The IEC 61850 standard specifies an open architecture and communication protocols for such applications. The standard defines an open control architecture for networked control systems composed by intelligent electronic devices, stating some requirements that must be accomplished when developing reliable controllers for such systems. In this work, we present a systematic and formal methodology to be adopted to achieve the correct implementation of the communication requirements of this standard. The methodology consists in five steps: modeling of real-time communication requirements defined by the standard; simulation of the obtained model; formal verification of the model, improved in the previous step; translation of the global model (simulated and verified) into the input language of the real controller; and, finally, application of conformance testing technique to the computational routine implemented in the real controller. Presented research deals with the proposition of a strategy to synthesize and validate models of systems developed under IEC61850 real-time requirements (GOOSE and SMV) through simple operational conditions cases that, once validated, can be used in performance and conformance testing of more complex systems. The proposed methodology allows designers to synthesize reliable systems under IEC61850 real-time communication requirements.

  • 117.
    Li, Di
    et al.
    School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology.
    Zhai, Zhenkun
    School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology.
    Pang, Zhibo
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Aalto University, Department of Electronic Engineering & Automation.
    Liu, Chengliang
    Institute of Mechatronics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University .
    Synchronous-Reactive Semantic Modeling and Verification for Function Block Networks2017Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 13, nr 6, s. 3389-3398Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Owing to the semantic ambiguities, it has hindered the promotion of IEC 61499 in the field of industrial automation. In order to solve the thorny problem, this paper proposes an implementation scheme for performing formal modelling and simulation verification of semantics of functional block networks. Based on the synchrony hypothesis, the formal execution model is defined according to the fixed point semantics assuming that the behavior of a component functional block is monotonic. Subsequently, through specifying the evaluation of function blocks as a process of solving the least fixed point problem and transforming the network topology into a directed graph, a connectivity attenuation-based algorithm is put forward to ascertain the optimal scheduling policy of function blocks with the minimum overhead. Finally, by conducting the experiment for an industrial application, the feasibility and validity of the presented implementation scheme is proved.

  • 118.
    Lin, Hengyou
    et al.
    University of Auckland, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Sierla, Seppo
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Papakonstantinou, Nikolaos
    Aalto University, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    A SysML profile supporting change orders in model driven engineering2015Ingår i: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE): 24-28 Aug. 2015, Gothenburg, Sweden, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 1054-1059, artikel-id 7294238Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One important capability for manufacturing enterprises is the ability to manage change orders, which are changes after the customer has placed the order. The change can be due to several reasons, such as misunderstanding of requirements or the inability of the supply chain to deliver parts, materials or subassemblies at an acceptable cost and lead time. The effective management of the latter kind of change requires linking design model elements to parts, which can be obtained from the supply chain or made in-house. In this paper, SysML is extended to support the said linkage, and based on these extensions a workflow is defined for handling the change. The model repository that underpins model driven engineering is exploited to partially automate the workflow and to relieve the change engineer from the need to understand the product structure or SysML

  • 119.
    Lin, Hengyou
    et al.
    University of Auckland, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Sierla, Seppo
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Papakonstantinou, Nikolaos
    Aalto University, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Change request management in model-driven engineering of industrial automation software2015Ingår i: IEEE 13th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), 2015: Cambridge, United Kingdom, 22-24 July 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 1186-1191, artikel-id 7281904Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Change request management and Model Driven Engineering (MDE) are two key concepts for industrial automation software in today's competitive and fast changing environment. However, although there exist frameworks on general change management, they do not exploit the capabilities of MDE. This paper proposes a workflow to combine these two technologies, enabling the engineer responsible for the change to quickly and efficiently create analysis on the impact of the change, as well as the feasibility of a proposed solution. This result of the analysis is presented with concrete SysML model diagrams to better support decision making for a change request. One advantage of performing change management in SysML is the possibility to automate parts of the change analysis process; one step is automated as a proof-of-concept

  • 120.
    Lin, Hengyou
    et al.
    University of Auckland.
    Sorouri, Majid
    University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Salčič, Zoran A.
    University of Auckland.
    Model-based customisation of intelligent mechatronic systems using SysML2013Ingår i: Proceedings of 2013 IEEE 18th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2013): Cagliari, Italy, 10-13 September 2013, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, artikel-id 6648138Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a model-based design approach for description of mechatronic systems using System Modeling Language (SysML) in order to facilitate modification and customization of existing intelligent mechatronic components and their use in new applications. This approach enables re-use and integration of the existing mechatronic software components to meet system design requirements and minimize the design and commissioning complexity of the control systems. A case study with a delta robot used in a colour sorting application demonstrates how its control system is tailored to meet the desired system behaviour

  • 121.
    Lindgren, Per
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Lindner, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Lindner, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Real-Time Execution of Function Blocks for Internet of Things using the RTFM-kernel2014Ingår i: Proceedings of 2014 IEEE 19th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2014): Barcelona, Spain, 16-19 Sept. 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 1-6, artikel-id 7005232Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Function Blocks provides a means to model andprogram industrial control systems. The recently acclaimed IEC61499 standard allows such system models to be partitioned andexecuted in a distributed fashion. At device level, such models aretraditionally implemented onto programmable logic controllersthat underneath have an operating system and a softwarerun-time environment which implies high resource demands.However, there is a current trend to involve small embeddedsystems (so called Internet of Things devices) integrated into suchdistributed control systems. To this end, we seek to address theoutsets for real-time execution of Function Block based designsonto light-weight controllers (MCUs) with limited resources(memory and CPU). Furthermore, we propose a mapping ofthe Function Block execution semantics onto the RTFM-kernel,and discuss opportunities for off-line (design time) analysis withrespect to response time, overall schedulability and memoryrequirements.

  • 122.
    Lindgren, Per
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Lindner, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Lindner, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    RTFM-4-FUN2014Ingår i: 2014 9th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems (SIES 2014): Pisa, 18-20 June 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Function Blocks provides a means to model andprogram industrial control systems. The recently acclaimed IEC61499 standard allows such system models to be partitioned andexecuted in a distributed fashion. At device level, such models aretraditionally implemented onto programmable logic controllersand industrial PCs. In this paper, we discuss work in progresson developing a mapping allowing to implement a subset of IEC61499 models onto light-weight embedded devices (MCUs). Wepropose and detail an event semantics, and its mapping to thenotions of tasks and resources for Stack Resource Policy basedanalysis and scheduling. Moreover, we show how the proposedmapping can be efficiently implemented under the RTFM-kernel.Finally we outline a prototype tool-chain and discuss related,ongoing and future work.

  • 123.
    Lindgren, Per
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Lindner, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Lindner, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Pereira, David J.
    ISEP, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto.
    Pinho, Luis Miguel
    ISEP, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto.
    A Real-Time Semantics for the IEC 61499 standard2015Ingår i: Proceedings of 2015 IEEE 20th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2015): Luxembourg, 8-11 Sept. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, artikel-id 7301558Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The IEC 61499 standard provides an executable model for distributed control systems in terms of interacting function blocks. However, the current IEC 61499 standard lacks appropriate timing semantics for the specification of timing requirements, reasoning on timing properties at the model level, and for the timing verification of a specific deployment. In this paper we address this fundamental shortcoming by proposing Real-Time-4-FUN, a real-time semantics for IEC 61499. The key property is the preservation of non-determinism, allowing us to reason on (and verify) timing properties at the model level without assuming any specific scheduling policy or stipulating specific order of execution for the deployment. This provides for a clear separation of concerns, where the designer can focus on properties of the application prior to, and separately from, deployment verification. The proposed timing semantics is backwards compatible to the current standard, thus allow for reuse of existing designs. The transitional property allows timing requirements to propagate to downstream sub-systems, and can be utilized for scheduling both at device and network level. Based on a translation to RTFM-tasks and resources, IEC 61499 the models can be analyzed, compiled and executed. As a proof of concept the timing semantics has been experimentally implemented in the RTFM-core language and the accompanying (thread based) RTFM-RT run-time system.

  • 124.
    Lobov, Andrei
    et al.
    Institute of Production Engineering, Tampere University of Technology.
    Lastra, José Luis Martínez
    Institute of Production Engineering, Tampere University of Technology.
    Tuokko, Reijo O.
    Institute of Production Engineering, Tampere University of Technology.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Methodology for modeling visual flowchart control programs using net condition/event systems formalism in distributed environments2003Ingår i: EFTA 2003: IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation. Proceedings, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2003, s. 329-336Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 125.
    Martinez, Gerardo Santillán
    et al.
    Aalto University, Helsinki.
    Karhela, Tommi
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Niemistö, Hannu
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.
    Rossi, Ahti
    Outotec Oy, Espoo.
    Pang, Cheng
    Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, University of Auckland, University of Auckland, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Aalto University, Helsinki.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    A hybrid approach for the initialization of tracking simulation systems2015Ingår i: Proceedings of 2015 IEEE 20th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2015): Luxembourg, 8-11 Sept. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, artikel-id 7301532Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the online and tracking simulation context, precise model initialization is highly important to ensure the quality of predictions made based on simulation. This paper presents a hybrid approach for the initialization of tracking simulation systems that combines different techniques and utilizes the persistent communication between model and process in order to initialize the simulation model. In the proposed approach, the model initialization is performed throughout different stages. A model is first fed with initial conditions that are close to the physical plant's state. Then, the model is run to the same state as the physical system using a process control system. Possible mass or energy errors in the state of the simulation model are corrected before the actual tracking process is started. This paper first introduces previously studied initialization techniques for online simulation systems. Then the proposed hybrid initialization method is elaborated. Finally, its implementation is demonstrated using a simple but representative process system.

  • 126.
    Martinez, Gerardo Santillán
    et al.
    Aalto University, Helsinki.
    Karhela, Tommi
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    An OPC UA Based Architecture for Testing Tracking Simulation Methods2015Ingår i: IEEE TrustCom-BigDataSE-ISPA 2015: Helsinki, 20-22 Aug. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 275-280, artikel-id 7345660Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A tracking simulator is a simulation system that runs in parallel with the real process. They integrate model and process using a persistent and direct communication between the physical system and the simulation. In a tracking simulator, the simulation system receives data measured from the process instrumentation in order to adjust the model parameters so that the simulated state matches the real process state. Tracking simulation systems have a number of applications and the benefits in comparison to conventional simulation systems are numerous. This paper presents an architecture for testing different methods that can be used in tracking simulation. The proposed approach employs the OPC Unified Architecture as the protocol for the communication between the simulation model and the physical system. This work first introduces the structure of the testbed. Then, in order to test the proposed system, a previously published tracking method based on the tuning of the model parameters using PI controllers is implemented and the test results are shown. Finally, the conclusions and future work are discussed

  • 127.
    Martínez, Gerardo Santillán
    et al.
    Aalto University, Helsinki.
    Miettinen, Tuomas
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Espoo.
    Aikala, Antti
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Espoo.
    Savolainen, Jouni O.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Espoo.
    Kondelin, Kalle
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Espoo.
    Karhela, Tommi
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland .
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Parameters selection in predictive online simulation2017Ingår i: IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 726-729, artikel-id 7819254Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial applications with reliable predictive features are becoming increasingly important. A tracking simulator is an example of an online simulation system with great capabilities that fills the gap left by other predictive applications. In a tracking simulator, a simulation model is run in parallel with a physical process controlled by the process' control system. At the same time, a tracking mechanism is used to keep the state of the simulation model as close as possible to the real process by continually adjusting parameters of the model. The selection of these parameters impacts directly on the quality of the tracking simulation results and it is a complex task in processes with a big number of variables. This paper presents two case studies of tracking simulation where the controlled parameters are selected using different techniques. The first case study deals with a laboratory-scale hot water generation process where the parameters' selection is performed manually. The second case study deals with a combined heat and power production process with major uncertainties in the process structure. In this case, we focus on the variance decomposition method used to determine the most suitable controlled parameters. Conclusions and future work are finally presented.

  • 128.
    Masselot, Michael
    et al.
    National Institute of Applied Sciences of Lyon.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Towards a formal model of protection functions for power distribution networks2016Ingår i: ECON Proceedings (Industrial Electronics Conference), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Computer Society, 2016, s. 5302-5309, artikel-id 7794150Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The protection system is a crucial part of the power grid. It protects people, equipment, and property. Reliability of such mission critical systems is of an extreme importance. Protection systems have strict requirements to reliability including dependability, security and timeliness. Although it undertakes rigorous testing and commissioning, it fails in some circumstances causing faults in the network, resulting in loss of power. It is hard to catch these hidden and undetectable errors in the design and installation. Since protection function is essentially a piece of code, formal methods can be used for rigorous testing of the software and provide definitive proof of the system properties. This paper proposes a formal model (to use in formal verification techniques) for protection systems. The paper develops closed loop model of the electrical network with its protection system. The model is developed in IEC 61499 language for the further generation of its formal model in SMV language. The model is validated via simulation and comparison with a comprehensive model of the electrical network in Matlab Simulink. In future work, the generated SMV model will be used to formally verify reliability requirements of the protection system.

  • 129.
    Metsälä, Samuli
    et al.
    School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Gulzar, Kashif
    School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Gröhn, Laura
    School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Väänänen, Eero
    School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Saikko, Lauri
    School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Nyholm, Magnus
    School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Simulation-Enhanced Development of Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems Using OPC-UA and IEC 614992017Ingår i: Industrial Applications of Holonic and Multi-Agent Systems: 8th International Conference, HoloMAS 2017, Lyon, France, August 28–30, 2017, Proceedings / [ed] Vladimír Mařík, Wolfgang Wahlster, Thomas Strasser, Petr Kadera, Springer, 2017, s. 125-139Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a case study on simulation enhanced development of a flexible distributed factory automation system with distributed control and wireless communication. The method aims at advanced modular factory automation systems, providing easier behavioural verification, testing, and control in presence of various reconfigurations. The paper presents a model-driven distributed control of IEC 61499 using co-simulation with the system model. It provides the test-bench for implementing and developing control and production planning strategies in order to improve system, robustness, reconfigurability and flexibility and security. One particular flexibility aspect implemented is the mechanism for online software updates enabled by the distributed control architecture. Another enabler is wireless communication. The paper discusses the comparison of wired vs. wireless distributed control of a testbed demonstrator.

  • 130.
    Minhat, Mohamad
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Xu, Xun X
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Wong, Sylvia C.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Al-Bayaa, Z.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    A novel open CNC architecture based on STEP-NC data model and IEC 61499 function blocks2009Ingår i: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 25, nr 3, s. 560-569Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern manufacturing industries demand computer numeric controllers, having higher level input languages than outdated G-code, and less proprietary vendor dependencies. IEC 61499 is a new standard for distributed measurement and control systems, that enables portability and interoperability of embedded controllers, along with the ease of their mapping to arbitrary distributed networking hardware configurations. This paper demonstrates that the IEC 61499 reference architecture can be successfully used to create a computer numeric controller, offering interoperability, portability, configurability, and distribution characteristics. The layered CNC-FB architecture is proposed, which simplifies the design of a CNC machine controller with the architecture layers responsible for data processing, data storage and execution. In combination with the object-oriented Model-View-Control design pattern, the CNC-FB architecture supports the design framework, in which simulation of the machining becomes natural and inherent part of the design process, with seamless transition from simulation to actual machining. The implemented controller was tested in both the model and on an actual milling machine

  • 131.
    Minhat, Mohamad
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Xu, Xun X.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    STEPNCMillUoA: A CNC system based on STEP-NC and Function Block architecture2009Ingår i: International Journal of Mechatronics and Manufacturing Systems, ISSN 1753-1039, Vol. 2, nr 1-2, s. 3-19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    STEPNCMillUoA is the prototype of a new CNC system that utilises the STEP-NC data model and IEC 61499. STEP-NC provides a high-level data model and enables feature-based machining whereas the enabled layered Function Block architecture simplifies the design of the CNC controller. The architecture layers are responsible for data processing, storage and execution. The object-oriented Model-View-Control design pattern supports the system architecture and the design framework, in which simulation of the machining becomes natural and inherent part of the design process, with seamless transition from simulation to actual machining. This system possesses interoperability, portability, re-configurability and distribution characteristics. The system was tested through simulation and actual machining

  • 132.
    Mironovich, Vladimir
    et al.
    Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, Saint Petersburg.
    Buzdalov, MAxim
    Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, Saint Petersburg.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, Saint Petersburg.
    Automatic generation of function block applications using evolutionary algorithms: Initial explorations2017Ingår i: Proceedings: 2017 IEEE 15th International Conference on Industrial Informatics, INDIN 2017, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 700-705, artikel-id 8104858Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     Automation of software development process has been a concern for a long time. Genetic programming is a well-known technique which uses evolutionary computation to generate or improve a computer program for a specific task without human participation. We consider the method which applies model checking and evolutionary computation towards the automatic generation of function block control applications for industrial automation systems. As a first step, we evaluate the effectiveness of a fitness function based on the number of satisfied computation tree logic formulas in UPPAAL query language for a manually created UPPAAL model. Results show that such fitness function and the (1+1) evolutionary algorithm can be successfully applied to generation of the required data connections in the IEC 61499 function block application

  • 133.
    Mironovich, Vladimir
    et al.
    ITMO Univ, Comp Technol Lab, St Petersburg, Russia Aalto Univ, Dept Elect Engn & Automat, Espoo, Finland.
    Buzdalov, Maxim
    ITMO Univ, Comp Technol Lab, St Petersburg, Russia.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Helsinki .
    Automatic Plant-Controller Input/Output Matching using Evolutionary Algorithms2018Ingår i: 2018 IEEE 23RD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND FACTORY AUTOMATION (ETFA), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2018, s. 1043-1046Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Automation of software development is an actively researched problem. Search-based software engineering aims to apply various search-based techniques to software engineering problems. Recently we proposed the method for automatic generation of function block application using evolutionary algorithms and model checking and applied it to the problem of automatic generation of data connections in distributed control system. The aim of this paper is to further study this method on the problem of matching of input and output connections in a closed-loop plant-controller system. The computed fitness function distribution shows that the evaluated method successfully determines the correct input and output connections between the controller and the plant. Additionally, we evaluate how the composition of specification requirements in the fitness function affects the performance of the (1+1) evolutionary algorithm. We show that additional liveness formulas can improve the performance of the algorithm, while the introduction of safety formulas significantly decreases it

  • 134.
    Mironovich, Vladimir
    et al.
    ITMO University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
    Buzdalov, Maxim
    ITMO University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. ITMO University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia and Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    From fitness landscape analysis to designing evolutionary algorithms: the case study in automatic generation of function block applications2018Ingår i: GECCO '18: Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference Companion, New York: ACM Digital Library, 2018, s. 1902-1905Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Search-based software engineering, a discipline that often requires finding optimal solutions, can be a viable source for problems that bridge theory and practice of evolutionary computation. In this research we consider one such problem: generation of data connections in a distributed control application designed according to the IEC 61499 industry standard.

    We perform the analysis of the fitness landscape of this problem and find why exactly the simplistic (1 + 1) evolutionary algorithm is slower than expected when finding an optimal solution to this problem. To counteract, we develop a population-based algorithm that explicitly maximises diversity among the individuals in the population. We show that this measure indeed helps to improve the running times

  • 135.
    Mousavi, Arash
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Berezovskaya, Yulia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering a nd Automation, Aalto University.
    Zhang, Xiaojing
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Energy efficient decision making in data centers with multiple cooling methods2017Ingår i: Proceedings IECON 2017: 43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 8785-8790Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooling systems consume around 40% of modern data centres' total energy consumption, thus reducing the energy waste in this sector will have positive environmental impact. There exist several cooling methods appropriate for particular conditions. Since environmental conditions, such as air temperature, change on seasonal bases, no single cooling method can be claimed to be the best. In contrast, data centres with multiple cooling methods can perform more efficiently. However, the decision-making process of which cooling system is the most appropriate one should be an automated process. In this paper, a decision-making process based on simulation is proposed. The simulation tool comprises of a mathematical model and a multi-agent control. The mathematical model simulates the thermal behaviour of SICS ICE data centre, which is a real facility located in Northern Sweden. The main aim of the simulation is to calculate thermal conditions and energy consumption of different cooling methods in cold and hot seasons. The result then will be used by multi-agent control to choose the most appropriate cooling method.

  • 136.
    Mousavi, Arash
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Berezovskaya, Yulia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Zhang, Xiaojing
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Minde, Tor Björn
    SICS Swedish ICT, Luleå, Sweden.
    Improvement of Energy Efficiency in Data Centers via Flexible Humidity Control2016Ingår i: IECON Proceedings (Industrial Electronics Conference), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Computer Society, 2016, s. 5585-5590, artikel-id 7793777Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract- The main goal of climate control systems in data centres is to keep the temperature and humidity in a suitable level for computational devices. Therefore, cooling and humidification systems are essential parts of every Building Automation System (BAS), which is utilized in server rooms. Although the current climate control systems ensure appropriate thermal conditions to computational nodes such as servers, they waste substantial amount of energy. The main cause of this inefficiency is that the current climate control systems, which are responsible for thermal management of the data centres, follow rigid control strategies that maintain constant thermal conditions irrespective of climate changes caused by various computational loads in the plant. To address this issue, in our previous works we proposed a method of optimizing energy consumption in data centre cooling systems while maintaining an acceptable level of thermal comfort for CPUs in the server room. In this paper, we present the enhancement of our previous method by incorporating humidity control into it. The enhanced method consists of a thermal model of server room, and a simulation tool to find an energy efficient control strategy for the climate control system in different situations by comparing different control strategies. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been investigated via simulation and the result, which shows 41.5% reduction in total energy consumption is presented.

  • 137.
    Mousavi, Arash
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Pang, Cheng
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Energy Efficient Automation Model for Office Buildings based on Ontology, Agents and IEC 61499 Function Blocks2014Ingår i: Proceedings of 2014 IEEE 19th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2014): Barcelona, Spain, 16-19 Sept. 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, artikel-id 7005081Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Execution of business processes is an important factor that distinguishes residential and office buildings based on their energy usage. Unlike residential buildings, in offices workflows determine how and when energy-consuming devices have to be utilized. Thus, energy efficient building automation systems for office buildings should take into account the dynamic and unpredictable nature of business processes. However, the existing systems lack this important feature. In this paper, a model for combining automation and business processes is proposed. The model is implemented using IEC 61499 Function Block architecture, multi-agent systems and ontology. The proposed method has been examined in a meeting room scheduling scenario, in which meeting scheduling and automated control of the meeting room equipment have been combined and the energy usage has been measured to evaluate the improvement in efficient use of energy using the proposed model.

  • 138.
    Mousavi, Arash
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Energy Efficient Agent Function Block: A semantic agent approach to IEC 61499 function blocks in energy efficient building automation systems2015Ingår i: Automation in Construction, ISSN 0926-5805, E-ISSN 1872-7891, Vol. 54, s. 127-142Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Automation plays a vital role in improving energy efficiency in buildings. Building Automation Systems (BASs) are drastically growing in size and complexity. The traditional centralized automation systems cannot suitably address this growth due to insufficient flexibility and scalability. IEC 61499 Function Block (FB) is a promising software paradigm for industrial automation that addresses these complexities because of its object-oriented, event-driven and distributed paradigm. However, efficient energy management in a heterogeneous system comprising of many energy consuming components, functioning in highly dynamic and partially predictable environments, requires a higher level of intelligence that FB currently does not possess. To cope with this issue, a software entity called 2eA-FB has been introduced by combining FB, intelligent software agent and semantic web technologies. Being capable of field-level control, communication and reasoning over semantically enriched domain knowledge, 2eA-FB bridges the gap between management and automation layers of BAS and controls the energy consumption for individual energy consuming components, separately and intelligently. This in turn results in more efficient overall energy consumption for the whole system

  • 139.
    Mousavi, Arash
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Berezovskaya, Yulia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Zhang, Xiaojing
    ABB AB, Corporate research.
    Cyber-physical Design of Data Centers Cooling Systems Automation2015Ingår i: IEEE TrustCom-BigDataSE-ISPA 2015: Helsinki, 20-22 Aug. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 254-260, artikel-id 7345657Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern data centers in many aspects are akin to industrial plants that generate a lot of heat by consuming substantial amount of energy and require powerful cooling and ventilation. Cooling system contributes with 30 to 50% of the total energy consumption of data centers. An effective way to address energy efficiency in such cooling systems is to apply advanced automation solutions, similar to that of industrial and building automation systems. However, existing automation solutions are not flexible enough to meet requirements of cooling systems in modern data centres. This paper is an endeavour to utilize distributed adaptive automation architecture in order to improve energy efficiency of cooling. The proposed automation algorithms are validated in a simulation environment which models the thermal behaviour of a server room and helps to find the most energy efficient control strategy for controlling thecooling devices. This paper describes the simulation tool comprising of thermal behaviour modelling in MATLAB/SIMULINK connected in closed-loop with the distributed control environment of IEC 61499 standard. Simulation of a typical server room under certain constraints using the proposed tool is described and the results are presented. The results demonstrate the potential of improving higher energy efficiency, flexibility and better decision-making ability for controlling the cooling systems.

  • 140.
    Mousavi, Arash
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Berezovskaya, Yulia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Zhang, Xiaojing
    ABB AB, Corporate research.
    Towards Energy Smart Data Centers: Simulation of Server Room Cooling System2015Ingår i: Proceedings of 2015 IEEE 20th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2015): Luxembourg, 8-11 Sept. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, artikel-id 7301573Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooling is an extremely important process in modern data centers. Cooling systems of server rooms ensure appropriate operation conditions to IT systems, such as servers and data storage, but, on the other side, they consume a lot of energy. Current control systems, which are installed in data centers and are responsible for thermal management of the facilities, are following conservative control strategies that maintain constant thermal conditions irrespective of computer load and outside temperature, thus efficient use of energy has not been appropriately addressed by them. In this paper, a method of optimizing energy consumption while maintaining an acceptable level of thermal comfort for CPUs in the server room is proposed.In the proposed method, a behavioral thermal model for serverroom should be created first, and then thermal behavior of theserver room would be simulated under different circumstancesusing its thermal model, in order to find an optimum controlstrategy capable of retaining balance between thermal comfortand efficient use of energy. The effectiveness of the proposedmethod has been investigated via simulating a typical serverroom using MATLAB and SIMULINK and the results aredemonstrated.

  • 141.
    Mousavi, Arash
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Yavarian, Alireza
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering a nd Automation, Aalto University.
    Zhang, Xiaojing
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Power quality assessment of energy efficient cooling systems in data centers2017Ingår i: Proceedings IECON 2017: 43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 7191-7196Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Power quality is an important aspect in data centers and power system operators prefer data centers with high standard power quality. Modern data centers consume large amount of electrical power. As the cooling systems are accounted for 40% of the total power consumption in data centers, energy efficiency in this sector is of high importance. This research investigates if the existing energy efficient cooling strategies can also meet the power quality level defined by the IEEE 519-2014 standard. In this research three automation strategies based on IEC 61499 standard for cooling system in a typical server room are considered and the effects of each one on power quality parameters are investigated via simulation. The investigation has been performed for both; internal power grid of data center and upstream power network that data center is connected to. Power quality parameters which are considered are Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), voltage and current distortions. Results of simulation prove that the automation strategies with highest energy efficiency, also meet the higher power quality standard.

  • 142.
    Naik, Prem K.
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Bahadornejad, Momen
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Nair, Nirmal Kumar C
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    IEC 61850 based smart distribution protection2011Ingår i: 2011 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies: IEEE PES ISGT Asia 2011 Conference : Smarter Grid for Sustainable and Affordable Energy Future : November 13th-16th Perth, Australia, Piscataway, N.J: IEEE Communications Society, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    IEC 61850, which is the leading standard for the substation automation, can be used to develop smarter schemes of automation and protection for the other areas of power systems. This paper presents an approach of using GOOSE to address the distribution protection problem in a smart grid. It is shown that how an adaptive overcurrent element setting of a healthy distribution feeder can be used to solve the sympathetic tripping problem caused by faults on the other feeders. Detection of relay operation due to a fault on the adjacent feeder is used to adjust the relay sensitivity settings during current inrush. The appropriate Logical Nodes are introduced. A logic equation to avoid sympathetic tripping along with an editable logic solution and a PLC based logic diagram are also provided.

  • 143.
    Nefedov, Evgeny
    et al.
    Aalto University, Department of Electrical Engneering & Automation, Helsinki.
    Sierla, Seppo A.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Towards electric vehicles integration to distributed energy resources of prosumer2017Ingår i: Proceedings: 2017 IEEE 15th International Conference on Industrial Informatics, INDIN 2017, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 769-772, artikel-id 8104869Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     The electric vehicles can contribute to reducing electricity costs by providing their batteries as temporary energy storages. The paper presents a new mechanism of their implementation in systems with distributed energy resources. The method is based on individual contracts that facility company makes with the drivers of electric vehicles. The company that has own energy generation from photovoltaic panels, stores and uses the electricity in the batteries of vehicles while they are in the parking lot. The contracts specify the required level of charge at the end of agreement and the financial compensation. The paper analysed proposed cooperation between facility owner and multiple electric vehicles in simulation, using real energy, weather and vehicles behaviour data. All the electric vehicles can significantly reduce the average recharging bill, as well as the facility owner gets lower electricity expenses.

  • 144.
    Nefedov, Evgeny
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Sierla, Seppo
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Internet of Energy Approach for Sustainable Use of Electric Vehicles as Energy Storage of Prosumer Buildings2018Ingår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, nr 8, artikel-id 2165Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle-to-building (V2B) technology permits bypassing the power grid in order to supply power to a building from electric vehicle (EV) batteries in the parking lot. This paper investigates the hypothesis stating that the increasing number of EVs on our roads can be also beneficial for making buildings sustainably greener on account of using V2B technology in conjunction with local photovoltaic (PV) generation. It is assumed that there is no local battery storage other than EVs and that the EV batteries are fully available for driving, so that the EVs batteries must be at the intended state of charge at the departure time announced by the EV driver. Our goal is to exploit the potential of the EV batteries capacity as much as possible in order to permit a large area of solar panels, so that even on sunny days all PV power can be used to supply the building needs or the EV charging at the parking lot. A system architecture and collaboration protocols that account for uncertainties in EV behaviour are proposed. The proposed approach is proven in simulation covering one year period for three locations in different climatic regions of the US, resulting in the electricity bill reductions of 15.8%, 9.1% and 4.9% for California, New Jersey and Alaska, respectively. These results are compared to state-of-the-art research in combining V2B with PV or wind power generation. It is concluded that the achieved electricity bill reductions are superior to the state-of-the-art, because previous work is based on problem formulations that exploit only a part of the potential EV battery capacity

  • 145.
    Nefedov, Evgeny
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Decentralised coordination of intelligent autonomous batteries2016Ingår i: Technological innovation for cyber-physical systems: 7th IFIP WG 5.5/SOCOLNET Advanced Doctoral Conference on Computing, Electrical and Industrial Systems, DoCEIS 2016, Costa de Caparica, Portugal, April 11-13, 2016, Proceedings / [ed] Luis M. Camarinha-Matos ; Antonio Falcao; Nazanin Vafaei ; Shirin Nadji, New York: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2016, s. 425-433Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes enabling intelligence for cyber-physical system of intelligent collaborating energy storages. Two intelligent batteries coordinate their behaviour in a dynamic electricity price scenario, accumulating the energy when the electricity price is low, and replacing the grid when the price is high. Both batteries directly exchange their state information with each other without any centralized processing agent, following the coordination algorithm developed in this paper. This simplifies their integration and enables achieving more optimal behaviour with regards to state of their charge. When one battery is depleted, the other one immediately compensates the losses by a higher discharge rate. Such a distributed coordination approach enables plug-and-play formation of system of batteries, demonstrates the efficiency of such formation and allows for reduction of costs due to longer discharge time of the batteries

  • 146.
    Nefedov, Evgeny
    et al.
    Aalto University, Department of Electrical Engneering & Automation, Helsinki.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Evaluating Benefits of Collaborative Intelligent Batteries in SmartGrid2016Ingår i: IECON Proceedings (Industrial Electronics Conference), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Computer Society, 2016, s. 5265-5270Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper prototypes one enabler of the Internet of Energy that is autonomous collaborative energy storage devices. The case study investigates an intelligent parking lot of electric vehicles, using them as home energy storages. The vehicles implement decentralized battery coordination, where batteries exchange their State of Charge data along with getting online information on price and electricity demand. The study proposes a decentralised cooperation mechanism for the electric vehicles, which assumes mutual access to the energy stored in every battery in order to reduce the costs for everyone. The effect of such cooperation is evaluated under assumption of random presence of vehicles at the parking lot. The results demonstrated feasible costs reduction under different parking lot occupancy scenarios for every member of such a proposed collaborative society

  • 147.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Intelligent Industrial Processes: Enabling research challenges by Dependable Communication and Computation2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 148.
    Ovsiannikova, Polina
    et al.
    Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, Saint Petersburg, Russia.
    Chivilikhin, Daniil
    Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, Saint Petersburg, Russia.
    Ulyantsev, Vladimir
    Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, Saint Petersburg, Russia.
    Stankevich, Andrey
    Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, Saint Petersburg, Russia.
    Zakirzyanov, Ilya
    Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, Saint Petersburg, Russia.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, Saint Petersburg, Russia.
    Shalyto, Anatoly
    Computer Technologies Laboratory, ITMO University, Saint Petersburg, Russia.
    Active Learning of Formal Plant Models for Cyber-Physical Systems2018Ingår i: 2018 IEEE 16th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2018, s. 719-724, artikel-id 8471924Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As the world becomes more and more automated, the degree of cyber-physical systems involvement cannot be overestimated. A large part of them are safety-critical, thus, it is especially important to ensure their correctness before start of operation or reconfiguration. For this purpose the model checking approach should be used since it allows rigorously proving system correctness by checking all possible states. To ensure the compliance of controller-plant properties with system requirements, the closed-loop verification approach should be chosen, which requires not only a formal model of the controller, but also a formal model of the plant. In this paper we propose an approach for constructing formal models of context-free deterministic plants automatically using active learning algorithms. The case study shows its successful application to plant model generation for the elevator cyber-physical system.

  • 149.
    Pakonen, Antti
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Espoo, Finland.
    Buzhinsky, Igor
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Counterexample visualization and explanation for function block diagrams2018Ingår i: 2018 IEEE 16th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2018, s. 747-753, artikel-id 8472025Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Model checking is a proven, effective method for verifying instrumentation and control system application logics. If a model of the system being verified does not satisfy a specification, the failure scenario is presented to the user as a counterexample trace. Analysis of the counterexample can be time-consuming if the trace is long, the model is large, or the specification is complex. Spurious counterexamples (“false negatives”) often exacerbate the problem. In this paper, we present a method that assists in identifying the root of the failure in both the model and the specification, by animating the model of the function block diagram as well as the LTL property. We also introduce a practical tool for visualizing LTL properties by animation and highlighting of important values based on causality. Using 43 actual design issues identified in practical nuclear industry projects, we then evaluate usefulness of the property visualization and explanation features.

  • 150.
    Pang, Cheng
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, University of Auckland, University of Auckland, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering.
    Dai, Wenbin
    Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Miao, Qingdi
    Jiangmen Goobotics Research Institute, Zhuxi Wisdom Valley, Jiangmen.
    Liang, Jinxian
    Googol Technology (Shenzhen) Ltd., Shenzhen.
    Cai, Guoqing
    Googol Technology (Shenzhen) Ltd., Shenzhen.
    Lu, Shu
    Googol Technology (Shenzhen) Ltd., Shenzhen.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Software-defined automation and control: a preliminary study2017Ingår i: Proceedings IECON 2017: 43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 5497-5502Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The pervasiveness and significance of software have upset its subordinate role in the original software-hardware relationship. Software has become a main factor for defining and differentiating various “things”. This has led to a new emerging technology trend called Software-defined Anything (SDx), where a system's functionality and diversity are largely characterized by its software. SDx technologies are now pervading and reshaping many industries. This work initiates the investigation on possible approaches for applying the SDx paradigm in automation and control systems. In particular, a framework consists of commodity control hardware, service-oriented control software, and a cloud computing platform has been proposed. An application in building automation and management system has been developed and deployed to demonstrate the proposed approach's feasibility.

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