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  • 151. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Establishing vegetation in a pilot scale wetland in a cold climate region1999Inngår i: Sardinia 99: Seventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, [4 - 8 October 1999, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy]. / [ed] Thomas H. Christensen, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 1999, Vol. 2, s. 231-237Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 152. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Landfill gas properties and effect on green plants: litterature review1997Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 153. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    LFG emission and methane oxidation in cold climate conditions1998Inngår i: Svenskt symposium om upplagsforskning 1998: Third Swedish landfill research symposia 1998, 1998, s. 79-80Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 154. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    LFG emission measurements in cold climatic conditions: seasonal variations and methane emissions mitigation2003Inngår i: Cold Regions Science and Technology, ISSN 0165-232X, E-ISSN 1872-7441, Vol. 36, nr 1-3, s. 37-46Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill gas (LFG) emissions were measured at three landfills in Northern Sweden and Northern Finland. Several strategies for measuring gas emissions in winter conditions (i.e., a snow-covered surface and frozen ground) were tested. Static chambers appeared to be the most suitable measurement technique. The study results showed that winter measurements should be done directly at the soil surface and that any snow cover should be removed beforehand. A seasonal variation of the emissions was observed. Methane emissions were measured during late winter at the three sites and during late summer at two of the same three sites. Monitoring performed during the different seasons yields a better estimation of the annual LFG emissions. Variations in methane oxidation are likely sources of any differences as low temperature and low soil water content both reduce methane oxidation activity. At low emission rates, the main methane emission may occur during wintertime because of the mitigation effect landfill cover has on methane oxidation during summertime. A reduced methane oxidation activity was observed during the late summer at two of the sites. A combination of summer dryness and heat from methane oxidation is believed to have dried the soil, which then caused a subsequent decrease in methane oxidation. To use landfill covers for the management of methane emissions in cold climates, special consideration must be given to the moisture and extreme low temperature factors.

  • 155. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Pilot scale tests of leachate denitrificatin in constructed wetlands2000Inngår i: Modern landfill technology and management: proceedings of the Asian Pacific Landfill Symposium organized by Japan Society of Waste Management Experts and held at Fukuoka, Japan on October 11 - 13, 2000 / [ed] Masataka Hanashima, Tokyo: JSWME , 2000, s. 132-138Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 156. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Seasonal variation of landfill gas emissions1997Inngår i: Sardinia 97: proceedings ; [13 - 17 October 1997, S. Margherita di Pula - Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy] / [ed] Thomas H. Christensen, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 1997, s. 87-93Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 157. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Using Betula pendula and Telephora caryophyllea for soil pollution assessment2000Inngår i: Journal of soil contamination, ISSN 1058-8337, E-ISSN 1878-5956, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 31-50Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentrations of available arsenic, copper, lead, and zinc in the soil, and the concentration of these elements in vegetal tissues were measured. The most common species at the sites were studied. All the species that were analyzed took up pollutants and could indicate polluted soil. However, all the studied species did not fit to map pollution. The birch (Betula pendula) and most of the fungi species had still quite low concentrations in their tissues compared with the available concentrations in the sail. No direct correlation between the pollution content in the soil and in the vegetation tissues could be observed. Specimens of Thlaspi caerulescens were accumulating zinc Of the four fungi species collected: only Thelephora caryophyllea seemed to accumulate actively in the studied pollutants. Moreover, it was possible to use an arsenic test with the fungi, which is also interesting from the perspective of preliminary assessment of the degree of pollution. A qualitative judgement of the soil pollution is possible by examining the plant material. To obtain a more quantitative and complete mapping, the method has to be developed further and completed with other investigations when vegetation is missing.

  • 158. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Using vegetation to assess distribution of pollutants in soil1998Inngår i: Svenskt symposium om upplagsforskning 1998: Third Swedish landfill research symposia 1998, 1998, s. 149-150Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 159. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Utveckling av bottentätning för avfallsupplag baserad på vedaska1998Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 160. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ettala, M.
    University of Kuopio.
    Effects of leachate irrigation on landfill vegetation and subsequent methane emissions1999Inngår i: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 113, nr 1-4, s. 203-216Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Short-rotation tree forests are irrigated with landfill leachate to reduce both leachate volume and nutrient content. It is of interest both for leachate treatment and energy recovery to optimise the productivity of such plantations. This study's aim was to investigate the effects of irrigation on soil quality, tree growth and on emissions of landfill gas (LFG) produced in the wastes. Soils irrigated with leachate had a higher average nutrient and organic matter contents, and a lower dry solids content. Larger trees occur on plots irrigated with leachate, presumably due to the positive effect of water and nutrient supply. The willows used in this experiment seemed to be tolerant of high carbon dioxide concentrations, as no statistically effect arising from LFG emissions could be linked to tree growth. Methane oxidation levels between 50 and 950 mol m(-2) yr(-1) were observed. The positive correlation between soil methane oxidation capacity and tree presence is an interesting perspective on reduction of methane emissions by landfill's top cover vegetation type. Optimising methane oxidation using vegetation as a 'cover crop' could reduce the amount of methane discharged into the atmosphere.

  • 161.
    Nilsson, Mirja
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Effect of accelerated carbonation and zero valent iron on metal leaching from bottom ash2016Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 51, s. 97-104Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    About 85% of the ashes produced in Sweden originated from the incineration of municipal solid waste and biofuel. The rest comes from the thermal treatment of recycled wood, peat, charcoal and others. About 68% of all ashes annually produced in Sweden are used for constructions on landfills, mainly slopes, roads and embankments, and only 3% for construction of roads and working surfaces outside the landfills (SCB, 2013). Since waste bottom ash (BA) often has similar properties to crushed bedrock or gravel, it could be used for road constructions to a larger extent. However, the leaching of e.g. Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn can cause a threat to the surrounding environment if the material is used as it is. Carbonation is a commonly used pre-treatment method, yet it is not always sufficient.As leaching from aged ash is often controlled by adsorption to iron oxides, increasing the number of Fe oxide sorption sites can be a way to control the leaching of several critical elements. The importance of iron oxides as sorption sites for metals is known from both mineralogical studies of bottom ash and from the remediation of contaminated soil, where iron is used as an amendment.In this study, zero valent iron (Fe(0)) was added prior to accelerated carbonation in order to increase the number of adsorption sites for metals and thereby reduce leaching. Batch, column and pHstat leaching tests were performed and the leaching behaviour was evaluated with multivariate data analysis. It showed that leaching changed distinctly after the tested treatments, in particular after the combined treatment.Especially, the leaching of Cr and Cu clearly decreased as a result of accelerated carbonation. The combination of accelerated carbonation with Fe(0) addition reduced the leaching of Cr and Cu even further and reduced also the leaching of Mo, Zn, Pb and Cd compared to untreated BA. Compared with only accelerated carbonation, the Fe(0) addition significantly reduced the leaching of Cr, Cu and Mo. The effects of Fe(0) addition can be related to binding of the studied elements to newly formed iron oxides. The effects of Fe(0) addition were often more distinct at pH values between 7 and 9, which indicates that a single treatment with only Fe addition would be less effective and a combined treatment is recommended. The pHstat results showed that accelerated carbonation in combination with Fe(0)0 addition widens the pH range for low solubility of about one unit for several of the studied elements. This indicates that pre-treating the bottom ash with a combination of accelerated carbonation and Fe(0) addition makes the leaching properties of the ash less sensitive to pH changes that may occur during reuse. All in all, the addition of Fe0 in combination with carbonation could be an effective pre-treatment method for decreasing the mobility of potentially harmful components in bottom ash.

  • 162.
    Nilsson, Mirja
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Screening analysis of bottom ashes from waste incineration2013Inngår i: Sardinia 2013: 14th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Forte Village, S. Margherita di Pula (CA), Italy, 30 September - 4 October 2013 ; CD-ROM: Symposium proceedings / [ed] Raffaello Cusso, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Screening analysis of bottom ashes from waste incinerationA local waste-to-energy plant in Northern Sweden incinerates municipal solid waste (MSW). The bottom ash (BA) shall be used as construction material. To investigate the homogeneity of the BA, as a base for a more detailed characterisation, a screening was done on 0-10 mm samples taken daily during one month in an ash treatment plant for metal separation.The on-going characterisation focuses on the leaching of heavy metals from the BA as previous work (Oja 2012) showed that a number of trace metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) exceeds the limits set up by the Swedish EPA (Naturvårdsverket 2010) for the use of waste as construction material with regard to total content. Since Cu and Cr also exceed the leaching limits (L/S10), the bottom ash cannot be used without treatment. Ageing and the effect of immobilising amendments are studied with regard to their effect on the leaching behaviour.Material and MethodSamples of BA were taken after metal separation and sieving, daily during one month in 2012 resulting in 32 samples of two different fractions, 0-10 mm and 10-50 mm. A screening was performed on the 0-10 mm fraction analysing pH, EC both in duplicates and LOI, TS, and elemental composition using XRF on non-milled samples in triplicates. Results Based on the analyses made, no grouping of samples could be observed (figure 1), and therefore the material in each fraction was homogenized prior to further investigation. On-going studyDifferent treatment options such as accelerated ageing and stabilization with e.g. zero valent iron are investigated in an on-going study. Also, the effect of incineration parameters such as temperature, air flow and time, on the composition of the BA is studied through modelling (using Factsage). The overall goal is to improve the quality of the BA to an extent that it can be used in different ground constructions.The combined effects of weathering and iron amendment on the mineral composition and the leaching behaviour will be studied. The test program includes acid neutralization capacity (ANC), TOC, XRF, XRD analyses and a column test. Mechanical stability and freeze-thaw resistance will also be tested. Using the Factsage database the incineration process will be modelled with regard to possible changes in the composition of the BA.In addition to this work two field test areas (á 200 m2) will be installed using treated BA as base layer in a material processing and stockpile areas. The leachate will be collected using lysimeters and analysed monthly. Primary results will be available in late summer/early fall. References Naturvårdsverket (2010). Återvinning av avfall i anläggningsarbeten. Handbok 2010:1. Naturvårdsverket StockholmOja E. (2012). Botten aska som dräneringsskikt vid sluttäckning av deponier. Department of Environmental Engineering, Division of Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology

  • 163.
    Nordmark, Desiree
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Industrial By-products used in a Landfill Cover2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A small industrial waste landfill in Obbola, Northern Sweden is being completed and a final cover is installed. The landfill is owned and used by SCA Packaging, a paper mill factory nearby. An alternative final cover will be used, consisting mainly of industrial by-products from the paper mill. The aim of using industrial by-products is to save virgin materials, not to use synthetic materials and to make a cost-effective and environmentally safe closure of the landfill, while relevant laws and regulations are complied to.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 164. Nordmark, Desiree
    et al.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Andreas, Lale
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Mobility and fractionation of arsenic, chromium and copper in thermally treated soil2011Inngår i: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 3-12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal treatment is used to remediate soil co-contaminated with organic and inorganic contaminants. It destroys organic contaminants, but the remaining inorganic contaminants require further treatment. In this study the effects of thermal treatment on the mobility, speciation and chemical fractionation of As, Cr and Cu in a CCA-polluted soil were evaluated by leaching tests, As speciation assays and a sequential extraction procedure. The soil was sieved into four size fractions (<0.125, 0.125—0.250, 0.250—0.500 and 0.500—1.0 mm), each of which was treated at 800°C and analysed in comparison with the untreated soil. The leaching of As and Cr increased by factors of 18—40 and 2—23, respectively, while the mobility of Cu decreased 12—14-fold after treatment. The concentration of As(V) in pore water of the finest soil fraction increased 19-fold, whereas that of As(III) remained constant. The treatment reduced As, Cr and Cu associated with the reducible soil fraction. In addition, it increased the proportions of As and Cr (slightly) associated with the exchangeable and acid-soluble soil fractions, and the proportions of Cu and Cr (substantially) associated with the residual fraction.

  • 165.
    Nordmark, Desiree
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lindgren, Elisabet
    Sundsvall Energi.
    Vamling, Maria
    Länsstyrelsen Västernorrland.
    Evaluation of methods used to reduce leaching of harmful substances from residual fly ash fraction after washing2012Inngår i: Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Symposium on Environmental Issues and Waste Management in Energy and Mineral Production / [ed] Hao Ge; Carmen Mihaela Neculita; Maria Menegaki; Anil Mehrotra, Irvine, CA, USA: The Reading Matrix Inc. , 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Korstaverken near Sundsvall in Sweden produces electricity and district heating for about 80 000 citizens. Household and commercial wastes are used as fuel in their cogeneration plant. The produced fly ash is treated in an ash washing facility to reduce leaching of hazardous substances. Leaching of chromium and molybdenum from the ash residue exceeds although the limit values for non-hazardous landfills. The aim of this project has been to identify factors that influence the leaching of chromium and molybdenum and how a reduction can be achieved. Reduced mobility can be reached by addition of pH and redox reducing agents, or by carbonation. The results show that there are a number of measures that can generate a washed ash that meets the requirements of non-hazardous landfills. In order to design the optimal full scale solution from a practical and economical perspective, the identified alternatives must be evaluated.

  • 166.
    Nordmark, Desiree
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Vestin, Jenny
    Sveriges Geotekniska Institut.
    Arm, Maria
    Sveriges Geotekniska Institut.
    Lind, Bo
    Sveriges Geotekniska Institut.
    Hallgren, Per
    Skogsstyrelsen.
    Environmental and mechanical assessment of wood fly ash used for stabilisation of gravel roads2011Inngår i: SARDINIA 2011: Thirteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium; [3 - 7 October 2011, S. Margherita di Pula - Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy] ; CD-ROM: Proceedings / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA Publisher, Italy , 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to climate change, there is a growing demand for mechanically stabilising forestry roads in Sweden. One way to do this is by addition of cement to the bearing layer of the road. In this study, cement was replaced by a forestry industry fly ash. Mechanical testing showed that a good stabilising effect could be achieved and at a 30% ash addition, it could resist more than 12 freeze-thaw cycles. The environmental impact of the ash addition was assessed using a standard leaching test at a liquid to solid ration of ten. The results indicated that most constituents of the ash remained fairly stable, but that notably chloride, potassium, calcium and sodium was mobilised in the grams per kg of TS range, adding up to about 1 % of the total mass. This may cause an elevated salinity in the emediate vicinity of a road, e g in the ditches, under a short time period, but is not considered to be a major problem for recipients. The results also indicate that the total content is a poor estimate for the leachability of various elements.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 167.
    Nordmark, Desiree
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lindgren, Elisabet
    Sundsvall Energi.
    Vamling, Maria
    Sundsvall Energi.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Processoptimering av asktvätt2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Asktvätten vid Korstaverket i Sundsvall producerar en tvättad aska som består av en blandning av fallande flygaska och vattenreningsslam. I tvätten avskiljs framför allt lättlösliga salter och en mobil fraktion av andra ämnen. De senare avskiljs till större delen i den efterföljande vattenreningen vars slam blandas med fallande aska i tvätten. Blandningen klarar krav för deponiklass II med undantag för utlakning av krom och molybden, för vilka dispens har erhållits upp till tre gånger gränsvärdet, som är 10 mg/kg TS. I här rapporterat projekt har syftet varit att identifiera de faktorer som påverkar främst kroms och molybdens mobilitet i den tvättade askan (dvs flygaska + slam) och hur den kan påverkas praktiskt. Resultaten kan vara av intresse för dem som söker alternativ för askhantering. I Sverige har ingen motsvarande undersökning utförts tidigare. Molybden och andra grundämnen som bildar oxyanjoner tenderar att bli mer mobila vid högre pH-värden och därför kan tillsatser till asktvätt och reningsprocess som sänker pH mot neutrala värden ge en lägre utlakning. I synnerhet molybden mobiliseras ur reningsslammet vid kontakt med den mera basiska askan, och därför kan en separat deponering av tvättad aska och slam vara ett sätt att minska den totala utlakningen. För att reducera Cr6+ till trevärd krom och därmed minska kroms mobilitet, har tillsatser av elementärt och tvåvärt järn används. Tvåvärt järn har även testats i full skala under en kort tid. I lab har både elementärt järn och tvåvärt järn visat sig ge tydligt lägre kromlakning, elementärt järn var effektivast. I full skala användes tvåvärt järn, men resultatet var inte entydigt. Här kan det tänkas att järnskrot från bottenaska skulle kunna användas. Den effektivaste tillsatsen, som dock bara testats i lab var koldioxid, tillsatsen reducerade både krom- och molybdenutlakningen. Här kan man tänka sig att använda koldioxid från förbränningsanläggningen, eller driva en efterbehandling med deponigas. Våra resultat visar att det genom olika åtgärder, eller kombinationer av åtgärder, går att producera en tvättad aska som väl uppfyller de krav på utlakning som används för en klass II deponi idag. Därmed är projektets mål uppnådda. För att utforma den praktiskt och ekonomiskt mest optimala lösningen behöver de identifierade alternativen utvärderas.

  • 168.
    Nordmark, Desiree
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Rönkkö, Reima
    University of Oulu.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Andreas, Lale
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Changes in leaching and chemical fractionation of arsenic, chromium and copper in soil after thermal treatment2009Inngår i: SARDINIA 2009: Twelfth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; [5 - 9 October 2009, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy] / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal treatment is used for remediation of soils contaminated with both organic and inorganic contaminants. The target is destruction of organic contaminants while the residue containing the inorganic contaminants has to be further treated. The effects of thermal treatment on As, Cr and Cu in contaminated soil are evaluated in laboratory and field tests, using leaching test, As speciation and sequential extraction test. In laboratory tests on four particle size fractions, the leaching of As and Cr increased by factors of 18-40 and 2-23, respectively, while the mobility of Cu decreased 12-4 fold after thermal treatment. The concentration of As(V) in the finest soil fraction increased 19 fold, while As(III) remained constant. Arsenic, Cr and Cu associated to the reducible soil fraction decreased, possibly due to enhanced crystallisation of Fe oxides and reduction of available adsorption sites. In the field test, the concentration of As, Cr and Cu was 1-4 times higher in the filter fraction compared to the treated soil.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 169.
    Nordmark, Desiree
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Vestin, Jenny
    Sveriges Geotekniska Institut.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lind, Bo
    Sveriges Geotekniska Institut.
    Arm, Maria
    Sveriges Geotekniska Institut.
    Hallgren, Per
    Skogsstyrelsen.
    Geochemical Behavior of a Gravel Road Upgraded with Wood Fly Ash2014Inngår i: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 140, nr 10, artikkel-id 5014002Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An insufficient bearing capacity of gravel roads is a common problem in Sweden during thaw periods. In this study, a gravel road at Timrå in central Sweden was mechanically stabilized by mixing 30% wood fly ash into the road base material. Testing of pollutant mobilization was performed both in the lab and at the field site over three years. The differences at a given liquid-to-solid ratio reached several orders of magnitude for some elements. K, Ca, Cl, and SO 4 were easily mobilized and found at elevated concentrations in leachate from the road one year after the road was stabilized. Two years after stabilization, the concentrations had returned to background levels. The stabilization also impacted the infiltration capacity of the road, reducing it by a factor of four. The weathering of Mg, Cu, and Zn from surrounding soil was higher, while the leaching of Al and K was higher from the amended road. Using fly ash in this fashion did not result in any noticeable adverse environmental impacts

  • 170.
    Nordmark, Désirée
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Controlling the mobility of chromium and molybdenum in MSWI fly ash in a washing process2018Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 76, s. 727-733Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fly ash from a cogeneration plant near Sundsvall in Sweden was treated in an ash-washing facility. The leaching of chromium (Cr) and molybdenum (Mo) from the ash residue exceeded the limit values for non-hazardous landfills. In this study factors that influence the leaching of Cr and Mo were identified and methods that can reduce the leaching were evaluated. The results revealed that the mobility of Cr and Mo are mainly controlled by pH and redox reactions and sequential extraction tests also showed that the fraction of highly soluble species of Cr and Mo increased after washing due to pH reactions in the ash during the process. Stabilization of the pH at ∼8 through carbonation of the washed ash and a lowering of the redox potential by adding ferrous iron to the process resulted in decreased leaching. Treatment with carbon dioxide yielded a decrease (from 10.7 to 8.2) in the pH and, hence, the leaching of Cr and Mo by 93 and 91%, respectively. And the addition of ferrous iron reduced the leaching of Cr by 50%. Carbonation of the ash can be achieved via treatment with flue gases from the power plant or treatment with landfill gas at the disposal site.

  • 171. Ore, Solvita
    et al.
    Todorovic, Jelena
    Ecke, Holger
    Grennberg, Kerstin
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Toxicity of leachate from bottom ash in a road construction2007Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 27, nr 11, s. 1626-1637Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A test road constructed with municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash was monitored over a period of 36 months. Using chemical and toxicological characterisation, the environmental impact of leachates from bottom ash was evaluated and compared with leachates from gravel used as reference. Initial leaching of Cl, Cu, K, Na, NH4-N and TOC from bottom ash was of major concern. However, the quality of the bottom ash leachate approached that of the gravel leachate with time. Leachates from the two materials were compared regarding the concentration of pollutants using multivariate data analyses (MVDA). A standardized luminescent bacteria assay using Vibrio fischeri did not show any toxicity, most likely because saline contamination can mask the toxic response and stimulate luminescence in these marine bacteria. A mung bean assay using Phaseolus aureus revealed that the toxicity of bottom ash leachate collected at the very beginning of the experimental period (October 2001 and May 2002) might be attributed to the following components and their respective concentrations in mg l-1: Al (34.2-39.2), Cl (2914-16,446), Cu (0.48-1.92), K (197-847), Na (766-4180), NH4-N (1.80-8.47), total-N (12.0-18.5), and TOC (34.0-99.0). The P. aureus assay was judged as a promising environmental tool in assessing the toxicity of bottom ash leachate.

  • 172. Palmquist, Helena
    et al.
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Removal of hazardous elements from MSWI slag leachate using anaerobic filters1999Inngår i: Sardinia 99: proceedings / Seventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, [4 - 8 October 1999, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy] / [ed] Thomas H. Christensen, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 1999, s. 253-260Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 173.
    Rönkkö, Reima
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Nordmark, Désirée
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Metal balance in thermal treatment of CCA-contaminated soils2008Inngår i: Mine planning and equipment selection and environmental issues and waste management in energy and mineral production: proceedings of the Sixteenth International Symposium on Mine Planning and Equipment Selection (MPES 2007) and the Tenth International Symposium on Environmental Issues and Waste Management in Energy and Mineral Production (SWEMP 2007) ; MPES 2007 and SWEMP 2007 ; held jointly in Bangkok, Thailand, December 11 - 13, 2007 / [ed] Rai K. Singhal, Irvine, Calif.: The Reading Matrix Inc. , 2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 174. Sakanakura, H.
    et al.
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Matsuto, T.
    Tanaka, N.
    Evaluation of methods used for the total decomposition of bottom ash and slag from electric arc vitrification1999Inngår i: Copenhagen Waste and Water '99 including EcoProcura Copenhagen '99: Conference Proceedings, København, 1999Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 175.
    Sakanakura, Hirofumi
    et al.
    Akita National College of Technology, Akita.
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Matsuto, Toshihiko
    Akita National College of Technology, Akita.
    Tanaka, Nobutoshi
    Akita National College of Technology, Akita.
    Evaluation of acid extraction methods used for the metal content analysis of bottom ash and slag from electric arc vitrification2003Inngår i: The Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management, ISSN 1088-1697, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 223-229Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this investigation was to find the most reliable acid extraction method for the determination of the total metal content in a waste sample. Samples of bottom ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator and slag generated by electric arc vitrification of the bottom ash were investigated. Acid extraction methods were applied using the reagents nitric acid, aqua regia, hydrofluoric acid and a combination of aqua regia and hydrofluoric acid. Another experimental variation was whether the sample was milled prior to extraction or not. Extractants were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The data were evaluated statistically including both Welch's equality test and partial least square analysis. The main conclusion was that bottom ash was most completely decomposed by milling followed by treatment with aqua regia and hydrofluoric acid. For slag, this method was only superior with respect to the extraction of Pb and Cd. Another observation was that electric arc vitrification causes the removal of Zn, Cd and Pb which was probably due to evaporation.

  • 176.
    Sulzbacher, K.
    et al.
    Hamburg University of Technology.
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Calmano, W.
    Hamburg University of Technology.
    Anaerobic reduction of hexavalent chromium in filter sludge of an electrochemical process1997Inngår i: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 301-307Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of an anaerobic system to remediate hexavalent chromium containing waste was investigated. Experiments were performed at laboratory scale in the batch mode. The variables studied were the concentrations of waste, of inoculum, of yeast as an additional carbon source, of sulfate and the initial pH. The gas development, the final pH and the final concentrations of hexavalent and total chromium were measured. The evaluation was based on Multivariate data analysis. It could be shown that a remediation is possible. The influence of pH and sulfate were negligible in the given range. High yeast concentrations and low waste concentrations were favorable for a strong gas development and a complete elimination of chromate. Possible mechanisms are the active reduction of chromate by the microorganisms, its use as electron acceptor in bacterial respiration, and its sorption on organic material. Especially the last explanation is strongly supported by the experiments.

  • 177. Tan, Zhongxin
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Phosphorus recovery from the biomass ash: a review2011Inngår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 15, nr 8, s. 3588-3602Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass ash, generated during the thermal chemical conversion of biomass for energy production, is an industrial by-product which is often recognized as a solid waste, but there are some useful elements in the biomass ash such as phosphorus, etc. So through some technology and methods, the biomass ash can be transferred into a useful resource. The paper mainly includes the following aspects: biomass ash composition characteristics, biomass thermal chemical conversion for phosphorus and phosphorus recovery technology from biomass ash. Through these aspects literature review, not only the whole biomass ash characteristics was made clear, but also we think that the idea of phosphorus from biomass ash is feasible, especially for some high phosphorus ash such as sludge ash, meat and bone meal (MBM) ash, etc. So the review about phosphorus from the biomass ash is very important practical significance for biomass energy, biomass ash disposal and phosphorus resource.

  • 178.
    Tham, Gustav
    et al.
    Telge AB, Södertälje.
    Andreas, Lale
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Use of ashes in a landfill covers2006Inngår i: Abstract proceedings of the 4th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium, [June 14th to 16th 2006, Gällivare, Sweden] / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2006, s. 201-202Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 179. Tham, Gustav
    et al.
    Mellström, A.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Utilization of secondary construction materials in a landfill cover system2005Inngår i: SARDINIA 2005: Tenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; S. Margerita di Pula, Sardinia, Italy, 3 - 7 October 2005 / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2005Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 180. Todorovic, Jelena
    et al.
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Solidification with water as a treatment method for air pollution control residues2003Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 23, nr 7, s. 621-629Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of solidification with water was studied on air pollution control (APC) residues from incineration of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) regarding mechanical strength and leaching behaviour of solidified material. Factorial design in two levels was applied to investigate the impact of water addition, time, and temperature to mechanical strength of solidified material. Factors time and temperature, as well as the interaction between the addition of water and time significantly (α=0.05) influenced the mechanical strength of solidified material. The diffusion-leaching test NEN 7345 was performed to investigate if the leaching behaviour of elements from solidified material was determined by diffusion. Since it was found that leaching is not diffusion controlled, the long-term leaching behaviour was not assessed. However, the investigation showed that some of the studied components (Al, Hg, Mn, Pb, Si, and Zn) could be considerably demobilised by solidification with water. Concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, and Ni were either below or not quite above the detection limits to be included in the analysis of leaching behaviour. The elements least demobilised by solidification were Cl, Cr, K, and Na.

  • 181.
    Travar, Igor
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Development of drainage water quality from a landfill cover built with secondary construction materials2015Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 35, s. 148-158Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the drainage water quality from a landfill cover built with secondary construction materials (SCM), fly ash (FA), bottom ash (BA) sewage sludge, compost and its changes over time. Column tests, physical simulation models and a full scale field test were conducted. While the laboratory tests showed a clear trend for all studied constituents towards reduced concentrations over time, the concentrations in the field fluctuated considerably. The primary contaminants in the drainage water were Cl−, N, dissolved organic matter and Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn with initial concentrations one to three orders of magnitude above the discharge values to the local recipient. Using a sludge/FA mixture in the protection layer resulted in less contaminated drainage water compared to a sludge/BA mixture. If the leaching conditions in the landfill cover change from reduced to oxidized, the release of trace elements from ashes is expected to last about one decade longer while the release of N and organic matter from the sludge can be shortened with about two–three decades. The observed concentration levels and their expected development over time require drainage water treatment for at least three to four decades before the water can be discharged directly to the recipient.

  • 182.
    Travar, Igor
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge AB.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Development of drainage water quality from landfill covers built with ashes and sewage sludge2009Inngår i: SARDINIA 2009: Twelfth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; [5 - 9 October 2009, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy] / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An alternative to virgin and artificial materials in landfill cover can be various types of waste materials like ashes and sewage sludge. From the environmental point of view, the most interesting question to study is the quality of the drainage water generated above the liner in landfill cover built with waste materials. Thus, the main aim of this paper is the evaluation of drainage water quality and time required for its treatment. Results from a full scale test, physical models and a column test were used in the evaluation of the drainage water quality development. The main contaminants identified in drainage water were N-tot, As, Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn and Ni. The laboratory tests showed higher concentrations of N-tot, NH4-N, TOC, As and Pb, but lower values of Cl, Zn, Ba and Ni in comparison with drainage water from the field.  It was probably a result of different factors that may have influence on leaching but interactions of the protection layer with the vegetation layer and the liner surface are expected to influence the results from the field. According to results from the laboratory experiments, drainage water will probably need treat­ment for at least two-three decades after covering.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 183.
    Travar, Igor
    et al.
    Telge Återvinning AB.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge AB.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Environmental impact of ashes used in a land­fill cover construction2007Inngår i: SARDINIA 2007: Eleventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; [1 - 5 October 2007, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy] / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Large amounts of construction materials will be needed both in Sweden and other European countries for capping landfills that will be closed in the near future. In order to reduce exploitation of virgin materials and to save natural resources, an option can be utilization of various types of secondary construction materials (SCM) e.g. ash, slag, sand from fluid bed incineration and compost. However, at the same time this may represent potential risks due to the release of trace elements and other pollutants into environment. The main aim of this work is to evaluate the environmental impact of water that discharges from different parts of a landfill cover built with ashes and other SCM.From 2003 to 2005, a four hectares large test area was established at Tveta landfill, southwest of Stockholm, Sweden. Test area is divided into six sub areas with regard to different recycled materials used in different layers of the cover construction (Figure 1).Figure 1. Design of the landfill cover test area at the Tveta landfill. BA = Bottom ash; FA = Fly ash; FC = Friedland clay Infiltrating water through the landfill cover either drains off in the drainage layer as drainage water or percolates through the liner into landfill body as leachate. At Tveta landfill, leachate amounts between 1 l (m2 yr)-1 and 30 l (m2 yr)-1 have been observed below highly compacted ash liner. Results show that leachate samples have higher pH, salt forming elements (e.g. K, Na, Ca and Cl) and concentrations of Cd, Ba As, Al, and Mo, and lower concentrations of Mn, Zn, Mg, Fe, Ni, and Pb compared to drainage water. The concentrations of Cr and total N are in the same range in leachate and drainage water while NH4-N is higher in leachate. Leachate of areas 1 and 4 shows higher content of organic matter than drainage water in these areas. A strong correlation is observed between EC, K, Na and Cl as well as between Cu and TOC. The comparison of the leachate and drainage water quality with different limit values showed that the leachate had elevated concentrations of As, Mo, Cl and nitrogen while the drainage water was mainly contaminated by Ni, Zn, Cl and nitrogen with the addition of As, Cu, Mo, and Pb in areas 2 and 4.Following conclusions can be drawn by now:The hydraulic properties of the landfill cover satisfy legislative requirements for non hazardous waste landfills; in some cases/areas also for hazardous waste landfills.Most of the infiltrating water through the landfill cover is discharged as drainage water. Thus, the design of layers above the liner is most important with regard to the environmental impact of the construction. Both leachate and drainage water need treatment before discharge into the local recipient. Organic matter in the protection layer is likely to contribute to the mobilization of Cu and Ni in short term.The sea might be a suitable recipient in cases where ashes are used in landfill covers be­cause both leachate and drainage contain salt forming elements in elevated con­cen­tra­tions which may harm groundwater or freshwater but do not pose a risk to salt-water.The leaching of most pollutants did not show any clear tendencies during first three years. Thus, assessing the time period for treatment needs is difficult. However, it is expected that the contaminants in the drainage water will be depleted within few decades.Leachate might be contaminated by salt forming and trace elements for one hundred years. However, generated leachate amounts are low and it is expected that leachate from landfill cover will not influence overall landfill leachate with full extent.The ageing of the ashes in connection with mineral transformations is an important process that is expected to reduce the release of pollutants. Further research is needed with regard to long term changes of the material properties and the treatment needs for water.

  • 184. Travar, Igor
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Tham, Gustav
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Field test of landfill covers with secondary construction materials2005Inngår i: SARDINIA 2005: Tenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; S. Margerita di Pula, Sardinia, Italy, 3 - 7 October 2005 / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 185. Travar, Igor
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge AB, Södertälje.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Use of secondary construction materials in a landfill covers2006Inngår i: Abstract proceedings of the 4th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium, [June 14th to 16th 2006, Gällivare, Sweden] / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2006, s. 207-208Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 186.
    Travar, Igor
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge Återvinning AB.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Assessing the environmental impact of ashes used in a landfill cover construction2009Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 1336-1346Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Large amounts of construction materials will be needed in Europe in anticipation for capping landfills that will be closed due to the tightening up of landfill legislation. This study was conducted to assess the potential environmental impacts of using refuse derived fuel (RDF) and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ashes as substitutes for natural materials in landfill cover designs. The leaching of substances from a full-scale landfill cover test area built with different fly and bottom ashes was evaluated based on laboratory tests and field monitoring. The water that drained off above the liner (drainage) and the water that percolated through the liner into the landfill (leachate) were contaminated with Cl-, nitrogen and several trace elements (e.g., As, Cu, Mo, Ni and Se). The drainage from layers containing ash will probably require pre-treatment before discharge. The leachate quality from the ash cover is expected to have a minor influence on overall landfill leachate quality because the amounts generated from the ash covers were low, <3-30 l (m2 yr)-1. Geochemical modelling indicated that precipitation of clay minerals and other secondary compounds in the ash liner was possible within 3 years after construction, which could contribute to the retention of trace elements in the liner in the long term. Hence, from an environmental view point, the placement of ashes in layers above the liner is more critical than within the liner.

  • 187.
    Vestin, Jenny
    et al.
    Statens Geotekniska Institut.
    Arm, Maria
    Statens Geotekniska Institut.
    Nordmark, Desiree
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Hallgren, Per
    Skogsstyrelsen.
    Tiberg, Charlotta
    Statens Geotekniska Institut.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lind, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Effektivt askutnyttjande i vägar2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Två provsträckor, uppgraderade med olika mängd aska, utvärderades med avseende på ask-grusblandningens homogenitet och skillnader mellan de båda sträckorna. Askgrusblandningens homogenitet varierade i vägen även om den förväntade askhalten uppnåddes i medeltal. Packningsgraden blev lägre än förväntat vilket visar på vikten av omsorgsfull vattning och packning. Provsträckan med störst askhalt hade högst styvhet.

  • 188.
    Vestin, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI), Sundsvall.
    Nordmark, Desiree
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Arm, Maria
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI), Linköping.
    Lind, Bo B.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI), Göteborg.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Biofuel ash in road stabilization: Lessons learned from six years of field testing2018Inngår i: Transportation Geotechnics, ISSN 2214-3912, Vol. 14, s. 146-156Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2009, pulp mill fly ash was used for stabilizing the road base of a low-volume gravel road. Six years after stabilization, a two-year monitoring program and a complementary study were conducted to study the environmental and technical properties of the road and road material. Environmental properties were studied through chemical analysis of road samples by X-ray diffraction (XRF), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) technique and colorimetric techniques. The strength development was studied by falling weight deflectometer (FWD) and compressive strength tests. Potassium (K) and sulphate sulfur (SO4-S) concentrations in road material decreased by 40 and 55%, respectively during this time. Absolute concentrations of most trace elements increased. Leaching of chloride (Cl) salts from road samples decreased with time, while leaching of magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) increased. Leaching of trace elements was below 0.5 mg/kg at all sampling occasions. The bearing capacity increased by 30-50%, and the infiltration capacity decreased compared to a reference section. The results showed that the ash-stabilized sections performed better than conventionally upgraded sections and achieved increased bearing capacity over time. Since the acid neutralizing capacity of the stabilized layer was high and lumps of unreacted ash were still left in the road, it was concluded that the ash material could be utilized once more in a potential end-of-life road recycling.

  • 189.
    Wikman, Karin
    et al.
    ÅF Energi & Miljö AB.
    Berg, Magnus
    ÅF Energi & Miljö AB.
    Andreas, Lale
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Jannes, Sara
    Telge Återvinning AB.
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge Återvinning AB.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Injektering av flygaska i hushållsavfallsdeponi2003Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Totalt har cirka 100 ton askslurry injekterats vid pilotförsök på Tveta Återvinningsanläggning, vilket uppskattningsvis motsvarar en utfyllnad av cirka 12-16 % av de tillgängliga hålrummen inom injekteringsområdet på deponin. Slutsatsen när det gäller injekteringen är att aska blandar sig väl med vatten till en pumpbar slurry som kan injekteras utan risk för härdning i injekteringsutrustningen. Varken avfallet eller det injekterade materialet gav under pilotförsöken något mottryck och inget tyder på att avfallet i deponin trycks undan av den injekterade askan utan istället rinner askslurryn genom håligheter i avfallet. I deponin stelnar askan, inom uppskattningsvis några dagar, till hårda men något spröda klumpar som kan bidra till en ökad stabilitet i deponin.Den ekonomiska bedömningen är att kostnaden för injektering med en utrustning med en kapacitet på 10 ton/h i perforerade rör i en hushållsavfallsdeponi blir cirka 800 SEK/ton torr aska. Emellertid kan kostnaden troligtvis komma ner i nivå med dagens skatt för deponering, d.v.s. 370 SEK/ton, genom att borrning och injektering sker i ett steg samt genom införandet av två skift.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 190.
    Wikström, Tommy
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Nordmark, Desiree
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Pelkonen, Markku
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Fluorescent in situ hybridization technique in anaerobic process studies2012Inngår i: Abstract proceedings of 7th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium :: Södra Sunderbyn, June 25th to 27th, 2012 / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2012, s. 130-131Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 191.
    Windt, L. De
    et al.
    Ecole des Mines de Paris.
    Dabo, D.
    Ecole des Mines de Paris.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Badreddine, R.
    INERIS, Wastes and Contaminated Sites Unit.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Reactive transport modeling of leachate evolution of MSWI bottom ash used as road basement: Hérouville (France) and Dåva (Sweden) sites2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The recycling of municipal solid waste of incineration (MSWI) bottom ash as aggregates for road basement requires a better characterization of the evolution of leachate chemistry over a timescale of many decades. In this paper, a common reactive transport model is applied to the Hérouville (France) and Dåva (Sweden) pilot roads whose leachate emissions have been sampled during 10 and 6 years, respectively. The model considers simultaneously the hydrodynamic processes (rain water infiltration, advective and diffusive transport), pH-buffering and solubility-controlled processes by secondary minerals, ageing by atmospheric carbonation, and the leachate chemistry (major elements and trace metals such as Al, Cu, Pb). The evolution of pH is fairly well simulated with the following pH-buffering sequence: portlandite, calcium silicate hydrate (CSH), ettringite and, finally, calcite. The quantity of CO2 dissolved in the percolating rain water is generally not sufficient to explain the pH evolution and carbonation processes, requiring atmospheric gaseous inputs. The relation between pH evolution and element release is discussed for both sites. Calculated Pb release is overestimated when based on solubility-controlled mechanisms only. Edge effects are shown to be important at both sites with an emphasis of carbonation and release of non reactive elements. Temperature has no significant effect on the calculated leachate chemistry in the range of 5 - 30° C, except at high pH.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 192.
    Windt, Laurent De
    et al.
    Ecole des Mines de Paris.
    Dabo, David
    Ecole des Mines de Paris.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Badreddine, Rabia
    INERIS, Wastes and Contaminated Sites Unit.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    MSWI bottom ash used as basement at two pilot-scale roads: comparison of leachate chemistry and reactive transport modeling2011Inngår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 267-280Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The recycling of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash as aggregates for road basement requires assessing the long-term evolution of leachate chemistry. The Dåva (Sweden) and Hérouville (France) pilot-scale roads were monitored during 6 and 10 years, respectively. Calculated saturation indices were combined to batch test modeling to set a simplified geochemical model of the bottom ash materials. A common reactive transport model was then applied to both sites. At Hérouville, pH and the concentration of most elements quickly drop during the first two years to reach a set of minimum values over 10 years. The decrease is less pronounced at Dåva. The evolutions of pH and major element concentrations are fairly well related to the following pH-buffering sequence: portlandite, C-S-H phases or pseudo-wollastonite and, finally, calcite in equilibrium with atmospheric CO2. Al(OH)3, barite, ettringite and monohydrocalcite may also control leachate chemistry. Cu release is correctly modeled by DOM complexation and tenorite equilibrium. Temperature has no significant effect on the modeling of leachate chemistry in the range 5-30 °C, except at high pH. Effects at road edges and roadside slopes are important for the release of the less reactive elements and, possibly, for carbonation processes.

  • 193.
    Xu, Jingying
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bravo, Andrea Garcia
    Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology, University of Uppsala.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology, University of Uppsala.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Sources and remediation techniques for mercury contaminated soil2015Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 74, s. 42-53Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mercury (Hg) in soils has increased by a factor of 3 to 10 in recent times mainly due to combustion of fossil fuels combined with long-range atmospheric transport processes. Other sources as chlor-alkali plants, gold mining and cement production can also be significant, at least locally. This paper summarizes the natural and anthropogenic sources that have contributed to the increase of Hg concentration in soil and reviews major remediation techniques and their applications to control soil Hg contamination. The focus is on soil washing, stabilisation/solidification, thermal treatment and biological techniques; but also the factors that influence Hg mobilisation in soil and therefore are crucial for evaluating and optimizing remediation techniques are discussed. Further research on bioremediation is encouraged and future study should focus on the implementation of different remediation techniques under field conditions.

  • 194.
    Xu, Jingying
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Kleja, Dan B
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Biester, Harald
    Department of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geoecology, University of Braunschweig.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Influence of particle size distribution, organic carbon, pH and chlorides on washing of mercury contaminated soil2014Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 109, s. 99-105Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Feasibility of soil washing to remediate Hg contaminated soil was studied. Dry sieving was performed to evaluate Hg distribution in soil particle size fractions. The influence of dissolved organic matter and chlorides on Hg dissolution was assessed by batch leaching tests. Mercury mobilization in the pH range of 3–11 was studied by pH-static titration. Results showed infeasibility of physical separation via dry sieving, as the least contaminated fraction exceeded the Swedish generic guideline value for Hg in soils. Soluble Hg did not correlate with dissolved organic carbon in the water leachate. The highest Hg dissolution was achieved at pH 5 and 11, reaching up to 0.3% of the total Hg. The pH adjustment was therefore not sufficient for the Hg removal to acceptable levels. Chlorides did not facilitate Hg mobilization under acidic pH either. Mercury was firmly bound in the studied soil thus soil washing might be insufficient method to treat the studied soil.

  • 195.
    Xu, Jingying
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Kleja, Dan Berggren
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Influence of soil particle size, organic carbon and pH on mercury distribution and dissolution in contaminated soil2013Inngår i: Influence of soil particle size, organic carbon and pH on mercury distribution and dissolution in contaminated soil, 2013, s. 45-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mercury (Hg) cannot be destroyed therefore only two principal processes are available for the treatment of Hg-contaminated soil: 1) separation of Hg from soil (through wet-sieving and/or chemical extraction), or 2) stabilization of Hg within the soil (through chemical immobilisation or stabilisation/solidification). If Hg separation is used, soil can be cleaned while Hg recovered. A complex matrix may, however, cause low treatment efficiency. Therefore, prior to selecting the suitable treatment technique, an understanding of Hg solubility and distribution in particle size fractions of the contaminated soil is necessary. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential for applying soil washing technology to clean Hg contaminated soil based on Hg distribution in soil particle size fractions, Hg solubility in water and pH-dependant Hg dissolution. Soil contaminated by different industrial processes (e.g. waste dump, chlor–alkali process, harbour activities) was collected from Tidermans padding area upstream of Göta River, Sweden during the site remediation. The soil was dry sieved into particle-size fractions of <0.063 mm, 0.063–0.125 mm, 0.125–0.25 mm, 0.25–0.5 mm, 0.5–1 mm, 1–2 mm and 2–4 mm and along with the bulk soil were analysed for total Hg and total organic carbon (TOC). A batch leaching test at liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S) 10 was performed to determine water soluble Hg and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). A pH-static leaching test was performed to determine Hg solubility in the pH range of 3-11. All particle size fractions contained Hg above the Swedish guideline value for contaminated soil (2.5 mg/kg for less sensitive land use). Total Hg concentrations decreased with increasing particle size (except fraction 1-2 mm), ranging from 48.70 mg/kg to 10.29 mg/kg. The TOC contents were similar in all size fractions from 8.72 to 10.88 and had no correlation with the total Hg. Water soluble Hg was low in all size fractions, making up for 0.04% to 0.12% of the total Hg. Contents of DOC declined from fine to large fractions, however, no correlation between Hg solubility and DOC content has been observed. Mercury desorption was affected by pH and fluctuated throughout the tested pH range. The least Hg dissolution was achieved at pH=3 and pH 9 in all fractions and the bulk soil, while the dissolution peaks were observed at pH=5 and pH=11. The results show that the soil washing applying wet-sieving and particle separation method would be unfeasible since elevated Hg concentrations are distributed in all tested soil particle fractions and water solubility of Hg is very low. Chemical extraction focusing on pH 5 or pH 11 might improve the Hg removal. Geochemical modelling is being performed to understand this Hg behaviour in the studied soil.

  • 196.
    Lagerkvist, Anders ()
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Abstract proceedings of 7th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium: Södra Sunderbyn, June 25th to 27th, 20122012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 197. Lagerkvist, Anders ()
    Landfill technology1999Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 198. Lagerkvist, Anders ()
    Landfill Technology2003Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Revised edition of the 9th consecutive edition of the textbook for the Landfill technology course

  • 199. Lagerkvist, Anders ()
    Samordnad deponigas: forskning, utveckling, demonstration : slutrapport1997Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
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