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  • 151.
    Ramdal, Jørgen
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim.
    Jonsson, Pontus
    Dahlhaug, Ole Gunnar
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim.
    Nielsen, Torbjørn
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Uncertainties for pressure-time efficiency measurements2010In: The 8th International Conference on Hydraulic Efficiency Measurement, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In connection with the pressure-time project at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology and Luleå University of Technology, a number of tests with the pressure-time method have been performed at the Waterpower Laboratory in Trondheim, Norway. The aim is to lower the uncertainty and improve usability of the method. Also a field test at the Anundsjoe power plant in Sweden has been performed. The pressure-time measurement is affected by random uncertainty. To minimize the effect of the random behavior it is found that a correct integration end limit in the integration of the differential pressure is essential. An analysis using 100 different end points for integration show a possible random error as large as 0.6%. A filtration method for finding an appropriate end point is developed and presented. In laboratory, the random behavior of the method can be described since many tests can be performed. During field measurements, this may not be feasible. However, the random uncertainty can be included if the efficiency curve can be described by polynomial regression curves. This method is presented with the Anundsjoe Power Plant measurements.

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  • 152. Cupillard, Samuel
    et al.
    Glavatskih, Sergei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    3D thermohydrodynamic analysis of a textured slider2009In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 42, no 10, p. 1487-1495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of a 3D inlet textured slider bearing with a temperature dependent fluid is performed. Numerical simulations are carried out for a laminar and steady flow. Hot and cold lubricant mixing in the groove is modelled and examined for different operating conditions. Thermohydrodynamic performance of the bearing is analysed for different texture lengths. Results show that texture has a stronger and positive influence on load carrying capacity when thermal effects are considered. This beneficial effect is at a maximum for the longest dimples with a length shorter than the pad length. Texture is also beneficial for the load carrying capacity when the sliding speed and inlet flow rate are varied. The load carrying capacity of the slider can be increased by up to 16% in severe operating conditions (high sliding speed).

  • 153.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Counter rotating runner cone in a Kaplan elbow draft tube for increased efficiency2009In: Proceedings of the 3rd IAHR International Meeting of the WorkGroup on Cavitation and Dynamic Problems in Hydraulic Machinery and Systems / [ed] Pavel Rudolf, Brno: Brno University of Technology , 2009, p. 133-142Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 154. Mulu, Berhanu
    et al.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Experimental investigation of a Kaplan model with LDA2009In: Water engineering for sustainable environment: 33rd IAHR congress ; 9 - 14 August 2009, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada ; co-located with the 19th Canadian Hydrotechnical Conference, Madrid: IAHR , 2009, p. 155-162Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the experimental investigation of a Kaplan turbine model of the Porjus U9 unit. The study aims to investigate the complex unsteady turbulent three-dimensional flow in different regions of the machine to build a data bank in order to validate numerical simulations and study scale-up efficiency between model and prototype. A two components LDA apparatus was used to measure the velocity profiles at different locations in the turbine in coincidence mode. An encoder pulse was used to resolve the measurements angularly. The investigation was carried out at three different loads: best operating point and two off-design operating points (left and right side of the propeller curve). Vortex breakdown was present at both off-design points at the inlet of the draft tube, in the cone. The axial and tangential mean velocity profiles and corresponding RMS at the draft tube cone are presented for the different loads investigated.

  • 155.
    Mulu, Berhanu
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Experimental investigation of a Kaplan turbine model with LDA2009In: Svenska mekanikdagarna: Södertälje 2009, Stockholm: Svenska nationalkommittén för mekanik , 2009, p. 70-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 156.
    Ramdal, Jorgen
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim.
    Jonsson, Pontus
    Nielsen, Torbjorn
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Finding inertia time constants for bends related to a modified Gibson's method2009In: Proceedings of the 3rd IAHR International Meeting of the Workgroup on Cavitation and Dynamic Problems in Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, Brno, October 14-16, 2009 / [ed] Pavel Rudolf, Brno: Brno University of Technology , 2009, p. 541-550Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 157.
    Jonsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Tidsupplösta tryckmätningar på en Kaplan modellturbin2009In: Svenska mekanikdagarna: Södertälje 2009, Stockholm: Svenska nationalkommittén för mekanik , 2009, p. 69-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 158.
    Jonsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Time resolved pressure measurements on a Kaplan model2009In: Water engineering for sustainable environment: 33rd IAHR congress ; 9 - 14 August 2009, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada ; co-located with the 19th Canadian Hydrotechnical Conference, Madrid: IAHR , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 159. Cupillard, Samuel
    et al.
    Glavatskih, Sergei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    3D thermodynamic analysis of a textured slider2008In: Proceedings of NORDTRIB 2008, 13th Nordic Symposium on Tribology: Scandic Rosendahl Hotel, Tampere, Finland, June 10 - 13, 2008 / [ed] Jaakko Kleemola; Arto Lehtovaara, Tampere: Tampere University of Technology, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of a 3D inlet textured slider bearing with a temperature dependent fluid is performed. Numerical simulations are carried out for a laminar and steady flow. Hot and cold lubricant mixing in the groove is modelled and examined for different operating conditions. Thermohydrodynamic performance of the bearing is analysed for different texture lengths. Results show that texture has a stronger and positive influence on load carrying capacity when thermal effects are considered. This beneficial effect is at a maximum for the longest dimples with a length shorter than the pad length. Texture is also beneficial for the load carrying capacity when the sliding speed and inlet flow rate are varied: with an appropriate supply mass flow, load carrying capacity can be increased by 6-7% at low sliding speeds.

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  • 160. Cupillard, Samuel
    et al.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Glavatskih, Sergei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    A CFD study of a finite textured journal bearing2008In: Hydro technology and the evironment for the new century: 24th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, October 27 - 31, 2008, Foz do Iguassu, Brazil, Foz do Iguassu, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis of a lubricated journal bearing is performed with special attention to the influence of textured surfaces which may improve hydrodynamic performance. The bearing is subjected to an external applied load and the force balance is fulfilled with the force of the flow acting on the bearing. The position of the shaft is fixed whereas the bearing, centred at the starting time, moves under the forces until equilibrium is reached. A mesh deformation technique is used with CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) in order to perform the simulations. The flow is laminar, isothermal, three-dimensional (3D) and unsteady. Cavitation is taken into account. Results are analysed with smooth and textured surfaces on the bearing. Friction force and eccentricity ratio are compared for different configurations.It is found that shallow grooves under light loading (ε < 0.15) enhance the minimum film thickness while reducing the friction force. Under high loading (ε > 0.5), deep grooves are able to reduce the friction force despite a reduced minimum film thickness. For the second case, the predicted performance is superior to those of a smooth journal bearing with thinner lubricant.

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  • 161.
    Andersson, Urban
    et al.
    Vattenfall Research & Development.
    Jungstedt, J.
    Vattenfall Research & Development.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    A model experiment of dynamic loads on a draft tube pier2008In: Hydro technology and the evironment for the new century: 24th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, October 27 - 31, 2008, Foz do Iguassu, Brazil, Foz do Iguassu, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cracks on the pier of large draft tubes have occurred causing stand-still and repair of two large twin stations Porjus G11 and G12. In order to understand the mechanism behind the formation of the cracks, a research programme was initiated at Vattenfall. Measurements were performed on a prototype as well structural analysis (FEM). In order to corroborate some findings, get detailed information of the load on the pier and identify critical operating conditions, model tests were performed at the Hydraulic Machinery Laboratory of Vattenfall Research and Development, Älvkarleby, Sweden. An adjustable draft tube pier with several pressure holes was used to estimate the load acting on the pier. The tests did not indicate any operating point that would cause direct braking, but possible fatigue problems. At part load the pressure was considerably higher on one side of the pier. The pressure difference decreases with increased flow, and change high-pressure side at full load. Efficiency measurements and visualization did not show any impact of the angle bars installed in the year 2000 to strength the structure.

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  • 162.
    Jansson, Ida
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    A monitoring system to estimate the pressure field of a Kaplan runner blade prototype2008In: Hydro technology and the evironment for the new century: 24th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, October 27 - 31, 2008, Foz do Iguassu, Brazil, Foz do Iguassu, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The technical development of hydraulic machinery has gone towards lighter components and higher power concentration levels. A deregulation of the power market world-wide means that the machines experience more transient loads and are sometimes operated at off-design points. Those facts demand a more precise dynamic analysis at the design level of hydraulic machinery than what was formerly customary. Mechanical engineering needs enhanced tools for this purpose. Prediction models need to be validated against experimental data. There are limited possibilities to perform experimental investigations of hydropower prototypes. Fundamental in an experimental dynamic analysis is to determine the forces acting on the machine. This paper is concerned with a monitoring system to estimate the angular resolved pressure field on the suction- and pressure side of a prototype Kaplan runner blade. By measuring the pressure at different positions on the runner blade, we have a tool to determine the hydraulic load acting on the runner. This is part of an experimental dynamic analysis of the behavior of 10 MW prototype of a low-head Kaplan prototype lodged in an old machine hall inaugurated 1914 situated above the polar circle in Porjus, Sweden.

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  • 163. Jourak, Amir
    et al.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Cupillard, Samuel
    Glavatskih, Sergei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    CFD analysis of a journal bearing with a microgroove on the shaft2008In: Proceedings of the 19th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena (ISTP-19): Reykjavik, Iceland, August 17-21, 2008 / [ed] Sigurdur Brynjolfsson; Olafur Petur Palsson; Jong H. Kim, University of Iceland, Faculty of Industrial Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Journal bearings are used in many applications. An increase of their load carrying capacity and/or decrease of their losses may allow for savings of an enormous amount of energy. One way to enhance the characteristics of journal bearings is to modify the surface texture of the stator. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the influence of a textured rotor on journal bearing characteristics. Computational Fluid Dynamics is used to model the flow between the rotor and the journal. The full Navier-Stokes equations are solved under unsteady conditions with the commercial software ANSYS CFX 11. A two-dimensional geometry is used to model the bearing. In order to make a simulation, a separate rotor and stator are made and are attached to each other using a rotor-stator interface. Firstly, a single mesh for the smooth journal bearing is used to evaluate possible numerical artefacts created by the interface. The results illustrate a difference of 2.8 % in the load carrying capacity. Simulation with a dimpled rotor followed. Comparison between a dimpled rotor and smooth rotor shows no significant increase in load carrying capacity of the journal bearing when thermal effects are not taken into account.

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  • 164. Cupillard, Samuel
    et al.
    Glavatskih, Sergei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Computational fluid dynamics analysis of a journal bearing with surface texturing2008In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part J, journal of engineering tribology, ISSN 1350-6501, E-ISSN 2041-305X, Vol. 222, no 2, p. 97-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis of a lubricated conformal contact is carried out to study the effect of surface texture on bearing friction and load carrying capacity using computational fluid dynamics. The work focuses on a journal bearing with several dimples. Two- and three-dimensional bearing geometries are considered. The full Navier-Stokes equations are solved under steady-state conditions with a multi-phase flow cavitation model.The coefficient of friction can be reduced if a texture of suitable geometry is introduced. This can be achieved either in the region of maximum hydrodynamic pressure for a bearing with high eccentricity ratio or just downstream of the maximum film for a bearing with low eccentricity ratio. An additional pressure build-up produced as a result of the surface texture has been shown at low eccentricity ratios.

  • 165.
    Siwani, Yasir
    et al.
    Rainpower Norway AS.
    Moltubakk, T.
    Rainpower Norway AS.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Dynamic stress assessment in high head Francis runners2008In: HYDRO 2008, Progressing World Hydro Development: Ljubljana, Slovenina, 6-8 October 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 166. Jonsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Ramdal, J.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Experimental investigation of the Gibson's method outside standards2008In: Hydro technology and the evironment for the new century: 24th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, October 27 - 31, 2008, Foz do Iguassu, Brazil, Foz do Iguassu, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gibson's method, also known as pressure time method, is used to measure the discharge in hydropower plants. It is an accurate and economical method which is suitable for site efficiency tests. However, it has some limitations. The present paper presents an experimental survey of Gibson's method used outside these limitations, i.e. with a measuring length and an initial flow velocity that are below the criterions stated by the IEC 41. In the experiments pressure is measured with two types of sensors; absolute pressure sensors and differential pressure sensors, to see the influence of the connecting tubing. The measurements are compared to an accurate reference flow meter and also to calculations from 1-D water hammer simulations. The results show, for both types of sensors, a positive bias error of the discharge which increases with decreasing initial velocity. The uncertainty for most of the measurements lies within ±1.5% at a 95% confidence level. The absolute sensors give a slightly larger random error than the differential. The numerical result shows a similar pattern as the experiments but with a smaller magnitude of the error.

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  • 167.
    Cervantes, Michel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Wallström, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Forskarskola för kvinnor omgång 4 (2009-2011)2008In: Genus i norrsken, ISSN 1654-7640, Vol. 1, no 3-4Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 168.
    Backman, Gunnar
    et al.
    Rainpower Norway AS.
    Billdal, J.T.
    Rainpower Norway AS.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Farhat, Mohamed
    EPFL LMH Laboratory, Switzerland.
    Zobeiri, A.R.
    EPFL LMH Laboratory, Switzerland.
    Increased need for hydro pumped-storage plants to guarantee the stability of the power grids2008In: HYDRO 2008, Progressing World Hydro Development: Ljubljana, Slovenina, 6-8 October 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 169.
    Andersson, Urban
    et al.
    Vattenfall Research & Development.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Phase resolved velocity measurements at the draft tube cone of the turbine-99 test case2008In: Hydro technology and the evironment for the new century: 24th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, October 27 - 31, 2008, Foz do Iguassu, Brazil, Foz do Iguassu, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Turbine-99 test case, a Kaplan draft tube, has been studied extensively both experimentally and numerically. To further complete the experimental data of this test case, phase resolved velocity profiles in the draft tube cone are presented in this paper. The phase resolved velocity profiles have been measured with a 2-component LDA equipment measuring both the tangential and the axial velocity components of the flow. The measurements were synchronised with a pulse from the runner shaft that gives the angular position/phase of each velocity measurement. The result shows a clear impact of the runner blade wakes on the flow distribution in the draft tube cone. Further down in the cone the blade wakes are still visible, even if noticeable weaker, and they have increased their extent in the tangential direction.

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  • 170.
    Cervantes, Michel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Jansson, Ida
    Jourak, Amir
    Glavatskih, Sergei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Porjus U9A full-scale hydropower research facility2008In: Hydro technology and the evironment for the new century: 24th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, October 27 - 31, 2008, Foz do Iguassu, Brazil, Foz do Iguassu, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydropower still faces complex scientific and technical challenges in order to secure the availability and reliability of the power plants despite more than a century of development. The main challenge is due to new market constrains such as electrical market deregulation and introduction of renewable sources of energy. The major problem is related to the dynamic of the rotor involving several fields: hydraulics, power engineering and mechanics. On the other side, the large and growing hydropower world market represents an opportunity for technically advanced companies offering better efficiency. The difficulty to scale rigorously any technical advance makes full-scale experiment a necessity. World unique facilities are available at Porjus, Sweden, for this purpose. The Porjus Hydropower Centre is composed of a Francis (U8) and a Kaplan (U9) turbine of 10 MW, each exclusively dedicated to education, research and development. In order to further investigate specific issues related to availability and reliability, a project was initiated in 2006. The main objective is to make U9 a full-scale hydropower laboratory able firstly to furnish the necessary data for the development of rotor-dynamic models but also turbines and bearings. To this purposes more than 200 sensors have been installed to measure displacements, forces, pressure, film thickness, strains... The work presents an overview of the newly upgrade facility as well as some of the problems faced during the instrumentation of the machine.

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  • 171. Cupillard, Samuel
    et al.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Glavatskih, Sergei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Pressure buildup mechanism in a textured inlet of a hydrodynamic contact2008In: Journal of tribology, ISSN 0742-4787, E-ISSN 1528-8897, Vol. 130, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A flow analysis is carried out for an inclined slider bearing with the aim of showing the governing mechanism at conditions where an optimum in load carrying capacity is achieved. The effects of surface texture on pressure buildup and load carrying capacity are explained for a textured slider bearing geometry. Numerical simulations are performed for laminar, steady, and isothermal flows. The energy transferred to the fluid from the moving wall is converted into pressure in the initial part of the converging contact and into losses in the second part. The convergence ratio can be increased, in order to get the greatest pressure gradient, until the limiting value where flow recirculation begins to occur. The texture appears to achieve its maximum efficiency when its depth is such that the velocity profile is stretched at its maximum extent without incurring incoming recirculating flow. The wall profile shape controlling the velocity profile can be optimized for many hydrodynamic contacts

  • 172.
    Cervantes, Michel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics. Vattenfall Power Consultant.
    Pulsating turbulent flow in a straight asymmetric diffuser2008In: Journal of Hydraulic Research, ISSN 0022-1686, E-ISSN 1814-2079, Vol. 46, no Suppl. 1, p. 112-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pulsating turbulent flow is studied for four regimes: steady, quasi-steady, relaxation, and quasi-laminar in a rectangular straight asymmetric diffuser, a generic model of the diffuser found at the end of most Kaplan and Francis type hydropower turbines. The flow entering the diffuser is a developing duct flow at Reynolds number 20 000, based on mean streamwise velocity and hydraulic diameter. The time averaged velocity and turbulent quantities are not affected by the forced oscillation. The regimes prevail in the diffuser, but are shifted due to the decreasing friction velocity. The oscillating quantities are affected by the adverse pressure gradient in the same way as the time averaged quantities, but with a decreasing effect for higher forcing frequencies. The amplitude of the oscillating wall shear stress is found to be signicantly lower than the Stokes solution in the quasi-laminar regime. The regime is confirmed by the behaviour of several other quantities. The pressure recovery is found to be 30 % higher in the relaxation regime than in the other regimes. Results are compared with experiments in channels and turbulent boundary layers, with and without an adverse pressure gradient, and with large-eddy simulations.

  • 173. Cupillard, Samuel
    et al.
    Glavatskih, Sergei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Thermal analysis of lubricant flow in a textured inlet contact2008In: Proceedings of the 19th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena (ISTP-19): Reykjavik, Iceland, August 17-21, 2008 / [ed] Sigurdur Brynjolfsson; Olafur Petur Palsson; Jong H. Kim, University of Iceland, Faculty of Industrial Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance of an inlet textured contact is analysed for a temperature dependent lubricant flow. Thermal effects are analysed for different shear rates. Shearing of lubricant and subsequent heating reduce load carrying capacity and frictional losses compared with isothermal conditions. Load carrying capacity of a parallel surface contact can be improved by using texturing at the inlet when thermal effects are considered. It is also shown that for the different convergence ratios considered, the texture enables the sustaining of a load until a certain critical shear rate is reached. This critical shear rate depends on a number of factors such as the convergence ratio and lubricant parameters including the viscosity-temperature coefficient and the dynamic viscosity at reference temperature.

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  • 174. Jansson, Ida
    et al.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    A method to flush mount replaceable pressure sensors on a 9.3 MW prototype of a Kaplan runner2007In: Proceedings of the 2nd IAHR International Meeting of the Workgroup on Cavitation and Dynamic Problems in Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, Timisoara,Romania, October 24-26, 2007 / [ed] R. Susan-Resiga; S. Bernad; S. Muntean, Timişoara, 2007, p. 299-304Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is concerned with the set-up of a measurement system for onboard pressure measurements on a Kaplan runner blade of a 9.3 MW prototype situated at Porjus, Sweden. Piezo-resistive pressure transducers will be flush mounted on both the pressure- and suctionside of the blade. The hydraulic excitation frequencies will thus be determined and coupled with measurements of the natural frequencies of the machine and the electromagnetic excitation force acting on rotor of the generator.Instrumentation of a prototype is a delicate work. Therefore, the set-up of the measurement system must be carefully prepared in advance. The emphasis of the paper lies on the development of a method to flush mount the sensors on the blade that allows damaged sensors to be replaced without dismantling the runner blade. In conclusion, possible drawbacks are discussed.

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  • 175. Jansson, Ida
    et al.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Dynamic load measurements on a 10 MW Kaplan runner: design and evaluation of a pressure measurement system at the Porjus hydropower centre2007In: Svenska Mekanikdagar 2007: Program och abstracts / [ed] Niklas Davidsson; Elianne Wassvik, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2007, p. 50-Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 176. Mulu, Berhanu
    et al.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Effects of inlet boundary conditions on spiral casing simulation2007In: Proceedings of the 2nd IAHR International Meeting of the Proceedings of the 2nd IAHR International Meeting of the Workgroup on Cavitation and Dynamic Problems in Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, Timisoara,Romania, October 24-26, 2007 / [ed] R. Susan-Resiga; S. Bernad; S. Muntean, Timişoara, 2007, p. 217-226Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results of numerical simulations of threedimensional turbulent viscous flow through the spiral casing and distributor of the Hölleforsen hydraulic turbine (Turbine-99 test case) are presented. Two CAD geometries, with and without the penstock, are analyzed in details to determine the effects of the upstream geometry, i.e. the inlet boundary conditions to the spiral casing. Conservation of mass and momentum equations of the flow are analysed using finite volume methods with the commercial software ANSYS CFX10.0. Standard k-ε with scalable wall function and SST k-ω based turbulence models are applied to study the flow characteristics. Comparisons are made between the numerical simulations with and without the penstock and available experimental results. The numerical results are found to more closely match with the experimental results when the penstock is included in the simulation. Therefore, detailed inlet boundary conditions are necessary to simulate accurately the spiral casing flows if the penstock is not included in the simulation. The numerical simulations also seem to show little sensitivity to the turbulence model.

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  • 177. Mulu, Berhanu
    et al.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Effects of inlet boundary conditions on spiral casing simulation2007In: Svenska Mekanikdagar 2007: Program och abstracts / [ed] Niklas Davidsson; Elianne Wassvik, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2007, p. 53-Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 178.
    Jonsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Finnström, Marie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Numerical investigation of the Gibson's method2007In: Svenska Mekanikdagar 2007: Program och abstracts / [ed] Niklas Davidsson; Elianne Wassvik, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2007, p. 52-Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 179. Jonsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Finnström, Marie
    Numerical investigation of the Gibson's method: effects of connecting tubing2007In: Proceedings of the 2nd IAHR International Meeting of the Workgroup on Cavitation and Dynamic Problems in Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, Timisoara,Romania, October 24-26, 2007 / [ed] R. Susan-Resiga; S. Bernad; S. Muntean, Timişoara, 2007, p. 305-310Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to calculate the efficiency of a hydro power plant some quantities needs to be measured. One of them is the flow rate, which can be difficult to measure with good accuracy. There are several methods for that task. Gibson's method is one of them and has the advantage to be economical and easily installed at the site. In order to achieve accurate results with this method, some criterions must be fulfilled. Two of these criterions are the measuring length must be larger than 10 m and the mean initial velocity times the measuring length should be larger than 50 m2/s. These criterions are rarely fulfilled in low head hydro power plants.This paper presents a numerical analysis of the effects of the connecting tubing between the pressure taps at the conduit and the differential pressure sensor. A one dimensional code programmed in Matlab is used for the numerical simulations where the governing equations, continuity and equation of motion, are discretizised with a second order Godunov-type scheme. The simulations are made for different initial flow rates and different valve closures. The result shows that the tubing has an overall small influence on the calculated flow rate error. A positive bias error appears in all tested cases and has a maximum (1.2 to 1.3 % depending on the test case) at the smallest Reynolds number.

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  • 180.
    Cervantes, Michel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Gustavsson, Håkan
    On the use of the Squire-Long equation to estimate radial velocities in swirling flows2007In: Journal of Fluids Engineering - Trancactions of The ASME, ISSN 0098-2202, E-ISSN 1528-901X, Vol. 129, no 2, p. 209-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method to estimate the radial velocity in swirling flows from experimental values of the axial and tangential velocities is presented. The study is motivated by the experimental difficulties to obtain this component in a draft tube model as evidenced in the Turbine-99 IAHR/ERCOFTAC Workshop. The method uses a two-dimensional nonviscous description of the flow. Such a flow is described by the Squire-Long equation for the stream function, which depends on the boundary conditions. Experimental values of the axial velocities at the inlet and outlet of the domain are used to obtain the boundary conditions on the bounded domain. The method consists of obtaining the equation related to the domain with an iterative process. The radial velocity profile is then obtained. The method may be applied to flows with a swirl number up to about Sw=0.25. The critical value of the swirl number depends on the velocity profiles and the geometry of the domain. The applicability of the methodology is first performed on a swirling flow in a diffuser with a half angle of 3 deg at various swirl numbers, where three-dimensional (3D) laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) velocity measurements are available. The method is then applied to the Turbine-99 test case, which consists in a model draft tube flow where the radial inlet velocity was undetermined. The swirl number is equal to Sw=0.21. The stability and the convergence of the approach is investigated in this case. The results of the pressure recovery are then compared to the experiments for validation.

  • 181. Cupillard, Samuel
    et al.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Glavatskih, Sergei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Pressure build-up mechanism in a textured inlet of a slider bearing2007In: Svenska Mekanikdagar 2007: Program och abstracts / [ed] Niklas Davidsson; Elianne Wassvik, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2007, p. 33-Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 182.
    Cervantes, Michel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lövgren, Magnus
    Radial velocity at the inlet of the Turbine-99 draft tube2007In: Proceedings of the 2nd IAHR International Meeting of the Workgroup on Cavitation and Dynamic Problems in Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, Timisoara,Romania, October 24-26, 2007 / [ed] R. Susan-Resiga; S. Bernad; S. Muntean, Timişoara, 2007, p. 137-144Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements of the axial, radial and tangential velocities at the inlet and downstream the cone of the Turbine-99 draft tube test case with wedge Pitot tubes are presented. The measurements were principally performed to evaluate the radial velocity: an unknown parameter of the Turbine-99 test case. The results show an acceptable agreement withprevious measurements for the yaw angle and axial and tangential velocities. The radial velocity is found to have very small amplitude at the inlet of the draft tube. The measurements downstream the cone indicates a larger tangential velocity while the radial velocity has a larger amplitude that at the inlet.

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  • 183.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Runner cone boundary layer control2007In: Proceedings of the 2nd IAHR International Meeting of the Workgroup on Cavitation and Dynamic Problems in Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, Timisoara,Romania, October 24-26, 2007 / [ed] R. Susan-Resiga; S. Bernad; S. Muntean, Timişoara, 2007, p. 153-158Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The runner cone plays an essential role in the performance of elbow draft tube and de facto of low head machines. An earlier separation on the runner cone deteriorates the pressure recovery and thus the overall efficiency of the machine. Control of the separation point on the runner cone is therefore of interest to improve efficiency at any regime. Onealternative to control the separation on the runner cone may be to rotate the runner cone with a different angular velocity than the runner blades. In the present work, the effect of runner cone angular rotation on elbow draft tube, typical in Kaplan turbine, is investigated using numerical simulations. The Turbine-99 test case (T-99) is used as benchmark at the top of the propeller curve. Simulations are performed for 4 different angular rotations: -595(stipulated in T-99), 0, +600 and +1200 rpm. The results indicate a delay of the separation on the cone at 0, +600 and +1200 rpm. The mean pressure recovery increases in all cases. The improvement reaches 6.6 % for the mean pressure recovery for an angular velocity of +600 rpm where separation disappear, while the loss factor decreases with 23.6 %.

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  • 184. Lövgren, Magnus
    et al.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Gustavsson, Håkan
    Time dependent pressure measurements on the Turbine-99 draft tube2007In: Proceedings of the 2nd IAHR International Meeting of the Workgroup on Cavitation and Dynamic Problems in Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, Timisoara,Romania, October 24-26, 2007 / [ed] R. Susan-Resiga; S. Bernad; S. Muntean, Timişoara, 2007, p. 145-152Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow properties of the Turbine-99 draft tube have been subject of much interest by the research community. The first part of the draft tube, i.e. the cone, raised many questions about the pressure recovery and the time dependence. A complementary experimental investigation was therefore performed in the model test facility of Vattenfall at Älvkarleby, Sweden, to get time resolved wall pressure data. Good agreement with the old measurements is achieved. However, the positions for the T(n) and R(n)-cases are not as expected. The results give a detailed map of the pressure behaviour in this part of the draft tube and are thus of interest for the validation of CFD simulations. The pressure amplitude at the inlet of the draft tube is 1000 Pa. The results also give new information regarding the cases used in the Turbine-99 workshops.

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  • 185.
    Cervantes, Michel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Videhult, Sebastian
    GE Energy AS, NO-7465 Trondheim.
    Adaptive draft tube for increased efficiency2006In: International Water Power and Dam Construction, ISSN 0306-400X, E-ISSN 1538-6414, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 43-45Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 186.
    Lövgren, Hans
    et al.
    Vattenfall.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Calibration of a wedge Pitot tube for unsteady flow2006In: 23rd IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems: Yokohama, Japan, October 17 - 21, 2006 ; [conference proceedings], IAHR , 2006, article id 120Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 187. Cupillard, Samuel
    et al.
    Glavatskih, Sergei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Effect of surface texturing on journal bearing performance2006In: ASIATRIB 2006: proceedings of the third Asia International Conference on Tribology, October 16-19, Kanazawa, Japan, Minato-ku: Kikai Shinkou Kaikan , 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 188.
    Lövgren, Hans
    et al.
    Vattenfall.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Finnström, Marie
    Gustavsson, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Experimental and numerical study for extension of Gibson's method2006In: 23rd IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems: Yokohama, Japan, October 17 - 21, 2006 ; [conference proceedings], IAHR , 2006, article id 163Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 189.
    Parida, Vinit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Higher education, a necessity for hydropower sustainability2006In: Proceedings, International Seminar on Hydropower Plants: Worldwide use of hydropower in the future, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 190.
    Cervantes, Michel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Higher education in hydropower2006In: International Water Power and Dam Construction, ISSN 0306-400X, E-ISSN 1538-6414, Vol. 58, no 7, p. 25-27Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 191.
    Parida, Vinit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Hydro education [hydro power educational programme]2006In: International Water Power and Dam Construction, ISSN 0306-400X, E-ISSN 1538-6414, Vol. 58, no 7, p. 43-45Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increasing growth of the hydro power industry through the world, the need for education and skilled personnel in this field is on the rise. This paper presents a study undertaken by Luleå University of Technology which demonstrates the importance of higher education in hydro. The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of the hydro power education and training programmes around the world

  • 192.
    Cervantes, Michel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Videhult, Sebastian
    GE Energy AS, NO-7465 Trondheim.
    Increasing efficiency2006In: International Water Power and Dam Construction, ISSN 0306-400X, E-ISSN 1538-6414, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 25-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deregulation of electric markets as well as the introduction of renewable sources of energy such as wind and wave power in several countries has lead to a demand for different operating patterns of hydro power plants. Hydro plants are more frequently operated away from best efficiency, at part-load or full-load, and with an increased number of start-ups and shutdowns. These new market conditions involve new constraints for the hydro machines, which can lead to an overall un-optimised utilisation. An example of this is Sweden, where hydro plants mainly operate Francis and Kaplan turbines built between 1950 and 1970. As a result, an extensive period of renovation has started in the country. New machines need to be designed to take into account the new market conditions.

  • 193.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Turbine-99 III, 3rd IAHR workshop on draft tube flow2006In: ERCOFTAC bulletin, Vol. 69, p. 9-19Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 194.
    Cervantes, Michel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Gustavsson, Håkan
    Page, M.
    Engström, F.
    Turbine-99 III: a summary2006In: 23rd IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems: Yokohama, Japan, October 17 - 21, 2006 ; [conference proceedings], 2006, article id 117Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 195. Cervantes, Michel
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Unsteadiness and viscous losses in hydraulic turbines2006In: Journal of Hydraulic Research, ISSN 0022-1686, E-ISSN 1814-2079, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 249-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The variation of the mechanical energy for the mean, oscillating and turbulent flows are considered. Their mean point out the contribution of the unsteadiness to the viscous losses and the turbulent production. A two-dimensional turbulent pulsating flow is investigated for different unsteady regimes to illustrate the effects of unsteadiness on the overall losses.

  • 196.
    Cervantes, Michel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Eddy viscosity turbulence models and steady draft tube simulations2005In: Turbine-99 III: Proceedings of the third IAHR/ERCOFTAC workshop on draft tube flow, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2005, p. 37-44Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computations of the Turbine-99 benchmark have been performed for two dimensional steady inlet boundary conditions. Three different turbulence models were used: zero equation model, k-ε and shear stress model (SST). The results from the engineering quantities indicate small differences on the mean pressure recovery and the loss factor, while larger differences appear for the wall pressure recovery.

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  • 197.
    Cervantes, Michel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Gustavsson, Håkan
    Estimation of the Radial Velocity from the Squire-Long Equation and Experimental Data2005In: Waterpower XIV: conference ; advancing technology for sustainable energy ; July 18 - 22, 2005, Austin, Texas, USA ; technical papers, Kansas City: HCI , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 198.
    Cervantes, Michel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Glavatskikh, Sergei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Karlsson, Thommy
    Group dynamics [hydro power equipment]2005In: International Water Power and Dam Construction, ISSN 0306-400X, E-ISSN 1538-6414, Vol. 57, no 12, p. 40-45Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An interdisciplinary research group was created at the Lulea University of Technology in Sweden to help develop world leading competencies and knowledge for cutting-edge technologies in hydro power generation. Based on the studies of this Swedish research group, this paper provides a description of the power system from a dynamic point of view to obtain an overall picture, and is completed with a detailed description of the bearings and turbines. The state-of-the-art in each field is presented, together with suggestions for further development

  • 199.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Hydropower engineering2005In: Proceedings of the International Green Energy Conference: IGEC-1, Waterloo, Ontario: University of Waterloo , Dept. of Mechnical Engineering , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydropower, one of the corner stones of sustainable energy development, is the largest renewable source of energy. There is a large demand worldwide for people trained to design, operate, maintain and optimise hydropower systems. Hydro Power University, a name which encompasses both education, research and development within hydropower in Sweden, offers a unique and broad international masters programme within hydropower engineering including civil, mechanical and electrical engineering. The programme is the result of a close collaboration between Lulea University of Technology and Uppsala University, at the research and education level. This master programme, Hydropower Engineering, is open to both Swedish and foreign students free of charge. It aims to provide students with state of the art knowledge and experience on parts of the hydropower system such as turbine technology, generator design, rotor dynamics, tribology, dams/dam safety, maintenance and operation and environmental aspects. World unique laboratory experiments are offered to the students at Porjus and Alvkarleby, Sweden. The Porjus Hydropower Centre offers world unique facilities: two full scale turbines of 10 MW each, one with the latest generator technology - Powerformer. The turbines are exclusively dedicated for use in education, research and development. State of the art in measurement technology is available. Both units are at the centre of each education programme offered by the Hydro Power University. In Alvkarleby, spillways, discharge capacity and turbines model testing can be undertaken at the Vattenfall laboratory also with state of the art experimental material and highly qualified staff. The large number of applications from developing countries indicates a need of scholarships, which needs to be resolved for the development of hydropower

  • 200.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Hydropower Engineering: an International Master Programme at Luleå University of Technology2005In: International Water Power and Dam Construction, ISSN 0306-400X, E-ISSN 1538-6414, Vol. 57, no 8, p. 42-44Article in journal (Other academic)
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