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  • 151.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bäckström, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Samhällsnyttans betydelse vid tillståndsprövningen av vindkraft2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten analyserar hur begreppet samhällsnytta hanteras i tillståndsprövningen av vindkraft. Lagstiftningen ger ett visst utrymme att beakta vindkraftens betydelse för den lokala/regionala ekonomin. Förutom att vindkraften påverkar samhällsekonomin genom att bidra till elproduktionen påverkar utbyggnaden även lokal eller regional ekonomi och sysselsättning samt andra näringar. Hur stora effekterna blir på sysselsättning och inkomster på lokal/regional nivå, beror bland annat på på det lokala utbudet av de tjänster och den kompetens som efterfrågas.

    Såväl positiva som negativa externa effekter uppstår vid utbyggnad av vindkraft, men det finns ett tydligare utrymme i lagstiftningen att beakta vindkraftens negativa effekter, än att ta hänsyn till de positiva effekterna. För att säkerställa att även vindkraftens positiva miljöeffekter ges utrymme i lagstiftningen föreslår författarna att regelverket ändras, så att en bedömning av den miljömässiga nyttan av vindkraften - och andra liknande verksamheter – måste göras i prövningen av tillstånd. Detta skulle öka såväl transparensen och rättssäkerheten i besluten som den vägledande kapaciteten.

  • 152.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Goytia, Susana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Carina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Nysten-Haarala, Soili
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderasp, Johanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Challenges in Swedish hydropower: politics, economics and rights2017In: Research Ideas and Outcomes, E-ISSN 2367-7163, Vol. 3, article id e21305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two systems working in parallel have contributed to implementation difficulties in Swedish water governance. While the old system is designed to be predictable and stable over time, the new system is intended to be transparent and holistic, guided by the principles of Integrated Water Resource Management. The paper disentangles the challenges in Swedish water governance and proposes a blueprint for future research. The proposed research project is unique in the sense that it explores the imbalances between the new and the old water governance systems from a multi-disciplinary perspective, elaborating upon the clashes between the traditional, nationally based regulatory system and the new holistic water governance system from legal, political and economic perspectives.

  • 153.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Goytia, Susana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Spegel, Elin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Analysing and evaluating flood risk governance in Sweden: Adaptation to Climate Change?2016Report (Other academic)
  • 154.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Deliberation and valuation in environmental decision-making2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 155.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Valuing the local impacts of a large scale wind power establishment in northern Sweden: public and private preferences toward economic, environmental and sociocultural values2015In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 58, no 8, p. 1327-1345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper estimates public and private preferences towards economic, environmental and sociocultural values associated with a planned large-scale onshore wind-power development in northern Sweden, and analyses the most important determinants of the individual's Willingness to Pay (WTP) for reducing the negative impact associated with the establishment. Sociocultural effects were deemed the most important in the private sample, whereas new job opportunities are valued most highly in the public sample. We further find that ascription to moral and social norms together with individuals’ perceptions related to general and institutional trust constitutes significant determinants of WTP.

  • 156.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Department of Economics, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics.
    Wind farms — Where and how to place them?: A choice experiment approach to measure consumer preferences for characteristics of wind farm establishments in Sweden2014In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 105, p. 193-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores preferences among the general public in Sweden for attributes related to the establishment of wind power farms. The method applied is a choice experiment where people are asked to choose between two hypothetical wind farms characterized by different attributes. Five attributes are included in the experiment: (i) type of landscape, (ii) type of ownership, (iii) the degree of local participation in the planning process, (iv) the choice to transfer revenue to the society in a pre-specified way, and (v) a monetary cost in terms of an additional electricity certificate fee. The data are analyzed with multinomial logit, random parameter logit, and latent class models. The results indicate that consumers in Sweden are more likely to accept the higher renewable electricity certificate fee if: (a) wind power farms in areas used for recreational purposes are substantially avoided, (b) the establishment is anchored by whole or partial ownership in the local community and, (c) the locals are involved in the planning and implementation process. Our policy simulation exercise shows that respondents are willing to pay a higher electricity fee corresponding to about 0.6 Euro cents per kWh to avoid wind farms located in the mountainous area and private ownership.

  • 157.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Department of Economics, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics.
    Johansson, Maria
    Lund University, Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment.
    Waldo, Åsa
    Lund University, Department of Sociology.
    Location of Swedish wind power — random or not?: A quantitative analysis of differences in installed wind power capacity across Swedish municipalities2013In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 58, p. 135-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of installed wind power varies significantly across municipalities although the financial support for wind power production and the technology available is identical in all Swedish municipalities. This study analyses how local differences between municipalities, such as local wind prerequisites and socioeconomic conditions, might explain the establishment of wind power. The analysis is carried out for a cross section of Swedish municipalities. The time periods before and after 2006 are analyzed separately; and results reveal that the factors affecting wind power establishments are different between the two periods. In the later time period we found a statistically significant positive relationship between good wind resources and the presence of wind power as well as with the amount of wind energy installed. This result is consistent with the idea that the first wind power investments in Sweden were highly affected by individual wind energy enthusiasts, while in the more recent large-scale investments market-based judgments about future profitability may have become increasingly important. In addition, previous experience seems to be a factor that in itself facilitates additional future wind power establishments, thereby pointing to the role of accumulated institutional capacity.

  • 158.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Active and passive electricity consumers on the deregulated Swedish electricity market2007In: 9:th IAEE European Energy Conference: Energy Markets and Sustainability in a Larger Europe / [ed] Carlo Andrea Bollino, Italian Association of Energy Economics , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electricity price paid by Swedish consumers has increased significantly during the last years. The increasing electricity costs have been frequently debated in the media and the most common explanation – although probably too simplistic – is weak market performance. Since 1996 when the Swedish electricity market was deregulated the consumers can actively choose between different electricity producers and/or renegotiate the contract with the prevailing supplier; the impact of consumer behavior on the functioning of the market (i.e., on electricity prices) has thus increased. Still, the general understanding as expressed by policy makers is that the average Swedish household is not very active in terms of changing supplier and/or renegotiating contract. There are policies aimed at promoting electricity consumers to become more active that are potentially cost effective. To be able to design such policies is it however important to know more about how the more active consumers differs from the less active ones. Some consumers may, for instance, perceive barriers in the form of high non monetary costs in terms of lack of information and/or high searching costs while others may become active at relatively low costs. The purpose of this paper is to identify the main factors that promotes and prevents increased activity among Swedish electricity consumers; more specifically we study the factors that govern the decision to change supplier and/or renegotiating prevailing contracts. The econometric analysis is carried out in a binary choice framework. Results are based on a postal survey that was sent out to 1200 randomly selected Swedish households in late 2005, the response rate was 47 percent. The questionnaire collected information about the self-reported behavior on the electricity market, attitudes towards and confidence in the actors of the market, about the perceived functioning of the market, prevailing contract type, perceived costs associated with a more active behavior, electricity consumption levels and costs. In the theoretical model we draw on previous research and claim that the consumer decision whether to change supplier and/or renegotiate contract or not is governed by three different effects: (a) “status quo effects”, factors that motivates the consumer to change supplier/contract; (b) so called “push effects”; and (c) so called “pull effects”, factors that motivates the consumer to stick to the present supplier/contract. The presence off “status quo effects” is heavily influenced by research on individual choices in both psychology and economics and according to central results in this research most of the individuals are not able to – and do not want to – continuously evaluate their consumption decisions. Results show that those who state that they find it difficult to affect the size of their electricity costs and to evaluate the different offers from different suppliers are less likely to be active on the electricity market. We also note - as would be expected – that households with relatively high electricity costs have on average been more inclined to be active on the market. The results imply that measures aimed at facilitating the comparison of the offers from different electric power suppliers may be productive so as to increase the degree of activity among Swedish electricity consumers.

  • 159.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Analyzing energy cnservation behavior among Swedish households: the role of information2008In: Bridging energy supply and demand: Logistics, competition and environment: 31st IAEE International Conference, Istanbul, Turkey, June 18 - 20, 2008, IAEE , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 160.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Economics of technology learning in wind power2013In: Encyclopedia of Energy, Natural Resource, and Environmental Economics, Elsevier, 2013, p. 188-194Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this article is to review a number of important theoretical and empirical challenges in measuring technology learning (learning-by-doing rates) in the energy sector. Particular attention is paid to the case of wind power, a technology that is believed to be a key in complying with future climate policy targets and that has been in focus in many previous learning studies. The article discusses the following challenges: (a) the incorporation of other drivers of cost reduction beyond that of cumulative experience, including the roles of returns-to-scale and R&D; (b) the geographical domain of technology learning and R&D spillovers; (c) the interaction between technology diffusion and learning-by-doing; and (d) the overall character of the process of technological progress. We also draw on the existing empirical literature on wind power learning rates to illustrate different ways to model learning, as well as some central results in previous work.

  • 161.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Green electricity consumption in Swedish households: the role of norm-motivated consumer behavior2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this paper is to provide an econometric analysis of the most important determinants of Swedish households' (self-reported) willingness to accept a price premium for "green" electricity. Methodologically, we draw heavily on recent developments in the literature on integrating norm-motivated behavior into neoclassical consumer theory, and assume that individuals have a preference for keeping a self-image as a responsible person. Consumer behavior in the "green market place" will then be heavily determined by how purchases of different goods affect this self-image. The analysis is based on postal survey responses from 655 Swedish households in four different municipalities, which are analyzed within a binary choice econometric framework. The results indicate that the impact of choosing "green" on the household budget largely influences the willingness to contribute to "green" electricity schemes, as do the degree of perceived personal responsibility for the issue and the felt ability to affect the outcome in a positive way. We find only limited support for the idea that perception about others' behavior affect individual moral norms and ultimately behavior: stronger support is rather found for the hypothesis that the presence of a prescriptive social norm influences the willingness to pay for "green" electricity. The difficulty in observing others' purchases makes it however particularly difficult to distinguish between social and moral norms in the case of "green" electricity.

  • 162.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Households' switching behavior between electricity suppliers in Sweden2008In: Utilities Policy, ISSN 0957-1787, E-ISSN 1878-4356, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 254-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this paper is to analyze the factors affecting households' decisions to: (a) switch to a new electricity supplier; and (b) actively renegotiate the electricity contract with the prevailing supplier. The study is based on 536 survey responses from Swedish households and they are analyzed econometrically using probit regression techniques. The analysis is based on a theoretical framework, which embraces both economic and psychological motives behind household decision-making. The results show that households that anticipate significant economic benefits from choosing a more active behavior are also more likely to purse this, while those with smaller potential gains (e.g., households without electric heating) are less likely to change supplier and/or renegotiate their contracts. The impact of overall electricity costs and knowledge about these is particularly important for the latter decision, while respondents that perceive relatively high search and information costs are less likely to switch to an alternative electricity supplier. Moreover, constraints on time, attention, and the ability to process information, may lead to optimizing analyses being replaced by imprecise routines and rules of thumb, and the benefits of the status quo appear to represent one of those simplifying rules. This also opens up for other influences on households' activity such as social interaction and media discourses that raise the attention level. Our results show that these influences are more likely to affect households' choice to switch to new service providers, i.e., the one area of the two investigated here that put the most demand on people's ability to search for and process information.

  • 163. Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Norms and economic motivation in the Swedish green electricity market2008In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 68, no 1-2, p. 169-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an econometric analysis of the most important determinants of Swedish households' choice to pay a price premium for "green" electricity. We draw on recent developments in the literature on integrating norm-motivated behavior into neoclassical consumer theory, and assume that individuals have a preference for keeping a self-image as a morally responsible person. Consumer behavior in the "green market place" will then be heavily determined by how purchases of different goods affect this self-image. The analysis is based on postal survey responses from 655 Swedish households, which are analyzed within a binary choice econometric framework. The results indicate that the impact of choosing "green" on the household budget largely influences the choice between "green" and "brown" electricity, as does the degree of perceived personal responsibility for the issue and the felt ability to affect the outcome in a positive way. We find limited support for the notion that perceptions about others' behavior in general affect individual moral norms and ultimately expressed behavior, but this is also complemented by the influence of explicit social influence. The difficulty in observing others' purchases makes it however difficult to distinguish between social and moral norms in the case of "green" electricity.

  • 164.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Public support for renewable electricity: the importance of policy framing2008In: Ecological economics research trends, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2008, p. 83-104Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals' contribution to electricity generation based on remewable energy sources can be channelled in two ways. The "green" market approach relies on an 'unconditional' contribution to renewable power while the certificate scheme represents a corresponding 'conditional' support (i.e., I can only contribute if the scheme is at place, and if so many others will also contribute). In both systems the support to renewable power is made possible through a price premium paid for these types of energy sources. In this chapter we draw on the economics literature on individual contributions to public goods and empirically test the overall hypothesis that the framing of renewable power support in a 'conditional' and an 'unconditional' scenario, respectively will tend to trigger different types of moral deliberations. In thr former case the delibarations concern mainly the division of efforts between individuals, while the delibarations in the latter case relate more to the characteristics of the public good in question and the perceived personal responsibility and ability to contribute to this good. This implies also that the variables determining the willingness to accept price premiums for renewable power may differ across schemes considered. We analyze the response to dichotomous willingness to pay (WTP) questions from two different versions of a postal survey sent out to 1200 Swedish house owners. A random effects binary logit model is applied, and the estimated marginal effects support the notion that different types of factors tend to dominate choices depending on the support scheme considered. From these results follow a number of important implications for measures undertaken to increase the public's valuation of renewable power as well as the legitimacy of measure to increase renewable power production.

  • 165. Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Technology diffusion and innovation in the European wind power sector: the impact of energy and R&D policies2008In: International Energy Workshop 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an econometric analysis of innovation and diffusion in the European wind power sector. We derive models of wind power innovation and diffusion, which combine a rational choice model of technological diffusion and a learning curve model of cost reductions. The learning model attempts to account for the presence of both domestic learning-by-doing as well as international knowledge spillovers (global learning), and test the extent to which the respective learning-by-doing rates differ. The models are estimated using pooled annual time series data for five European countries (Denmark, Germany, Spain, Swe-den and the United Kingdom) over the time period 1986-2001. The empirical results indicate that reductions in investment costs are an important determinant of increased diffusion of wind power, and these cost reductions are in turn explained by both domestic and global learning-by-doing but less so by knowledge accumulating as a result of public R&D support. Feed-in tariffs also play a role in the innovation and diffusion processes. The higher is the feed-in price the higher is, ceteris paribus, the rate of diffusion, and we also test the hypothesis that the impact on diffusion of a marginal increase in the feed-in tariff will differ depending on the support system used. The results support the notion that the UK competitive bidding system was (ceteris paribus) less effective in inducing wind power diffusion compared to the other countries' fixed tariff support schemes. Overall the estimates generated by the learning models are sensitive to the way in which learning-by-doing impacts are included, and the results indicate that the global learning-by-doing rate is significantly higher than the domestic rate. The analysis also indicates that empirically it is difficult to separate the impacts of R&D and learning-by-doing on cost reductions, respectively.

  • 166. Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Technology learning in the presence of public R&D: the case of European wind power2010In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 69, no 12, p. 2356-2362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the role of technology learning in European wind power generation in the presence of public R&D. A Cobb-Douglas cost function is employed to derive a learning curve model for wind power, thus illustrating how the investment costs for this technology are influenced by global learning-by-doing, scale effects, and a European R&D-based knowledge stock. We assume that public R&D expenses targeting wind power add to the above stock, and these R&D outlays are in turn hypothesized to be influenced by technology cost levels, the opportunity cost of public R&D as well as by government budget constraints. We estimate the learning and the R&D model, respectively, using a panel data set covering five European countries over the time period 1986-2002. The empirical results confirm the importance of both learning-by-doing and public R&D support in the cost reduction process, and governments' R&D expenses have declined in response to lowered investment costs. This is efficient in the sense that public funds are best targeted at technologies which are far from being commercial. The results also illustrate that governments in Europe have been sensitive to the opportunity cost of public R&D in the energy R&D budget process.

  • 167. Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The devil is in the details: household electricity saving behavior and the role of information2010In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 1578-1587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze Swedish households' willingness to increase their daily efforts to save electricity. The analysis builds on a broad theoretical framework, which embraces both economic and norm-based motivations in explaining household behavior. The paper pays particular attention to the role of information about the availability of different behavioral changes that can be undertaken at the household level. The empirical results are based on a postal survey that was sent out to 1200 Swedish households, and the econometric analysis is carried out within a so-called ordered probit framework. Our results indicate that costs, environmental attitudes and social interactions are all important determinants of electricity saving activities within Swedish households. We tested the hypothesis that information about available savings measures that is presented in a more concrete and specific way is more likely to affect (stated) behavior than is more general information, and the data collected support this notion. The paper ends by discussing some implications of these results for the design of future informative policy measures in the energy-efficiency field.

  • 168.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    The political economy of integrating markets for tradable renewable energy credits: lessons from the Swedish-Norwegian case2007In: Critical issues in environmental taxation: International and comparative perspectives, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007, p. 427-453Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 169.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Amundsen, Eirik
    Bergen University.
    Långsiktiga konsekvenser av en utvidgad norsk-svensk elcertifikatmarknad2004Report (Refereed)
  • 170.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    et al.
    IVL.
    Åkesson, Lynn
    Lund University.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Söderman, Maria Ljungrren
    IVL.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    IVL.
    Borgstede, Chris Von
    Gothenburg University.
    Bridging the gap between the sustainability pillars2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 171.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Garpenberg—the success story by Rolf Jonsson: published by Boliden Mineral, Umeå Sweden 20142016In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 115-115Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 172.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Hjalmar Fors, The Limits of Matter—Chemistry, mining & enlightenment: The University of Chicago Press Chicago USA 20152015In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 131-132Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 173.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    International taxation and the extractive industries: Philip Daniel, Michael Keen, Artur Świstak and Viktor Thuronyi (eds): International Monetary Fund and funded by its Managing Natural Resource Wealth Trust Fund. Published by Routledge, Oxon UK 2017, ISBN 978-1-138-24061-2 (pbk)2017In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 169-170Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 174.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Internationalisation of mining education and research: A recurring process running through the centuries2018In: Eurasian Mining, ISSN 2072-0823, Vol. 2, p. 44-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International cooperation and mobility are buzzwords of today’s research and innovation clusters all over the world. These are however not new concepts. The understanding that research and innovation can only thrive in an international and open environment has been in place for at least 300 years in Sweden. All interested and knowledgeable scientists and business developers have been welcomed to push the front of knowledge and the industry forward. The international contacts of Swedish mining education, research and innovation prove that with an open mind and a persistent, long term effort results will come. The roots of mining education and research in Sweden dates back to the 17th century. Initially the focus was on applied research rather than education, but the early efforts also slowly led to important purely scientific results. Swedish metallurgists/chemists have discovered more elements than scientists from any other nation. Over 150 years, from the early 18th century to the end of the 19th century, 20 elements-and among them many industrially important metals — were isolated and described. The ancient Falu copper mine was the logical choice for location of one of the first technical schools in Sweden: “Falu Bergskola” (Falu Mining School), which was set up in 1822. Its first director was precisely one of the chemical scientists engaged in the discovery of new elements. This Mining school was later merged with other existing institutions offering some technical training into “Tekniska Institutet” (the Technical Insitute). This was in 1876 transformed into a technical high school along German models. The Association of Swedish Iron and Steel industry (Jernkontoret in Swedish) was a key supporter and funder of these developments. The new school was called Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH) in translation Royal Institute of Technology. KTH had 5 departments, including a school of mining science. In 1972 the education of mining engineers was transferred to the newly established Luleå Technical College close to the Arctic Circle. The College was later expanded and in 1997 renamed Luleå University of Technology (LTU). LTU has become one of the leading mining universities in Europe, to a large extent due to the fact that it is situated in the centre of one of Europe’s remaining mining regions. Around 2/3 of all university trained staff employed by Swedish mining has been trained at LTU. But LTU has also had its focus on the mining sector for a long time and in its internal program Mines of the Future it has relentlessly pushed the importance of mining and minerals and demonstrated its ambition to be a leading actor in this area. LTU has been appointed by Swedish government to lead the national education and research in mining. The recent decision by the EU to locate one EIT Raw Materials CLC (Co-location Centre) to Luleå means that the university has been given a similar role also on the EU level. LTU has actively built international links and supported cooperation with other universities within Europe and around the world. The bold and officially stated aim is to become one of the globally leading mining universities. 

  • 175.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Introduction2019In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 127-129Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 176.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Jacques Astier (1923–2012)2015In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 28, no 1-2, p. 1-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 177.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Marian Radetzki 80 years2018In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 31, no 1-2, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 178.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Metal prices back on top in 2011!2011In: World of Metallurgy - ERZMETALL, ISSN 1613-2394, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 57-58Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 179.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Mineral Economics/Raw Materials Report 30th anniversary2017In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 180.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Mineral supply from Africa: China's investment inroads into the African mineral resource sector2011In: Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, ISSN 0038-223X, Vol. 111, no 7, p. 497-500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The implications of the lack of natural resources in China and its implications globally and in Africa in particular are presented. China has quickly become a major producer of many metals and minerals. The country also has a near-monopoly on rare earths, tungsten, and other metals. The specific geological parameters of China, with few high-grade deposits of substance, have to a large extent determined the structure of the Chinese iron ore industry, where small and medium-size mines account for most of the production. The depletion of deposits and declining competitiveness has resulted in a growing share for the larger mines. The average grade of Chinese production is likely to be considerably lower than the 30% often assumed, and the production grade in its major mines is less than 25%. Most major and medium-sized mines are owned and operated by the major steel companies, most of which are state-owned with only a few of the major or medium mines being independent

  • 181.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Olle Lundqvist, Malmletarna, Boliden mineral AB, Umeå Sweden 20132015In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 28, no 1-2, p. 79-80Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 182.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pierre J. Goossens; L’or à travers les âges—Une histoire pas toujours dorée2015In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 28, no 1-2, p. 81-82Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 183.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Rohstoffmärkte: Aussichten und zunehmende Abhängigkeiten2009In: Globale Rohstoffpolitik: Herausforderungen fûr Sicherheit, Entwicklung und Umwelt, Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG , 2009, p. 33-46Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 184.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Supply and demand: innovation drivers in the minerals industry2014In: Mineral processing and extractive metallurgy: 100 years of innovation, Society for mining, metallurgy and exploration , 2014, p. 3-13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reports of economic crises, investor anxiety and the impact of climate change all help paint a gloomy picture of the future. More optimistic predictions may be met with scorn and accused of lack of 'reality.' Nonetheless, one of the many lessons of history is that accurate factual data provides by far the best basis for discussion of future alternative paths of development, optimistic or otherwise (Raw Materials Database 2012). The objectives of this paper are to show: (1) that positive future trends related to mining and metals are evident (Ericsson and Hodge 2012); and (2) that a number of gloom-laden myths should be refuted.

  • 185.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Will the mining industry meet the global need for metals?2009In: Sustainable Growth and Resource Productivity: Economic and global policy issues, Sheffield UK: Greenleaf Publishing Ltd, 2009, p. 14-29Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 186.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Drielsma, Johannes
    European Association of Mining Industries, Metal Ores and Industrial Minerals, Brussels, Belgium.
    Humphreys, David
    CEPMLP, Dundee University, Dundee, UK.
    Storm, Per
    EIT Raw Materials North AB, Luleå, Sweden.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Why current assessments of ‘future efforts’ are no basis for establishing policies on material use: a response to research on ore grades2019In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 111-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of declining availability due to declining primary resource quality has been investigated for various resource categories to try to determine the effort needed in future to either extract the resource or to treat it for intended use. The concept of ‘future efforts’ due to declining primary resource quality is explored by Vieira et al. (2016, 2017). They suggest that a specific burden associated with the production of each primary material should be taken into account and that this can be done by studying the costs of production or ore requirements of the material and by projecting forward likely costs into the future. For the purpose of the analysis, they employ mine cost data for 2000–2013 and reserve data published by the US Geological Survey. We will argue below that this approach is not correct and, with this comment, we wish to make it clear that—contrary to what is suggested in much of the Life Cycle Assessment literature—the future efforts concept is not an established rule of natural resource extraction. For mineral resources, it is quite impossible to proceed with extraction in the ordered way that this approach suggests because nobody has a comprehensive view of the entire natural resource. Secondly, there is no evidence available to support the idea that extracting a mineral resource today causes a decrease in availability of that mineral tomorrow. On the contrary, the weight of evidence suggests that where declines in ore grades have been observed, they are overwhelmingly due to technology development in response to high demand and have been accompanied by increased mining efficiency and increased availability of the resource to successive generations. Grade is a rather arbitrary measure since the grade of mined ore ultimately has to do with the relationship of costs and revenues. It is not only the technology employed which matters but also how smartly this technology is applied. Thirdly, the future efforts approach entirely overlooks the potential availability of mineral materials from secondary (scrap) sources, sources which are expected to become increasingly important to mineral supply in the future. Our conclusion from the discussion is that we as humans have been able to economically access ever-increasing amounts of material from often lower and lower-grade sources. What is impossible to conclude from this is that the environment no longer contains any of the higher-grade sources. In fact, all the available evidence suggests that higher-grade deposits are still out there. We remain critical optimists.

  • 187.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Gylesjö, Susanne
    Raw Materials Group, Solna.
    The role of geological surveys in the development of Africa2014In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 59-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was initiated to address the importance of properly functioning African geological surveys. Africa’s current developmental needs require a robust geoscientific infrastructure and knowledge that can only be achieved through well-developed geological surveys. A geoscientific infrastructure covers a wide range of geo-related areas, e.g. geological mapping, geophysical surveys and geochemical analyses that are needed for a variety of purposes, such as exploration, land-use planning, water resource assessment etc. Many geological surveys in Africa lack human, material and economic resources and therefore cannot perform their work effectively. The questionnaire used as a base for this study was made by Danièle Barberis (French) and Susanne Gylesjö (English). Compilation of the data and the report was performed by Susanne Gylesjö with assistance from Magnus Ericsson.

  • 188.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Johnsson, Eva Liedholm
    Section of Real Estate Planning and Land Law, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    State ownership and control of minerals and mines in Sweden and Finland2015In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 28, no 1-2, p. 23-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, Sweden and Finland both have experienced an exploration and mining boom, in particular, when comparing with the situation 10 years ago. The mining companies are once again highly profitable. A tax or royalty on produced mineral resources has been debated in both countries. The issue of ownership of minerals covered by the Mineral Acts is, however, not clear in any of the countries. Whether or not the State is regarded as the owner of minerals which are regulated by the Mining Acts, the State, however, does have a decisive influence on the exploration and extraction of mineral assets in Sweden and Finland. Ownership may also refer to holding of shares in a company exploring for or mining metals. In a broader context, the role of the State might be traced in mineral policies or strategies, which have been issued recently in several EU member states, Finland and Sweden included. This article, comparative in its nature, aims to investigate and analyse how the State in Sweden and Finland adjusts mineral rights and control of mining companies, and with a historical survey and a short international overview as a basis, the authors present a few observations on the role of the State for the countries’ future mineral strategies. In this article, the role of the State in Sweden and Finland is discussed in a historical context as to ownership of mineral resources, regulatory rules and control of mining and ownership of State-mining and/or exploration companies. The article shows that different roads have been chosen historically depending on the current view of State ownership in society. This also means that mineral strategies must be continuously updated, and actively incorporating the historical experiences. We believe that the role of the State, as an owner or controller of the two countries’ mineral resources and as regulator of exploration and mining activities, must be dealt with more thoroughly in both countries’ mineral strategies. We also believe that Sweden and Finland, sharing an overall positive experience from State ownership and control in all the ways discussed in this article, also must share and communicate this to other countries and international organisations: firstly, in the EU and the European Commission and secondly, outside the EU and Europe and within the UN and the African Union.

  • 189.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Jokelainen, Kristiina
    Regional Council of Lapland, Rovaniemi.
    Introduction2017In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 7-13Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The unprecedented mineral and metal boom beginning in 2004/5 and peaking in 2011 exposed European economic vulnerability and the continent's high dependence on imported raw materials. The almost limitless Chinese appetite for metals and minerals together with Chinese control over certain metals of strategic importance (nowadays called critical metals), such as the rare earths, further exacerbated the situation. European politicians and bureaucrats were caught unaware of the seemingly low security of supply for European industry. Not surprising, as during the two last decades of the twentieth century, the European Commission had been trying to limit damages caused by the crumbling European mining sector, primarily coal but also other minerals and metals, and had not been thinking about future supply issues at all. But since then the Commission has slowly but steadily revved its mineral raw material policies into action. The European actions are carried out under a range of acronyms, and for the non-European reader, it might be useful to present these in some detail, with a focus on R&I (research & innovation) aspects, as a background to this issue of Mineral Economics.

  • 190.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Larsson, Viktoriya
    Raw Materials Group.
    E&MJ's annual survey of global mining investment2013In: Engineering and mining journal (1926), ISSN 0095-8948, E-ISSN 0361-395X, Vol. 214, no 1, p. 28-33Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 191.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Larsson, Viktoriya
    E&MJ's annual survey of global mining investment2011In: Engineering and mining journal (1926), ISSN 0095-8948, E-ISSN 0361-395X, Vol. 212, no 1, p. 28-32Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 192.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Larsson, Viktoriya
    Raw Materials Group.
    E&MJ's annual survey of global mining investment2012In: Engineering and mining journal (1926), ISSN 0095-8948, E-ISSN 0361-395X, Vol. 213, no 1, p. 24-27Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 193.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Larsson, Viktoriya
    Raw Materials Group.
    E&MJ's annual survey of global mining investment2010In: Engineering and mining journal (1926), ISSN 0095-8948, E-ISSN 0361-395X, Vol. 211, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 194.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Löf, Anton
    Mordecai Consulting, Stockholm.
    Löf, Olof
    Mordecai Consulting, Stockholm.
    Global metal market: Is there a light at the end of the tunnel?2017In: World of Mining - Surface and Underground, ISSN 1613-2408, Vol. 69, no 1, p. 31-35Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 195.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Löf, Olof
    RMG Consulting, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mining’s contribution to national economies between 1996 and 20162019In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 223-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In several low- and middle-income countries rich in non-fuel mineral resources, mining makes significant contributions to national economic development as measured by the revised Mining Contribution Index (MCI-Wr). Ten countries among the 20 countries where mining contributes most (highest MCI-Wr score) have moved up one or two steps in the World Bank’s country classification between 1996 and 2016. In particular, African countries have benefitted. Socio-economic development indicators also show signs of progress for African mineral-rich countries. This paper provides an update and expansion of an earlier study within the framework of the United Nations University (UNU) World Institute for Development Economics Research (WIDER) initiative Extractives for Development. Based on the detailed data available for the sector, such as production, export, prices, mineral rents, exploration expenditure and government revenues, an analysis is carried out of the current situation for 2016, and trends in mining’s contribution to economic development for the years 1996–2016. The contribution of minerals and mining to GDP and exports reached a maximum at the peak of the mining boom in 2011. Naturally, the figures for mining’s contribution had declined for most countries by 2016, but importantly the levels were still considerably higher than in 1996. The results of this survey contradict the widespread view that mineral resources create a dependency that might not be conducive to economic and social development. In addition, this paper presents an attempt to use already available socio-economic indicators for African mineral-rich countries to measure socio-economic developments. One preliminary conclusion of this survey is that mining countries perform better than oil-producing countries and non-mineral countries in Africa as measured by these indices of human development and governance.

  • 196.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Mineral depletion and peak production2013In: Global Resources: Conflict and Cooperation, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, p. 222-231Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 197. Ericsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    "Peak Metal" production: a dangerously pessimistic misconception2011In: XPress, no 2, p. 58-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 198.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Tegen, Andreas
    Raw Materials Group, SNL Mining & Metals.
    Global PGM mining during 40 years: a stable corporate landscape of oligopolistic control2016In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 29-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The platinum group mining industry is among the most concentrated of all metal mining industries. The Herfindahl-Hirschman Index for palladium is 2413 in 2014, on the threshold to what is defined as “highly concentrated”. When considering that production is also concentrated in a few countries, more than 80 % of total world production is mined in South Africa and Russia, it is obvious that platinum group metals (PGMs) are labelled “critical” by many governments such as the EU, Japan and the USA (EU Commission 2014; National Research Council 2008; Prime Minister of Japan 2015). The development of the corporate structure for PGMs is analysed. Into the future, it looks as if the degree of concentration will decrease.

  • 199.
    Eriksson, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    The impact of EU the emissions trading system on the price of electricity: An econometric analysis of the Nordic electricity market2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine how the EU ETS price has affected the price of electricity in the Nordic electricity market, and how future changes in the carbon price may affect the wholesale electricity prices. The Nordic countries included are Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Finland. The analysis builds on a reduced econometric model where the Nordic electricity price constitutes the dependent variable. Problem with autocorrelation implied that quarterly data rather than monthly data were used. This model is estimated using ordinary least square (OLS) regression technique. Four variables were found to be statistically significant. These include the EU ETS price, the hydro reservoir level, the coal price and the temperature. The estimated coefficients were used to conduct a simulation on what could happen if the EU ETS price increased to € 30 per ton. The results showed that the electricity price would than increase by about € 16 per MWh from its current level at about € 37 per MWh.

  • 200.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Experiences from working with in-company quality awards: a case study2003In: TQM Magazine, ISSN 0954-478X, E-ISSN 1758-6887, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 397-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One way to stimulate total quality management (TQM) efforts in an organisation is to work with a quality award. This paper presents a case study, based on both interviews and document studies, of a unit within the Swedish National Road Administration that has worked with an in-company quality award. The purpose of the case study was to study how a unit experiences and is affected by the work connected with an in-company quality award. Some positive experiences and effects were recognised, such as a perceived improved customer orientation, a comprehensive view of the business, a degree of participation by everyone, systematic improvement work and an increase in the average score from the examiners. The perceived main disadvantage is the amount of work that the in-company quality award requires, especially in the phase of description of activities.

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