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  • 151.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Vilja förändras: vad kan påverka motivationen?2004In: Svensk rehabilitering, ISSN 1403-4468, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 6-9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 152.
    Skjaerven, Liv H.
    et al.
    Bergen University College, Department of Physical Therapy.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Kristoffersen, Kjell
    University of Bergen, Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care.
    Basic elements and dimensions to the phenomenon of quality of movement: case study2003In: Journal of Bodywork & Movement Therapies, ISSN 1360-8592, E-ISSN 1532-9283, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 251-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality of movement is frequently referred to as a phenomenon in the European movement tradition, underlining the close connection between outer expression and inner, lived experience. Within physical therapy little is clarified about the phenomenon from the point of view of lived experience. A case study has been undertaken focusing on the lived experience of the phenomenon, searching for basic elements and dimensions. An interpretive phenomenological approach was the method chosen for research. A qualitative interview was conducted involving one movement expert with an understanding and knowledge of the phenomenon. Analysis of the data revealed three levels of views on the quality of movement: basic elements and dimensions, functional use and personal integration. The phenomenon could be understood by the relation between three key elements, postural stability, free breathing and awareness; all contributing to a refinement in movement as well as a greater experience of well-being. The key elements were considered prerequisites to a four-dimensional therapeutic approach involving personal integration of bodily and mental aspects in movement. The basic element and dimensions of the phenomenon of quality of movement can be regarded as a starting point for research in this area.

  • 153. Gard, Gunvor
    et al.
    Sundén, Bente Thrane
    Lund University, Department of Physiotherapy.
    Changes in life-views and ethical viewpoints during physiotherapy education2003In: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, ISSN 0959-3985, E-ISSN 1532-5040, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 63-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A life-view can be described an an overall view of man and the world. An individual's life-view can change as a result of attending university. The life-view determines the response to reality and influences decision making and the treatment of other people. The aim of this study is to compare life-views and ethical viewpoints in the same group of physiotherapy students in their first and last semester of study and to describe physiotherapy students' perceptions of the importance of life-views in physiotherapy education. A reliable and valid questionnaire about life-views together with questions covering ethical aspects was used. All physiotherapy students beginning their education at Lund University between 1996 and 1998 answered a questionnaire in their first and last semester of study. The students expressed high agreement with a religious and evolutionary life-view and a low agreement with a scientific life-view in both their first and last semester of study. Amore varied opinion and reduced agreement were shown over time in religious, scientific, and evolutionary life-views. The students were patient-centred in their attitudes at both points in time, and the opinion that quality of life was more important than life increased between their first and last semester of study. The students also were positive toward euthanasia at both points. A life-view was considered important for the practical work as a physiotherapist. Fifty percent of the students were of the opinion that they had changed their life-view during their education to a more accepting and tolerant one and that their ethical awareness had been deepened

  • 154.
    Gard, Gunvor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Larsson, Agneta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Focus on motivation in the work rehabilitation planning process: a qualitative study from the employer's perspective2003In: Journal of occupational rehabilitation, ISSN 1053-0487, E-ISSN 1573-3688, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 159-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the working environment act was passed in 1991, employers in Sweden are to plan and control the working environment conditions in workplaces. They are responsible for organized rehabilitation at the workplace including the development of rehabilitation plans and a plan for interventions in order for a sick-listed client to be able to return to work. The aim of this study was to describe employers' experiences of how motivation can be improved in a work rehabilitation process. Qualitative interviews were performed with 10 employers who had employees that had taken part in a period of vocational rehabilitation at a rehabilitation center in the north of Sweden, over a 2-year period. The result showed that increased focus on motivation for change is needed in work rehabilitation. The clients' motivation for change could be improved by a focus on motivational conversations at the workplace aiming at motivation for change in their working and living conditions. The employers' power of initiative, competence, economic resources, and motivation are needed for creative solutions at the workplace.

  • 155.
    Larsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    How can the rehabilitation planning process at the workplace be improved?: A qualitative study from employers' perspective2003In: Journal of occupational rehabilitation, ISSN 1053-0487, E-ISSN 1573-3688, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 169-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Employers in Sweden are by law responsible for planning and controlling the working environment situation in their companies and for ensuring that any need for rehabilitation is noted as soon as possible and that action is taken. This includes developing a plan for rehabilitation. The aim of this study is to describe employers' experiences of the work rehabilitation planning process at the workplace, and how it can be improved with a focus on quality and cost-effectiveness. Qualitative interviews were performed with 10 employers of employee/s that had participated in vocational rehabilitation at a rehabilitation center in the North of Sweden. The results showed that employers were interested in detecting work rehabilitation needs and in taking action early. Rehabilitation at the workplace could be improved by development of routines, improved work relations and work technique, and environment in-service training at the workplace. Prevention was perceived as a prerequisite for a good result of rehabilitation. Attention to social and geographic conditions is needed. Organizational and financial limitations exist.

  • 156. Gard, Gunvor
    Increased focus on values: a tool in stress prevention?2003In: Physiotherapy, ISSN 0031-9406, E-ISSN 1873-1465, Vol. 89, no 5, p. 282-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose: Can an increased focus on values in working life be a factor in stress prevention? Values are defined as the shared principles which guide behaviour in an organisation. The purpose of this study was to describe how patients with musculoskeletal pain perceive the importance of values in relation to coping with daily stress and in relation to health. Methods: Patients receiving physiotherapy for various musculoskeletal disorders at three primary healthcare centres in the north of Sweden participated in the study, in total 95 patients. They answered a questionnaire covering values, work situation, coping behaviour and health and the relationship between these aspects. Results: All patients perceived that it was important to have values to follow at work, such as doing one's best, setting priorities, following one's priorities and having open and direct communication with others. A significant positive relationship was shown between having motivating values and low emotion-focused strategies, in this case behavioural and cognitive coping strategies. A positive relationship was also shown between having motivating values and low occurrence of symptoms (good perceived health). Conclusion: Values and effective coping strategies may be motivating factors preserving health

  • 157.
    Sjöberg, Iréne
    et al.
    Kalmar läns landsting, Sjukgymnastiken, Samrehab.
    Grahn, Birgitta
    Lunds universitet, Institutionen för rörelseorganens sjukdomar.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Hellström, Lennart
    Kalmar läns landsting.
    Multidisciplinär teamrehabilitering vid muskuloskeletala besvär: En kvalitativ studie ur patientperspektiv2003In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 80, no 4, p. 362-78Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 158.
    Mannerkorpi, Kaisa
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborg, Department of rheumatology and inflammation research.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Physiotherapy group treatment for patients with fibromyalgia: an embodied learning process2003In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 25, no 24, p. 1372-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To study how patients with fibromyalgia (FM) experienced physiotherapy group treatment comprising pool exercise and education. METHODS: Nineteen patients with FM were interviewed and the transcribed interviews were analysed using a phenomenological life-world approach. The participants' mean age was 45 years and their mean symptom duration was 10 years. RESULTS: Physiotherapy group treatment was experienced as an embodied learning process, comprising the themes: positive experience of body, sharing experiences of living with FM and creating new patterns of acting. The positive experience of body comprised the following categories: experiencing relaxation, experiencing physical capacity, acknowledging limitations and changing the pattern of activity. Sharing experiences comprised the following categories: not being alone and sharing joy. Three patterns of participation were identified: reciprocity, distancing and remaining outside. Creating new patterns comprised the following categories; calming down, creating a new relationship to self, creating a new relationship to social roles and creating new patterns for managing pain. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates that physiotherapy group treatment was experienced as an embodied learning process. Positive experiences of body were intertwined with a new relationship to self and objects in the world. Interactions between the co-participants promoted the process of creating new patterns of thinking and acting in the social world.

  • 159.
    Andersson, Susanne
    et al.
    Sunderby sjukhus, Sjukgymnastiken.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Röding, Jenny
    The perception of physical therapy on distance for patients with renal disease: a pilot study2003In: Abstractbok för sjukgymnastdagarna 2003, Stockholm: Legitimerade sjukgymnasters riksförbund , 2003, p. 49-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 160. Gard, Gunvor
    et al.
    Lindström, Kari
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Vantaa.
    Dallner, Margareta
    Arbetslivsinstitutet.
    Towards a learning organization: the introduction of a client-centered team-based organization in administrative surveying work2003In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 97-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within administrative surveying work in Sweden, a transition to a client-centered team-based organization was made during 1998. The aim of this study was to describe the employees' perceptions and expectations of job and organizational practices when working as a generalist in a client-centered team-based organization; job and organizational practices and well-being and effectiveness measures were examined when introducing a team-based organization. Interventions such as courses in how to cope with the role of a generalist, how to increase service to clients, education in technology, law and economics, as well as computer information support, were ongoing at the time of the study. The Team Work Profile and QPS Nordic questionnaires were used. All the surveyors in five regions in Sweden participated, in total 640 surveyors. The transition to a client-centered team-based organization was expected to improve job control and job content but at the same time lead to impairments in job climate and group cohesion. Distress was associated with negative future expectations of the organization. High job control and group cohesion were the central contributors towards growth in personal competence and social effectiveness of teamwork. Both internal and external client-related activities of team and organization were in focus during the transition

  • 161.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Aktivitet: Kan rehabiliteringsplaner bli bättre och effektivare?2002Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 162. Axelsson, J.
    et al.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Arbetssätt, kompetensanvändning och trivsel hos sjukgymnaster inom kommunal verksamhet: en kartläggning2002In: Nordisk fysioterapi, ISSN 1402-3024, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 2-8Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The municipality should offer good healthcare for those living in managed care facilities. This responsibility encompasses both rehabilitation as well as certain technical aids. The purpose of the study was to survey the work procedures of physical therapists in municipalities. A mail survey with questions regarding organization, work procedures, competence and job satisfaction was sent to 96 randomly selected physical therapists employed by Swedish municipalities. 70 physical therapists responded to the survey, which showed that the organization varies widely among different municipalities. However, a common denominator was a large territory with a large number of caretakers. The work of physical therapists largely consists of advising and educating personnel. They have a broad competence which is necessary and in demand but few decision makers know what physical therapists can contribute. Most physical therapists believe that they have a stimulating and meaningful work but that the resources are too scarce

  • 163. Gard, Gunvor
    et al.
    Lindström, Kari
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki.
    Dallner, Margareta
    Arbetslivsinstitutet.
    Effects of the transition to a client-centred team organization in administrative surveying work2002In: Behavior and Information Technology, ISSN 0144-929X, E-ISSN 1362-3001, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 105-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studied 640 surveyors (mean age 49.3 yrs) as part of a new work organization in Sweden. The new organization implied a transition to a client-centered team based organization and required a change in competence from specialist to generalist knowledge as well as a transition to a new information technology. The study investigated how perceived consequences of the transition, job, organizational factors, well-being and effectiveness measures changed between 1998 and 2000. The Teamwork Profile and QPS Nordic Questionnaire were used. The results showed that surveyors who perceived that they were working as generalists rated the improvements in job and organizational factors significantly higher than those who perceived they were not yet generalists. Improvements were noted in 2000 in quality of service to clients, time available to handle a case and effectiveness of teamwork. In a transfer to a team-based organization group, cohesion and continuous improvement practices--for example, learning by doing, mentoring and guided delegation--were important to improve the social effectiveness of group work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

  • 164. Gard, Gunvor
    et al.
    Lindström, Kari
    Institute of Occupational Health, Vantaa.
    Dallner, Margareta
    Arbetslivsinstitutet.
    Effects of transition to an integrated IT technology in surveying work2002In: Behavior and Information Technology, ISSN 0144-929X, E-ISSN 1362-3001, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 281-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An integrated IT technology, characterized by a change in information support from a strong specialization towards greater integration has been introduced within the surveying company in Sweden. The aim of this study is to compare and describe effects of the transition to this new information technology in relation to job and organizational characteristics and effectiveness and well-being measures between 1998 and 2000. The results show that a positive attitude to the new IT system increased from 1998 to 2000. The transition to a new IT technology had negative consequences on job content and job control in 1999 but improvements could be seen in 2000. Co-operation with clients and service quality to clients improved each year from 1998 to 2000. Generally, a positive attitude to IT integration was related to high continuous improvement practices, goal clarity and job control in all three phases. However, the relations were reduced in 1999. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

  • 165. Baltsen, J.
    et al.
    Roslund, M.
    Lindström, I.
    Person, A. Larsdotter
    Gard, Gunvor
    Hur bör kvinnor med fibromyalgi bemötas på bäst sätt?2002In: Nordisk fysioterapi, ISSN 1402-3024, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 125-33Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Health care staff meet people with chronic pain, for example fibromyalgia patients, every day. The way they encounter and communicate with these patients is important. The aim of this study was to explore how fibromyalgia patients experience encountering health care staff and their own family. The study also included questions about their view of a positive encountering. Ten fibromyalgia patients were interviewed in a multiple case study. The results showed that all women had both positive and negative experiences of the health care system. They found it important for staff to listen actively, show interest and understanding, be professional and take their problems seriously. For a positive experience each encounter must be tailored individually. The women had all met negative attitudes from people in their environment. The ten women all experienced support from their families. Having the diagnosis fibromyalgia confirmed was described as being important, but could also be a difficult matter to handle. Hence, it appears to be of considerable importance to seriously reflect over and to understand the impact of acting and communicating as health care staff when encountering and treating patients.

  • 166. Gard, Gunvor
    et al.
    Gyllensten, Amanda Lundvik
    University of Lund, Department of Physical Therapy.
    Salford, Eva
    University of Lund, Department of Physical Therapy.
    Ekdahl, Charlotte
    University of Lund, Department of Physical Therapy.
    Physical therapists' emotional expressions in interviews about factors important for interaction with patients2002In: Physiotherapy, ISSN 0031-9406, E-ISSN 1873-1465, Vol. 86, no 5, p. 229-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interactions: between patients and physiotherapists have been studied by various researchers. Some results indicate that physiotherapists have an awareness of underlying emotions, but often respond only on an intellectual level. It seems that verbally expressed emotions may be important for interaction between physiotherapists and patients during treatment. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate how many and what verbally expressed emotions physiotherapists state during interviews between physiotherapists and patients. Method: The study was a qualitative case study with cross-case analysis according to Shepard et al (1993) and Merriam (1988). Ten informants participated, all of them 'experts in interaction with patients', women, Swedish-speaking, and with at least five years' experience in primary health care. The physiotherapists' emotions were categorised according to Tomkins (1984) and Izard (1977) in the categories of interest/excitement, surprise/startle, enjoyment/joy, sadness, anger/rage, fear/terror, shame/humiliation, contempt and disgust. Results: Positive emotions such as interest and joy were expressed most often in the interviews, in situations where physiotherapy had been successful, as joyful contacts with colleagues, or in situations where humour was used as a therapeutic instrument. Surprise, sadness and anger were expressed more seldom and contempt or disgust were not expressed at all in the interviews. Conclusion: Verbal expressions of emotions in treatment situations in physiotherapy practice should be promoted more emphatically. This may start a reflective process in both patients and physiotherapists and deepen the understanding of the interaction.

  • 167.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Stressprevention i ett organisatoriskt perspektiv: en utmaning för sjukgymnasten2002In: Människor, hälsa, miljö: föredrag hållna på filosofiska fakultetens dag 6 oktober 2001, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2002, p. 19-26Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 168.
    Gard, Gunvor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Lindström, Kari
    Institute of Occupational Health, Vantaa.
    Transition to a client-centered team organisation in daministrative surveying work: an empowerment process?2002In: First international conference on lifestyle, health and technology, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 169.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Work motivation: a brief review of theories underpinning health promotion2002In: Physical Therapy Reviews, ISSN 1083-3196, E-ISSN 1743-288X, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 163-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivating people is an important issue for physiotherapists working with health promotion, aiming at maintaining and strengthening resources for health. The aim of this literature review is to describe the theoretical foundations for how to improve work motivation, and from that suggest strategies that can be used by physiotherapists in health promotion. The databases MEDLINE and Psychlit were searched for theories of importance for work motivation. Thirteen theories were found: seven were exogenous theories, focusing on aspects that can be changed by external agents; six were endogenous theories, dealing with more internal psychological aspects of motivation. Key strategies that can be used by physiotherapists in health promotion to improve work motivation were indentified: design attractive, interesting, satisfying jobs; support workers in defining specific, clear, attractive and difficult but attainable goals; focus on feedback and rewards; support workers' goal attainment; support workers' self-efficacy; establish ethical rules and norms for acceptable behaviour at work; balance workers' job demands and individual capacities; and, support workers in making priorities in work

  • 170.
    Stafanescu, Katalin
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Ottvall, Rachel
    Lunds universitet.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Copingstrategier hos reumatiker: en kvalitativ studie2001In: Nordisk fysioterapi, ISSN 1402-3024, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 165-72Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 171.
    Ekman, Gun
    et al.
    Länshälsan Skåne AB.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Fysiska funktionstester anpassade för städpersonal2001In: Nordisk fysioterapi, ISSN 1402-3024, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 68-74Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 172.
    Grönqvist, Raoul
    et al.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Department of physics, Helsinki.
    Abeysekera, John
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation.
    Hsiang, Simon M.
    Department of industrial Engineering, Texas Tech University.
    Leamon, Tom B.
    Libirty mutual research center for safety and health.
    Newman, Dava J.
    MIT, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics.
    Gielo-Perczak, Krystyna
    Libirty mutual research center for safety and health.
    Lockhart, Thurmon E.
    Grado Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virgina Polytehcnic Institute and State University.
    Pai, Clive Y-C
    University of Illinois at Chicago, Department of Physical Therapy.
    Human-centred approaches in slipperiness measurement2001In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 44, no 13, p. 1167-1199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of human-centred methodologies--subjective, objective, and combined--are used for slipperiness measurement. They comprise a variety of approaches from biomechanically-oriented experiments to psychophysical tests and subjective evaluations. The objective of this paper is to review some of the research done in the field, including such topics as awareness and perception of slipperiness, postural and balance control, rating scales for balance, adaptation to slippery conditions, measurement of unexpected movements, kinematics of slipping, and protective movements during falling. The role of human factors in slips and falls will be discussed. Strengths and weaknesses of human-centred approaches in relation to mechanical slip test methodologies are considered. Current friction-based criteria and thresholds for walking without slipping are reviewed for a number of work tasks. These include activities such as walking on a level or an inclined surface, running, stopping and jumping, as well as stair ascent and descent, manual exertion (pushing and pulling, load carrying, lifting) and particular concerns of the elderly and mobility disabled persons. Some future directions for slipperiness measurement and research in the field of slips and falls are outlined. Human-centred approaches for slipperiness measurement do have many applications. First, they are utilized to develop research hypotheses and models to predict workplace risks caused by slipping. Second, they are important alternatives to apparatus-based friction measurements and are used to validate such methodologies. Third, they are used as practical tools for evaluating and monitoring slip resistance properties of footwear, anti-skid devices and floor surfaces

  • 173.
    Dyde, Charlotte
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Johannesson, Maria
    Lunds universitet.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Stress och coping hos kommunalt anställda sjukgymnaster2001In: Nordisk fysioterapi, ISSN 1402-3024, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 155-64Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 174.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Stress prevention in an organizational context: A challenge for the psysiotherapist2001In: Nordisk fysioterapi, ISSN 1402-3024, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 92-96Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 175.
    Gard, Gunvor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Lundborg, Glenn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Test of Swedish anti-skid devices on five different slippery surfaces2001In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AB - The interest for effective preventive strategies for slips and falls is growing. Much remains to be done, however, to prevent slips and falls in the traffic environment. Some pedestrians are injured because of slippery pavements and roadways. Using an appropriate anti-skid device may reduce the risk of slips and falls on different surfaces outdoors during winter. The aim of this study was to evaluate new anti-skid devices on the Swedish market representing three different designs of anti-skid devices; heel device, fore-foot device and whole-foot device on different slippery surfaces, gravel, sand, salt, snow and ice. The evaluations were done according to subject's perceived walking safety and balance, videorecordings of walking postures and movements, time to take on and off each anti-skid device, advantages/disadvantages with each anti-skid device and a list of priority for own use according to three criteria; safety, balance and appearance. Practical tests were carried out on different slippery surfaces, gravel, sand, salt, snow and ice. The subject's were randomly selected from the registered population over 55 years in a city in northern Sweden. The results showed that eight or more of the ten subjects perceived all four anti-skid devices as fairly good or good regarding walking safety and balance when walking on gravel, sand, and salt. Anti-skid device 3, a whole-foot device was perceived as having none or bad walking safety and balance on snow by seven subjects and anti-skid device 4, a heel device, as having none or bad walking balance on ice by all ten subjects. Eight subjects walked with a normal muscle function in the hip and knee with all anti-skid devices on all surfaces. Small deviations in walking posture and movements were noted in one to two subjects when walking on different surfaces, but no systematic difference between the devices. Anti-skid device 1 'Rewa', a fixed heel device, was perceived as the most rapid one to take on. All four devices were perceived as easy to use and as giving good foothold. Anti-skid device 1 'Rewa' and 4 'Thulin-spike', both heel devices, had the highest priority according to walking safety. 'Rewa' also had the highest priority according to walking balance as well as own use. When combining the criterias 'Rewa' had the highest priority according to walking safety and balance, priority for own use, time to take on and easiness to use.

  • 176.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Work motivating factors in rehabilitation: a brief review2001In: Physical Therapy Reviews, ISSN 1083-3196, E-ISSN 1743-288X, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 85-89Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 177.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Aktivitet: Kan rehabiliteringsplanerna bli bättre och effektivare?2000Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 178.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Aktivitet: Träff för erfarenhetsutbyte med disputerade och andra forskningsverksamma i Norrbotten2000Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 179.
    Blomkvist, Anna-Christina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Computer usage with cold hands: an experiment with pointing devices2000In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 429-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computers are used in the outdoors and in connection with cold store work. Cold hand and fingers limit data input, as studied here. Six input devices; trackballs, pens, and a mouse were tested by 19 participants in a Fitts' target acquisition task with 2 target sizes under 2 experimental conditions; warm and cold right hand. Measures were acquisition times, number of errors, participant's preferences, and observed handling of the devices. Effects of device, target size, and cold were significant. Learning and attempts to improve handgrip were confirmed. Large enough targets, a thick pen, and a mouse make computer work practicable in the cold. Direct visual feedback, as with pen on template with target images, shortened acquisition times by half a second.

  • 180.
    Blomkvist, Anna-Christina
    et al.
    University of Lulea, Department of Human Work Science.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Computer use in cold environments2000In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 239-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses computer work in cold environments with the two-fold aim to explore conditions for such work, and to add knowledge about the use of fingers at data entry in the cold. Five workplaces were visited and work contents and use of computers are briefly described. Effects of work in the cold were in line with those mentioned in the literature, and manual lifting of heavy goods the most impairing activity. Subjects contended with strenuous working postures--holding the computers in their hands or arms--and with cold fingers. Individual fingering for data input was noted. Forefinger or a pen were used, and a pen is recommendable for input, either as a touch pen or, simply to press the keys. A supportive rack could be recommended for portable workstations.

  • 181.
    Gard, Gunvor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Gille, Kent-Åke
    Piteå älvdals sjukhus, Sjukgymnastiken.
    Grahn, Birgitta
    Kronoberg occupational rehabilitation service, Växjö.
    Functional activities and psychosocial factors in the rehabilitation of patients with low back pain2000In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 75-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A four-week rehabilitation programme for back patients, focusing on functional activities and psychosocial factors in the demands of work and daily living, was evaluated. The programme is a combination of training of functional activities and increased psychological knowledge, body awareness and coping. A total of 40 patients with lumbago or lumbago ischias participated in the program and were compared with a matched control group. The results showed that the patients had significantly more ergonomic and psychosocial problems in their working environment than did the controls. A significant reduction in ratings of low back pain was noted in patients compared with controls after rehabilitation. Increased functional ability and physical fitness were shown in the patient group after rehabilitation. Significantly more patients than controls returned to work after the rehabilitation.

  • 182.
    Gyllensten, Amanda Lundvik
    et al.
    Lund University, Department of Physiotherapy.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Hansson, Lars
    University of Lund, Department of Clinical Neuroscience.
    Ekdahl, Charlotte
    University of Lund, Department of Physiotherapy.
    Interaction between patient and physiotherapist in psychiatric care: the physiotherapist's perspective2000In: Advances in Physiotherapy, ISSN 1403-8196, E-ISSN 1651-1948, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 157-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate what factors the physiotherapy experts in psychiatric physiotherapy believed to be important in the interaction between the patient and the physiotherapist (PT). The objective was to obtain a deeper insight into their reasoning concerning interaction and treatment outcomes. Eleven nominated 'expert' PTs were each interviewed twice. Triangulation of important events, an exemplar (critical incident) and a key informant interview were used in the data collection. A qualitative design with crosscase analysis was used in the data analysis. Important interaction factors were divided into a 'prerequisites dimension', 'interaction dimension' and 'outcome dimension'. In the prerequisites dimension there were three themes: 'prerequisites of the PT', 'prerequisites of the patient' and 'external factors'. In the interaction dimension there were also three themes: 'ways of contact', 'therapeutic process' and 'structure of treatment'. In the outcome dimension the theme 'outcome' and the two categories 'patient - awareness of own resources and 'PT - improvement of interaction skills with the aid of reflection' were found. Interaction was considered to be important for the outcome and for the patient's awareness of his/her resources. The body awareness skills of the PT, the therapeutic relationships, help for the patient to identify his/her resources and the contract were also important. The ability to be fully mentally present in the encounter and the use of non-verbal skills were emphasized. Supervision and reflection about the outcome increased the PT's interaction skills in a learning process. The physiotherapy process expressed was resource-oriented.

  • 183. Gard, Gunvor
    et al.
    Sundén, Bente Thrane
    Lund University, Department of Physical Therapy.
    Life-views of physiotherapy students compared to medical and nursing student2000In: Physiotherapy, ISSN 0031-9406, E-ISSN 1873-1465, Vol. 86, no 11, p. 576-582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A life-view is an overall view of man and the world, forming a central value system and giving expression to a fundamental attitude. Research has shown that life-views are established early in childhood, are influenced by social environment and are relatively constant over time. An individual's view of life determines the response to reality and influences decision-making and treatment of other people. The aim of this study was to compare life-views and ethical standpoints of physiotherapy, nursing and medical students at the beginning of their professional education. All physiotherapy students beginning their education at Lund University during 1996 to 1998 answered a questionnaire developed by Josephsson (1994), in total 187 students. The life-views of the physiotherapy students were compared with those of 385 medical students from the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm and 36 student nurses from Lulea University who answered the same questionnaire, which required them to indicate their agreement or otherwise with statements reflecting different life-views. The result showed that all student groups had high or moderate levels of agreement with the sentences reflecting a religious and evolutionary life-view and low agreement with a scientific life-view in Josephsson's terms. When comparing the groups, medical students had the lowest and nursing students the highest agreement with the religious life-view. Physiotherapy students had the highest agreement with the evolutionary life-view. No significant differences were noted between physiotherapy and nursing students in religious, scientific or evolutionary life-views. Women had higher agreements than men with the religious life-view. Men had higher agreements than women with the scientific and evolutionary life-view. No significant differences were noted in life-views between younger and older students within any student group. All student groups were patient-centred in their opinions on clinical ethical questions

  • 184.
    Gard, Gunvor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Gille, Kent-Åke
    Piteå älvdals sjukhus, Sjukgymnastiken.
    Degerfeldt, Lars
    McKenzie method and functional training in back pain rehabilitation: A brief review including results from a four-week rehabilitation programme2000In: Physical Therapy Reviews, ISSN 1083-3196, E-ISSN 1743-288X, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 107-115Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 185.
    Gard, Gunvor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Lundborg, Glenn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Pedestrians on slippery surfaces during winter: methods to describe the problems and practical tests of anti-skid devices2000In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 455-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Every year there are thousands of pedestrians in Sweden who are injured because of slippery pavements and roadways. Using an appropriate anti-skid device may reduce the risk of slips and falls on ice and snow. Methods to describe functional problems in walking on different slippery surfaces during winter have been developed as rating scales for evaluating walking safety and walking balance and an observation method to observe posture and movements during walking. Practical tests of all 25 anti-skid devices on the market in Sweden were carried out on different slippery surfaces; gravel, sand, salt, snow and ice. The anti-skid devices were described according to the subjects' perception of walking safety, walking balance and priority for own use. The postures and movements during walking were analysed by an expert physical therapist. The wholefoot device 'studs' was perceived as the best according to walking safety and walking balance and had the highest priority for own use.

  • 186.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Prevention of slip and fall accidents: risk factors, methods and suggestions for prevention2000In: Physical Therapy Reviews, ISSN 1083-3196, E-ISSN 1743-288X, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 175-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Slips and falls are major causes of accidents and injuries at work, in public areas and at home. Studies have shown that the more risk factors an individual is exposed to, the higher risk for slips and falls. The aim of this paper is to describe risk factors for slips and falls, methods that can be used in prevention, and ideas on how physiotherapists can work with prevention of slip and fall accidents. A review of the literature has been done, searching for relevant literature published in English between 1985 and 2000, from the Medline catalogue. The result showed many different risk factors for slip and fall accidents: (a) transfer situations; (b) reduced postural control, i.e. disturbed balance together with reduced muscle strength in the lower extremity; (c) reduced mobility in the hips and feet; (d) dizziness and vestibular asymmetries; and (e) medication. The following diseases may increase the risk for slip and fall accidents: stroke, cardiovascular diseases, musculoskeletal disorders, depression, Parkinson's disease, diabetes and dementia. Preventive interventions have been described but more are needed. A standardized fall anamnesis has been described including patients' earlier fall accidents and relevant risk factors present. Walking ability, balance, medicine consumption can be registered. Preventive programmes concerning risk factors for slips and falls, physical activities for daily use, and preventive aids have been developed and can be recommended for use by patients visiting primary health care and occupational health care. Studies have shown that physical training can increase the number of activities in daily life, reduce the use of technical aids, increase balance and walking ability, which all reduce the risk for slip and fall accidents

  • 187. Gard, Gunvor
    et al.
    Gyllensten, Amanda Lundvik
    Lund University, Department of Physical Therapy.
    The importance of emotions in physiotherapeutic practice2000In: Physical Therapy Reviews, ISSN 1083-3196, E-ISSN 1743-288X, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 155-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotions are a topic of great relevance, but are not frequently studied within physiotherapy. To identify and express emotions can be seen as a prerequisite for having emotional intelligence, an ability highly needed in treatment situations in physiotherapy. Within psychology, there is a tradition as well as a recognized fact that the identification and expression of emotions are important for good clinical outcomes. The aim of this paper is to review the literature within physiotherapy and psychology about the importance of emotions in treatment situations. Research has shown that physiotherapists have an awareness of underlying emotions in treatment situations, but often respond mostly on an intellectual level. Skills and awareness in identifying and expressing emotions in combination with cognitive and self-monitoring skills can be an effective way of improving the clinical reasoning process and treatment outcomes in physiotherapy. Identifying and expressing emotions in treatment situations may also increase positive treatment outcomes thanks to an increased adherence to transference and countertransference processes in treatment situations. More emphasis can be put on identifying and promoting verbal expression of emotions in treatment situations in physiotherapy practice.

  • 188.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    The physical therapist - an interactional ergonomic and health expert?...: commentary on Higgs J, Hunt A, Higgs C, Neubauer D.Physiotherapy education in the changing international healthcare and educational context2000In: Advances in Physiotherapy, ISSN 1403-8196, E-ISSN 1651-1948, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 99-102Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 189.
    Szybec, Kristina
    et al.
    Private practitioner.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Lindén, Jitka
    Lund University, Department of Psychology.
    The psysiotherapist-patient relationship: applying a psychotherapy model2000In: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, ISSN 0959-3985, E-ISSN 1532-5040, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 181-193Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 190.
    Hedlund, Lena
    et al.
    Malmö, Blekingsborgs öppenvård.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Tillit till den egna kroppen2000In: Nordisk fysioterapi, ISSN 1402-3024, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 67-74Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 191.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Towards innovative practices in surveying work2000In: Innovative theories, tools, and practices in work and organizational psychology / [ed] Matti Vartiainen; Framcesco Avallone; Neil Anderson, Hogrefe & Huber Publishers, 2000Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 192.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation.
    Activity: Interaction between patient and physiotherapist: a qualitative study reflecting the physioterapist's perspective1999Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 193.
    Gard, Gunvor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Odenrick, Per
    Lunds tekniska högskola, LTH.
    Ergonomi: en kunskapsöversikt1999In: Människan i arbetslivet: teori och praktik, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 1999, p. 35-62Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 194.
    Gyllensten, Amanda Lundvik
    et al.
    University of Lund, Department of Physical Therapy.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Salford, Eva
    University of Lund, Department of Physical Therapy.
    Ekdahl, Charlotte
    University of Lund, Department of Physical Therapy.
    Interaction between patient and physiotherapist: a qualitative study reflecting the physiotherapist's perspective1999In: Physiotherapy Research International, ISSN 1358-2267, E-ISSN 1471-2865, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 89-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The interaction between patient and physiotherapist (PT) is central in physiotherapeutic treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate expert physiotherapists' perception of important factors influencing the quality of the interaction in physiotherapeutic treatment. METHOD: Ten experienced PTs working in primary healthcare were interviewed twice, triangulating a sort of important events, an exemplar and a key informant interview. The data were transcribed, coded and analysed for main themes and categories according to the qualitative technique described by Shepard et al. (1993) and Merriam (1988). RESULTS: Important factors in interaction could be divided into the 'Prerequisites dimension' and the 'Interaction dimension'. In the former, the most dominant theme was 'Internal prerequisites of the PT'. The most-cited category in this theme was 'Practical professional skills and patient experience'. In the latter, the themes 'Establishing contact', 'Ways of contact', 'Frames' and the 'Therapeutic process' emerged. Here, the most-cited categories were 'Establishing contact and confidence', having a 'Therapeutic role', 'Being sensitive and intuitive', 'Encountering', 'Listening' and 'Identification of patient resources'. These factors were seen as essential for promoting a positive patient outcome. Interaction skills were reinforced by reflection on patients' experiences. CONCLUSIONS: Interaction skills of the expert PT were thought to enhance the resources of the patient and lead to a positive patient outcome. Within professional development more emphasis ought to be put on reinforcing the reflective process of the PT, for instance by the use of supervision by an experienced colleague.

  • 195.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Kritiska belastningssituationer vid rehabilitering i hemmet1999In: Arbete, människa, miljö och Nordisk ergonomi, ISSN 1402-859X, no 3, p. 179-183Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 196.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Psykosocial arbetsmiljö1999In: Människan i arbetslivet: teori och praktik, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 1999, p. 63-78Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 197.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Towards innovative practices in surveying work?1999In: Proceedings of the 10th year anniversary of M. Sc. ergonomics: International conference, Luleå, Sweden, 29-30 October 1999 / [ed] John Abeysekera; Emma-Christin Lönnroth; D. Paul T. Piamonte; Houshang Shahnavaz, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 1999, p. 185-190Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 198.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Balans mellan arbetets krav och individens kapacitet: en utgångspunkt vid bedömning av arbetsförmåga1998In: Arbete, människa, miljö och Nordisk ergonomi, ISSN 1402-859X, no 1, p. 29-35Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 199.
    Gard, Gunvor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Tamm, Maare
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Följsamhet efter rehabilitering: en 2-årsuppföljning1998In: Arbete, människa, miljö och Nordisk ergonomi, ISSN 1402-859X, no 2, p. 76-80Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 200.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Motivating and demotivating factors in work among women as small-size enterprise leaders: a basis for improved working environment1998In: Arbete, människa, miljö och Nordisk ergonomi, ISSN 1402-859X, no 4, p. 261-268Article in journal (Other academic)
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