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  • 151.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Trace element immobilization in soil using amendments2010In: Trace Elements in Soils, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2010, p. 353-380Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 152.
    Carabante, Ivan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Grahn, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Holmgren, Allan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Hedlund, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Adsorption of As (V) on iron oxide nanoparticle films studied by in situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopy2009In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 346, no 1-3, p. 106-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stabilization of arsenic contaminated soils by iron oxides has been proposed as a remediation technique to prevent leaching of arsenate into the environment. Fundamental studies are needed to establish under which conditions the complexes formed are stable. In the present work, a powerful technique, viz. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, is adapted to studies of adsorption of arsenate species on iron oxides. This technique facilitates acquisition of both quantitative and qualitative in situ adsorption data.In the present work, about 800 nm thick films of 6-lineferrihydrite were deposited on ZnSe ATR crystals. Arsenate adsorption on the ferrihydrite film was studied at pD values ranging from 4 to 12 and at an arsenate concentration of 0.03 mM in D2O solution. The amount of adsorbed arsenate decreased with increasing pD as a result of the more negatively charged iron oxide surface at higher pD values. The adsorption and desorption kinetics were also studied. Arsenate showed a higher adsorption rate within the first 70 minutes and a much lower adsorption rate from 70 up to 300 minutes. The low adsorption rate at longer reaction times was partly due to a low desorption rate of already adsorbed carbonate species adsorbed at the surface. The desorption of carbonate species was evidenced by the appearance of negative absorption bands. The desorption of adsorbed arsenate complexes was examined by flushing with D2O at pD 4 and 8.5 and it was found that the complexes were very stable at pD 4 suggesting formation of mostly inner-sphere complexes whereas a fraction of the complexes at pD 8.5 were less stable than at pD 4, possibly due to the formation of outer-sphere complexes.In summary, the ATR technique was shown to provide in situ information about the adsorption rate, desorption rate and the speciation of the complexes formed within a single experiment, which is very difficult to obtain using other techniques.

  • 153.
    Diener, Silvia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ageing behaviour of steel slags in landfill liners2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Steel slags are by-products of the steelmaking process. To avoid unnecessary disposal, e.g. into landfill, their chemical and physical properties should be exploited to support alternative uses. Steel slags can be recycled within the steel plant or used as construction material in roads, hydraulic engineering and different types of barriers, including landfill covers. A landfill cover consists of several layers, including a liner with low water and gas permeability in order to reduce methane and leachate emissions. Several studies have demonstrated that steel slags have good potential to fulfil such an application. However, there are questions regarding the stability of the slag minerals over long periods of time. A landfill cover must function well for many decades and centuries. In order to predict the long-term stability of steel slags as a landfill liner, laboratory experiments have been performed to study the effects of accelerated ageing of steel slag under controlled conditions. The factors investigated in the storage atmosphere were carbon dioxide content, relative humidity and temperature. The influence of leachate contact and ageing time were also assessed.This thesis reports the study of electric arc furnace slags and ladle slag from the production of high-alloyed tool steel after accelerated ageing for periods of three months and ten months. Mineralogy and leaching were studied using two different leaching tests, thermal analysis, acid-neutralization capacity assays and X-ray diffraction. For the ageing periods considered, the exposure of the slags to an atmosphere enriched with carbon dioxide had the greatest impact on leaching. In general, calcium, aluminium, sulphur and sodium leached from the slag matrix to the greatest extent while other metals such as chromium, nickel, lead and zinc were found at very low levels in the leachate. The leaching of calcium and aluminium reduced with increasing carbon dioxide level. Thermal analysis revealed the decomposition of carbonates. Weight and enthalpy changes were evaluated between 100 and 1000 °C. The buffer capacity of the steel slags, represented by the acid neutralization capacity (ANC 4.5) was not reduced after 10 months of ageing. However, the division of the titration into two steps revealed a shift of buffering zones for more highly aged samples, probably due to the formation of carbonates. The mineralogy of the investigated steel slags was complex with a large variety of mineral phases, principally calcium silicates, monticellite, periclase and a spinel phase. Other possible phases were gehlenite, merwinite, akermanite and iron. The existence of different solid solution is likely among the slag phases and can cause shifting of peaks in the X-ray diffractogram. Also, calcite was identified. Short-term carbonation has not shown significant impact on mineralogy despite of calcite formation. The results of the study contribute to a better understanding of the chemical and mineral stability of electric arc furnace slag and ladle slag in the environment of a landfill liner. The consequences of slag ageing include reduced leaching rates for certain elements. To predict the long-term behaviour of aged slag, the results of this study should be combined with data from two other sources - an ongoing ageing experiment that includes mechanical tests and a full scale field test at the Hagfors landfill. Additional analytical methods that can better characterise the mineralogy, for example scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energydispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), should also be applied to better quantify the mineralogical phases and to determine which trace elements are most abundant in specific minerals.

  • 154.
    Travar, Igor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge Återvinning AB.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Assessing the environmental impact of ashes used in a landfill cover construction2009In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 1336-1346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large amounts of construction materials will be needed in Europe in anticipation for capping landfills that will be closed due to the tightening up of landfill legislation. This study was conducted to assess the potential environmental impacts of using refuse derived fuel (RDF) and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ashes as substitutes for natural materials in landfill cover designs. The leaching of substances from a full-scale landfill cover test area built with different fly and bottom ashes was evaluated based on laboratory tests and field monitoring. The water that drained off above the liner (drainage) and the water that percolated through the liner into the landfill (leachate) were contaminated with Cl-, nitrogen and several trace elements (e.g., As, Cu, Mo, Ni and Se). The drainage from layers containing ash will probably require pre-treatment before discharge. The leachate quality from the ash cover is expected to have a minor influence on overall landfill leachate quality because the amounts generated from the ash covers were low, <3-30 l (m2 yr)-1. Geochemical modelling indicated that precipitation of clay minerals and other secondary compounds in the ash liner was possible within 3 years after construction, which could contribute to the retention of trace elements in the liner in the long term. Hence, from an environmental view point, the placement of ashes in layers above the liner is more critical than within the liner.

  • 155.
    Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Assessment of redox-sensitive element mobility: discrepancy between laboratory and field data2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Leaching tests have become popular tools to assess the environmental effect of materials containing pollutants e.g. wastes, construction materials, soils. Batch (EN 12457-3) and column (prEN 14405) leaching tests are both standardised. The standardisation regulates how the test should be performed i.e. the procedure, the amount of material to be used and how to handle the leachate. However, standardisation is often misinterpreted as quality insurance that the results of the test are relevant for any type of material and application. The EN 12457-3 test has thanks to the standardisation and its relatively low price become the most popular tests used to assess if waste material could be used in constructions. Basically waste materials fulfilling acceptance criteria for landfill for inert waste are often regarded as acceptable to reuse in the society.The aim of the presentation is to discuss the risk of using tests without a critical assessment of their relevance and limitations. Materials containing sulphides, iron and arsenic are specially challenging to assess as the standard batch leaching test underestimates the risk for leaching.The leaching of arsenic was underestimated by the EN 12457-3 test and the effect of open filtration, sample preparation and test conditions are discussed. The results showed that a material fulfilling criteria for landfill for inert waste leached more arsenic than was acceptable at a landfill for hazardous waste. In the second example, the documented generation of acidic leachate from blast furnace slag in field conditions has never been observed in the laboratory. The main hypothesis is that the development of unsaturated conditions caused the oxidation of sulphidic minerals in the blast furnace slag heap and generation of acid leachate.The selection of appropriate leaching tests should be done with regard to the real conditions that are to be assessed. Standardisation does not mean that the test is automatically adapted to the need. A relevant assessment requires therefore understanding of the geochemical process controlling the pollutant mobilisation and immobilisation in the actual material and its application. Such comprehension is a prerequisite to the selection of appropriate leaching procedures.

  • 156.
    Nordmark, Desiree
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Rönkkö, Reima
    University of Oulu.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Andreas, Lale
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Changes in leaching and chemical fractionation of arsenic, chromium and copper in soil after thermal treatment2009In: SARDINIA 2009: Twelfth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; [5 - 9 October 2009, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy] / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal treatment is used for remediation of soils contaminated with both organic and inorganic contaminants. The target is destruction of organic contaminants while the residue containing the inorganic contaminants has to be further treated. The effects of thermal treatment on As, Cr and Cu in contaminated soil are evaluated in laboratory and field tests, using leaching test, As speciation and sequential extraction test. In laboratory tests on four particle size fractions, the leaching of As and Cr increased by factors of 18-40 and 2-23, respectively, while the mobility of Cu decreased 12-4 fold after thermal treatment. The concentration of As(V) in the finest soil fraction increased 19 fold, while As(III) remained constant. Arsenic, Cr and Cu associated to the reducible soil fraction decreased, possibly due to enhanced crystallisation of Fe oxides and reduction of available adsorption sites. In the field test, the concentration of As, Cr and Cu was 1-4 times higher in the filter fraction compared to the treated soil.

  • 157.
    Onwubuya, Kene
    et al.
    University of Brighton.
    Cundy, Andrew
    University of Brighton.
    Puschenreiter, Markus
    University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Bone, Brian
    Environment Agency.
    Greaves, Jon
    Environment Agency.
    Teasdale, Phillip
    University of Brighton.
    Mench, Michel
    UMR BIOGECO INRA 1202, University of Bordeaux.
    Tlustos, Pavel
    Czech University of Life Sceinces Prague.
    Mikhalovsky, Sergey
    University of Brighton.
    Waite, Steve
    University of Brighton.
    Friesl, Wolfgang
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology.
    Marschner, Bernd
    Ruhr-University Bochum.
    Muller, Ingo
    Saxon State Agency for Environment, Agriculture and Geology.
    Developing decision support tools for the selection of "gentle" remediation approaches2009In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, no 24, p. 6132-6142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A range of tools have been proposed to support decision making in contaminated land remediation. From a European perspective it is clear, however, that there are considerable national differences in the decision support process, and more generally in the extent to which this process supports the selection of less invasive, alternative remediation options such as phytoremediation, in situ immobilisation etc. (referred to here as "gentle" remediation technologies). In this paper we present results from the recently completed European Union ERANET SNOWMAN project SUMATECS (Sustainable Management of Trace Element Contaminated Sites), and critically review available decision support tools in terms of their fitness for purpose for the application of gentle remediation technologies. Stakeholder feedback indicates a lack of knowledge amongst stakeholders of currently available decision support tools. We propose that decision support which focuses on gentle remediation is more strongly incorporated into existing, well-established (national) decision support tools / decision-frameworks, to promote more widespread use and uptake.

  • 158.
    Travar, Igor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge AB.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Development of drainage water quality from landfill covers built with ashes and sewage sludge2009In: SARDINIA 2009: Twelfth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; [5 - 9 October 2009, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy] / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An alternative to virgin and artificial materials in landfill cover can be various types of waste materials like ashes and sewage sludge. From the environmental point of view, the most interesting question to study is the quality of the drainage water generated above the liner in landfill cover built with waste materials. Thus, the main aim of this paper is the evaluation of drainage water quality and time required for its treatment. Results from a full scale test, physical models and a column test were used in the evaluation of the drainage water quality development. The main contaminants identified in drainage water were N-tot, As, Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn and Ni. The laboratory tests showed higher concentrations of N-tot, NH4-N, TOC, As and Pb, but lower values of Cl, Zn, Ba and Ni in comparison with drainage water from the field.  It was probably a result of different factors that may have influence on leaching but interactions of the protection layer with the vegetation layer and the liner surface are expected to influence the results from the field. According to results from the laboratory experiments, drainage water will probably need treat­ment for at least two-three decades after covering.

  • 159.
    Asplund, Erik
    et al.
    inno Scandinavia AB.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Heydebreck, Peter
    inno AG.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Norberg, Anna
    Umeå universitet.
    Framsyn för Norrbotten och Västerbotten: en idéskrift om utvecklingsinsatser idag och imorgon2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapport från DARE delprojekt regional framsyn. Etapp 1; scenarier och förslag på aktiviteter.Detta dokument är slutrapporten från den regionala framsynsprocessen som drevs 2008-2009 inom projektet DARE – Development Arena for Research and Entrepreneurship.Framsynen har verkat efter ett normativt och handlingsinriktat angreppssätt. Ledmotiv för processen har varit frågor som: Hur vill vi ha det? Varför är det inte så nu? Vad behöver vi göra nu och i framtiden? Regionen kan sägas kännetecknas av att den är rik på naturresurser och fattig på folk. Det är bakgrunden till de fokusområden som framsynen behandlat- Grönare näringsliv (hur kan nya och miljöeffektivare produkter och tjänsterutvecklas effektivare?)- Demografiutveckling (hur kan samhällsfunktionerna bestå med inverteradebefolkningspyramider och hur kan utvecklingen mot en åldrande befolkningvändas?)Lite tvärs över båda frågorna ovan hamnar ett annat fokus; regionens attraktivitet. Inom detta område har en ung framsyn genomförts med deltagare från olika delar av Norrbotten.Framsynen har gått steg för steg genom visioner, analys av framgångsfaktorer, scenarieskapande, förslag på åtgärder och prioritering av dessa. Under genomförandet har det uppstått ett antal avknoppningar i form av t ex nya samarbeten och projekt. Ett av de sistnämnda var den unga framsynen som genomfördes med finansiering av Norrbottens läns landsting.Bland de prioriterade förslagen som redovisas i denna rapport dominerar olika aktiviteter för att knyta samman olika aktörer och grupper inom regionen och på så sätt göra mer av mindre. Många av förslagen visar regionala aktörers förväntningar på universitetens roll i den regionala utvecklingen och markerar ett intresse av tätare samverkan meduniversiteten. Förslagen berör alla verksamheter inom universiteten, såväl utbildning, forskning och förvaltning. Bland de prioriterade förslagen finns:• Stimulera gröna affärs och teknikutvecklingsallianser för regionens småföretag• Stimulera ”den lille forskaren” – en modell för småföretagens forskarkollektiv• Utred grönare näringsliv som gemensamt profilområde för regionens universitet• Stärk företagsnyttig forskning & utvecklingsinsatser kring ”age management”• Etablera ett ”integrationsnätverk” för universitetens studenter & det regionalasamhället• Utveckla dialogen mellan universiteten & avnämargrupper i utvecklingen avutbildningar • Skapa regionalt utvecklingslab för bättre samverkan mellan universiteten ochomgivande samhälleInom DARE-projektet kommer nu det material som utvecklats inom framsynsprocessen att användas för utveckling av samverkan inom universiteten, mellan universiteten och med andra intressenter av den regionala utvecklingen, inte minst då de som deltagit i framsynen.

  • 160.
    Schwitzguebel, Jean-Paul
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Lausanne.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Comino, Elena
    Politecnico di Torino.
    Vanek, Tomas
    Institute of Experimental Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic.
    From green to clean: a promising and sustainable approach towards environmental remediation and human health for the 21st century2009In: Agrochimica, ISSN 0002-1857, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 1-29Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 161.
    Herrmann, Inga
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Svensson, Malin
    Ecke, Holger
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andreas, Lale
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Hydraulic conductivity of fly ash: sewage sludge mixes for use in landfill cover liners2009In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 43, no 14, p. 3541-3547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Secondary materials could help meeting the increasing demand of landfill cover liner materials. In this study, the effect of compaction energy, water content, ash ratio, freezing, drying and biological activity on the hydraulic conductivity of two fly ash - sewage sludge mixes was investigated using a 27-1 fractional factorial design. The aim was to identify the factors that influence hydraulic conductivity, to quantify their effects and to assess how a sufficiently low hydraulic conductivity can be achieved. The factors compaction energy and drying, as well as the factor interactions material×ash ratio and ash ratio×compaction energy affected hydraulic conductivity significantly (α = 0.05). Freezing on 5 freeze-thaw cycles did not affect hydraulic conductivity. Water content affected hydraulic conductivity only initially. The hydraulic conductivity data were modelled using multiple linear regression. The derived models were reliable as indicated by R2adjusted values between 0.75 and 0.86. Independent on the ash ratio and the material, hydraulic conductivity was predicted to be between 1.7 × 10-11 m s-1 and 8.9 × 10-10 m s-1 if the compaction energy was 2.4 J cm-3, the ash ratio between 20 and 75 % and drying did not occur. Thus, the investigated materials met the limit value for non-hazardous waste landfills of 10-9 m s-1.

  • 162.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ragnvaldsson, Daniel
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå.
    Lövgren, Lars
    Umeå university.
    Tesfalidet, Solomon
    Umeå university.
    Gustavsson, Björn
    Lättström, Anders
    Umeå university.
    Leffler, Per
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå.
    Maurice, Christian
    Impact of water saturation level on arsenic and metal mobility in the Fe-amended soil2009In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 74, no 2, p. 206-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of water saturation level (oxidizing-reducing environment) on As and metal solubility in chromium, copper, arsenic (CCA)-contaminated soil amended with Fe-containing materials was studied. The soil was mixed with 0.1 and 1 wt% of iron grit (Fe(0)) and 1, 7 and 15 wt% of oxygen scarfing granulate (OSG, a by-product of steel processing). Solubility of As and metals was evaluated by a batch leaching test and analysis of soil pore water. Soil saturation with water greatly increased As solubility in the untreated as well as in the Fe-amended soil. This was related to the reductive dissolution of Fe oxides and increased concentration of As(III) species. Fe amendments showed As reducing capacity under both oxic and anoxic conditions. The cytotoxicity of the soil pore water correlated with the concentration of As(III). The Fe-treatments as well as water saturation of soil were less significant for the solubility of Cu, Cr and Zn than for As. The batch leaching test used for waste characterization substantially underestimated As solubility that could occur under water-saturated (anaerobic) conditions. In the case of soil landfilling, other techniques than Fe-stabilization of As containing soil should be considered.

  • 163.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Åberg, Helena
    Department of Food, Health and Environment, University of Gothenburg.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Berg, Per E.O.
    HB Anttilator, Stagnellsgatan 3, SE, 652 23, Karlstad.
    Inconsistent pathways of household waste2009In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 1798-1806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to provide policy-makers and waste management planners with information about how recycling programs affect the quantities of specific materials recycled and disposed of. Two questions were addressed: which factors influence household waste generation and pathways? and how reliable are official waste data? Household waste flows were studied in 35 Swedish municipalities, and a wide variation in the amount of waste per capita was observed. When evaluating the effect of different waste collection policies, it was found to be important to identify site-specific factors influencing waste generation. Eleven municipal variables were investigated in an attempt to explain the variation. The amount of household waste per resident was higher in populous municipalities and when net commuting was positive. Property-close collection of dry recyclables led to increased delivery of sorted metal, plastic and paper packaging. No difference was seen in the amount of separated recyclables per capita when weight-based billing for the collection of residual waste was applied, but the amount of residual waste was lower. Sixteen sources of error in official waste statistics were identified and the results of the study emphasize the importance of reliable waste generation and composition data to underpin waste management policies.

  • 164. Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Diener, Silvia
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge AB, Södertälje.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Influence of accelerated ageing on acid neutralization capacity and mineralogical transformations in refuse derived-fuel fly ashes2009In: SARDINIA 2009: Twelfth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; [5 - 9 October 2009, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy] / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2009, Vol. 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a part of a long-term collaboration between Telge Återvinning AB at Södertälje in South Sweden and Lulea University of Technology (LTU) in the Northern part of Sweden. Ashes and other industrial wastes used for landfill cover construction have been studied for several years. However, there is a need for further investigations with regard to the long-term mechanical and chemical stability of ash liners in landfill cover constructions. Long-term changes of ashes are investigated by laboratory studies on accelerated weathering (ageing) using experimental design. With regard to weathering, several stages can be identified: hydration and carbonation are well known processes while the processes surrounding the conversion of ash to clay minerals are less well known. There are a number of studies showing that the process of mineral transformation during the ageing of coal or MSWI ashes is quite similar to that of volcanic ashes in nature. Yet, the time frames are quite different: while volcanic ashes need several thousands of years for clay mineral development, there are evidences as well that e.g. clay illite is formed from glass phases in MSWI bottom ash after only 12 y or that clay like amorphous material can be formed in micro-scale throughout the surfaces of coal ash particles after 8 y of natural weathering (Zevenbergen et al., 1999; Zevenbergen et al., 1998). There are a lot of studies performed on rapid fly ash conversion into zeolites by hydrothermal alkaline treatment, the success of which strongly depends on alkaline conditions and the silica-alumina composition of the fly ash source (Inada et al., 2005). These results provide further support to the hypothesis that the observed rapid clay like mineral formation arose as a result of the initially high pH of ash, which promotes rapid dissolution of certain components of aluminosilicate glasses. Furthermore, in a long term perspective these aluminosilicates can transform into zeolites, smectites or halloysites dependent on the solution pH and leaching rate. Based on these studies on volcanic, coal or MSWI ashes we presume that refuse derived fuel (RDF) ashes, like those that are used in the Tveta landfill cover, will be subject to analogical weathering and mineral transformation processes.In order to investigate the mineral transformation in RDF fly ashes, a designed laboratory experiment was performed. A reduced factorial experimental design for accelerated ageing has been applied to evaluate the influence of five factors: carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, relative air humidity, time and, quality of added water (Table 1). Table 1 Factors and levels tested in the reduced multivariate factorial design for the study of accelerated ageing of RFD fly ashesFactorLowMiddleHighCarbon dioxide, CO2 (%)Atmosphere (0.038)20*100Temperature, ºC5 3060Relative air humidity, Rh (%)3065100Time, months31022Water qualityDistilled -LeachateThe influence of these factors on mineralogical composition, leaching behaviour and acid neutralization capacity (ANC) is analysed and evaluated with the aid of multivariate data analysis. The MVDA modelling was performed with SIMCA-P+ 11.5 version program developed by Umetrics AB (Eriksson and Umetrics Academy, 2006). Principle component analysis (PCA) technique was used and presented in this paper. PCA is an interdependence model where all variables are analysed simultaneously as a single set in a data matrix X. Triplicates were tested for each factor combination. Sampling was performed after 3, 10 and 22 months of accelerated ageing. Mineral composition was analysed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Acid neutralisation capacity was performed at 8.3 and 4.5 pH with 0.1 M HCl solution. The experimental set-up of accelerated ageing of RDF fly ashes is showed in Fig. 1. Preliminary evaluation of the mineral transformations in aged RDF fly ashes revealed that the carbonation process was not yet completed in the some of the specimens (Fig.2). This still caused high pH (pH=12.7) in the solution even though a calcite phase was found in all aged fly ashes. Multivariate data analysis confirmed that carbon dioxide affects the pH and ANC of fly ashes during ageing of RDF fly ashes. The specimens prepared with leachate water had higher ANC than the specimens with distilled water. The ANC8.3 was most influenced by 30 ºC temperature and 65 % relative humidity (ANC8.3 = 0.05 mmol/g) and this well corresponds to the results found in the literature. The ageing time factor has the highest influence on ANC4.5. A more detailed analysis of other mineral phases including clay-like minerals in aged fly ashes will be performed later.The results of this study will contribute to the better understanding of ash formation processes and improved possibilities to make beneficial use of ashes as an alternative to landfilling.Figure 1. Experimental set-up for investigations of the long-term behaviour of the ashes under different environmental conditions. Figure 2. XRD patterns of RDF fly ashes at different ageing conditions. a) N33, b) N71, c) N15, d) N85, and e) N51. The peaks are labelled A (anhydrite), C (calcite), E (ettringite), F (Friedel's Salt), Ge (gehlenite), H (halite), He (hematite), P (portlandite), Q (quartz), S (sylvite), V (vaterite).

  • 165.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Guerri, G.
    University of Florence.
    Landi, L.
    University of Florence.
    Pietramellara, G.
    University of Florence.
    Nannipieri, P.
    University of Florence.
    Renella, G.
    University of Florence.
    Microbial biomass, respiration and enzyme activities after in situ aided phytostabilization of a Pb- and Cu-contaminated soil2009In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 72, no 1, p. 115-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We conducted a pilot-scale experiment to study the effects of an aided phytostabilisation on soil microbial and biological endpoints in an ore dust-contaminated soil. Soil was amended with alkaline fly ashes plus peat to reduce mobility of trace elements and vegetated with a proprietary grass/herb mixture. Results indicated that the proposed aided phytostabilization approach of Cu-Pb contaminaed soil significantly increased microbial biomass and respiration, reduced microbial stress and increased key soil enzyme activities. Further research is needed to unambiguously determine whether the soil biochemical endpoints that were studied responded more to decreased metal mobility or to general soil amelioration.

  • 166.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Grandjean, Mathilde
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Potential for acid leachate formation from air-cooled blast-furnace slag used in road construction2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Air-cooled blast-furnace slag (ACBFS) has suitable physical properties for use as an unbound aggregate in road bases. Results of laboratory leaching tests have also indicated that ACBFS can be used without posing any risk of negative environmental impacts. However, monitoring of drainages from a full-scale road test section with ACBFS has indicated that acid leachates (pH<6) with associated increased releases of constituents can occur under field conditions. In this paper, the potential and responsible mechanisms for acid leachate formation from ACBFS used in road construction are discussed. Analysis of a 10-year time series of drainage samples and 12 year old ACBFS from the road section indicates that acidity might develop from the oxidation of reduced sulphides released from the ACBFS. Currently, the impact of intermittent wetting and drying conditions on the weathering of minerals and leaching over time from ACBFS is investigated under controlled laboratory conditions to verify the field observations. A combination of chemical and mineralogical analyses is used to analyse the results.

  • 167.
    Windt, L. De
    et al.
    Ecole des Mines de Paris.
    Dabo, D.
    Ecole des Mines de Paris.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Badreddine, R.
    INERIS, Wastes and Contaminated Sites Unit.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Reactive transport modeling of leachate evolution of MSWI bottom ash used as road basement: Hérouville (France) and Dåva (Sweden) sites2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The recycling of municipal solid waste of incineration (MSWI) bottom ash as aggregates for road basement requires a better characterization of the evolution of leachate chemistry over a timescale of many decades. In this paper, a common reactive transport model is applied to the Hérouville (France) and Dåva (Sweden) pilot roads whose leachate emissions have been sampled during 10 and 6 years, respectively. The model considers simultaneously the hydrodynamic processes (rain water infiltration, advective and diffusive transport), pH-buffering and solubility-controlled processes by secondary minerals, ageing by atmospheric carbonation, and the leachate chemistry (major elements and trace metals such as Al, Cu, Pb). The evolution of pH is fairly well simulated with the following pH-buffering sequence: portlandite, calcium silicate hydrate (CSH), ettringite and, finally, calcite. The quantity of CO2 dissolved in the percolating rain water is generally not sufficient to explain the pH evolution and carbonation processes, requiring atmospheric gaseous inputs. The relation between pH evolution and element release is discussed for both sites. Calculated Pb release is overestimated when based on solubility-controlled mechanisms only. Edge effects are shown to be important at both sites with an emphasis of carbonation and release of non reactive elements. Temperature has no significant effect on the calculated leachate chemistry in the range of 5 - 30° C, except at high pH.

  • 168.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Referensdata för miljöbedömning av alternativa material i sluttäckning av avfallsupplag2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil is commonly used materials in top layers of landfill covers with the consumptions rates in Sweden reaching several million tons per year. Soil stabilization techniques may allow utilisation of soil containing elevated concentrations of trace elements as a secondary construction material at landfills; by this considerably reducing the demand for landfill capacity, clean soil and transports. Materials classified as waste are tested differently from the conventional materials (which are usually not investigated at all). It means that it becomes more complicated to use secondary materials and they are often disregarded, although in practice they can have just as good or even better properties than virgin materials. In order to make a reasonable evaluation of the suitability of stabilised soil for landfill covers, a comparison with the quality of the conventional materials used in landfill vegetation layers should be performed. The aim of the project was to collect data on the chemical properties of the vegetation layer with conventional materials that can be used as a reference for the evaluation of alternative construction materials. Soil and soil pore water samples were taken from the 25-30 cm depth of the upper cover layer at several areas within six landfill sites in Sweden (in total 16 sampling points). The samples were tested for total solids and loss on ignition (soil only), electrical conductivity, pH, redox potential and chemical element content. Leaching test (L/S10) and methane oxidation test were also performed with the soil samples. The studied vegetation covers of landfills varied extensively in chemical composition, where elemental concentrations differed between the materials with several orders of magnitude. Despite the high total concentrations of trace elements, their solubility was relatively low. Most materials can be classified as inert waste and in five of sixteen cases as non-hazardous waste. Soil pore water from three covers had metal concentrations that exceeded the limits at which the effects on water organisms may start to occur. However, this comparison is a conservative estimate of potential impacts on water environment as the pore water from the covers is affected by various processes, such as adsorption and dilution before it reaches groundwater or surface water. Methane oxidising capacity of the top cover materials correlated to some degree with the amount of organic matter and it also tended to be higher in younger covers. No causality can be established on the basis of available data, but it seems reasonable that an abundant supply of landfill gas, nutrients and water has been beneficial for methane oxidation in the younger covers that also contained higher amounts of organic matter.

  • 169.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Taraškevičius, Ricardas
    Institute of Geology and Geography.
    Zinkutė, Rimante
    Institute of Geology and Geography.
    Spatial variability of topsoil contamination by trace elements on the territories of kindergartens in Vilnius, Lithuania2009In: 10th International Conference on Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements: Frontiers in Trace Elements Research and Education, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 170.
    Johansson, Martina
    et al.
    Norrbottens Läns Landsting.
    Asplund, Erik
    Inno group.
    Kajava, Malin
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ung framsyn: en idéskrift om attraktionskraft - utvecklingsinsatser och åtgärdsförslag2009Report (Other academic)
  • 171.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lind, Bo
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Use of wood ash for road stabilisation2009In: Eleventh International Symposium on Environmental Issues and Waste Management in Energy and Mineral Production: SWEMP 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cementitious properties of many wood ashes makes them a potential stabilising agent for roads that can substitute cement. A test is presently performed using a 30% ash addition to natural soils for reinforcing a forestry road near Timrå, central Sweden. The bearing capacity of forestry roads in Sweden has become increasingly problematic in recent years, due to warmer winters, and in order to get timber out from the forests, road stabilisation is needed, usually adding cement to the road body. Wood ash has similar properties, and may substitute cement. An added advantage of using wood ash is the saving of landfill space. In the ongoing study, laboratory tests on leaching and mechanical stability, frost-sensitivity et c has been performed and a test road was built in June 2009, and will be monitored with regard to environmental impact and mechanical properties. The results so far indicate a strong stabilizing effect of ash additions to the road shoulder material.

  • 172.
    Hage, Olle
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Viktbaserad renhållningstaxa som styrmedel2009Report (Other academic)
  • 173.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Fitts, Jeffrey
    Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY.
    Mench, Michel
    Bordeaux 1 University.
    X-ray spectroscopic analyses of As contaminated mining spoils 10 years after chemical stabilization2009In: 10th International Conference on the Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements: Frontiers in Trace Elements Reasearch and Education, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 174.
    Carabante, Ivan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Grahn, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Holmgren, Allan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Hedlund, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    A powerful method for studying the adsorption of As(V) on iron oxides in situ2008In: Arsenic in the environment - Arsenic from nature to humans: Book of Abstracts, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 175.
    Diener, Silvia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Herrmann, Inga
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Accelerated carbonation of ashes and steel slags in a landfill cover construction2008In: Proceedings of Second International Conference on Accelerated Carbonation for Environmental and Materials Engineering / [ed] Renato Baciocchi; Giulia Costa; Alessandra Polettini; Raffaella Pomi, University of Rome "La Sapienza" , 2008, p. 389-400Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fly ash from biofuel incineration and slags from steel production were used in two full scale applications of cover constructions on municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The long-term stability of the cover materials is studied in a designed laboratory experiment. The impact of six environmental factors on accelerated carbonation is investigated over a period of three years. Leaching behaviour, acid neutralization capacity, mineral composition (XRD) and thermo gravimetrical behaviour (TG) are tested after different periods of ageing under different conditions. By now samples were taken after three and ten months of ageing. Multivariate data analysis was used for data evaluation. The results indicate the factors material, ageing time and carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere to be most relevant.

  • 176.
    Nordmark, Désirée
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Assessment of thermal treatment of trace element contaminated soil2008Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many contaminated sites in Sweden are characterised by a complex contamination situation with a mixture of organic and inorganic contaminants. For example, wood preservation with creosote, pentachlorophenol and chromated copper arsenate (CCA) has caused this kind of co-contaminated sites. Generally, stepwise remediation has to be used for remediation of these sites with separation and destruction of the organic contaminants and concentration, separation and stabilization of the inorganic contaminants during separate treatment steps. Thermal treatment methods are suitable for the destruction of organics but can increase the mobility of some inorganic contaminants due to phase transitions in the soil minerals. These changes have to be considered during further handling of the soil. In this work, the effects of thermal treatment on the mobility of CCA and critical factors affecting the mobility were studied. Also, different types of thermal treatment methods suitable for remediation of wood preservatives are discussed. The study included laboratory tests and a literature study. A CCA- contaminated soil was separated in four particle size fractions and thermally treated at 800 °C. Batch leaching tests showed that the thermal treatment increased the leaching of As and Cr while the leaching of Cu decreased. A chemical sequential extraction test indicated that the enhanced As leaching probably depended on the reduction of available adsorption sites for trace elements in the soil, due to crystallisation of Fe oxides. The enhanced leaching of Cr could be explained by a minor increase of easily soluble Cr(VI), an increase of the pH, and the competition for sorption sites with other oxyanions. However, the amount of stable Cr species increased during the thermal treatment. The reduced leaching of Cu could be explained by the formation of stable Cu species. The volatility of trace elements is positively correlated to treatment time and temperature. Arsenic is relatively volatile while Cr and Cu are not, although chlorides in the soil enhance Cu volatility. Thermal treatment in a reducing atmosphere enhances the volatility of As. Thermal treatment techniques are divided in extraction/desorption techniques (100-800 °C) and incineration techniques (800-1400 °C). Because of the high energy demand, incineration is most beneficial for smaller quantities of soil. Thermal desorption techniques imply an after treatment of the volatilized organic contaminants: they are combusted in an afterburner, condensed, or collected in a filter. An effective air pollution control (APC) system is necessary in order to control the volatile emissions. In rotary dryer/kiln facilities particles < 0.075 mm are transferred to cyclones and bag filters causing pressure drops and build-up problems. For the treatment of trace element contaminated soil this fact could be beneficial, because the highly contaminated fine fraction of the soil can be handled separately subsequently. Although a low temperature is beneficial to control the volatility of trace elements, it is not always the best choice concerning the leaching, because some trace elements have their leaching maxima after thermal treatment at 200-400 °C. The concentration and mobility of trace elements in the treated soil is controlled by factors such as chemical speciation of the trace elements, interactions between trace elements and soil constituents and process parameters such as fuel, atmosphere, treatment temperature and time. Stabilizing amendments mixed in the soil before thermal treatment could probably reduce the mobility of trace elements and should be investigated further.

  • 177. Carlsson, My
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ecke, Holger
    Electroporation for enhanced methane yield from municipal solid waste2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 178.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Environmental assessment of construction with recycled materials2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of industrial residues as raw materials in construction raises concerns over the potential leaching and dispersal of hazardous constituents from them into the environment. Their leaching behaviour has been studied in laboratory assays, but leaching processes in the field over larger spatial and temporal scales are more complex due to variations in the conditions the materials are exposed to, and less well understood. Hence, estimates of the potential environmental loads associated with the use of such materials based on laboratory tests may be inaccurate. This thesis addresses the environmental implications of using recycled materials in road and landfill cover constructions. The focus is primarily on the leaching of inorganic constituents from six types of materials: incineration ashes, copper smelter slag, blast-furnace slag, recycled concrete, natural rock and contaminated soil. The leaching behaviour of constituents from these materials were assessed in both laboratory batch leaching tests and monitoring programs in which the water percolating through them in field applications were sampled over one to ten years. Leaching data were evaluated using statistical and geochemical modelling. In addition, assessment methods and criteria to judge the environmental suitability of substituting natural materials for recycled materials in construction were reviewed. It was found that leachates from recycled materials in the constructions contain higher concentrations of several constituents than natural water and leachates from conventional materials. However, the rates and extent of constituent leaching were affected by the application methods in various ways that are explored and discussed. The results of simplified leaching tests did not always reflect the leaching behaviour in the field, which highlight the importance of developing assessment methods that allow case-specific factors to be taken into account. The environmental impacts of leaching must also be considered in relation to the expected impacts of the default alternative, i.e. landfilling of industrial residues and exploitation of natural resources. Combinations of case-specific assessments and system analyses would be the ideal approaches to evaluate impacts at both local and regional scales.

  • 179.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Mácsik, Josef
    Ecoloop, Stockholm.
    Evaluation of leaching from four recycled materials used in full-scale road constructions2008In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Engineering for Waste Valorisation: June 3-5, 2008, Patras, Greece / [ed] Gerasimos Lyberatos; Ange Nzihou, Patras: University of Patras , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The medium-term (5-10 years) elemental leaching from five different materials used in full-scale road applications was evaluated. Two materials, fayalite slag and blast-furnace slag, leached high concentrations of trace metals such as Cu and Zn throughout the study period. At several occasions, the blast-furnace slag generated leachates with acidic pH-values (<4). Leachate from crushed concrete and MSWI bottom ash contained elevated concentrations of e.g. Cr and Cu during the first 2-3 years. Enrichment of trace elements occurred in sediments of roadside drainage ditches, but the respective contribution from leachate and road surface runoff is unclear. Migration of the elements through subsoil and plants in the ditches was limited, but clear anthropogenic signals were observed for e.g. Cu and Zn at the BA section. Further studies are recommended to verify if laboratory tests used for impact assessments are able to predict the observed field leaching and how the road environment is affected by leaching from the road materials in the longer term.

  • 180.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Household waste collection: factors and variations2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ambitious household waste recycling programs have been introduced in Sweden and several other countries during recent decades. Many different waste- sorting and collection schemes have been developed, but the evaluation and comparison of the results is made difficult by the lack of comparable data. The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to answer the following questions: How can household waste flows be described and monitored? Which factors affect the collection results? and, What is a useful basis for the evaluation of collection systems? Waste flow analysis and waste component classification were performed in a number of Swedish municipalities, revealing a wide variation in the amount of waste per capita. Eleven site-specific variables were investigated and multivariate data analysis was performed. The study was carried out on three levels: 1) household waste as the material in itself, classified into physical components, 2) the householders and their handling of waste, in terms of average amounts of different waste categories and recyclables per capita, and 3) the municipalities, as the authority responsible for household waste management, where local conditions influence waste generation and pathways. A significant finding was that property-close collection of dry recyclables led to increased collection of sorted metal, plastic, and paper packaging. Weight-based billing, i.e. when waste collection is charged per kilogram of waste collected, showed divergent effects, which are investigated and discussed. Monitoring methods are suggested regarding the waste flow from households. A step-by-step method for evaluation and comparisons of collection systems was outlined, including a set of indicators. Sixteen sources of error in official waste statistics were identified and the results of the studies emphasize the importance of reliable waste generation and composition data to underpin waste management policies.

  • 181.
    Ascher, J.
    et al.
    University of Florence.
    Ceccherini, M.T.
    University of Florence.
    Guerri, G.
    University of Florence.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Landi, L.
    University of Florence.
    Mench, Michel
    Bordeaux 1 University.
    Nannipieri, P.
    University of Florence.
    Pietramellara, G.
    University of Florence.
    Renella, Giancarlo
    University of Florence.
    Is microbial species richness increased by aided phytostabilization of trace element contaminated soils?2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 182.
    Nordmark, Désirée
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Robinson, Ryan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Landfilled organic carbon: is it all organic?2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 183.
    Rönkkö, Reima
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Nordmark, Désirée
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Metal balance in thermal treatment of CCA-contaminated soils2008In: Mine planning and equipment selection and environmental issues and waste management in energy and mineral production: proceedings of the Sixteenth International Symposium on Mine Planning and Equipment Selection (MPES 2007) and the Tenth International Symposium on Environmental Issues and Waste Management in Energy and Mineral Production (SWEMP 2007) ; MPES 2007 and SWEMP 2007 ; held jointly in Bangkok, Thailand, December 11 - 13, 2007 / [ed] Rai K. Singhal, Irvine, Calif.: The Reading Matrix Inc. , 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 184.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Methods for household waste composition studies2008In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 1100-1112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The question is how to conduct household waste composition studies. The review is divided into three parts: overview of known methods, sampling theory, and the waste components. Twenty methods are listed and commented on. There is no adopted, working international standard. In accordance with Pierre Gy’s Theory of Sampling, the seven types of sampling errors, when collecting and splitting solid samples, are described and commented on in relation to sampling of household solid waste. It is concluded that the most crucial choices in household waste composition studies are: to divide the investigation into relevant number and types of strata; to decide the required sample size and number of samples; to choose the sampling location, i.e., sampling at household level or sampling from loads of waste collection vehicles; and to choose the type and number of waste component categories to be investigated. Various classifications of household waste components used in composition studies are listed and discussed. Difficulties and weaknesses of the reviewed methods are discussed and concluded in suggested questions for further research.

  • 185. Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Mindre i tunnan om man betalar per kilo2008In: Avfall och miljö, ISSN 1654-5087, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 17-18Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 186.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Nordmark, Desiree
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Robinson, Ryan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Minskad mängd organiskt avfall på deponi: Effekt på redox-förhållanden, nedbrytning av organiskt material och utlakning av redox-känsliga ämnen2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den nya EU-lagstiftningen angående deponering av avfall (2003/33/EC) finns krav på att den totala organiska halten kol (TOC) i avfall inte bör överstiga 3% för inert avfall, 5% för icke farligt avfall, 6% för farligt avfall och 18% för restprodukter från avfallsförbränning, vilket innebär en sänkning av tidigare gränsvärden. Förändringen kan få konsekvenser för bland annat mobiliteten hos redox-känsliga ämnen. Vid analys av TOC enligt europeisk och svensk standard (EN 13 137) går det inte att särskilja mellan organiskt kol och elementärt kol vilket är ett problem eftersom elementärt kol är inert i deponeringssammanhang. Genom biologiska, kemiska och termogravimetriska analyser har det här projektet försökt ge svar på hur stor andel av TOC som motsvaras av organiskt, lätt nedbrytbart kol och hur stor effekt halten organiskt material har på utlakningen av redox-känsliga ämnen från avfall. Tre olika avfall har ingått i undersökningen och som representerar aktuella avfallsströmmar till svenska upplag: en CCAförorenad jord, en bottenaska från biobränsleförbränning och ett restavfall. Nedbrytningen av organiskt material i avfallen och dess inverkan på utlakningen av redoxkänsliga ämnen har studerats i laboratorieförsök med metoder som BMP-försök (metanbildningspotential vid nedbrytning av organiskt material) och olika laktest i oxiderad och reducerad miljö, med och utan tillsats av organiskt material. Kolspeciering har gjorts dels med standardiserade analysmetoder för TOC men också med termogravimetrisk (TG) analys kopplad till differentiell termisk analys (DTA) och quadrupole masspektrometri (QMS). Resultaten från kolspecieringen med TG-analys visar på att den dominerade andelen kol i samtliga avfall var elementärt kol (ca 60%) medan standardiserad TOC-analys visar på att allt kol i askan och jorden var organiskt. Kolinnehållet i restfraktionen varierade stort och gav inga signifikanta skillnader mellan totalt och organiskt kol. Bestämningen av TOC, med standardiserad metod, i jorden och askan gav signifikant högre värden än analys med TG. Restfaktionen uppvisade ingen signifikant skillnad mellan de båda metoderna. Restfraktionen uppvisade den högsta gasbildningspotentialen medan nedbrytningen av organiskt material i askor kan vara svår att bedöma med biologiska metoder på grund av karbonatiseringsreaktioner i materialet. Utlakningen av redox-känsliga ämnen påverkades av mängden reaktivt organiskt material. En hög halt organiskt material sänkte redoxpotentialen i avfallen och krom och koppa visade på en minskad utlakning i reducerade miljö i samtliga avfall, zink även i jorden och restfaktionen. Utlakningen av arsenik och bly ökade i reducerande miljö från samtliga avfall. Från askan ökade också utlakningen av zink. Generellt ökar utlakningen av ämnen som till största delen är bundna till reducerbart material (t.ex. Fe-Mn-oxider) vid en högre halt organiskt material, medan det omvända gäller för ämnen som till största delen är bundna till oxiderbart material (organiskt material och sulfider). Andra faktorer som inverkar på mobiliteten hos kritiska ämnen är faktorer som pH och närvaron av ligander. Även materialens fysiska egenskaper som porositet och permeabilitet måste vägas in vid en bedömning av ändrad avfallssammansättnings effekt på utlakningen från deponier.

  • 187.
    Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Svensson, Malin
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Mobility of organic carbon from incineration residues2008In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 28, no 8, p. 1301-1309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may affect the transport of pollutants from incineration residues when landfilled or used in geotechnical construction. The leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and air pollution control residue (APC) from the incineration of waste wood was investigated. Factors affecting the mobility of DOC were studied in a reduced 26-1 experimental design. Controlled factors were treatment with ultrasonic radiation, full carbonation (addition of CO2 until the pH was stable for 2.5 h), liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, pH, leaching temperature and time. Full carbonation, pH and the L/S ratio were the main factors controlling the mobility of DOC in the bottom ash. Approximately 60 weight-% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the bottom ash was available for leaching in aqueous solutions. The L/S ratio and pH mainly controlled the mobilization of DOC from the APC residue. About 93 weight-% of TOC in the APC residue was, however, not mobilized at all, which might be due to a high content of elemental carbon. Using the European standard EN 13 137 for determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in MSWI residues is inappropriate. The results might be biased due to elemental carbon. It is recommended to develop a TOC method distinguishing between organic and elemental carbon.

  • 188. Diener, Silvia
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Herrmann, Inga
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Results from a field study using steel industry slags in a landfill cover construction2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 189. Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Stabilization of As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in soil using amendments: a review2008In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 215-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spread of contaminants in soil can be hindered by the soil stabilization technique. Contaminant immobilizing amendments decrease trace element leaching and their bioavailability by inducing various sorption processes: adsorption to mineral surfaces, formation of stable complexes with organic ligands, surface precipitation and ion exchange. Precipitation as salts and co-precipitation can also contribute to reducing contaminant mobility. The technique can be used in in situ and ex situ applications to reclaim and re-vegetate industrially devastated areas and mine-spoils, improve soil quality and reduce contaminant mobility by stabilizing agents and a beneficial use of industrial by-products. This study is an overview of data published during the last five years on the immobilization of one metalloid, As, and four heavy metals, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn, in soils. The most extensively studied amendments for As immobilization are Fe containing materials. The immobilization of As occurs through adsorption on Fe oxides by replacing the surface hydroxyl groups with the As ions, as well as by the formation of amorphous Fe(III) arsenates and/or insoluble secondary oxidation minerals. Cr stabilization mainly deals with Cr reduction from its toxic and mobile hexavalent form Cr(VI) to stable in natural environments Cr(III). The reduction is accelerated in soil by the presence of organic matter and divalent iron. Clays, carbonates, phosphates and Fe oxides were the common amendments tested for Cu immobilization. The suggested mechanisms of Cu retention were precipitation of Cu carbonates and oxyhydroxides, ion exchange and formation of ternary cation-anion complexes on the surface of Fe and Al oxy-hydroxides. Most of the studies on Pb stabilization were performed using various phosphorus-containing amendments, which reduce the Pb mobility by ionic exchange and precipitation of pyromorphite-type minerals. Zn can be successfully immobilized in soil by phosphorus amendments and clays.

  • 190.
    Mench, Michel
    et al.
    University of Bordeaux 1.
    Puschenreiter, Markus
    BOKU - University of Natural Resources & Applied Life Sciences.
    Ruttens, Anna
    Hasselt Universiteit.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Müller, Ingo
    Saxon State Agency for Environment & Geology.
    Cundy, Andrew
    University of Brighton.
    Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang
    Austrian Research Centers GmbH – ARC.
    Renella, Giancarlo
    University of Florence.
    Tlustos, Pavel
    Czech University of Life Sceinces Prague.
    Bert, Valérie
    INERIS.
    Marschner, Bernd
    Ruhr-University Bochum.
    SUMATECS - SUstainable MAnagement of Trace Element Contaminated Soils: a SNOWMAN-ERANET funded project2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 191.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Utilisation of iron-stabilised soil for vegetation cover of landfills2008In: Contaminants and nutrients: availability, accumulation/exclusion and plant-microbia-soil interactions: WG1 Meeting. Book of Abstracts / [ed] Desana Liskova; Alexander Lux; Michal Martinka, Mgr. Pavola Cibulka, Copycentrum PACI , 2008, p. 39-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 192. Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Utilization of chemically stabilized soil in a landfill top cover2008In: The 5th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium: 10-12 Sep 2008, Copper Mountain, CO, USA, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 193.
    Andreas, Lale
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge AB.
    Utvärdering av fullskaleanvändning av askor och andra restprodukter vid sluttäckning av Tveta Återvinningsanläggning2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2000 Telge Återvinning - a waste management recycling company - started investigating ashes from incineration of industrial and biowaste waste. The company was given a permit from the Swedish Environmental Court to cover four hectares of the house hold waste landfill area. In 2006 the company received an unlimited permit to cover the remaining part of the landfill when the works end some thirty years later.Ashes were used the first time in 1966 for testing. Literature studies indicated the ashes can have a low hydraulic conductivity under certain conditions. In 1999 collaboration started with the Division of Waste Science and Technology at Luleå University of Technology.Residuals from household and industrial waste were subject to investigation. Initially, biowaste incineration products were subject to testing and were later extended to other waste products, e.g. sludge, contaminated soils, foundry, and compost material. Several different sub-fractions of ashes were included in the investigation e.g. bottom and fly ash, various slag products after up-grading including dewatering, separation and sifting. Subsequently, a complete covering system of a landfill consists of residuals.Six test areas were outlined in order to give a good representation for cover construction in flat and steep areas with different compositions of liner material.The results show that in all areas the hydraulic conductivity construction yields less then 50 liters per square meters and years and can be less the than 5 liters in a repository for hazardous waste if required. In accordance with literature data the field observations show the liner material constructed only by ash material under certain conditions can form a monolithic structure due to very slow processes thus indicating small pore volumes that unable water - air to interact with other media.The concept of using ash can be related to natural analogues of volcanic ashes and has been used in old defence walls and other buildings thousand years back. The last part of the report brings a number of topics for future research and a discussion about problems to with the authorities to use residuals for covering landfills.

  • 194.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Assessment of trace element stabilization in soil by short- and long-term leaching tests: results after 3 years assessment of trace element stabilization in soil with different types of amendments2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stabilization technique was applied to treat contaminated soils in laboratory and pilot scale field (lysimeter) experiments. Three types of amendments were tested for their abilities to reduce contaminant mobility in soil: zerovalet iron, coal fly ash from wood and coal combustion, and natural organic matter - peat. The stabilization of the soils contaminated with Pb and Cu (soil S) and wood impregnation chemical cremated copper arsenate (CCA) (soil R), as assessed by batch leaching tests, significantly reduced the leaching of all analyzed elements. Treatment efficiency decreased in the following order (%): Pb(>99)>Cu(98) in soil S and As(99)≈Zn(99)>Cu(93)>Cr(57) in soil R. The results obtained from the lysimeter experiments over a three-year observation period showed nearly as high treatment efficiency as that achieved in the laboratory experiments.

  • 195.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Vukicevic, Sanita
    Nordvästra Skånes Renhållnings AB.
    Meijer, Jan-Erik
    Nordvästra Skånes Renhållnings AB.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Comparison of different collection systems for sorted household waste in Sweden2007In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 27, no 10, p. 1298-1305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Composition and quantity per person of municipal solid waste (MSW) have been analyzed in six municipalities in southern Sweden with similar socio-economic conditions but with different collection systems. Samples of residual waste have been sorted, classified and weighed in 21 categories during 26 analyses that took place from 1998-2004. Collection data of the total waste flow, including source sorted recycling materials, in the same area have been compiled and compared. Multivariate data analyses have been applied. Weight-based billing reduced delivered amounts of residual household waste by 50%, but it is unknown to what extent improper material paths had developed. With curbside collection more metal, plastic and paper packaging was separated and left to recycling. When separate collection of biodegradables was included in the curbside system, the overall sorting of dry recyclables increased. The large uncertainty associated with waste composition analyses makes it difficult to draw strong conclusions regarding the effects on specific recyclables or the changes in the composition of the residual waste.

  • 196.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Comparison of total waste flow from households in 35 Swedish municipalities2007In: SARDINIA 2007: Eleventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; [1 - 5 October 2007, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study was to identify the total waste flow from households in a number of municipalities (cities) in Sweden, make comparisons and discuss methods as well as obstacles to benchmarking. Overall aim is decision support for local authorities in waste management planning. Average amount of household waste per citizen vary widely within Sweden. There is no obvious explanation to the inconsistent amounts. Weight based collection fees has caused a considerable decrease of collected waste amounts in some Swedish municipalities, but no clear effect in others. In general the amounts per capita of separated recyclables, as well as unseparated waste in bins and bags, have levelled out the last few years. In contrast the diverse wastes delivered by the public to supervised Recycling Centers show a trend of increase. 16 sources of error in collection data have been identified and described.

  • 197.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Liljedahl, Thomas
    Umeå university.
    Maurice, Christian
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå university.
    Kessler, Elisabeth
    Editorial2007In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 429-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, contaminated soil has become of both public and scientific concern. National inventories have shown very large numbers of potentially contaminated sites originating from various industrial activities. Industrial technologies in the old days were often based on open systems designed without the insight of their being potential environmental threats. Legal actions taken against organizations responsible for water and air pollution have led to the development of new water and flue gas cleaning technologies. Today, contaminated land plays a major role in sustainable future land use, not only with regard to pollution resulting from old industrial activities but also with regard to the management of present industrial technologies and waste products.Issues related to contaminated soil are by definition interdisciplinary. In the Northern Sweden Soil Remediation Center (MCN), scientists from three universities (Umeå University, Luleå University of Technology, and Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences) and the Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI) have focused on developing a detailed understanding of the mechanisms and processes in the soil system. Fundamental and applied research in collaboration with enterprises has been performed concerning critical knowledge gaps.The MCN was initiated in 2001 and consists of scientists, representatives from authorities, consultants, and entrepreneurs. The major goals of the MCN have been to increase the scientific basis for the risk assessment of contaminated soil and, by improved knowledge of the interactions between different contaminants and the soil system, to guide the development of remediation methods. New scientific results have been implemented by collaboration enterprises and authorities that have added strategic value for the whole sector in general.This issue of AMBIO summarizes the MCN's research activities, which have focused on inorganic and organic pollutant behavior, analytical methods, and risk assessments of brownfields. In addition, invited contributions from research groups outside the MCN have added other valuable aspects to the multidisciplinary research field.

  • 198.
    Travar, Igor
    et al.
    Telge Återvinning AB.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge AB.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Environmental impact of ashes used in a land­fill cover construction2007In: SARDINIA 2007: Eleventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; [1 - 5 October 2007, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy] / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large amounts of construction materials will be needed both in Sweden and other European countries for capping landfills that will be closed in the near future. In order to reduce exploitation of virgin materials and to save natural resources, an option can be utilization of various types of secondary construction materials (SCM) e.g. ash, slag, sand from fluid bed incineration and compost. However, at the same time this may represent potential risks due to the release of trace elements and other pollutants into environment. The main aim of this work is to evaluate the environmental impact of water that discharges from different parts of a landfill cover built with ashes and other SCM.From 2003 to 2005, a four hectares large test area was established at Tveta landfill, southwest of Stockholm, Sweden. Test area is divided into six sub areas with regard to different recycled materials used in different layers of the cover construction (Figure 1).Figure 1. Design of the landfill cover test area at the Tveta landfill. BA = Bottom ash; FA = Fly ash; FC = Friedland clay Infiltrating water through the landfill cover either drains off in the drainage layer as drainage water or percolates through the liner into landfill body as leachate. At Tveta landfill, leachate amounts between 1 l (m2 yr)-1 and 30 l (m2 yr)-1 have been observed below highly compacted ash liner. Results show that leachate samples have higher pH, salt forming elements (e.g. K, Na, Ca and Cl) and concentrations of Cd, Ba As, Al, and Mo, and lower concentrations of Mn, Zn, Mg, Fe, Ni, and Pb compared to drainage water. The concentrations of Cr and total N are in the same range in leachate and drainage water while NH4-N is higher in leachate. Leachate of areas 1 and 4 shows higher content of organic matter than drainage water in these areas. A strong correlation is observed between EC, K, Na and Cl as well as between Cu and TOC. The comparison of the leachate and drainage water quality with different limit values showed that the leachate had elevated concentrations of As, Mo, Cl and nitrogen while the drainage water was mainly contaminated by Ni, Zn, Cl and nitrogen with the addition of As, Cu, Mo, and Pb in areas 2 and 4.Following conclusions can be drawn by now:The hydraulic properties of the landfill cover satisfy legislative requirements for non hazardous waste landfills; in some cases/areas also for hazardous waste landfills.Most of the infiltrating water through the landfill cover is discharged as drainage water. Thus, the design of layers above the liner is most important with regard to the environmental impact of the construction. Both leachate and drainage water need treatment before discharge into the local recipient. Organic matter in the protection layer is likely to contribute to the mobilization of Cu and Ni in short term.The sea might be a suitable recipient in cases where ashes are used in landfill covers be­cause both leachate and drainage contain salt forming elements in elevated con­cen­tra­tions which may harm groundwater or freshwater but do not pose a risk to salt-water.The leaching of most pollutants did not show any clear tendencies during first three years. Thus, assessing the time period for treatment needs is difficult. However, it is expected that the contaminants in the drainage water will be depleted within few decades.Leachate might be contaminated by salt forming and trace elements for one hundred years. However, generated leachate amounts are low and it is expected that leachate from landfill cover will not influence overall landfill leachate with full extent.The ageing of the ashes in connection with mineral transformations is an important process that is expected to reduce the release of pollutants. Further research is needed with regard to long term changes of the material properties and the treatment needs for water.

  • 199.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ore, Solvita
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Erratum to "Stabilization of Pb- and Cu-contaminated soil using coal fly ash and peat" (vol 145, pg 365, 2007)2007In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 148, no 1, p. 384-384Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 200. Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Evaluation of leachate emissions from crushed rock and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash used in road construction2007In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 27, no 10, p. 1356-1365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three years of leachate emissions from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and crushed rock in a full-scale test road were evaluated. The impact of time, construction design, and climate on the emissions was studied, and the predicted release from standard leaching tests was compared with the measured release from the road. The main pollutants and their respective concentrations in leachate from the roadside slope were Al (12.8-85.3 mg l-1), Cr (2-125 μg l-1), and Cu (0.15-1.9 mg l-1) in ash leachate and Zn (1-780 μg l-1) in crushed rock leachate. From the ash, the initial Cl- release was high (≈20 g l-1). After three years, the amount of Cu and Cl- was in the same range in both leachates, while that of Al and Cr still was more than one order of magnitude higher in ash leachate. Generally, the release was faster from material in the uncovered slopes than below the pavement. Whether the road was asphalted or not, however, had minor impacts on the leachate quality. During rain events, diluted leachates with respect to, e.g., salts were observed. The leaching tests failed to simulate field leaching from the crushed rock, whereas better agreement was observed for the ash. Comparisons of constituent release from bottom ash and conventional materials solely based on such tests should be avoided.

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