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  • 151.
    Bejgarn, Therese
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Nylander, Juhani
    Boliden Mineral AB.
    Årebäck, Hans
    Boliden Mineral AB, Earth Sciences Centre – Geology, Göteborg University.
    Söderlund, Ulf
    Lund Universitet, Department of Geology, GeoBiosphere Science Centre, Lund University.
    Ernst, Richard E.
    Geological Survey of Canada, Carleton University, Ottawa.
    Tectonomagmatic aspects of intrusive hosted Cu-Au-Mo deposits in the Skellefte District, northern Sweden2013In: Mineral deposit research for a high-tech world: proceedings / [ed] Erik Jonsson, Uppsala: Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning , 2013, p. 770-773Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Algtrask gold deposit and several low grade base metal deposits, e.g. the Tallberg porphyry deposit, are hosted by the Jam intrusive complex in the northern part of the Skellefte District, northern Sweden. The intrusive complex was emplaced at 1.89-1.86 Ga in a continental margin volcanic arc setting, and the oldest 1.89 Ga phase is coeval with volcanic rocks within the Skellefte Group, a complex volcano-sedimentary succession hosting numerous VMS deposits. The intrusive hosted deposits are associated with 1.88 Ga quartz-feldspar porphyritic intrusive rocks, which formed from 1.89 Ga recycled crust. Hence, it is interpreted that the intrusive hosted deposits formed when the arc was under transpression-compression, 10 Myr after the spatially related VMS deposits, which formed when the arc was under extension.

  • 152.
    Bejgarn, Therese
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Weihed, Pär
    Årebäck, Hans
    Boliden Mineral AB.
    Nylander, Juhani
    Boliden Mineral AB.
    Intrusion-related mineralization in the Palaeo-proterozoic Jörn Granitoid Complex, northern Sweden2009In: Smart science for exploration and mining: proceedings of the 10th Biennial SGA Meeting, Townsville, Australia, 17th-20th August 2009 / [ed] Patrick Williams, James Cook University of North Queensland , 2009, p. 921-923Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immediately north of the Skellefte mining district, northern Sweden, the early orogenicsynvolcanic Jörn granitoid complex hosts several mineral deposits. The Jörn granitoid batholith intruded into a continental margin arc or island arc volcanic succession during the early Proterozoic, and comprises a composite, I-type, calc-alkaline batholith, ranging from granite to gabbro in composition. Several mineral deposits occur in the heterogeneous margin of the complex, i.e. the Tallberg porphyry Cu-Au-Mo, the Älgträsk Au and the Älgliden Ni-Cu-Au deposits in the south and the Näsberg Fe±PGE and Granberg porphyry Cu mineralization in the north. The known deposits indicate that the intrusion is fertile for further exploration activities and that Palaeoproterozioc synvolcanic intrusions close to VMS districts should be studied more closely to further develop genetic models which can be used to reconstruct the ore forming environments and tectonic evolution. This knowledge might be used as guidelines when exploring for new districts with economic potential in Palaeoproterozoic terrains.

  • 153. Bejgarn, Therese
    et al.
    Årebäck, Hans
    Boliden Mineral AB.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Nylander, Juhani
    Boliden Mineral AB.
    Geology, petrology and alteration geochemistry of the Palaeoproterozoic intrusive hosted Ägträsk Au deposit, Northern Sweden2011In: Geological Society Special Publication, ISSN 0305-8719, E-ISSN 2041-4927, no 350, p. 105-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Ägträsk intrusive hosted Au deposit, Skellefte district, northern Sweden, is situated in the oldest, most heterogeneous part of the c. 1.89-1.86 Ga Jörn granitoid complex, which intruded a complex volcano-sedimentary succession in an island arc or continental margin arc environment. The Tallberg porphyry Cu deposit, situated only 3 km west of Ägträsk, is associated with quartz feldspar porphyritic dykes. These dykes are suggested to be genetically related to similar porphyry dykes in Älgträsk and the tonalitic host rock in Tallberg. The granodiorite hosting the Ägträsk Au-deposit does not appear to be genetically related to the tonalite or the porphyry dykes.

  • 154.
    Beka, Thomas I.
    et al.
    Faculty of Science and Technology, UiT-The Arctic University of Norway.
    Bergh, Steffen G.
    Department of Geology, UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø.
    Smirnov, Maxim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Birkelund, Yngve
    Department of Physics and Technology, UiT-The Arctic University of Norway.
    Magnetotelluric signatures of the complex tertiary fold-thrust belt and extensional fault architecture beneath Broggerhalvoya, Svalbard2017In: Polar Research, ISSN 0800-0395, E-ISSN 1751-8369, Vol. 36, article id 1409586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetotelluric (MT) data were recently collected on Broggerhalvoya, Svalbard, in a 0.003-1000 s period range along a curved WNW-ESE profile. The collected data manifested strong three-dimensional (3D) effects. We modelled the full impedance tensor with tipper and bathymetry included in 3D, and benchmarked the result with determinant data two-dimensional (2D) inversion. The final inversion results indicated striking similarity with known surface bedrock geology and well reflected the tectonic history of the region. The most convincing contribution of the MT data is perhaps the elegantly imaged interplay between repeated basement-involved fold-thrust belt structures and successive down-dropped strata along steeply dipping oblique-normal faults (e.g., the Scheteligfjellet Fault) that created a horst/ridge and graben/depression system. Peculiarly, the MT result suggests that the Paleocene-Eocene fold-thrust belt structures dominate the shallow crustal level, while later normal faults in the area can be traced deeper into the pre-Devonian basement formations strongly affecting fluid and heat migration towards the surface. Near the sub-vertical Scheteligfjellet Fault, the MT model indicates aquifers within the upraised horsts of the pre-Devonian system at 2-5 km depth, sandwiched between the down-faulted resistive (ca. 500-3000 Om) Carboniferous and Permian successions. The section west of the Ny-Alesund settlement has signatures of lateral and subvertical cap-rock sealings, surrounding a steep and deep-seated major fault and aquifer systems. This section of the peninsula therefore requires closer investigation to evaluate the deep geothermal resource prospect.

  • 155.
    Beka, Thomas I.
    et al.
    Faculty of Science and Technology, UiT-The Arctic University of Norway.
    Senger, Kim
    Department of Arctic Geology, The University Centre in Svalbard.
    Autio, Uula A
    Oulu Mining School, Geophysics, University of Oulu.
    Smirnov, Maxim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Birkelund, Yngve
    Faculty of Science and Technology, UiT-The Arctic University of Norway.
    Integrated electromagnetic data investigation of a Mesozoic CO2 storage target reservoir-cap-rock succession, Svalbard2017In: Journal of Applied Geophysics, ISSN 0926-9851, E-ISSN 1879-1859, Vol. 136, p. 417-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently acquired time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) and magnetotelluric (MT) data sets are utilized in the first electromagnetic (EM) characterization of a geological CO2 storage target site in Adventdalen, Arctic Norway. Combining the two EM data sets enabled to resolve the electrical resistivity structure of the target site better than either of the methods alone. 2D inverting the MT data in the audio period interval (0.003–1 s) with supporting input derived from the TEM data (0.01–10 ms) provided a geologically meaningful resistivity model that included information not previously evident from existing seismic and borehole data. The ca. 1.8 × 1 km 2D resistivity model displays a laterally constrained highly conductive anomaly (ca. 10 Ω m) at about 400–500 m depth, where reflectors of a parallel seismic section are concealed and core samples indicate a highly fractured décollement zone formed during Paleogene compression. The base of the permafrost is imaged at ca. 200 m depth. Synthetic inversion tests, however, suggest that this may be exaggerated by tens of meters, due to a thin conductive layer present approximately between 10 and 25 m depth. The resistivity model does not give indication for a fluid pathway we can connect to leakage, in line with water injection and leak-off tests in the reservoir and cap-rock, both of which indicate a sealing shale-dominated cap-rock separating an over-pressured compartment above the sealing shale from a severely under-pressured reservoir interval. The results we present indicate the advantage of integrating EM exploration techniques in a CO2 reservoir-cap-rock study to obtain a more complete picture.

  • 156.
    Beka, Thomas I.
    et al.
    Department of Physics and Technology, UiT-The Arctic University of Norway.
    Smirnov, Maxim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Birkelund, Yngve
    Department of Physics and Technology, UiT-The Arctic University of Norway.
    Senger, Kim
    The University Centre in Svalbard.
    Bergh, Steffen G.
    Department of Geology, UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø.
    Analysis and 3D inversion of magnetotelluric crooked profile data from central Svalbard for geothermal application2016In: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 686, p. 98-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Broadband (0.001–1000 s) magnetotelluric (MT) data along a crooked profile collected to investigate the geothermal potential on Spitsbergen could not be fully explained by two-dimensional (2D) models; hence we interpret the data with three-dimensional (3D) inversion herein. To better accommodate 3D features and nearby off profile resistivity structures, the full MT impedance tensor data together with the tipper were inverted. As a model control, a detailed bathymetry is systematically incorporated in the inversion. Our results from testing different inversion settings emphasised that appropriately choosing and tuning the starting model, data error floor and the model regularization together are crucial to obtain optimum benefit from MT field data. Through the 3D inversion, we reproduced out of quadrant impedance components and obtained an overall satisfactory data fit (RMS = 1.05). The final 3D resistivity model displays a complex geology of the near surface region (< 1.5 km), which suggests fractures, localized and regional fault systems and igneous intrusions in the Mesozoic platform cover deposits. The Billefjorden fault zone is revealed as a consistent and deep rooted (> 2 km) conductive anomaly, confirming the regional nature of the fault. The fault zone is positioned between two uplifted basement blocks (> 1000 Ωm) of presumably pre-Devonian (Caledonian) metamorphic rocks, and the fault may have been responsible for deformation in the overlying Paleozoic-Mesozoic unit. Upper crustal conductive anomalies (< 10 Ωm) below the Paleozoic-Mesozoic succession in the western part of the 3D model are interpreted as part of a Devonian basin fill. These conductors are laterally and vertically bounded by resistive rocks, suggesting a conducive environment for deep geothermal heat storage. Having this scenario in an area of a known high heat-flow, deep faults and a thinned lithosphere makes the hypothesis on finding a technologically exploitable geothermal resource close to human settlement in the area stronger.

  • 157.
    Bender, H.
    et al.
    Department of Geological Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ring, U.
    Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Almqvist, B.S.G.
    Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Grasemann, B.
    Department of Geodynamics and Sedimentology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Stephens, Michael B.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Metamorphic Zonation by Out‐of‐Sequence Thrusting at Back‐Stepping Subduction Zones: Sequential Accretion of the Caledonian Internides, Central Sweden2018In: Tectonics, ISSN 0278-7407, E-ISSN 1944-9194, Vol. 37, no 10, p. 3545-3576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exhumation of the high‐grade metamorphic Seve Nappe Complex and its emplacement between lower‐grade nappes has been related to wedge extrusion in the central Scandinavian Caledonides. To test this hypothesis, the kinematic evolution of the Caledonian nappe pile is studied by systematic structural mapping in central and northern Jämtland, Sweden. Structural data, combined with petrological and quartz microstructure observations, document pervasive top‐to‐the‐ESE, foreland‐directed shearing under progressively decreasing metamorphic grade across the entire nappe pile. Mylonitic foliation, foliation‐parallel boudinage, and abundant top‐to‐the‐ESE and rare, scattered top‐to‐the‐WNW shear‐sense indicators imply foreland‐directed general shear. This deformation regime caused exhumation by concurrent thrusting and vertical ductile thinning. We propose a specific succession of in‐ and out‐of‐sequence thrusts that generated the metamorphic zonation. Our model envisions in‐sequence propagation of thrusts during exhumation of the Seve Nappe Complex, related to subduction of Baltica beneath a volcanic arc within Iapetus. Concurrently, Iapetus subducted beneath Laurentia farther to the west. When Iapetus was closed, Baltica subduction stepped westward and continued beneath Laurentia. The back stepping of subduction at the onset of continental collision caused out‐of‐sequence propagation of the orogenic wedge. Thrusting cut downsection across the existing tectonostratigraphy, emplacing units of lower metamorphic grade above the high‐grade Seve Nappe Complex. This imbrication generated the present metamorphic zonation of the Caledonian nappe pile during sustained convergence between Laurentia and Baltica.

  • 158.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lundberg, Angela
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Starius, Göran
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Beskrivning av vattenrörelser i den omättade markzonen: litteraturgenomgång, numerisk modell, simuleringar1982Report (Other academic)
  • 159. Berggren, Robert
    et al.
    Sandrin, Alessandro
    Elming, Sten-åke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Physical properties of rocks and geophysical data as tools for targeting Fe-oxide Cu-Au mineralisations in northern Sweden2004In: EOS: Transactions, ISSN 0096-3941, E-ISSN 2324-9250, Vol. 85, no 47Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 160.
    Bergman, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Carbonate precipitation in alkaline wastes1996In: 12th International conference on solid waste technology and management, 1996Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbonate precipitation is known to occur in landfilled ashes and is often reported as a problem because of the precipitates tendency to clog drains and other leachate transport facilities. The Up-take of carbon dioxide by alkaline wastes and leachates will influence their properties e.g.; The hydraulic and gas conductivity of solid wastes will decrease as carbonates precipitate in the pores of the waste. The pH will change towards neutral values as carbonates form changing the mobility of metals and other elements A neutral pH will also allow biological reactions to act on the waste, especially if the waste contain organic material as e.g. ashes often do. Adding carbon dioxide to wastes can thus be a cheap and powerful treatment, yielding a less hazardous waste.

  • 161.
    Bergman, Stefan
    et al.
    Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning.
    Kubler, Lutz
    Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Synthesis bedrock maps of northern Norrbotten, Sweden1998In: Abstracts volume: 23. Nordiske Geologiske Vintermøde, 13-16 January, Århus, 1998 / [ed] J. Richard Wilson, Århus: Århus university , 1998, p. 31-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 162.
    Bergman, Stefan
    et al.
    Geological Survey of Sweden.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Eilu, Pasi
    Geological Survey of Finland.
    Geological and tectonic evolution of the northernpart of the Fennoscandian Shield2007In: Metallogeny and tectonic evolution of the Northern Fennoscandian Shield: field trip guidebook, Espoo: Geological Survey of Finland , 2007, p. 6-15Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 163.
    Bergström, U.
    et al.
    Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning.
    Lundin, I. Antal
    Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning.
    Winnes, K.
    Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Berggrundskartan 23J Norsjö NO2003Other (Other academic)
  • 164.
    Bergström, U.
    et al.
    Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning.
    Lundin, I. Antal
    Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning.
    Winnes, K.
    Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Berggrundskartan 23J Norsjö SO2003Other (Other academic)
  • 165.
    Bergström, U.
    et al.
    Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning.
    Lundin, I. Antal
    Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning.
    Winnes, K.
    Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Berggrundskartan 23J Norsjö SV2003Other (Other academic)
  • 166.
    Bergström, U.
    et al.
    Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning.
    Lundin, I. Antal
    Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning.
    Winnes, K.
    Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Berggrundskartan Norsjö 23J NV2003Other (Other academic)
  • 167.
    Bert, Valérie
    et al.
    INERIS, Clean and Sustainable Technologies and Processes Unit, DRC/RISK, Parc Technologique Alata.
    Neu, S.
    Technische Universität Dresden, Institute of Wood and Plant Chemistry.
    Zdanevitch, Isabelle
    NERIS, Clean and Sustainable Technologies and Processes Unit, DRC/RISK, Parc Technologique Alata.
    Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Energy Department.
    Collet, Serge
    INERIS, Sources and Emissions Unit, DRC/CARA, Parc Technologique Alata.
    Gaucher, Rodolphe
    INERIS, Clean and Sustainable Technologies and Processes Unit, DRC/RISK, Parc Technologique Alata.
    Puschenreiter, Markus
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna – BOKU, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences.
    Müller, Ingo
    Saxon State Agency for Environment, Agriculture and Geology.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    How to manage plant biomass originated from phytotechnologies?: Gathering perceptions from end-users2017In: International journal of phytoremediation, ISSN 1522-6514, E-ISSN 1549-7879, Vol. 19, no 10, p. 947-954Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A questionnaire survey was carried out in 4 European countries to gather end-user's perceptions of using plants from phytotechnologies in combustion and anaerobic digestion (AD). 9 actors of the wood energy sector from France, Germany and Sweden, and 11 AD platform operators from France, Germany and Austria were interviewed. Questions related to installation, input materials, performed analyses, phytostabilization and phytoextraction. Although the majority of respondents did not know phytotechnologies, results suggested that plant biomass from phytomanaged areas could be used in AD and combustion, under certain conditions. As a potential advantage, these plants would not compete with plants grown on agricultural lands, contaminated lands being not suitable for agriculture production. Main limitations would be related to additional controls in process' inputs and end-products and installations that might generate additional costs. In most cases, price of phytotechnologies biomass was mentioned as a driver to potentially use plants from metal-contaminated soils. Plants used in phytostabilisation or phytoexclusion were thought to be less risky and, consequently, benefited from a better theoretical acceptance than those issued from phytoextraction. Results were discussed according to national regulations. One issue related to the regulatory gap concerning the status of the plant biomass produced on contaminated land.

  • 168.
    Bertrand, G.
    et al.
    Instituto de Geociências, CEPAS (Groundwater Research Center), University of São Paulo.
    Siergieiev, Dmytro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ala-Aho, P.
    Water Resources and Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Process and Environmental Engineering, University of Oulu.
    Rossi, P.M.
    Water Resources and Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Process and Environmental Engineering, University of Oulu.
    Environmental tracers and indicators bringing together groundwater, surface water and groundwater-dependent ecosystems: importance of scale in choosing relevant tools2014In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 72, no 3, p. 813-827Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater-surface water (GW-SW) interactions cover a broad range of hydrogeological and biological processes and are controlled by natural and anthropogenic factors at various spatio-temporal scales, from watershed to hyporheic/hypolentic zone. Understanding these processes is vital in the protection of groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs) increasingly required in water resources legislation across the world. The use of environmental tracers and indicators that are relevant simultaneously for groundwater, surface water and biocenoses-biotope interactions constitutes a powerful tool to succeed in the management task. However, tracer type must be chosen according to the scale of interest and tracer use thus requires a good conceptual understanding of the processes to be evaluated. This paper reviews various GW-SW interaction processes and their drivers and, based on available knowledge, systemises application of conservative tracers and semi-conservative and reactive environmental indicators at different spatial scales. Biocenoses-biotopes relationships are viewed as a possible transition tool between scales. Relation between principal application of the environmental tracers and indicators, examples and guidelines are further proposed for examining GW-SW interactions from a hydrogeological and biological point of view by demonstrating the usability of the tracers/indicators and providing recommendations for the scientific community and decision makers.

  • 169.
    Berube, Andrew P.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    A graphical 3D finite element program for modelling self-potentials generated by flow through a porous medium2007In: Journal of Environmental & Engineering Geophysics, ISSN 1083-1363, E-ISSN 1943-2658, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 185-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to provide a better understanding of the self-potentials generated by groundwater flow through real in-situ geological conditions and a tool for assisting in the interpretation of SP measurements obtained from such domains, a three-dimensional finite element computer program was written to model self-potentials generated by the flow of liquid through a porous medium. Using the program, a finite element domain is defined and each element can be assigned separate anisotropic hydraulic, electric and cross-coupling conductivity values. The hydraulic flow is defined by boundary conditions and the hydraulic conductivity distribution and is related to the electric flow through the thermodynamic theory of coupled flows.The program first determines the hydraulic potential distribution, and then calculates the electric current sources before solving for the electric potential distribution. The program was made to be quite user-friendly, versatile and fully graphical. The program was used to model seepage flow through an earth embankment dam and the results were compared to actual self-potential field measurements. It was found that the results obtained by the program were comparable with field measurements provided that sufficient knowledge of the conductive properties within the dam was available for modelling. The program successfully provides the hydraulic and electric potential distributions throughout the domain based on the input model parameters.

  • 170.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Vahter, Marie E.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Jaresjö, Jerker
    Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ahmad, Arslan
    KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Nieuwegein.
    Sparrenbom, Charlotta Jönsson
    Department Geology, Quaternary Sciences, Lund University.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Donselaar, Marinus Eric
    Department of Geoscience and Engineering, Delft Univ. of Technology.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Naidu, Ravi
    Global Centre for Environmental Remediation (GCER), Faculty of Science & Information Technology, The University of Newcastle.
    Editors’ foreword2016In: Arsenic Research and Global Sustainability: Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, AS 2016 / [ed] Bhattacharya, Prosun; Vahter, Marie; Jarsjo, Jerker; Kumpiene, Jurate; Charlotte, Sparrenbom, London: CRC Press, 2016, p. xlv-xlviConference paper (Refereed)
  • 171.
    Billström, Kjell
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Geological Survey of Sweden.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Post-1.9 Ga metamorphic, mineralization and hydrothermal events in northern Sweden2002In: GFF, ISSN 1103-5897, E-ISSN 2000-0863, Vol. 124, no 4, p. 228-228Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 172.
    Billström, Kjell
    et al.
    Museum of Natural History.
    Eilu, Pasi
    Geological Survey of Finland.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Niiranen, Tero
    Geological Survey of Finland.
    Broman, Curt
    Stockholm University.
    Weihed, Pär
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ojala, Juhani
    Geological Survey of Finland.
    IOCG and related mineral deposits of the northern Fennoscandian Shield2011In: Hydrothermal iron oxide copper-gold & related topics: a global perspective, Adelaide: PGC Publishing , 2011, p. 381-414Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The northernmost Fennoscandian shield comprises Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic rocks. Unlike most other shield areas, economic mineral deposits are largely restricted to its Palaeoproterozoic parts. The latter are characterised by intracratonic basin evolution between ca. 2.5 and 2.0 Ga, involving recurrent mantle hotspot activity with numerous layered intrusions, komatiite and picrite eruptions, but no signs of accretionary phases or formation of major new felsic crust. Accretion and continent-continent collision followed from ca. 1.9 to 1.8 Ga, during the Svecofennian orogeny. A range of mineralisation styles are hosted by extensive ca. 2.5 to 2.0 Ga greenstone belts and younger, subduction-related 1.9 to 1.8 Ga Svecofennian intrusive and extrusive settings. These mineralisation styles partially overlap, and individual deposits may not readily be placed into genetic classification schemes. A provisional grouping of observed mineralisation styles comprises (1) stratiform-stratabound sulphide, (2) apatite-iron, (3) skarn-related iron and BIF, and (4) epigenetic(±syngenetic?) Au and Cu-Au deposits. The descriptive section of this paper also highlights features that may relate to orogenic-gold, IOCG and 'atypical metal association' categories of mineralisation. The assumption made is that the deposition of a diverse range of ore deposits was made possible by a long and complex geological evolution. This involved an initial (sowing) stage where iron, and to some extent copper and gold, were concentrated during 2.3 to 2.1 Ga (Karelian) rock-forming processes. Following this, ore elements were mobilised during two younger (Svecofennian) stages at 1.92 to 1.87 and 1.85 to 1.79 Ga, respectively. The latter were triggered by metamorphic and magmatic episodes, and fluids liberated during these stages precipitated IOCG and related deposits when fluids met structural and chemical traps in suitable host rocks. Ore fluids are generally saline, and their development probably involved incorporation of evaporates and, at least locally, also felsic magmatism may have played a role. Skarn-related mineralisation, hosted by ca. 2.1 Ga greenstones, occurs both as a BIF type in Sweden (formed at around 2.1 Ga), and as a gold-copper enriched variety (the result of Svecofennian epigenetic processes) in the Kolari region of Finland. The huge Kiirunavaara deposit is the type example of apatite iron ores, and is here considered to have formed from a magma at ca. 1.88 Ga, although it also has features best explained by a magmatic-hydrothermal overprint. A younger, less prominent, stage of apatite iron ore formation took place at approximately 1.78 Ga. Epigenetic gold and copper-gold deposits are particularly hard to classify as these show mixed ore characteristics, and to some extent this is likely to be due to multiple mineralisation stages (cf. the huge, low grade Aitik deposit in Sweden which is interpreted to be a hybrid porphyry-IOCG-type of ore). Structurally controlled, orogenic-gold mineralisation is common in the Central Lapland greenstone belt, although there are also gold deposits with enhanced contents of e.g., copper, cobalt and uranium (e.g., at Saatopoora). The latter, sometimes referred to as being of an 'atypical metal association' type, could potentially also include syngenetic mineralisation (e.g., at Juomasou). The range of epigenetic (±syngenetic) gold and copper-gold deposits could possibly be related to a vague east-west trend defined by gold-rich deposits in the east (Finland), followed by IOCG (copper±gold) and more iron-dominant ore types near the Finnish-Swedish border and further west into Sweden.

  • 173. Billström, Kjell
    et al.
    Åberg, G.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Isotopic and geochemical data of the Pingstaberg Mo-bearing granite in Bergslagen, south central Sweden1988In: Geologie & Mijnbouw, ISSN 0016-7746, E-ISSN 1573-9708, Vol. 67, no 2-4, p. 255-263Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 174. Billström, Kjell
    et al.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    On the origin of the Yxsjöberg Cu-W skarn deposit, central Sweden: isotopic evidence1989In: Precambrian granitoids: petrogenesis, geochemistry and metallogeny : symposium : August 14-17, 1989, University of Helsinki, Finland. Abstracts / [ed] Ilmari Haapala; Yrjö Kähkönen, Espoo: Geological Survey of Finland , 1989, p. 14-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 175.
    Billström, Kjell
    et al.
    Laboratory for Isotope Geology. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    U-Pb zircon age of the Rostberget W-occurrence, northern Sweden1989In: Geologiska föreningens i Stockholm förhandlingar, ISSN 0016-786X, Vol. 111, no 2, p. 121-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anomalously U-rich granites of the so-called Revsund type, associated with W- and Sn-enrichments, occur in the Gunnarn area close to Storuman in northern Sweden. At Rostberget, a swarm of thin undeformed wolframite-bearing greisen veins are situated in the interior of the Joran granite intrusion. We have dated zircons from a sample of the greisen veins with the U-Pb method. The veins are less than 1 cm wide and it is likely that the sample also contains zircons from the immediately surrounding altered granite. The mineralizing event and connected metasomatic processes probably released Zr from the granite which became available for zircon growth processes in the greisen veins. One notable feature, probably due to the greisen-forming processes, is the very high common Pb concentrations characterizing the zircons. By varying the assumed common Pb composition in the calculations, the effect on resulting intercept ages has been evaluated. The obtained age interval (1775-1782 Ma) is typical of formation ages for Revsund granites, which indicates that the mineralization event at Rostberget followed closely upon the granite emplacement. We conclude that the Revsund-type granites, which cover large areas, were generated in a narrow time interval 1790-1775 Ma ago.

  • 176.
    Bispo-Santos, F.
    et al.
    Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo.
    D'Agrella-Filho,, M S
    Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo.
    Elming, Sten-åke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Paleomagnetism of paleoproterozoic mafic and felsic volcanic rocks of the Rio Negro-Juruena Province, Southwestern Amazonian Craton, Brazil2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Several paleogeographic configurations for the Amazonian Craton have been suggested along its geological history. Paleomagnetic tests for suggested configurations are however restricted due to very sparce and low quality paleomagnetic data, especially for Paleoproterozoic. In an attempt to improve our understanding of the geodynamic evolution, a paleomagnetic study was performed on felsic volcanic rocks of the Colider Suite, and associated mafic rocks in the Rio Negro-Juruena Province, southwestern Amazonian Craton. These rocks have well dated zircon U-Pb ages between 1.80-1.78 Ga. Very stable northern (southern) directions with moderate to steep negative (positive) inclinations were isolated during AF and thermal demagnetization. Rock magnetism experiments show that the magnetization, which is probably of primary origin, in the felsic rocks is carried by hematite and in the mafic rocks by Ti-poor titanomagnetite. A preliminary mean direction (D=187.4°, I=50.9°, N=16, A95=11.3°, K=11.7) yield a paleomagnetic pole located at 289.4°E, 65.4°S (A95=12.9°), which is classified with quality factor of Q=5. Paleogeographic reconstructions using key Paleoproterozoic poles suggest that Laurentia, Baltica, North China, and Amazonian Craton were located in laterally contiguous positions forming a large continental mass at 1.83-1.77 Ga ago.

  • 177. Bispo-Santos, F.
    et al.
    DÁgrella-Filho, M.S.
    Perillo, B.M.
    Tohver, E.
    Elming, Sten-åke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Janikian, L.
    Trinidade, R.I.
    Pacca, I.I.G.
    Silva, J.A.
    Barros, M.A
    Pinho, F.E.C.
    Preliminary paleomagnetic results from the Guadalupe intrusives, Amazonian craton: tectonic implications2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 178.
    Bispo-Santos, Franklin
    et al.
    Universidade de São Paulo.
    D’Agrella-Filho, Manoel S.
    Universidade de São Paulo.
    Pacca, Igor I.G.
    Universidade de São Paulo.
    Janikian, Liliane
    Universidade de São Paulo.
    Trindade, Ricardo I.F.
    Universidade de São Paulo.
    Elming, Sten-åke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Silva, Jesué A.
    METAMAT.
    Barros, Márcia A.S.
    Department of Mineral Resources, UFMT.
    Pinho, Francisco E.C.
    Department of Mineral Resources, UFMT.
    Columbia revisited: paleomagnetic results from the 1790 Ma colider volcanics (SW Amazonian Craton, Brazil)2008In: Precambrian Research, ISSN 0301-9268, E-ISSN 1872-7433, Vol. 164, no 1-2, p. 40-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an attempt to improve our understanding of the Paleoproterozoic geodynamic evolution, a paleomagnetic study was performed on 10 sites of acid volcanic rocks of the Colider Suite, southwestern Amazonian Craton. These rocks have a well-dated zircon U-Pb mean age of 1789 +/- 7 Ma. Alternating field and thermal demagnetization revealed northern (southern) directions with moderate to high upward (downward) inclinations. Rock magnetism experiments and magnetic mineralogy show that this characteristic magnetization is carried by Ti-poor magnetite or by hematite that replaces magnetite by late-magmatic cleuteric alteration. Both magnetite and hematite carry the same characteristic component. The mean direction (Dm = 183.0 degrees, Im = 53.5 degrees, N = 10, alpha(95) = 9.8 degrees, K = 25.2) yielded a paleomagnetic pole located at 298.8 degrees E, 63.3 degrees S (alpha(95) = 10.2 degrees, K = 23.6), which is classified with a quality factor Q = 5. Paleogeographic reconstructions using this pole and other reliable Paleoproterozoic poles suggest that Laurentia, Baltica, North China Craton and Amazonian Craton were located in laterally contiguous positions forming a large continental mass at 1790 Ma ago. This is reinforced by geological evidence which support the existence of the supercontinent Columbia in Paleoproterozoic times.

  • 179.
    Bispo-Santos, Franklin
    et al.
    Universidade de São Paulo.
    D’Agrella-Filho, Manoel S.
    Universidade de São Paulo.
    Trindade, Ricardo I.F.
    Universidade de São Paulo.
    Elming, Sten-åke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Janikian, Liliane
    Universidade de São Paulo.
    Vasconcelos, Paulo M.
    University of Queensland.
    Perillo, Bruno M.
    Universidade de São Paulo.
    Pacca, Igor I.G.
    Universidade de São Paulo.
    Silva, Jesué A. da
    Companhia Matogrossense de Mineração–METAMAT.
    Barros, Márcia A.S.
    Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso.
    Tectonic implications of the 1419 Ma Nova Guarita mafic intrusives paleomagnetic pole (Amazonian Craton) on the longevity of Nuna2012In: Precambrian Research, ISSN 0301-9268, E-ISSN 1872-7433, Vol. 196-197, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nuna supercontinent was probably assembled in the Paleoproterozoic, but its paleogeography and the timing for its demise are still a matter of debate. A paleomagnetic and geochronological study carried out on the Mesoproterozoic Nova Guarita dyke swarm (northern Mato Grosso State, SW Amazonian Craton) provides additional constraints on the duration of this supercontinent. Paleomagnetic AF and thermal treatment revealed south/southwest (northeast) magnetic directions with downward (upward) inclinations for nineteen analyzed sites. These directions are carried by PSD magnetite with high unblocking temperatures as indicated by additional magnetic tests, including thermomagnetic curves, hysteresis loops and the progressive acquisition of isothermal remanence in selected samples. A positive contact test with the host granite in one of the studied dykes further attests to the primary origin of the characteristic magnetic component. A mean site direction was calculated at Dm = 220.5°, Im = 45.9° (α95 = 6.5°, K = 27.7), which yielded a paleomagnetic pole located at 245.9°E, 47.9°S (A95 = 7.0°). 40Ar/39Ar dating carried out on biotites from four analyzed dykes yielded well-defined plateau ages with a mean of 1418.5 ± 3.5 Ma. The Nova Guarita pole precludes a long-lived Nuna configuration in which Laurentia, Baltica, North China, and Amazonia formed a long and continuous block as previously proposed for the Paleoproterozoic. It is nevertheless fully compatible with a SAMBA (Amazonia-Baltica) link at Mesoproterozoic times.

  • 180.
    Bjurström, Henrik
    et al.
    ÅF-Industry AB.
    Lind, B.B.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Unburned carbon in combustion residues from solid biofuels2014In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 117, no Part A, p. 890-899Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unburned carbon (UC) in 21 combustion residues from solid biofuels has been examined using several methods of analysis (including LOI and TOC) as well as micro-Raman spectroscopy. The concentration of unburned carbon in the residues varied over an order of magnitude and in several samples accounted for about 10% of the ash mass. It was observed that TOC had a poor correlation to organic carbon, especially for fly ashes. LOI at all tested temperatures showed a better correlation than TOC to the organic carbon content, whereas the TOC is better correlated to elemental carbon. LOI550 gave a larger variation and a less complete mobilisation of unburned carbon than LOI at 750 or 975 °C did, but at the highest temperature metal oxidation was notably affecting the mass balance to the extent that some samples gained mass. For this reason, and of the temperatures tested, LOI750 seem to be the most stable indicator for organic remains in the incineration residuals. Most of the unburned carbon is elemental, and only slowly degradable, so the potential emissions of organic compounds from ashes should not be assessed by using a TOC test. The structure of the detected elemental carbon in UC is similar to that of activated carbon, which indicates a potentially large specific surface. This should be borne in mind when assessing the environmental impact of using ash for different purposes, including use as a construction material. Field studies are needed to verify the actual impact as it may depend on environmental conditions.

  • 181.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Rentz, Ralf
    Malmgren, Charlotte
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Stormwater impact on urban waterways in a cold climate: variations in sediment metal concentrations due to untreated snowmelt discharge2012In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, ISSN 1439-0108, E-ISSN 1614-7480, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 758-773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Stormwater discharges include contaminated sediments that accumulate in the receiving water body. It is thus important to investigate sediment and pollutant processes and pathways from the catchment to, and within, the receiving water. These processes may be influenced by seasonal changes. The objective of this study was to investigate the stormwater impact on receiving waters in the Luleå area, Northern Sweden; seasonal changes in contamination loads in the receiving waters due to snowmelt; and factors influencing the pollutant pathways in the receiving waters. Materials and methods: In front of three storm sewer outlets in Luleå, samples of bottom sediment (surface layer 0-2 cm) were collected from the connecting ditches and the downstream water body in autumn and spring (before and after the snow season 2009/2010). The characteristics of the receiving waters differed in geomorphology and vegetation. The sediment was analyzed for loss-on-ignition (LOI), grain size, and bulk concentrations of SiO 2, Al 2O 3, CaO, Fe 2O 3, MnO, Na 2O, P 2O 5, TiO 2, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, S, V, and Zn. The sediment contamination was compared to concentrations at a reference point in Luleå where the bottom sediment was not affected by stormwater discharges and with Swedish environmental quality guidelines. Pearson's correlation and a principal component analysis were used to further evaluate the results. Results and discussion: Relative to the reference point, elevated trace metal concentrations were detected in sediments at all three sampling stations. At two of the stations, seasonal variations in ditch sediment grain size, LOI, and contaminant concentrations were observed, originating from stormwater sediment. Snowmelt runoff caused an increased proportion of fine-grained sediment fractions (<0.063 mm) in spring, mainly due to changes in runoff intensity and high sediment loads in the snowmelt runoff. The retention of metals appeared to be due to low turbulence in the water and the presence of organic material. Conclusions: Stormwater discharge affected the contaminant concentrations in the bottom sediments. The observed seasonal variation of contaminants indicated that relatively high amounts of contaminants are discharged during snowmelt and then reallocated within the receiving water body, either directly or after some temporal retention, depending on the characteristics of the receiving water. A calm water column and the presence of organic material in the receiving water body were crucial for the retention of metals

  • 182.
    Bogner, Jean E.
    et al.
    Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Early diagenesis of garbage: landfills as engineered anoxic basins1996In: Geological Society of America, 28th annual meeting, Denver, CO, United States, Oct. 28-31, 1996, Geological Society of America, 1996, p. 257-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Early diagenesis of buried organic carbon in anoxic basins is dominated by microbial decomposition processes at temperatures and pressure slightly above ambient. Such conditions also describe decomposition of refuse in sanitary landfills and provide a reasonable model for systematic studies of their long-term geochemistry. For shorter time frame (decades), controlled high-solids anaerobic digestion systems provide a second model for investigation of optimized landfill systems. In this paper, we introduce both models through a series of preliminary mass-balances to develop a realistic overview of landfill processes, especially emphasizing carbon cycling in field settings over various time-frames. The terminal product of short-term anaerobic decomposition is methane--produced by methanogenic bacteria from some fraction of organic carbon landfilled. Laboratory studies of optimized landfill systems (ours and from the literature) indicate that, at best, 25-45% of organic carbon is converted to biogas carbon (methane and carbon dioxide); such percentages are rarely attained in field settings. Most of the methane is produced from cellulosic substrates while lignin substrates are recalcitrant, with lignin carbon entering sedimentary storage for time frames longer than the four decades of widespread landfilling experience in the U.S. and western Europe. Over time frames in excess of centuries, further transformations via kerogen pathways are possible but highly speculative. Certainly, exhumation of old refuse at archeologic sites indicates that organic carbon preservation can be documented for at least one or two millenia. From controlled incubation of unamended field samples and from field studies of net methane emissions, it is clear that rates of methane production and consumption both vary of several orders of magnitude in field settings; their dynamic are rapid and complex spatially and temporally. Unraveling these dynamics is necessary to suggest the overall relevance of these engineered anoxic basins to issues of atmospheric methane increases and terrestrial carbon storage.

  • 183.
    Bolan, Nanthi
    et al.
    Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia.
    Kunhikrishnanc, Anitha
    Chemical Safety Division, Department of Agro-Food Safety, National Academy of Agricultural Science.
    Thangarajan, Ramya
    Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Park, Jinhee
    Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation, University of Queensland.
    Makino, Tomoyuki
    Soil Environmental Division, National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba.
    Kirkham, Mary Beth
    Department of Agronomy, 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center, Kansas State University.
    Scheckel, Kirk
    National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 5995 Center Hill Avenue, Cincinnati.
    Remediation of heavy metal(loid)s contaminated soils: To mobilize or to immobilize?2014In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 266, p. 141-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    nlike organic contaminants, metal(loid)s do not undergo microbial or chemical degradation and persist for a long time after their introduction. Bioavailability of metal(loid)s plays a vital role in the remediation of contaminated soils. In this review, the remediation of heavy metal(loid) contaminated soils through manipulating their bioavailability using a range of soil amendments will be presented. Mobilizing amendments such as chelating and desorbing agents increase the bioavailability and mobility of metal(loid)s. Immobilizing amendments such of precipitating agents and sorbent materials decrease the bioavailabilty and mobility of metal(loid)s. Mobilizing agents can be used to enhance the removal of heavy metal(loid)s though plant uptake and soil washing. Immobilizing agents can be used to reduce the transfer to metal(loid)s to food chain via plant uptake and leaching to groundwater. One of the major limitations of mobilizing technique is susceptibility to leaching of the mobilized heavy metal(loid)s in the absence of active plant uptake. Similarly, in the case of the immobilization technique the long-term stability of the immobilized heavy metal(loid)s needs to be monitored.

  • 184.
    Boman, Anton
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Engström, Emma
    Rodushkin, Ilya
    ALS Scandinavia AB.
    Åström, E.M.
    Linnaeus University, School of Natural Sciences, Kalmar.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Fe and Zn isotopic variations in Finnish acid sulfate soils2010In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 74, no 12/ Suppl 1, p. A102-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 185. Boman, Anton
    et al.
    Engström, Emma
    Rodushkin, Ilya
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Åström, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Isotopic variations of Fe and Zn in Finnish acid sulfate soils2010In: Proceedings of the 19th World Congress of Soil Science: Soil Solutions for a Changing World / [ed] RJ Gilkes; N Prakongkep, 2010, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of a Neptune high-resolution MC-ICP-MS (Thermo Fisher Scientific) in this study has enabled high precision measurements of Fe and Zn isotopic ratios in Finnish acid sulfate soils in one near shore area (Vassor) and one inland area (Rintala).

  • 186.
    Boman, Anton
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Fröjdö, Sören
    Åbo Akademi University.
    Backlund, Krister
    Åbo Akademi University.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University.
    Impact of isostatic land uplift and artificial drainage on oxidation of brackish-water sediments rich in metastable iron sulfide2010In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 74, no 4, p. 1268-1281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the dynamics of sulfur and trace elements (As, Co, Mo, Ni, Ti and Zn) when brackish-water sediments, unusually rich in metastable iron sulfide (probably a mixture of mackinawite and greigite), are brought into the oxidation zone by postglacial isostatic land uplift and farmland drainage. When subaqueous sediments approach the sea level, metastable iron sulfide is oxidized in the upmost layers and pyrite preserved and even accumulated concomitantly trapping Co, Ni and Zn but not As and Mo. When the land uplift has brought the sediments above sea level and natural drainage thus is initiated, the pyrite is oxidized and Co, Ni and Zn are released and transported down the profile. If this setting remained undisturbed, the slightly oxidized sediment (unripe soil) would become covered by peat and thus protected from further oxidation and metal translocation. Often these sediments are, however, artificially drained resulting in extensive oxidation and fast soil-profile development. The soil is an acid sulfate (AS) soil, characterized by low pH (<4), extensive leaching of metals and an abundance of disseminated brownish Fe(III) precipitates. We suggest that the fast soil development is due to initial oxidation of metastable iron sulfide, followed by pyrite oxidation. Drain bottom sediment, which in terms of chemistry and S-isotopes resembled that of the surfacing sea bottom strata, acted during the sampling period as a sink for metals. The abundant preservation of metastable iron sulfide below the groundwater table, even long periods after uplift above the sea level, is a puzzling feature. We suggest that it is the net result of sulfur starvation, an abundance of Fe(II) and strongly reducing conditions.

  • 187.
    Bondarchuk, Alexander
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Ask, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Dahlström, Lars-Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nordlund, Erling
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Rock mass behavior under hydropower embankment dams: a two-dimensional numerical study2012In: Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, ISSN 0723-2632, E-ISSN 1434-453X, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 819-835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has more than 190 large hydropower dams, of which about 50 are pure embankment dams and over 100 are concrete/embankment dams. This paper presents results from conceptual analyses of the response of typical Swedish rock mass to the construction of a hydropower embankment dam and its first stages of operation. The aim is to identify locations and magnitudes of displacements that are occurring in the rock foundation and grout curtain after construction of the dam, the first filling of its water reservoir, and after one seasonal variation of the water table. Coupled hydro-mechanical analysis was conducted using the two-dimensional distinct element program UDEC. Series of the simulations have been performed and the results show that the first filling of the reservoir and variation of water table induce largest magnitudes of displacement, with the greatest values obtained from the two models with high differential horizontal stresses and smallest spacing of sub-vertical fractures. These results may help identifying the condition of the dam foundation and contribute to the development of proper maintenance measures, which guarantee the safety and functionality of the dam. Additionally, newly developed dams may use these results for the estimation of the possible response of the rock foundation to the construction

  • 188. Boström, Kurt
    et al.
    Burman, J-O
    Ingri, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Pontér, Christer
    Accumulation and selective loss patterns for Mn, Ba and other trace metals in the Baltic Sea1983In: EOS: Transactions, ISSN 0096-3941, E-ISSN 2324-9250, Vol. 64, no 18, p. 243-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 189. Boström, Kurt
    et al.
    Burman, J-O
    Ingri, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Pontér, Christer
    Accumulation and selective loss patterns for Mn, Ba and other trace metals in the Baltic Sea1984In: Abstracts: 16e Nordiska geologiska vintermötet, Stockholm 9-13 januari 1984 / [ed] G. Armands; S. Schager, Stockholm: Stockholm: Institutionen för musik- och teatervetenskap, Stockholms universitet, 1984, p. 33-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 190.
    Boström, Kurt
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Burman, J-O
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Pontér, Christer
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ingri, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Selective removal of trace elements from the Baltic by suspended matter1981In: Marine Chemistry, ISSN 0304-4203, E-ISSN 1872-7581, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 335-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suspended matter was collected at 30 stations in the Baltic and Kattegatt, at the thermocline and at the bottom, and analysed for Na, Ca, Mg, Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mn, Ba, Sr, Ni and V. The composition of the suspended matter varies considerably, but can be described as a mixture of: (1) 12-25% terrigenous detritus with much Si, Al, Ti and Fe; (2) 75-88% biological matter with much Ni, V and Ba; and (3) some Mn-oxyhydroxide.The annual efflux of water from the Baltic is about 460 km3, with a suspended load in the Baltic straits of 1.2-3.6 mg ash material l-1 These values imply that much Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Sr, Ni and V and particularly much Ba and Mn are lost from the Baltic in the suspended load.The average suspended matter is richer in Mn(5×), Ba(2.5×), Sr(4×) and V(1.8×) than permanently depositing Baltic sediments. These constituents are relatively enriched in pelagic deposits, i.e. it is likely that much Mn, Ba and V in deep-sea sediments derive from the continents via suspended transport. This conclusion is supported by the similarity between suspended matter and average Atlantic pelagic sediment.

  • 191.
    Boström, Kurt
    et al.
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Ingri, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Boström, B.
    Andersson, Per
    Arvantides, N.
    Galanopoulos, V.P.
    Kalogeropoulos, S.
    Papavassiliou, C.
    Paritsis, S.
    Chemistry of hydrothermal solutions in drill hole GPK-1, Palaea Kameni, Santorini, Greece1990In: Thera and the Aegean world, III: proceedings of the third international congress, Santorini, Greece, 3-9 September 1989. Vol. 2, Earth sciences / [ed] David A. Hardy; Kurt Boström, The Thera Foundation , 1990, Vol. 3, p. 257-260Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 192.
    Boström, Kurt
    et al.
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Ingri, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Boström, B.
    Andersson, Per
    Löfvendahl, R.
    Metallogenesis at Santorini: a subduction-zone related process; II, Geochemistry and origin of hydrothermal solutions on Nea Kameni, Santorini, Greece1990In: Thera and the Aegean world, III: proceedings of the third international congress, Santorini, Greece, 3-9 September 1989. Vol. 2, Earth sciences / [ed] David A. Hardy; Kurt Boström, The Thera Foundation , 1990, Vol. 3, p. 291-299Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 193.
    Boström, Kurt
    et al.
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Ingri, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Pontér, Christer
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Origin of iron-manganese-rich suspended matter in the Landsort Deep, NW Baltic Sea1988In: Marine Chemistry, ISSN 0304-4203, E-ISSN 1872-7581, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 93-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water sampling was undertaken in 1982 in the Landsort Deep, NW Baltic Sea, at eight depth levels. In the 0-150 m interval oxidizing conditions prevailed, with suspended phases being particularly rich in Fe (with a maximum at 150 m), Mn and Ba (with maxima at 100 m). The anoxic zone below 150 m showed high concentrations of dissolved Fe and particularly dissolved Mn which were much higher than in the Black Sea, for instance. This is probably due to the migratory behavior of the redoxcline in the Landsort Deep. The metal-rich suspended matter probably arises when dissolved Fe and Mn from the anoxic zone precipitate as hydroxyoxides at the redoxcline; lateral transport of such suspended matter may explain the large-scale selective loss of Mn and Ba from the Baltic basin.

  • 194.
    Boström, Kurt
    et al.
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Perissoratis, C.
    Galanopoulos, V.
    Papavassiliou, C.
    Boström, B.
    Ingri, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kalogeropoulos, S.
    Geochemistry and structural control of hydrothermal sediments and new hot springs in the caldera of Santorini, Greece1990In: Thera and the Aegean world, III: proceedings of the third international congress, Santorini, Greece, 3-9 September 1989. Vol. 2, Earth sciences / [ed] David A. Hardy; Kurt Boström, The Thera Foundation , 1990, Vol. 3, p. 325-336Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 195.
    Boström, Kurt
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Wiborg, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ingri, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Geochemistry and origin of ferromanganese concretions in the Gulf of Bothnia1982In: Marine Geology, ISSN 0025-3227, E-ISSN 1872-6151, Vol. 50, no 1-2, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ferromanganese concretions cover large areas of the Gulf of Bothnia. They are flat to well-rounded, the rounded ones being richer in oxyhydroxides of iron and manganese. Rounded and ellipsoidal nodules, particularly those in the northern Gulf of Bothnia, are richest in Mn, Ni, Ba and Cu, which probably coexist in a Mn oxyhydroxide phase. Flat nodules are enriched in Fe, P, rare earths and As, probably associated with an Fe oxy-hydroxide component. Aluminum, V, Cr and Ti occur in still another phase. The sediments of the gulf generally consist of a 10-50 mm-thick layer of oxidized surface sediment, enriched in Mn, Ba, P and Ni lying on top of reduced sediments which are diagenetically depleted in these elements. The remobilized elements have redeposited in the nodules, but this process cannot explain the origin of all the nodular material. Some released Mn, Ba and Ni furthermore enter into suspended phases, which eventually leave the Baltic Sea. The economic value of the nodules in the Gulf of Bothnia is probably limited at present.

  • 196.
    Breitbarth, E.
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Otago, Dunedin.
    Achterberg, E.P.
    National Oceanography Center Southampton, University of Southampton.
    Ardelan, M.V.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Trondheim.
    Baker, A.R.
    School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich.
    Buccarelli, E.
    Université Européenne de Bretagne.
    Chever, F.
    Université Européenne de Bretagne.
    Croot, P.L.
    IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz-Institute of Marine Sciences, Division Marine Biogeochemistry, Kiel.
    Duggen, S.
    IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz-Institute of Marine Sciences, Division Dynamics of the Ocean Floor, Kiel.
    Gledhill, M.
    National Oceanography Center Southampton, University of Southampton.
    Hassellöv, Martin
    University of Gothenburg.
    Hassler, C.
    Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research (CAWCR), Hobart.
    Hoffmann, L.J.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Otago, Dunedin.
    Hunter, K.A.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Otago, Dunedin.
    Hutchins, D.A.
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
    Ingri, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Jickells, T.
    School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich.
    Lohan, M.C.
    Marine Institute, University of Plymouth.
    Nielsdóttir, M.C.
    National Oceanography Center Southampton, University of Southampton.
    Sarthou, G.
    Université Européenne de Bretagne.
    Schoemann, V.
    Ecologie des Systémes Aquatiques, Université Libre de Bruxelles.
    Trapp, J.M.
    University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Department of Marine and Atmospheric Chemistry, Miami.
    Turner, D.R.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Gothenburg.
    Ye, Y.
    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven.
    Iron biogeochemistry across marine systems: progress from the past decade2010In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 1075-1097Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on an international workshop (Gothenburg, 14-16 May 2008), this review article aims to combine interdisciplinary knowledge from coastal and open ocean research on iron biogeochemistry. The major scientific findings of the past decade are structured into sections on natural and artificial iron fertilization, iron inputs into coastal and estuarine systems, colloidal iron and organic matter, and biological processes. Potential effects of global climate change, particularly ocean acidification, on iron biogeochemistry are discussed. The findings are synthesized into recommendations for future research areas

  • 197.
    Breitbarth, Eike
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Otago, Dunedin.
    Gelting, Johan
    Walve, Jakob
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University.
    Hoffmann, Linn
    Department of Chemistry, University of Otago, Dunedin.
    Turner, David
    Department of Chemistry, Analytical and Marine Chemistry, Göteborg University.
    Hassellöv, Martin
    Department of Chemistry, Analytical and Marine Chemistry, Göteborg University.
    Ingri, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Dissolved iron (II) in the Baltic Sea surface water and implications for cyanobacterial bloom development2009In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 6, no Special issue, p. 2397-2420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iron chemistry measurements were conducted during summer 2007 at two distinct locations in the Baltic Sea (Gotland Deep and Landsort Deep) to evaluate the role of iron for cyanobacterial bloom development in these estuarine waters. Depth profiles of Fe(II) were measured by chemiluminescent flow injection analysis (CL-FIA). Up to 0.9 nmol Fe(II) L−1 were detected in light penetrated surface waters, which constitutes up to 20% to the dissolved Fe pool. This bioavailable iron source is a major contributor to the Fe requirements of Baltic Sea phytoplankton and apparently plays a major role for cyanobacterial bloom development during our study. Measured Fe(II) half life times in oxygenated water exceed predicted values and indicate organic Fe(II) complexation. Potential sources for Fe(II) ligands, including rainwater, are discussed. Fe(II) concentrations of up to 1.44 nmol L−1 were detected at water depths below the euphotic zone, but above the oxic anoxic interface. Mixed layer depths after strong wind events are not deep enough in summer time to penetrate the oxic-anoxic boundary layer. However, Fe(II) from anoxic bottom water may enter the sub-oxic zone via diapycnal mixing and diffusion.

  • 198.
    Brethes, Anais
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Department of Petrology and Economic Geology, Denmark.
    Guarnieri, Pierpaolo
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Department of Petrology and Economic Geology.
    Rasmussen, Thorkild Maack
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Bauer, Tobias Erich
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Interpretation of aeromagnetic data in the Jameson Land Basin, central East Greenland: Structures and related mineralized systems2018In: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 724-725, p. 116-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a detailed interpretation of several aeromagnetic datasets over the Jameson Land Basin in central East Greenland. The interpretation is based on texture and lineament analysis of magnetic data and derivatives of these, in combination with geological field observations. Numerous faults and Cenozoic intrusions were identified and a chronological interpretation of the events responsible for the magnetic features is proposed built on crosscutting relationships and correlated with absolute ages. Lineaments identified in enhanced magnetic data are compared with structures controlling the mineralized systems occurring in the area and form the basis for the interpretations presented in this paper. Several structures associated with base metal mineralization systems that were known at a local scale are here delineated at a larger scale; allowing the identification of areas displaying favorable geological settings for mineralization. This study demonstrates the usefulness of high-resolution airborne magnetic data for detailed structural interpretation and mineral exploration in geological contexts such as the Jameson Land Basin.

  • 199.
    Brethes, Anais
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Rasmussen, Thorkild Maack
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Guarnieri, Pierpolo
    GEUS.
    Bauer, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    3D modelling of the base-metal mineralized Jameson Land Basin (central East Greenland) using geologically constrained inversion of magnetic data2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 200.
    Brethes, Anaïs
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    An integrated study of geological, magnetic and electromagnetic data for mineral exploration in the Jameson Land Basin, central East Greenland2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Jameson Land Basin, located in central East Greenland, initiated in Devonian time with the collapse of the over-thickened Caledonian Orogen. The basin developed during different phases of rifting from the late Paleozoic to the Mesozoic and has accumulated between 16-18 km of sediments. In Paleogene time, the basin was affected by intense magmatism due to the opening of the North Atlantic Ocean c. 55 Ma ago. Due to a significant uplift in Miocene time, the sedimentary sequence is well exposed along the basin margins, revealing numerous mineral occurrences hosted within almost the entire stratigraphic succession. The major types of mineralization comprise: (1) intrusion-related Mo (± Pb, Zn, Cu, Ag) mineralization associated with Paleogene intrusive complexes; (2) stratabound and/or stratiform Cu, Pb, Zn, (Ag) within Upper Permian and Triassic clastic and marine sedimentary formations; (3) stratabound and structurally controlled Pb-Zn, Cu, Ba, (Sr) mineralization in Upper Permian carbonates; and (4) structurally-controlled Pb, Zn, Cu (±Sb, Bi, Ag, Au) vein-type mineralization within Caledonian and Paleozoic rocks.

    It is well acknowledged that structures such as faults, thrusts, detachments, shear zones and associated fracture systems play an important role as fluid conduits connecting metal sources and sites of mineral precipitation. In particular, previous studies showed that mineral occurrences within the East Greenland Caledonides are closely related to lineaments and intrusions. In this context, the Crusmid-3D project was initiated in 2014, aiming at establishing the links between the crustal structures and the mineral occurrences in the Jameson Land Basin using a combination of geological and geophysical data. The interest for mineral exploration in the area led exploration companies and institutions to carry out magnetic and electromagnetic surveys, and the data derived from these constitute the base of this study.

    This thesis provides a detailed structural interpretation of aeromagnetic data in the Jameson Land Basin where several magnetic trends associated with Tertiary dikes and sills as well as with reactivated Paleozoic and Triassic faults were delineated. These data, in combination with a literature review and compilation of the mineral occurrences in the Jameson Land Basin, allowed highlighting seven prospective areas for structurally-controlled base metal mineralization.

    New structural data from geological fieldwork, drilling results and geophysical data (magnetic, electromagnetic and seismic data) along the eastern margin of the basin allowed a new interpretation of the geometry of the Triassic rift in East Greenland, represented by NE-SW-trending basins and highs segmented by NW-SE-trending transfer zones. It can be correlated with its European conjugate margin, displaying analogies with the Triassic Froan and Helgeland Basins in the Norwegian offshore and with the Papa and West Shetlands Basins north of the Shetland Islands.

    The proposed structural model of the Triassic rift was further investigated using 3D-geologically-constrained inversion of magnetic data in order to refine the architecture of the eastern margin of the Jameson Land Basin. Modelling results confirmed the presence of a shallow westward dipping peneplained crystalline basement in the southern part of the area while the northern part is characterized by faulted blocks, which accommodated relatively thick red bed sedimentary sequences, thereby representing a good potential source of base metals.

    Furthermore, Induced Polarization (IP) effects observed in airborne time-domain electromagnetic data acquired in the eastern margin of the basin were investigated using Self-Organizing Maps (SOM). The analysis of the shape and amplitude of the transient response curves using the SOM allowed identifying four areas where the transient curve patterns exhibit strong IP effects. These are shown to be collocated with Tertiary sills and dikes, clay-altered rocks as well as with a sulfide-bearing brecciated granite and with Triassic stratigraphic horizons hosting disseminated base metal sulfides.

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