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  • 151.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Effect of large scale energy storage on CO2 emissions in Scandinavian peninsula2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 152.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Increasing the hosting capacity of distribution networks by curtailment of renewable energy resources2011Inngår i: 2011 IEEE PES Trondheim PowerTech: The Power of Technology for a Sustainable Society, POWERTECH 2011; Trondheim; 19 June 2011 through 23 June 2011, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper applies the hosting-capacity method to a realistic distribution system. Under given circumstances the hosting capacity for Distributed Energy Resources (DER) identifies the degree of DER in power grid that can be accepted without endangering the reliability or quality of power. In this case study two limits setting the hosting capacity were evaluated: overvoltage and overcurrent. Finally it is examined to what extent the hosting capacity can be increased with use of real-time information and calculation of dynamic performance indications that govern the hosting capacity. It is shown that there is significant potential for increasing the hosting capacity without having to build new lines

  • 153.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Overload and overvoltage in low-voltage and medium-voltage networks due to renewable energy: some illustrative case studies2012Inngår i: 2nd IEEE PES International Conference and Exhibition on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT Europe), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the use of curtailment to allowmore wind or solar power to be connected to a distributionnetwork when overcurrent or overvoltage set a limit. For fourcase studies, all based on measurements, the gain in producedenergy is calculated. It is shown that the curtailment method hasa large impact on this gain. The paper further discusses details ofthe curtailment algorithm and the communication needs as wellas some further applications of curtailment.

  • 154.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Overload and overvoltage in low-voltage and medium-voltage networks due to renewable energy: some illustrative case studies2014Inngår i: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 114, s. 39-48Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the use of curtailment to allow more wind or solar power to be connected to a distribution network when overcurrent or overvoltage set a limit. Four case studies, all based on measurements, are presented. In all cases the hosting capacity method is used to quantify the gain in produced energy for increased levels of distributed renewable energy resources. A distinction is made between “hard curtailment” where all production is disconnected when overcurrent and overvoltage limits are exceeded and “soft curtailment” where the amount of production to be disconnected is minimized. It is shown that the type of curtailment method used has a large impact on the amount of delivered energy to the grid. The paper further discusses details of the curtailment algorithm, alternatives to curtailment, the communication needs and risks associated with the use of curtailment

  • 155. Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Project: SmartGrid Energilager2012Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Lösningar för optimerad reglering i realtid av distribuerad förnybar elproduktion, energilagring, samt styrbar last.

  • 156.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    The use of battery storage for increasing the hosting capacity of the grid for renewable electricity production2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper defines a step-by-step systematic decision making process to define operant conditions and applications for which battery storage is an option for electrical power grids. The set of rules is based on a number of research studies performed by the authors focusing mainly on sub-transmission grids. Battery storage is expensive so the focus in this paper is on comparing storage with other ways of achieving the same increase in the hosting capacity (HC) of grid. The approach is to find niche applications for which battery storage has unique advantages i.e. it provides a unique alternative for grid operator planning, which is unachievable in other ways. The first step is to assess the grid’s capacity to host new loads or production. This constitutes a baseline for evaluation of improvements from storage. The next step is to define applications for battery energy storage. Integrating new loads/production without increasing the hosting capacity may result in reduced performance and ultimately loss of production or consumption. The cost and severity of exceeding the hosting capacity will also affect the type of solution required. After this define the conventional planning solutions that would be adopted without storage option available. Such measures may include upgrading of transformer or construction of new power line. Curtailment, tariff based incentives or contracted load shedding as well as techniques like dynamic line rating can also be included in the comparison at this stage. Based on assessments of these alternatives it is possible to compare increase in hosting capacity with and without storage as well as comparing gains with storage to what can be achieved with conventional grid planning options or other novel methods. It is also important to investigate the regulatory framework and constraints regarding ownership and operation of a battery energy storage. Should the grid operator own the battery storage? Or should the task be outsourced on a service contract or the service purchased in the market place? Storage capacity may only be utilized during certain periods. Can all or part of the storage capacity or the power electronic inverters perform additional functions and increase the return on investment for the installation? Regulatory aspects regarding the possibilities for different actors to pursue such additional income streams should be included in the assessment to correctly determine the return of investment of battery storage.The final step should include control algorithm development, tested in a flexible but realistic environment and should establish whether the system actually delivers the predicted outcomes when exposed to real-time data. This may require building a pilot installation as a research and development activity before commercial deployment.

  • 157.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Ackeby, Susanne
    STRI AB.
    Lennerhag, Oscar
    STRI AB.
    The transparent hosting-capacity approach – overview, applications and developments2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes the hosting capacity approach and gives some recent developments: including uncertainty in location and size of production units; curtailment to connect more production than according to the initial hosting capacity. For both developments it is shown that the transparency of the approach still holds but also that the results may be strongly location dependent. It is however also shown that the hosting-capacity approach can be used to obtain rough estimations, rules-of-thumbs, and to make a first assessment in case more detailed studies are not possible for example because insufficient data is available.

  • 158.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Lundkvist, J.
    Quantification of ancillary services from a virtual power plant in an existing subtransmision network2013Inngår i: Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe (ISGT EUROPE): 2013 4th IEEE/PES, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, s. 1-5Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of a feasibility study of a virtual power plant (VPP) in central Sweden designed to provide ancillary services to a 50-kV distribution network. The VPP consists of a wind park, hydro plant and reservoir as well as solar PVs and battery energy storage. The 50-kV subtransmission network was modeled in order to evaluate the ancillary services that could be provided by coordinating existing distributed energy resources in the network. Simulations were performed using measured hourly variations in production and consumption at all network nodes. The studied ancillary services include both reactive and active power control. Contribution from the VPP is evaluated for balancing, to enable a producer to meet spot markets bids and avoid purchases of balancing power minimize peak load in order to reduce subscribed power and tariff to the regional 130-kV network decrease network losses the contribution from reactive power control using the power converters to reduce the reactive power flow to the overlying network. Quantification of the economic gains from each operation case is provided.

  • 159. Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Project: Test bed – Energy supply for innovative mining from an environmental and energy perspective2014Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 160.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Fernandez, Josep Maria
    CINERGIA. Barcelona.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Converter induced resonances in microgrids due to high harmonic distortion2014Inngår i: The Renewable Energies and Power Quality Journal (RE&PQJ), ISSN 2172-038X, E-ISSN 2172-038X, nr 12, artikkel-id 317Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the resonance introduced by adverse interaction of electronic converters. With the presence of multiple power-electronic converters, situations can occur where the harmonics are amplified due to the interaction between converters. An observation of undamped oscillation leading to instability in a microgrid is described. The term “converter induced resonances” is proposed to describe this phenomenon. The amount of distributed generation, active loads, FACTS and battery energy storage systems are expected to increase in future Smart Grids. All these resources will be interfaced with electronic converters. The potential impact of converter induced resonances in such grids is described. A coordinated design of the control systems of all converters is in practice not feasible. Each device will be independently tested to fulfil grid codes and have its own converter control implemented that can include functionality to modify voltage and /or current waveform.

  • 161.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    STRI AB.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Virtual Power Plant for Grid Services using IEC 618502016Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 437-447Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper assesses the communication, information and functional requirements of Virtual Power Plants (VPPs). A conceptual formulation of the interoperability requirements is presented as well as a comparative study of their fulfillment by state-of-the-art communication techniques. VPP requirements are then mapped against services and information models of IEC 61850 and CIM power utility automation standards. Proposals are given for extensions of the IEC 61850 standard to enhance the interaction between VPP controller and the distributed energy resources. Finally the methodology and concepts are applied to a specific VPP consisting of hydro and wind plants, solar PV and storage facilities. Several applications to provide grid services from the proposed VPP in an existing 50 kV grid are covered. The implementation of the VPP communication and control architecture in the SCADA of demonstration plant is also presented.

  • 162.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Weingarten, L
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Physical-hybrid simulation for in-situ evaluation of energy storage system2012Inngår i: 3rd IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe, ISGT Europe 2012: Berlin;14 October 2012 through17 October 2012, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a method for testing of a grid-size battery energy storage system and its interaction with the grid. The method uses a real installation with relatively small storage capacity which is combined with a simulation model of the grid. The storage is cycled based on measurements from the potential grid location and desired application. A scaling factor is used to relate the physical installation capacity and power ratings with the grid-size storage in the simulation model. Such a hybrid method allows evaluating grid-size storage installations without disturbing the grid. The physical behavior of the battery and control algorithm can be evaluated under realistic conditions without the need to construct a full grid-size storage installation. An experiment is described in this paper were the method is applied to an actual grid and battery storage installation

  • 163.
    Evans, Gareth
    et al.
    Ofgem.
    Vailati, Riccardo
    AEEG.
    Brekke, Karstein
    NVE.
    Friedl, Werner
    E-Control.
    Schotman, Hugo
    Energiekamer.
    Steiner, Matthias
    E-Control.
    Bollen, Math
    Kapetanovic, Tahir
    E-Control.
    Villa, Ferruccio
    AEEG.
    European energy regulators' views on regulation smart distribution networks2011Inngår i: Proceedings of CIRED 21st International Conference on Electricity Distribution, 2011, artikkel-id 0978Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Energy Regulators’ Group for Electricity and Gas (ERGEG) launched a public consultation on its position on smart grids on the 17th of December 2009. The consultation period ended on the 1st of March 2010 and ERGEG published a Conclusions Paper, including an evaluation of comments received, on 10 June 2010. This CIRED paper addresses the regulatory priorities highlighted by the consultation that the development of smarter electricity networks will present. Its focus is on distribution networks. It explains the drivers behind the consultation, reviews the key issues addressed and summarises the conclusions reached.

  • 164. Faiz, J
    et al.
    Lotfi-fard, S.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Wavelet based Mann and Morrison algorithm for improvement of three-phase unbalanced voltage dips characterization2007Inngår i: IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, ISSN 1751-8687, E-ISSN 1751-8695, Vol. 1, nr 4, s. 640-646Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 165.
    Falcão, Amanda
    et al.
    ERSE, Portugal.
    Bollen, Math
    STRI AB.
    Exceptional events and force majeure events and their use in the electricity sector2009Inngår i: CIRED 20th International Conference on Electricity Distribution: (CIRED 2009) ; Prague, Czech Republic, 8 - 11 June 2009, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2009, artikkel-id 0233Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contains some reflections about "exceptional events" and "force majeure events" as used within quality of supply regulation. The terms are widely used, but without commonly-used definitions. A survey among 20 European countries has been used as the basic for the paper. It is concluded that "exceptional events" are more appropriate for regulation but that they should cover events that are both sufficiently rare and with a effective cause beyond control of the network operator.

  • 166.
    Ferreira, Danton D.
    et al.
    Federal University of Lavras.
    Seixas, Jose M. de
    Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, COPPE/Poli.
    Cerqueira, Augusto S.
    Department of Electrical Circuits, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Campus Universitário.
    Duque, Carlos A.
    Department of Electrical Circuits, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Campus Universitário.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Ribeiro, Paulo F.
    Federal University of Itajubá.
    A new power quality deviation index based on principal curves2015Inngår i: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 125, s. 8-14, artikkel-id 4289Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a new power quality deviation index based on principal curves is proposed. The index provides a quantitative measure, which gives an idea of how much the monitored electrical signal has deviated from the nominal one. Differently of existing indices, the proposed index is a general index, i.e., it can be used for any type of disturbance in the monitored signal. In addition, the proposed index is used to perform a direct approach for detecting disturbances in power signals. This approach is able to detect the beginning and localize the disturbance by analyzing non-overlapping signal windows of one cycle of the fundamental component, leading to a simple method in terms of computational complexity

  • 167.
    Ferreira, Danton D.
    et al.
    Federal University of Lavras, Engineering Department, Federal University of Lavras.
    Seixas, Jose M. de
    Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, COPPE/Poli.
    Cerqueira, Augusto S.
    Department of Electrical Circuits, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Campus Universitário.
    Duque, Carlos A.
    Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Department of Electrical Circuits, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Campus Universitário.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Ribeiro, Paulo F.
    Federal University of Itajubá, Department of Electrical Engineering, Federal University of Itajubá.
    Extracting the transient events from power system signals by independent component analysis2016Inngår i: International Studies in Religion and Society, ISSN 1530-1311, E-ISSN 2050-7038, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 884-900Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a method for extracting transient events from the power system signal based on independent component analysis. The extraction of transients is important to diagnose the system in terms of power quality, because the computation of power quality indices from the extracted events is more efficient and easier to be carried out. Furthermore, the proposed method can be applied as a preprocessing tool for transient characterization in disturbance detection, classification, and identification systems. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses demonstrate the efficiency and the advantages of the proposed method in comparison with other approaches commonly used for the same purpose.

  • 168.
    Filho, J.M.C.
    et al.
    Itajuba Federal University, Brazil.
    Leborgne, R.C.
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre.
    Abreu, J.P.G de
    Itajuba Federal University, Brazil.
    Novaes, E.G.C
    Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Validation of voltage sag simulation tools: ATP and short-circuit calculation versus field measurements2008Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 1472-1480Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two methods to calculate voltage sags are validated against actual measurements. One of the methods is a short-circuit calculation program resulting directly in sag magnitude during the fault. The other is an electromagnetic transient program resulting in voltage waveform as a function of time. Individual sag characteristics and system performance obtained by deterministic simulation and measurement are compared. The influence of the random variables (prefault voltage, fault location and fault impedance) is investigated.

  • 169. Filho, L.M.C
    et al.
    Leborgne, R.C
    Silveira, P.M da
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Voltage sag index calculation: comparison between time-domain simulation and short-circuit calculation2008Inngår i: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 78, nr 4, s. 676-682Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a case study where voltage sags indices are estimated using Monte Carlo approach combined with ATP (Alternative Transient Program) and short-circuit calculation program. Voltage sag magnitude and frequency are used to evaluate the correlation between both programs. The results indicate that time-domain simulation and short-circuit calculation gives similar voltage sag indices. Considering the high correlation between the results, short-circuit calculation programs are preferable over the time-domain simulation tools as the modelling for time-domain simulation is more complex, time consuming, and rarely covers the whole network.

  • 170.
    Flores-Arias, J.M.
    et al.
    University of Cordoba.
    Bellido-Outeirino, F.J.
    University of Cordoba.
    Moreno-Munoz, Antonio
    University of Cordoba, Department of Computer Architecture, Electronics and Electronic Technology, University of Cordoba.
    Linan-Reyes, M.
    University of Cordoba.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Validation of a Embeddable Volt age Phasor Magnitude Meter for Household and Commercial Environments2015Inngår i: IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics: (ICCE), 2015 9 - 12 Jan. 2015, Las Vegas, NV, USA, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 616-617Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The most popular, fast and reliable voltage event and power quality disturbance detection algorithm in domestic and commercial appliances is the measurement of the RMS voltage value.

  • 171.
    Fomari, Frederica
    et al.
    University of Genova, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Procopio, Renato
    University of Genova, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    SSC compensation capability of unbalanced voltage sags2005Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 2030-2037Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the capacity of a static series compensator (SSC) to compensate for voltage sags is discussed, and a complete analysis of the effects of unbalanced Sags on the SSC compensation capability is carried out. Expressions are obtained for the missing voltage during unbalanced voltage sags. These expressions are used to estimate how often a voltage sag occurs where the missing voltage exceeds the injection capability of the SSC. The method is applied to a typical Italian network configuration

  • 172.
    Frey, David
    et al.
    Grenoble University.
    Schanen, Jean-Luc
    Grenoble University.
    Quintana, Sebastian
    Grenoble University.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Conrath, Christian
    Schneider Toshiba Inverter.
    Study of high frequency harmonics propagation in industrial networks2012Inngår i: EMC Europe 2012: International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibillity, September 15-21, Rome, Italy, 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the harmonic contents of an industrial network in the 2kHz–150kHz range. Measurement methods to characterize the ElectroMagnetic Interferences in this frequency range are proposed, using voltage or current. The harmonic propagation in the power networks is studied and discussed.

  • 173.
    Friedl, Werner
    et al.
    E-Control.
    Vailati, Riccardi
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Görlich, Roland
    E-Control.
    Castel, Romain
    CRE.
    Batic, David
    AGEN-RS.
    Radovic, Ognjen
    E-Control.
    Candela, Antonio
    CNE.
    A European benchmarking of continuity of supply regulation2013Inngår i: 22nd International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution (CIRED 2013): Stockholm, Sweden, 10 - 13 June 2013, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2013, s. 4-, artikkel-id 1229Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Council of European Energy Regulators has been publishing Benchmarking Reports on the Quality of Electricity Supply since 2001. For the 5th edition of the Benchmarking Report the 29 member countries of CEER were joined by the 9 NRAs from the Energy Community and the NRA from Switzerland. This paper contains the main results, findings and recommendations on continuity of supply from the latest edition of the Benchmarking Report.

  • 174.
    Gil de Castro, Aurora
    et al.
    Electronics Technology, University of Cordoba.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Light intensity variation (flicker) and harmonic emission related to LED lamps2017Inngår i: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 146, s. 107-114Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses two power-quality aspects of LED lamps: harmonics and flicker. Measurements have been performed of 24 different LED lamps: the harmonic current spectrum and light intensity variations have been measured. To enable an objective comparison, the light intensity variations were measured for all the lamps when exposed to the same voltage magnitude variations. Results show a large variety in harmonic emission between different LED lamps indicating that different technologies or different components are being used within the LED lamps. Moreover the results show a large variety in light intensity variations when different LED lamps are subjected to the same voltage fluctuations. A clear correlation was found between harmonic emission and sensitivity to voltage magnitude variations. Lamps with low light intensity variations are also the ones with the highest harmonic current emission. No clear relation between active power or price and sensitivity to voltage magnitude variations was found.

  • 175.
    Gil-de-Castro, A.
    et al.
    Department of Computer Architecture, Electronics and Electronic Technology, University of Cordoba.
    Moreno-Munoz, A.
    Department of Computer Architecture, Electronics and Electronic Technology, University of Cordoba.
    Larsson, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Rosa, J.J.G. de la
    Department of Electronics, University of Cadiz.
    LED street lighting: a power quality comparison among street light technologies2013Inngår i: Lighting Research and Technology, ISSN 1477-1535, E-ISSN 1477-0938, Vol. 45, nr 6, s. 710-728Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High-pressure sodium lamps are currently the main lamps used in public lighting. However, the possibility of using high-power light emitting diode (LEDs) for street lighting is growing continuously due to their greater energy efficiency, robustness, long life and light control. The aim of this paper is to study the power quality of high-power lighting networks based on LED and high-pressure sodium lamps. Both electromagnetic and dimmable electronic ballasts, which can dim the lamp output smoothly and uniformly, have been used connected to high-pressure sodium lamps. High-pressure sodium lamps connected to electronic equipment have been tested with different arc power levels using dimming on a 230 V power supply. The study presented in this paper is completely based on measurements, including harmonic currents in the frequency range up to 150 kHz for all the technologies. The main results show a broadband spectrum in LED lamps which confirms other research in fluorescent lamps powered by high-frequency ballasts. Results also indicate a decrease in the harmonic value with increasing harmonic order, and a decrease in the harmonic value at half load (60%) compared with full load (100%). Although total harmonic distortion of the current is lower with high-pressure sodium lamps connected to electronic rather than electromagnetic ballasts, LED lamps achieved the lowest total harmonic distortion of curren

  • 176.
    Gil-de-Castro, Aurora
    et al.
    University of Cordoba.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Moreno-Muñoz, Antonio
    University of Cordoba.
    Harmonic phase angles for a domestic customer with different types of lighting2015Inngår i: International Studies in Religion and Society, ISSN 1530-1311, E-ISSN 2050-7038, Vol. 25, nr 7, s. 1281-1296Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents measurements of the changes in phase angle of the harmonic current for a domestic costumer due to the introduction of energy-efficient lamps (compact fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes lamps). Those results are then compared with the aggregation rules according to standard IEC 61000-3-6 and with a mathematical model, in order to highlight the importance of using phase angles in the harmonic estimations. The paper presents both the emission from individual household devices and the variations in the complex harmonic current from a group of devices. Cancellation because of phase-angle difference plays an important role in the emission from a group of different devices. This explains why the increase in emission after changing to energy-efficient lamps is much smaller than expected. Some other power-quality parameters are also considered such as total harmonic distortion, total power factor, and displacement power factor. It is concluded that the complex plane presentation is a useful tool to estimate the harmonic emission from a group of domestic appliances.

  • 177.
    Gil-de-Castro, Aurora
    et al.
    Universidad de Córdoba, Area de Electrónica, Dpto. Arquitectura de Computadores, Electrónica y Tecnología Electrónica, Escuela Politécnica Superior, Campus de Rabanales.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Moreno-Muñoz, Antonio
    Universidad de Córdoba, Area de Electrónica, Dpto. Arquitectura de Computadores, Electrónica y Tecnología Electrónica, Escuela Politécnica Superior, Campus de Rabanales.
    Study on harmonic emission of domestic equipment combined with different types of lighting2014Inngår i: International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, ISSN 0142-0615, E-ISSN 1879-3517, Vol. 55, s. 116-127Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of a set of measurements to study changes in harmonic emission from domestic equipment due to the introduction of energy-efficient lamps. During this study measurements have been performed of the emission from different combinations of domestic devices in combination with different kind of lamps. Those results are then compared with standards, with a mathematical aggregation model and with results from field experiments in order to give recommendations to different stakeholders. The measurements clearly show that the total emission depends on the lamps that are connected as a background. It is however not possible to draw the general conclusion that the introduction of CFLs and LED lamps will result in an increase or decrease of emission. It is also concluded in this work that the IEC aggregation model does not give useful estimations of changes in emission from domestic installations due to the introduction of CFLs and LED lamps. The measurement results further indicate that emission levels at higher frequencies might increase due to the large-scale introduction of such lamps.

  • 178.
    Gil-De-Castro, Aurora
    et al.
    University of Cordoba.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Moreno-Munoz, Antonio
    University of Cordoba.
    Street lamps aggregation analysis through IEC 61000-3-6 approach2013Inngår i: 22nd International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution (CIRED 2013): Stockholm, Sweden, 10 - 13 June 2013, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2013, artikkel-id 291Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of high-power LEDs for street lighting is growing continuously due to their greater energy efficiency, robustness, long life and light control. The possibly higher harmonic emission from these lamps has been mentioned however as a drawback. Not only is it important to know the individual harmonic emission of every device connected to the PCC, but it is also necessary to know the impact after the harmonic aggregation of those devices. In this paper, the harmonic emission of HPS lamps with electronic ballasts and LED street lamps has been studied. Different approaches on estimating the emission from multiple lamps are compared. The approach according to IEC 61000-3-6 has been compared with measurements, showing the limitations of that approach.

  • 179.
    Gil-de-Castro, Aurora
    et al.
    University of Cordoba.
    Larsson, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    LED lamps under different EMC environnments2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    More and more loads are currently connected at the same connection point in industrial, commercial and residential sectors. This paper studies the interaction between a certain LED lamp connected to different industrial environments, and how different LED lamps behave in the same industrial environment. Harmonic emission as well as supraharmonic emission have been considered in the study.

  • 180.
    Gil-de-Castro, Aurora
    et al.
    University of Cordoba.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    A study about harmonic interaction between devices2014Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an analysis of current emission from low-voltage appliances in the frequency range from 2 to 150 kHz. The current to an electric vehicle is measured for different connection of other devices (LED lamp, microwave oven, TV) showing the presence of primary and secondary emission. The paper shows that the presence of a neighboring device can have a strong influence on the emission.

  • 181.
    Gil-de-Castro, Aurora
    et al.
    University of Cordoba, Electronics and Electronic Technology Area, University of Cordoba.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Harmonic interaction between an electric vehicle and different domestic equipment2014Inngår i: 2014 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility - EMC Europe 2014: Swedish Exhibition and Congress Centre, Gothenburg, Sweden : 1 - 4 September, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 991-996, artikkel-id 6931047Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an analysis of current emission from low-voltage appliances in the frequency range from 2 to 150 kHz. The current to an electric vehicle is measured for different connection of other devices (LED lamps, microwave oven, TV) showing the presence of primary and secondary emission. The paper shows that the presence of a neighboring device can have a strong influence on the emission.

  • 182.
    Gil-De-Castro, Aurora
    et al.
    Electronics and Electronic Technology Area, University of Cordoba.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Moreno-Munoz, Antonio
    Electronics and Electronic Technology Area, University of Cordoba.
    Harmonics from household equipment and different lamp technologies2013Inngår i: CPE 2013: conference proceedings, Piscataway. NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, s. 1-6, artikkel-id 6601119Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of a set of measurements to study changes in harmonic emission from a domestic customer due to the introduction of energy-efficient lamps (CFLs and LED lamps). During this study, measurements have been performed of the emission from different combinations of domestic devices in combination with different kind of lamps. To study harmonic emission, three different states has been deeply studied, likely, high consumption and lamps-only states, where different household device combination together with lamps were connected. Overall, the measurements confirm the conclusion that there is some increase in harmonic emission due to the replacement of incandescent lamps by CFLs and LED lamps, but that there is no reason for concern

  • 183.
    Gil-de-Castro, Aurora
    et al.
    Universidad Cordoba.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Moreno-Munoz, Antonio
    Universidad Cordoba.
    Pallares-Lopez, V
    Electronics and Electronic Technology Area, University of Cordoba.
    Harmonics from a domestic customer with different lamp technologies2012Inngår i: 15th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power (ICHQP), IEEE Communications Society, 2012, s. 585-590Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of a set of measurements to study changes in harmonic emission from a domestic customer due to the introduction of energy-efficient lamps (CFL and LED lamps). This emission has been studied through both magnitude and complex harmonic current. We can see that the emission depends on the lamps that are connected as a background. Sometimes adding a new device reduces the harmonic sometimes it increases it. The harmonic current produced by aggregate loads is significantly smaller than the algebraic sum of the harmonic current produced by each one separately. Therefore, it can be some cancellation effect not only between devices, but also among customers. Overall, the measurements confirm the conclusion that there is some increase in harmonic emission due to the replacement of incandescent lamps by CFLs and LED lamps, but that there is no reason for concern.

  • 184.
    Gil-de-Castro, Aurora
    et al.
    Departamento A.C., Electrónica y T.E. Escuela Politécnica Superior, University of Cordoba.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Wahlberg, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Moreno-Munoz, Antonio
    Departamento A.C., Electrónica y T.E. Escuela Politécnica Superior, University of Cordoba.
    Emission on the low voltage grid: measurements in an urban area2014Inngår i: The Renewable Energies and Power Quality Journal (RE&PQJ), ISSN 2172-038X, E-ISSN 2172-038X, nr 12, artikkel-id 472Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 185.
    Gu, Irene
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Signals and Systems.
    Berlijn, Sonja M.
    Statnett, Oslo.
    Gutman, Igor
    STRI AB, Ludvika.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Practical applications of automatic image analysis for overhead lines2013Inngår i: 22nd International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution (CIRED 2013): Stockholm, Sweden, 10 - 13 June 2013, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2013, artikkel-id 560Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes novel techniques for automatically extracting information from overhead lines based on automatic image/video processing. Three application scenarios are presented: (a) detecting snow and ice coverage on insulators for overhead lines; (b) detecting swing angles of insulators; (c) quantifying the visibility of insulators at transmission lines with typical backgrounds. Experiments have been conducted on recorded videos/images of insulators (with different prototypes) for overhead lines in a remote test station in Norway. Results show that the proposed automatic image analysis methods are promising for extracting the status (snow/ice coverage, swing angle, visibility) of insulators and might be applied in the future for other components of the overhead line.

  • 186.
    Gu, I.Y.H.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Estimating interharmonics by using sliding-window ESPRIT2008Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 13-23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A method is proposed for estimating interharmonic frequencies in power system voltage and current signals. The method is based on a spectrum-estimation method known as "estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques" (ESPRIT). To allow for a more reliable spectral estimation and to cover nonstationarity in the signal, a sliding-window version of ESPRIT is introduced. This paper describes the basic ESPRIT method as well as sliding-window ESPRIT. The paper discusses the application of the method to one synthetic signal and three measurement signals. It is shown that the method allows for very accurate frequency estimation of interharmonic components. The limitations of the methods, such as line splitting and spurious components, can be overcome by using the coherent information obtained from the sliding-window method. A number of remaining issues are also discussed in this paper.

  • 187.
    Gu, I.Y.H.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Signals and Systems.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Le, C.D.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Signals and Systems.
    Signal processing and classification tools for intelligent distributed monitoring and analysis of the smart grid2012Inngår i: 2nd IEEE PES International Conference and Exhibition on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT Europe): [Dec. 5-11, 2011, Manchester, United Kingdom], Piscataway, N.J: IEEE Communications Society, 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a novel framework for an intelligent monitoring system that supervises the performance of the future power system. The increased complexity of the power system could endanger the reliability, voltage quality, operational security or resilience of the power system. A distributed structure for such a monitoring system is described and some of the advanced signal processing techniques or tools that could be used in such a monitoring system are given. Several examples for seeking the spatial locations and finding the underlying causes of disturbances are included

  • 188.
    HAJEFOROSH, Seyede Fatemeh
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    BOLLEN, Math H. J.Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.ABRAHAMSSON, LarsLuleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    DYNAMIC LINE RATING OPERATIONAL PLANNING: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES2019Konferanseproceedings (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Network operational planning aims to provide smart and cost effective solutions to postpone conventional transmission and sub-transmission expansion. One emerging measure of improving the efficiency of power lines utilization is Dynamic Line Rating (DLR). DLR has to deal with different uncertainties ranging from production and consumption to meteorological variabilities. This paper presents the application of DLR from operational planning viewpoints and reviews relevant works. It also addresses DLR protection and challenges that the power system has to cope with.

  • 189.
    Hassan, F.
    et al.
    Areva T and D, Technology Centre, Stafford.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Active islanding of a current-controlled converter-interfaced DG2009Inngår i: 2009 IEEE Bucharest PowerTech: Bucharest, Romania, 28 June - 2 July 2009 / [ed] Lucian Toma, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Islanding of a voltage source converter (VSC) equipped DG unit is considered in this paper. Some internal controller signals are implemented in the islanding detection method in order to provide a robust operation. Particularly, the estimated frequency of the grid voltage along with a point of common coupling (PCC) voltage regulator and a dynamic reference-current limiter are proposed for islanding detection algorithm. Using a PCC-voltage regulator adds the active, or dynamic, property for the detection algorithm and increases its reliability. Moreover, implementing a dynamic current limiter, a robust operation is achieved. Through the proper design of the current limiter, the DG unit can have the ability to ride-through voltage dips with magnitudes above a certain limit, which can be set according to the grid codes, and detect islanding if the voltage decreases beyond that limit. The algorithm has also been verified for the case of island motor loads, which is considered as the worst case since dynamic loads affect the grid states in the case of islanding.

  • 190. Hassan, F
    et al.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Interactive operation of power-electronics interfaced distributed generation2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 191. Hassan, F
    et al.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Critchley, R
    Power electronics catalogue for increasing the hosting capacity for wind power2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 192. Hassan, Fainan
    et al.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Dynamic current limitation to provide interactive features of power-electronics interfaced distributed generation2008Inngår i: Electrical Power Quality and Utilization, ISSN 1234-6799, Vol. 3, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a simple DC current chopper combined with the reactive power control, in order to provide specific interactive capabilities for power-electronics interfaced distributed generation units. The chopper provides a dynamic current limitation capability. During voltage disturbances, it can reduce the active current command to allow more reactive current to be injected into the grid. The proposed controller has been implemented for the mitigation of voltage magnitude variations at the connection point. It will be shown that the proposed controller results in better regulation of both grid and DC-link voltages. Moreover, through the proper sizing of the chopper, the fault ride-through capability is increased and a robust distinction is made by the DG unit between ride-through and islanding operation.

  • 193.
    Holm, Anders
    et al.
    Vattenfall.
    Pylvänäinen, Jouni
    Vattenfall.
    Owe, Pernilla
    Vattenfall.
    Paananen, Heikki
    Vattenfall.
    Bollen, Math
    STRI.
    Customer dissatisfaction index (CDI): pilot use in network planning2009Inngår i: CIRED 20th International Conference on Electricity Distribution: (CIRED 2009) ; Prague, Czech Republic, 8 - 11 June 2009, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2009, artikkel-id 367Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Customer Dissatisfaction Index (CDI) concept, developed in 2006 by Vattenfall and STRI [1], introduces the service level compliance put into figures in network planning. By using the performance in a load point and the probability that a preset "dissatisfaction" level of security of supply is not fulfilled, it presents a more understandable customer focus. This was presented in an earlier CIRED report. [4] A pilot network planning case in a rural network in Finland near Jyväskylä has been performed as a pilot. Two different levels of satisfaction criteria has been used one for domestic customers (max 8 hours or 3 interruptions) and one for preferred customers such as industry, hospitals, nursing homes, supermarkets etc. (max 1hour or2 interruptions) (fig 1) The planning has been performed using Tekla X-power and utilizing the newly developed RNA reliability calculation module. In the project the use of CDI is compared to the use of the index KAH (Customer outage cost). The planning uses 4 different scenarios and compares the KAH CDI and economics. SAIDI SAIFI and different CDI indices are also compared. (Fig 4) The project shows that CDI gives valuable contributions to the evaluation of different planning alternatives and will be further used.

  • 194. Iglesias, J Gutierrez
    et al.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Economic framework for power quality2011Inngår i: Electra, ISSN 0424-7701, nr 91, s. 91-95Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 195. Karoui, K
    et al.
    Chuvychin, A
    Sauhats, A
    Samuelsson, O
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Hatziargyriou, N
    Soultanis, N
    Analysis and modeling challenges indices by a growing penetration of inverter-interfaces DER2006Inngår i: IEEE Power Engineering Society general meeting, 2006: 18 - 22 June 2006, [Montreal, QC, Canada], Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 196. Kilter, J
    et al.
    Meyer, Jan
    Howe, B
    Zavoda, F
    Tenti, L
    Milanovic, J. V
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Ribeiro, P. F
    Doyle, P
    Gordon, J. M Romero
    Current practice and future challenges for power quality monitoring: CIGRE C4.112 perspective2012Inngår i: 15th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power (ICHQP), IEEE Communications Society, 2012, s. 390-397Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the initial activities of the recently created CIGRE WG C4.112 “Guidelines for Power quality monitoring - measurement locations, processing and presentation of data”. The WG was created in January 2011 in recognition of demand for coherent set of guidelines for power quality monitoring in existing and future power networks to meet increasing customers' and the regulatory agencies' demands to provide information on the actual power quality level in power networks. Though still at early stages of the work the members of the WG compiled an extensive material about the state of the art of power quality monitoring. This paper summarizes current understanding of power quality monitoring issues and points out directions in which the WG will continue to work over next couple of years in order to provide answers to outstanding questions.

  • 197.
    Koponen, Pekka
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.
    Hansen, Henrik
    Danish Energy Association.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Interharmonics and light flicker2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High levels of odd triplen harmonics and flicker ofCompact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL) have been observedin networks. This paper addresses the possibility thatthese issues are related by the following phenomena.Inverter driven loads such as heat pumps generate oddharmonics that can be modulated by fluctuations in thoseloads, such as oscillating torque. Because the zerosequence impedance of the low voltage distributionnetwork is much higher than for the other symmetriccomponents of a three phase system, the impacts of oddtriplen harmonics currents on the voltage are strongerthan for the other harmonic currents. Modulatingfluctuations may also come from the power network. Thismodulation causes interharmonics near odd harmonics,which cause voltage peak value fluctuations. In typicalCompact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL) the link capacitanceis dimensioned so small that the luminance varies withthe voltage peak value fluctuations. Some related gaps inElectro Magnetic Compatibility standards are pointedout.

  • 198.
    Larsson, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Emission (2 to 150 kHz) from a light installation2011Inngår i: Proceedings of CIRED 21st International Conference on Electricity Distribution, 2011, artikkel-id 0250Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents results from measurements of the emission from an installation containing of about 50 fluorescent lamps with high-frequency ballast. It is shown that the emission from one individual lamp in the installation is completely different from the emission by the installation as a whole. Emission in the frequency range of a few kHz adds in the current from the total installation, whereas emission around 50 kHz does not show up in the total current.

  • 199.
    Larsson, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Emission and immunity of equipment in the frequency range 2 to 150 kHz2009Inngår i: 2009 IEEE Bucharest PowerTech Proceedings / [ed] Lucian Toma ; Bogdan Otomega, Piscataway, N.J.: IEEE Communications Society, 2009, s. 2325-2329Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives an overview of emission and immunity standards in the frequency range from 2 to 150 kHz. Based on existing standardization a complete set of limits is proposed by the authors. A distinction is thereby made between narrowband emission, broadband emission and recurrent oscillations. The measuring technique is vital to the results. In this frequency range, there are two different sets of standards covering measurement equipment. Due to fact of development of time-domain based instrument we propose to only use this type of instruments for the whole frequency range.

  • 200.
    Larsson, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Measurement result from 1 to 48 fluorescent lamps in the frequency range 2 to 150 kHz2010Inngår i: 14th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power (ICHQP), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper present measurements performed in the lab where experimental setup of 48 fluorescent lamps powered by high-frequency ballasts. The frequency range of interest is above the traditional harmonic range from 2 kHz up to 150 kHz. In this frequency range the measurements distinguish between two distortions found; recurrent oscillations and remains from the switching at the active power factor correction circuit.

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