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  • 151.
    Bengtsson, Bertil
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Telefonavtal och elektroniska avtal med konsumenter2013In: Elektronisk signering: en antologi, Norstedts Juridik AB, 2013Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 152.
    Bengtsson, Bertil
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Torts and insurance2010In: Swedish legal system, Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2010, p. 299-316Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 153.
    Bengtsson, Bertil
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Trafikförsäkringsfrågor m.m.2006Book (Other academic)
  • 154.
    Bengtsson, Bertil
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Utskottsbetänkanden som rättskälla2008In: Juridisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1100-7761, no 1, p. 3-16Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 155.
    Bengtsson, Bertil
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Vad skulle ett utvidgat rättighetsansvar innebära?2013In: Juridisk Publikation, ISSN 2000-2920, no 1, p. 137-150Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 156.
    Bengtsson, Bertil
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bjellås, Ulf
    Rubenson, Stefan
    Strömberg, Rolf
    Miljöbalken: en kommentar2012Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är en utförlig, paragrafvis, kommentar till miljöbalken som trädde i kraft den 1 juli 1999.– Kapitel 1-6 innehåller kommentarer till de övergripande bestämmelserna som reglerar alla verksamheter och åtgärder som har anknytning till miljöbalkens tillämpningsområde.– Kapitel 7-8 kommenterar naturvårdslagstiftningen och föreskrifter om skyddsområden.– Kapitel 9-15 kommenterar reglerna om miljöfarlig verksamhet, förorenade områden, vattenverksamhet, kemiska produkter samt avfall och producentansvar.– Kapitel 31-33 kommenterar reglerna om ersättning och skadestånd m.m.

  • 157.
    Bengtsson, Bertil
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bjellås, Ulf
    Rubenson, Stefan
    Strömberg, Rolf
    Miljöbalken: en kommentar2017Book (Other academic)
  • 158.
    Bengtsson, Bertil
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bjellås, Ulf
    Rubenson, Stefan
    Strömberg, Rolf
    Miljöbalken: en kommentar2018Book (Other academic)
  • 159.
    Bengtsson, Bertil
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Hager, Richard
    Victorin, Anders
    Hyra och annan nyttjanderätt till fast egendom2007 (ed. 7)Book (Other academic)
  • 160.
    Bengtsson, Bertil
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Hager, Richard
    Victorin, Anders
    Hyra och annan nyttjanderätt till fast egendom2018 (ed. 9)Book (Other academic)
  • 161.
    Bengtsson, Bertil
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Rubenson, Stefan
    Landskapsbild och landskapsskydd2016In: Ny juridik, ISSN 1400-3007, no 2, p. 7-23Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 162.
    Bengtsson, Bertil
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Strömbäck, Erland
    Skadeståndslagen: en kommentar2008 (ed. 3)Book (Other academic)
  • 163.
    Bengtsson, Bertil
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Strömbäck, Erland
    Skadeståndslagen: en kommentar2011 (ed. 4., bearb. och aktualiserade)Book (Other academic)
  • 164.
    Bengtsson, Bertil
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Strömbäck, Erland
    Skadeståndslagen: en kommentar2014 (ed. 5)Book (Other academic)
  • 165.
    Bengtsson, Bertil
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Strömbäck, Erland
    Skadeståndslagen: en kommentar2006 (ed. 2. uppl.)Book (Other academic)
  • 166.
    Bengtsson, Bertil
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Strömbäck, Erland
    Skadeståndslagen: en kommentar2018 (ed. 6)Book (Other academic)
  • 167.
    Bengtsson, Bertil
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ullman, Harald
    Unger, Sven
    Allehanda om skadestånd i avtalsförhållanden2009 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 168.
    Bengtsson, Bertil
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ullman, Harald
    Unger, Sven
    Allehanda om skadestånd i avtalsförhållanden2019 (ed. 3)Book (Other academic)
  • 169.
    Bengtsson, Bertil
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ullman, Harald
    Unger, Sven
    Allehanda om skadestånd i avtalsförhållanden2013 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
  • 170.
    Björklund, Gisela
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    GDPR och Sveriges SMF-företagare: Vad har en elefant och dataskyddsförordningen gemensamt? Båda är omfångsrika, tunga och inger respekt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), i Sverige kallad dataskyddsförordningen, har sin upprinnelse i EU:s lagstiftning. EU-kommissionen presenterade 2012 förslag till nya regler för dataskydd och personuppgiftsbehandling efter att bister i det gamla direktivet om behandling av personuppgifter upptäckts. Den nya förordningen, trädde i kraft den 25 maj 2018. Den snabba tekniska utvecklingen i dagens samhälle har förändrat våra vanor och beteenden jämfört med 1998 – då den tidigare personuppgiftslagen trädde i kraft. Tekniken har gjort det enklare att konsumera varor och tjänster från andra länder, vilket i sin tur medför att även våra personuppgifter sprids och lagras utanför Sveriges gränser i högre utsträckning. EU:s syfte med den nya dataskyddsförordningen, GDPR, var att skapa en enhetlig lagstiftning för hanteringen av dessa personuppgifter i de olika medlemsländerna – och därigenom underlätta det fria flödet av varor och tjänster på EU:s inre marknad; informationen skulle kunna flöda fritt mellan medlemsländerna. En viktig aspekt i arbetet med GDPR var tillkomsten av vissa rekvisit, exempelvis kravet på laglig grund, som ska vara uppfyllda vid behandling av personuppgifter av företag, organisationer och myndigheter och andra offentliga organ. För att besvara syftet och frågeställningen ”Hur har Sveriges SMF-företagare upplevt införandet av GDPR?” har en rättsdogmatisk metod använts. Dessutom har en kvalitativ- och kvantitativ metod använts genom frågeformulär och intervjuer i syfte att ytterligare ge klarhet i frågan. Undersökningen visade på att företagare i första hand använt sig av utbildningar, konsulter eller checklistor på internet för att tillgodogöra sig kunskap om GDPR. Genom intervjun med chefjuristen på Företagarna, Sveriges största sammanslutning av företagare, framkom det att många företagare upplever GDPR som svårt och otydligt, framförallt rörande personuppgiftsbiträdesavtal; när dessa ska appliceras och inte. Både i undersökningen, intervjuerna och flertalet nyhetsartiklar framgick det att förordningen är så pass ny att det kommer dröja innan Sveriges SMF-företagare till fullo satt sig i den, och efterlever förordningen. Det är trots allt ett arbete som ska fortlöpa även framledes; företagarna kan inte slå sig till ro eller nöja sig med att enbart ha infört GDPR i verksamheten.

  • 171.
    Björkwall, Pia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Balancing Patent Scope with a Focus on Emerging Technologies2015In: NIR: Nordiskt immateriellt rättsskydd, ISSN 0027-6723, no 3, p. 243-286Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 172.
    Björkwall, Pia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Funktionsbundna produktpatent för gener och gensekvenser2004In: Immateriaalioikeudet insolvenssimenettelyssä, Helsinki: Helsingin yliopiston oikeustieteellinen tiedekunta , 2004, p. 261-290Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 173.
    Björkwall, Pia
    Hanken School of Economics.
    Förväxlingsbarhet och goodwillskador: Kommentar till HD 2004:492004In: NIR: Nordiskt immateriellt rättsskydd, ISSN 0027-6723, Vol. 73, no 6, p. 574-576Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 174.
    Björkwall, Pia
    Hanken School of Economics.
    Hyödyllisyysmallioikeuden keksinnöllisyysvaatimus ja siihen liittyvät ongelmat2011In: Defensor legis, ISSN 0356-262X, no 1, p. 62-72Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 175.
    Björkwall, Pia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Many Faces of Patents: Implications for Legal Analysis2015In: NIR: Nordiskt immateriellt rättsskydd, ISSN 0027-6723, no 4, p. 361-399Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 176.
    Björkwall, Pia
    Hanken School of Economics.
    Nyttighetsmodeller: ett ändamålsenligt innovationsskydd?2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nyttighetsmodellskydd är avsett för sådana tekniska uppfinningar som inte har den uppfinningshöjd som förutsätts för patentskydd. Samtidigt är en av lagstiftningens målsättningar att skyddet tack vare en förenklad registreringsprocess skall fungera som ett ”snabbare, billigare och enklare” alternativ till patentskyddet. Skyddsformen anses kunna ha flera viktiga funktioner i dagens kunskapsbaserade samhälle. Samtidigt är den dock kontroversiell. För det första erbjuder den skydd för uppfinningar som, enligt principerna bakom patenträttens uppfinningshöjd, faller inom området för normal teknikutveckling och följaktligen inte skall skyddas med ensamrätter. För det andra innebär det förenklade registreringsförfarandet att en ansökan om nyttighetsmodellskydd inte är föremål för samma ingående prövning som en patentansökan. Oprövade rättigheter anses skapa osäkerhet på marknaden, eftersom man inte med säkerhet kan veta vad som är skyddat.Syftet med avhandlingen är att kritiskt utvärdera huruvida nyttighetsmodellskyddet i sin nuvarande utformning utgör ett ändamålsenligt innovationsskydd. Argumentationen förs med stöd av den kunskap som erhålles genom att analysera skyddsformen ur olika perspektiv.

  • 177.
    Björkwall, Pia
    Hanken School of Economics.
    Nyttighetsmodeller: Ett ändamålsenligt innovationsskydd2009In: Tidskrift utgiven av juridiska föreningen Finland, ISSN 0040-6953, no 5, p. 736-739Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 178.
    Björkwall, Pia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The Unified Patent Court and the Inventive Step2015In: Transitions in European Patent Law: Influences of the Unitary Patent Package, New York: Wolters Kluwer Law & Business , 2015, p. 85-103Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 179.
    Björkwall, Pia
    Hanken School of Economics.
    Ur finsk rättspraxis2013In: NIR: Nordiskt immateriellt rättsskydd, ISSN 0027-6723, Vol. 82, no 2, p. 226-242Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 180.
    Björkwall, Pia
    Hanken School of Economics.
    Ur finsk rättspraxis2007In: NIR: Nordiskt immateriellt rättsskydd, ISSN 0027-6723, Vol. 76, no 2, p. 174-177Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 181.
    Björkwall, Pia
    Hanken School of Economics.
    Ur finsk rättspraxis2004In: NIR: Nordiskt immateriellt rättsskydd, ISSN 0027-6723, Vol. 73, no 6, p. 569-573Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 182.
    Björkwall, Pia
    et al.
    Hanken School of Economics.
    Streng, Alfred
    Ur finsk rättspraxis2007In: NIR: Nordiskt immateriellt rättsskydd, ISSN 0027-6723, Vol. 76, no 3, p. 289-310Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 183.
    Boqvist, Hanna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Nilsson, Matilda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Vilseledande marknadsföring enligt 10 och 11 §§ MFL: Vad är avgörande faktorer vid bedömningen?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Via en rättsdogmatisk metod har gällande rätt varit i fokus för att fastställa vilka faktorer som varit avgörande vid bedömningen om marknadsföring i tv strider mot förbudet om vilseledande marknadsföring enligt 10 § MFL. Marknadsföring i tv och radio har begränsat med tid och utrymme vilket har betydelse vid bedömningen om näringsidkarens möjlighet att neutralisera det vilseledande intrycket som reklamen kan ha gett i vissa fall. 

    Faktorer som tagits i beaktande vid bedömning om marknadsföring varit vilseledande är dels om näringsidkaren har kunnat styrka påståendet som framförts vid marknadsföringen och dels om informationen har utelämnats eller presenterats på ett oklart sätt. Beaktande tas om näringsidkaren kunnat neutralisera det vilseledande intrycket som förekommit i reklamfilmen.

  • 184.
    Brännström, Veronica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Förutsättningar för vård enligt LVM: En rättsvetenskaplig studie om utvecklingen av tvångsvård i Sverige2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 185.
    Burwall, Sofia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Kränkning enligt SkL: Skadestånd för kränkning genom brott2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 186. Byström, Pär
    et al.
    Michanek, Gabriel
    Leonardsson, Kjell
    Näslund, Ingemar
    Rova, Carl
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Catch and release: populär men ifrågasatt metod2008In: Vilt och fisk fakta, ISSN 1654-0115, no 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 187.
    Bäckström, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Rätten till mineral: en studie om befogenheter och legala inskränkningar i äganderätten till fastighetens beståndsdelar2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since long, Swedish land owners has been forced to accept that their land is claimed for mining activities. The utilization has taken place in accordance with different laws and legal rules. Also the current Minerals Act expresses a right for third parties to assimilate minerals from other people's property. The question of who owns the mineral prior the utilization is however not answered by the Minerals Act or by any other statute. In addition to being principally interesting, the ownership issue is also of practical importance, for instance regarding the right to exploit minerals covered by the Minerals Act for household use, or the right to exploit unregulated mineral as well as in future assessments regarding e.g. mineral compensation. In addition to the principal question of ownership, the Minerals Act also gives rise to a number of other issues that affect the land owner's right in relation to the extraction of minerals on the property. The main purpose of this study has thus been to identify who, if any, can be regarded as the principal owner of the elements of earth that contains minerals under Swedish law. To do this it has been necessary to define the concept of ownership in the property context. Furthermore, the study also contains an investigation regarding whether the minerals in the earth is to be considered a part of the property, and if the property ownership entails a principal right (power) for the owner to utilize minerals that may exist underground. The right with which third parties can reside on private land and there perform the preliminary studies that may be required to obtain exploration permit is also examined, as well as the conditions for – and the powers that comes with – permit and concession in accordance with the Minerals Act. The results of the study confirm that the ownership of property in Sweden is negatively determined and that all powers relating to the property therefore is due to the owner, unless law, custom, tradition or other source of law states otherwise. The results of the study also indicate that the mineral in the ground are to be considered a part of the property; the landowner is therefore in principle its owner and the function of the Minerals Act is that of a legal constraint. It is also concluded that it is possible to perform a large part of the necessary preliminary investigations with support of the Right of Common (Swe: Allemansrätten).

  • 188.
    Bäckström, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Svensk gruvrätt: En rättsvetenskaplig studie rörande förutsättningarna för utvinning av mineral2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish landowners Historically, Swedish landowners have been forced to accept that that their land is claimed for mining activities. This has been done on the basis of different laws and legal rules. The Minerals Act currently in force also entitles third parties to extract miner-als from other people's property. The question of who owns the mineral prior to extraction is however not answered by the Minerals Act or by any other statute. The ownership issue is, in addition to principally interesting, also of practical importance, for instance in relation to the right to exploit minerals covered by the Minerals Act for household use, or the right to exploit unregulated minerals, as well as for future discussion regarding mineral compensation. Besides the principal question of ownership, the Minerals Act gives rise to a number of other issues affecting the landowner's right in relation to the extraction of minerals on the property. The main purpose of the study in Part I is to identify who, if anyone, under Swedish law can be regarded as the principal owner of the components of earth that contain minerals. To this end, it has been necessary to define the concept of ownership in the property context. Access to minerals has been essential for the development of civilization and is still of crucial importance for the way we live our lives. While mineral extraction can be said to constitute a significant public interest, it is an activity that claims limited resources, competes with other land-use interests and causes significant environmental impacts. Even these interests have gradually begun to be considered public and essential, especially the interest of sustainable development. As a result of this, the legal framework governing the extraction of minerals has expanded substantially. This applies not least in relation to other interests, such as environ-mental protection and the rights of others, for example various types of user rights. The legal framework for mineral extraction is today a complex system consisting of several laws with wholly or partly different objectives. An important question is how well these overarching objectives can be ensured within the licensing process for mineral extraction and its associated parallel application of more or less independent laws. The main purpose of the study in Part II is to examine how the overarching objective of the Environmental Code is safeguarded in the licensing process for mineral extraction, and how the process should be designed in order for it to result in well-balanced solutions where all interests are given sufficient consideration. In addition to the analysis of the various legal issues and conflicts that may arise in connection with the exploration, exploitation and processing of minerals, the study also aims to investi-gate what should be regarded as applicable law in situations where clear rules are missing.

  • 189.
    Christiernsson, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Conservation and management of fish and wildlife populations in Swedish law: a need for an ecoystem-based approach2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The diversity of species has decreased massively during the last century. Despite the array of legal instruments aiming at conserving natural resources applied since the middle of the 20th century the eradication of species has not been hindered. There may be several explanations for why the instruments have not been successful in hindering the decreasing diversity. One proposition for the failures is the lack of a holistic approach in regarding ecosystem characteristics such as inter-species and habitats relations. Another proposition is that the legal system should have an adaptive capacity to deal with complexity and uncertainty. The purpose of this paper is to assess the adequacy of the legal instruments for the protection of wildlife and fish species within the Swedish jurisdiction with reference to these two propositions. The results of the paper show that the legal instruments for the protection of species mainly are concerned with the rational use or protection of a certain species rather than on the sustainability of ecosystems. There is also a lack of adaptive elements in the legislation, such as the lack of legal requirements on monitoring of the conservation status of species. The conclusion of the paper is thus that a legislative approach which is more holistic and more adaptive is necessary; otherwise there is a risk that the preservation of biodiversity will be further frustrated.

  • 190.
    Christiernsson, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Legal limits and adaptive management of wildlife populations in Swedish law2006In: IASCP 2006 Conference Papers, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last century the variety of species has decreased dramatically and numerous species are today classified as endangered or threatened. The main determining factor is human related activities such as forestry, farming, intensive hunting and fishing. Since the middle of the last century, a number of legal instruments concerning the use and conservation of natural resources have been applied, such as protection of individual species and their nests and restrictions on hunting and fishing, without hindering the eradication of species. One proposition for the failures of traditional legal instruments is the lack of a holistic approach in regarding ecosystem characteristics such as inter-species and habitats relations and biodiversity. The paper founds that the legal instruments mainly are concerned with the rational use or protection of a certain species rather than dealing with inter-relations and the sustainability of ecosystems. E.g. the motive for legal protection is based on a definition of a sustainable population which is determined with respect to the conservation status of the targeted species rather than with aim of achieving sufficient diversity of species in the ecosystems and legal limits related to the use of wildlife populations fail to integrate ecological concepts such as biodiversity for determining such limits. Another proposition is that since ecosystems are dynamic and complex it is important that the legal system has the capacity to respond to ecological changes. The analysis will show that the legal system concerning the protection of species generally lacks adaptive elements. A legislative approach which is more  holistic and adaptive is thus necessary; otherwise there is a risk that the preservation of biodiversity will be further frustrated.

  • 191.
    Christiernsson, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Rättens förhållande till komplexa och dynamiska ekosystem: En studie om rättsliga förutsättningar för adaptiv och ekosystembaserad reglering och planering för bevarandet av biologisk mångfald vid jakt2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological diversity, i.e., the variety of genes, species and ecosystems, is fundamental to all life on Earth. The conservation of biodiversity is consequently recognized both in national and international law as one of the prerequisites for achieving a sustainable development. However, the decrease in biodiversity is continuing, at all levels. One hypothesis for the failures is the lack of consistency between ecological and legal criteria, in particular regarding the incorporation of legal criteria relating to the complex and dynamic characteristics of ecosystems. A first purpose of this thesis is therefore to analyze whether the legislation on hunting and management of wildlife populations is developed with enough respect to ecological criteria necessary for achieving the goal of conserving biodiversity, at all levels. This also includes an assessment of legal preconditions for adaptive management as a means of handling ecosystem dynamics and limited ecosystem knowledge. Both national and EC legislation on hunting and management of wildlife populations have been included in the analysis. The result of the analysis shows that there are considerable differences between legal and ecological criteria, especially on the ecosystem-level, both in Swedish law and EU-law. However, the deficits are even more profound in Swedish law. The legislation is mainly concerned with the use of single wildlife species and there are few legal obligations to preserve or to consider interspecies relations, ecosystem functions or other ecosystemic characteristics. However, even on the species-level there are few legal requirements to guarantee that sustainable ecological limits are not infringed due to hunting decisions. The analysis also shows that there are few substantial legal requirements for ensuring adaptive management. There is therefore a risk that the necessary adjustments to eliminate environmental goal deficits will not be achieved. The analysis furthermore shows that the Environmental Code, with its general rules of consideration and the goal to preserve biodiversity, in principle, has an important function in forcing decision-making towards an increased ecosystem approach. However, as the Code lacks efficient instruments for control and enforcement related to hunting specifically, the Code has no essential impact on decisions on hunting in practice. A second purpose of the thesis is to discuss new legal approaches to wildlife management. To achieve this purpose a study of environmental legislation on the management of natural resources in New Zeeland, with emphasis on planning systems, has been conducted. From the result of the study, several implications for the development of Swedish law can be drawn. It is for example concluded that an increased integration between the regulation on hunting and wildlife management and the Environmental Code, can be an efficient way of achieving holistic and ecosystemic decision-making. Such integration is suggested either through including environmental hunting rules under the Environmental Code or through developing a new legal framework for the regulation, planning and management of wildlife, with functions to secure horizontal integration with the Code and other relevant sectoral laws (such as the Forest Act). Another conclusion is that a top-down-approach in the legislation is necessary, given that the goal of biodiversity is to be achieved. A lack of a top-down approach in the legal system will increase the risk that overriding complex and dynamic ecosystem goals are neglected at the lower administrative levels due to conflicts with other interests. However, it is also promoted that the legislation at the central level should be conducted as a framework legislation, leaving responsibility to regional or local levels to determine the specifics, in particular where ecological preconditions differ between areas or when detailed rules cannot be expected to hold for a long time. Given the non-linearity, unpredictable changes, uncertainty and lack of ecosystem knowledge, especially on the ecosystem level, too detailed regulation may in fact even counteract the achievement of the biodiversity goal. However, when a legislation is of framework character, it is important that it also include guiding principles, clear legal definitions and legal standards to steer the decision-making at lower levels. Such guiding rules must also be complemented with requirements of regulations and decision-making at lower levels to be consistent with higher levels. When possible and necessary, legal limits to ensure that the use of wildlife resources and biodiversity are maintained within ecological sustainable limits, should be included. A legal planning system is here promoted for achieving complex and dynamic goals in relation to wildlife regulation and management. Such a planning system must be ecosystemic and include functions for adaptive management. If so, it can be a legal approach for vertical integration and full implementation of legal requirements which are in consistency with the framework goals. Such a planning system should also be developed with the purpose to implement EU-requirements. In general a more clear and precise implementation of EU-law is motivated, not only from a legal perspective, but from a goal fulfillment perspective as well, considering that legal criteria on the EU-level in some aspects are more consistent with ecological criteria. The overall purpose of this thesis is thus to contribute to the discussion on new legal approaches for wildlife management that will achieve international, EU- and national goals on the preservation and sustainable use of biological diversity.

  • 192.
    Christiernsson, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Skyddet av biologisk mångfald vid jakt: en studie om rättens förhållande till komplexa och dynamiska ekosystem tillämpat på uttag av viltarter2008Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological diversity, or the variety of genes, species and ecosystem, is fundamental to all life on Earth. The conservation of biodiversity is consequently recognized both in national and international law as one of the prerequisites for achieving a sustainable development. However, the decrease in biodiversity is continuing, at all levels. There may be several reasons for why the law has not been successful in preserving biodiversity. One hypothesis for the failures is the lack of consistency between ecological and legal criteria, in particular regarding the incorporation of legal criteria relating to the complex and dynamic characteristics of ecosystems. Biodiversity is ruled by the laws of nature and only humans can be ruled by legislation. The laws regulating human behaviour that in one or another way affects biodiversity, must therefore be developed with consideration to the rules of nature, if the goal is to be achieved. One activity with potential and factual effect on diversity is hunting. The purpose of this study is to analyze whether the legislation on hunting and management of wildlife populations is developed with respect to ecological criteria necessary for achieving the goal of conserving biodiversity. Both national and EC legislation on hunting and management of wildlife populations have been included in the analysis. The result of the analysis shows that there are considerable differences between legal and ecological criteria. The legislation is mainly concerned with the use and protection of single species. When limits for hunting are determined, criteria relating to the targeted species are generally used. However, even on the species-level there are inconsistencies between legal and ecological criteria. E.g. there is a lack of legally binding obligations to protect species during their breeding- and hibernation periods and to preserve genetic diversity within species. On the ecosystem-level the lack of criteria in consistency is even more profound. Legal obligations to preserve or to consider interspecies relations, ecosystem functions and other relationships between the species and the ecosystem are almost non-existing. A broader perspective is found in the Environmental Code with its general rules of consideration and the goal to preserve biodiversity. The Environmental Code therefore, in principle, has an important function in forcing decision making towards an increased ecosystem approach. However, as the Code lacks efficient instruments for control and enforcement related to hunting specifically, the Code has no essential impact on decision on hunting in practice. In addition, the analysis shows that there are considerable differences between national law and EC-law. Since EC-law is binding on its member states there are numerous situations where national hunting law must be changed. Since legal criteria in EC-law generally are more in consistence with ecological criteria a more efficient implementation of EC-law is motivated from a goal fulfillment perspective as well. There are several ways in which the law needs to be developed in order to achieve the goal to preserve biodiversity. The analysis in this licentiate thesis will serve as a starting point for a discussion on how to develop such instruments and legal systems.

  • 193.
    Didenko, Artem
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Omhändertagande av barn och ungdomar: Socialtjänstens roll i frågan om ungdomar med svåra livssituationer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 194.
    Driessen, Peter P. J.
    et al.
    Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Hegger, Dries L.T.
    Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.
    Institute for Agricultural and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznań, Poland. Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany.
    van Rijswick, Helena F. M. W.
    Utrecht Centre for Water, Oceans and Sustainability Law, Utrecht University School of Law, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Crabbé, Ann
    Research Group Environment & Society, Sociology Department, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Larrue, Corinne
    Paris School of Planning, Lab’Urba, Paris Est University, Marne La Vallée, France.
    Matczak, Piotr
    Institute of Sociology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Priest, Sally
    Flood Hazard Research Centre, Middlesex University, London, UK.
    Suykens, Cathy
    Utrecht Centre for Water, Oceans and Sustainability Law, Utrecht University School of Law, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Institute for Environmental and Energy Law, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Raadgever, Gerrit Thomas
    Sweco Netherlands, The Netherlands.
    Wiering, Mark
    Institute for Management Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Governance Strategies for Improving Flood Resilience in the Face of Climate Change2018In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 1595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flooding is the most common of all natural disasters and accounts for large numbers of casualties and a high amount of economic damage worldwide. To be ‘flood resilient’, countries should have sufficient capacity to resist, the capacity to absorb and recover, and the capacity to transform and adapt. Based on international comparative research, we conclude that six key governance strategies will enhance ‘flood resilience’ and will secure the necessary capacities. These strategies pertain to: (i) the diversification of flood risk management approaches; (ii) the alignment of flood risk management approaches to overcome fragmentation; (iii) the involvement, cooperation, and alignment of both public and private actors in flood risk management; (iv) the presence of adequate formal rules that balance legal certainty and flexibility; (v) the assurance of sufficient financial and other types of resources; (vi) the adoption of normative principles that adequately deal with distributional effects. These governance strategies appear to be relevant across different physical and institutional contexts. The findings may also hold valuable lessons for the governance of climate adaptation more generally.

  • 195.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Michanek, Gabriel
    Ödberg, Christer
    Turismen och naturresurserna, konflikt eller samverkan?: en förstudie till ett rättsekonomiskt forskningsprojekt2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Turismen har blivit en viktig näringsgren i Sverige, detta gäller både i storstadsregioner och på landsbygd. Landsbygdens - och inte minst Norrlands - särskilda nisch bygger i hög grad på naturupplevelser, såsom bl.a. forsränning, överlevnadskurser, jakt, fiske, exkursioner, fågelskådning etc. Anspråken på naturresurserna är dock många, och i flera fall finns en ökad risk för intressekonflikter kring utnyttjandet av exempelvis markområden. Denna rapport ut-gör resultatet av en förstudie till ett större forskningsprojekt vars huvudsakliga mål skulle vara att analysera möjligheterna för ett samhällsekonomiskt effektivt nyttjande av de norrländska naturresurserna för turism- och rekreationsändamål, samt i vilken mån den rådande lagstift-ningen utgör ett hinder för att uppnå detta mål. Syftet med denna förstudie är att: (a) ge en översikt av tidigare nationell och internatio-nell forskning som bidragit med kunskap om naturens rekreationsvärden, samt om åtgärder genom vilka dessa värden kan förstärkas; samt (b) identifiera centrala intressekonflikter vilka möjliggör en analys av lagstiftningens roll för ett samhällsekonomiskt effektivt utnyttjande av naturresurserna. Vår genomgång av tidigare forskning visar att det finns ett såväl vetenskapligt som praktiskt värde i att utforma ett rättsekonomiskt forskningsprojekt där dagens lagstiftning och rättstillämpning skärskådas med samhällsekonomiska metoder, men där samtidigt dessa senare metoders begränsningar lyfts fram tydligare än vad som tidigare har varit fallet. Dessa begränsningar består främst i: (a) det begränsade utrymmet för deliberation och diskussion; (b) antagandet om kontinuerliga och exogena preferenser; samt (c) fokus på individuella snarare än kollektiva värden. Detta innebär att existerande värderingsmetoder med fördel kan kompletteras med ett starkare inslag av fokusgruppdiskussioner och s.k. medborgarjurys där preferenser kan skapas endogent via diskussioner med andra (inklusive experter). I rapporten argumenteras för att dessa nya angreppssätt är av stort värde för ett forskningsprojekt som rör den norrländska naturens turism- och rekreationsvärden, och de intressekonflikter som kan beröra realiserandet av dessa. Rapporten identifierar vidare fyra områden inom vilka denna forskning praktiskt bör kunna bedrivas: (a) allemansrätten och turismen; (b) gruvindustrin och turismen; (c) omställ-ningen av energisystemet och turismen; samt (d) markupplåtelser och upplevelseturism. På alla dessa områden finns ett tydligt utrymme för fruktbart mångvetenskapligt samarbete kring ett rättsekonomiskt projekt, där exempelvis lagstiftningens begränsningar och samhällsekono-miska konsekvenser kan belysas och kontrasteras utifrån såväl lagtext, förarbeten, och praxis som kompletterande preferensstudier av "stakeholders" samt allmänhet. Genom att fokusera forskningen på ett eller flera sådana områden lyfts också centrala frågor och problem fram som rör turism- och upplevelseproduktion i Norrland och dess koppling till nyttjandet av landsändans naturresurser och markområden.

  • 196.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bäckström, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Samhällsnyttans betydelse vid tillståndsprövningen av vindkraft2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten analyserar hur begreppet samhällsnytta hanteras i tillståndsprövningen av vindkraft. Lagstiftningen ger ett visst utrymme att beakta vindkraftens betydelse för den lokala/regionala ekonomin. Förutom att vindkraften påverkar samhällsekonomin genom att bidra till elproduktionen påverkar utbyggnaden även lokal eller regional ekonomi och sysselsättning samt andra näringar. Hur stora effekterna blir på sysselsättning och inkomster på lokal/regional nivå, beror bland annat på på det lokala utbudet av de tjänster och den kompetens som efterfrågas.

    Såväl positiva som negativa externa effekter uppstår vid utbyggnad av vindkraft, men det finns ett tydligare utrymme i lagstiftningen att beakta vindkraftens negativa effekter, än att ta hänsyn till de positiva effekterna. För att säkerställa att även vindkraftens positiva miljöeffekter ges utrymme i lagstiftningen föreslår författarna att regelverket ändras, så att en bedömning av den miljömässiga nyttan av vindkraften - och andra liknande verksamheter – måste göras i prövningen av tillstånd. Detta skulle öka såväl transparensen och rättssäkerheten i besluten som den vägledande kapaciteten.

  • 197.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Goytia, Susana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Carina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Nysten-Haarala, Soili
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderasp, Johanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Challenges in Swedish hydropower: politics, economics and rights2017In: Research Ideas and Outcomes, E-ISSN 2367-7163, Vol. 3, article id e21305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two systems working in parallel have contributed to implementation difficulties in Swedish water governance. While the old system is designed to be predictable and stable over time, the new system is intended to be transparent and holistic, guided by the principles of Integrated Water Resource Management. The paper disentangles the challenges in Swedish water governance and proposes a blueprint for future research. The proposed research project is unique in the sense that it explores the imbalances between the new and the old water governance systems from a multi-disciplinary perspective, elaborating upon the clashes between the traditional, nationally based regulatory system and the new holistic water governance system from legal, political and economic perspectives.

  • 198.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Goytia, Susana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Spegel, Elin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Analysing and evaluating flood risk governance in Sweden: Adaptation to Climate Change?2016Report (Other academic)
  • 199.
    Elenius, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Allard, ChristinaLuleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.Sandström, CamillaDepartment of Political Science, Umeå University.
    Indigenous rights in modern landscapes: Nordic conservation regimes in global context2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book examines the diverse use of Indigenous customary rights in modern landscapes from a multidisciplinary perspective. Divided into two parts, the first deals explicitly with Sámi customary rights in relation to nature conservation in the Nordic countries and Russia from a legal and historical perspective. The authors investigate how longstanding Sámi customary territorial rights have been reassessed in the context of new kinds of legislation regarding Indigenous people. They also look at the ideas behind the historical models of nature conservation. The second part deals with the ideas and implementation of new kinds of postcolonial models of nature conservation. The case of the Sámi is compared with other Indigenous people internationally with cases from Australia, New Zealand, Canada and India. The work investigates how the governance of protected areas has been influenced by the principles of equality and positive discrimination, and how it has affected the possibilities of establishing adaptive co-management arrangements for specific areas. How the legal situation of Indigenous peoples has been recognised in an international context is also investigated. The volume provides a multidisciplinary analysis of how the customary livelihood of Indigenous people has adapted to modern industrialised landscapes and also how postcolonial approaches have contributed to global changes of Indigenous rights and nature conservation models

  • 200.
    Elenius, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Allard, ChristinaLuleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.Sandström, CamillaDepartment of political science, Umeå Universitet.
    Indigenous Rights in Moders Landscapes: Nordic Conservation Regimes in Global Context2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book examines the diverse use of Indigenous customary rights in modern landscapes from a multidisciplinary perspective. Divided into two parts, the first deals explicitly with Sámi customary rights in relation to nature conservation in the Nordic countries and Russia from a legal and historical perspective. The authors investigate how longstanding Sámi customary territorial rights have been reassessed in the context of new kinds of legislation regarding Indigenous people. They also look at the ideas behind the historical models of nature conservation. The second part deals with the ideas and implementation of new kinds of postcolonial models of nature conservation. The case of the Sámi is compared with other Indigenous people internationally with cases from Australia, New Zealand, Canada and India. The work investigates how the governance of protected areas has been influenced by the principles of equality and positive discrimination, and how it has affected the possibilities of establishing adaptive co-management arrangements for specific areas. How the legal situation of Indigenous peoples has been recognised in an international context is also investigated. The volume provides a multidisciplinary analysis of how the customary livelihood of Indigenous people has adapted to modern industrialised landscapes and also how postcolonial approaches have contributed to global changes of Indigenous rights and nature conservation models.

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