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  • 151.
    Dai, William
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    University of Penza.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Migration From PLC to IEC 61499 Using Semantic Web Technologies2014Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man & Cybernetics. Systems, ISSN 2168-2216, Vol. 44, nr 3, s. 277-291Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a new methodology of migration from IEC 61131-3 PLCs to IEC 61499 function blocks. The aim of this migration process is to recreate IEC 61131-3 applications in IEC 61499 implementations with equivalent execution behavior. The formal model of the IEC 61131-3 standard for migration and cyclical execution model is defined. This method also creates a foundation for correct-by-design development tools and automatic migration between the IEC 61131-3 and IEC 61499 standard. Formal migration rules based on ontology mappings, restoring execution model including tasks and programs scheduling and variables mapping with different access levels, are provided. A transformation engine for importing PLC code, mapping from PLC ontology model to function block model and code generation is implemented based on the ontological knowledge base and semantic query-enhanced web rule language. The migration approach is demonstrated on a simple airport baggage handling system.

  • 152.
    Dai, William
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Peltola, Jukka
    Aalto University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Pang, Cheng
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Service-Oriented Distributed Control Software Design for Process Automation Systems2014Ingår i: Conference Proceedings / IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, ISSN 1062-922X, s. 3637-3642Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving software development efficiency and reusability of existing programs is an important topic for industrial automation. Recently, modern software paradigms have been introduced into the automation domain such as object-oriented programming using the IEC 61131-3 standard and component-based design based on the IEC 61499 standard. In this paper, another software paradigm – service-oriented architecture is applied to the software design for automation programs. The proposed SOA pattern is based on a multi-layered structure with enhanced reusability and flexibility. A case study of water heating system is implemented to prove the concept of SOA paradigm.

  • 153.
    Dai, William
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Riliskis, Laurynas
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    A Configurable Cloud-Based Testing Infrastructure for Interoperable Distributed Automation Systems2015Ingår i: IECON 2014: 40th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Dallas, TX, USA , Oct. 29 2014-Nov. 1 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 2492-2498Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The interoperability between various automation systems is considered as one of the major character of future automation systems. Service-oriented Architecture is a possible interoperability enabler between legacy and future automation systems. In order to prove the interoperability between those systems, a verification framework is essential. This paper proposes a configurable cloud-based validation environment for interoperability tests between various distributed automation systems. The testing framework is implemented in a multi-layer structure which provides automated closed-loop testing from the protocol level to the system level. The testing infrastructure is also capable for simulating automation systems as well as wireless sensor networks in the cloud. Test cases could be automatically generated and executed by the framework.

  • 154.
    Dai, William
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    A component-based design pattern for improving reusability of automation programs2013Ingår i: 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2013, IEEE Communications Society, 2013, s. 4328-4333Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a component-based design pattern for distributed automation programs. This design pattern aims to improve reusability of programs and reduce redevelopment time. Component-based design issues in both IEC 61131-3 and IEC 61499 platforms are analyzed. Then the design pattern is proposed in a form of a set of rules. The pattern combines properties of service-oriented architecture (SOA) with multi-layered organization and engineering benefits of component organization. This design pattern is applied to both IEC 61131-3 and IEC 61499 on example of a real airport baggage handling automation system. The result proves that the design pattern brings convenience for developers of automation programs and improves reusability of software components.

  • 155.
    Dai, William
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Christensen, James
    The Application of Service-Oriented Architectures in Distributed Automation Systems2014Ingår i: 2014 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 252-257Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity and scale of automation industry applications have increased substantially in recent years, posing new challenges to fulfill growing requirements for reusability, interoperability, flexibility and reconfigurability. The adoption of service-oriented architectures (SOAs) could be a feasible solution to meeting these challenges. Based on a comparison between the conceptual frameworks of SOAs versus modern standards for distributed automation, a methodology is proposed for the application of SOAs in the distributed automation domain. The implementation of the Service-Oriented Architecture based PLC execution environment is demonstrated on a case study.

  • 156.
    Dai, William
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Christensen, James H.
    Holobloc Inc.
    Essential elements for programming of distributed automation and control systems2013Ingår i: Proceedings of 2013 IEEE 18th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2013): Cagliari, Italy, 10-13 September 2013, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, artikel-id 6647942Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed control systems are widely deployed to all areas in industrial automation. However, a systematic approach to the design and programming of distributed automation and control systems is not clearly defined. This paper analyzes the differences between two control system architectures defined in IEC Standards - IEC 61131-3 for centralized control with programmable controllers (PLCs) vs. IEC 61499 for the use of function blocks (FBs) in distributed automation and control - in an attempt to identify the essential elements - the sine qua non - for such programming. Through this analysis, two indispensable elements - software modularity and the use of communication services - are identified. Guidelines are given for the use of these elements in both PLC and FB systems, and the application of these guidelines is illustrated in a case study of airport baggage handling systems

  • 157.
    Dai, William
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dubinin, Victor
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Christensen, James
    Enhancing Distributed Automation Systems with Efficiency and Reliability by Applying Autonomic Service Management2014Ingår i: Proceedings of 2014 IEEE 19th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2014): Barcelona, Spain, 16-19 Sept. 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 1-8, artikel-id 7005123Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Improvement of flexibility and interoperability is a usual concern of industrial automation systems developers. Service-oriented architecture is one approach promising improvement of flexibility and interoperability in existing distributed automation systems. However, the intelligent self-managing features cannot be fully achieved by just applying the service-oriented architecture. In order to improve efficiency and reliability of distributed automation systems, the service-oriented architecture is extended in this paper by autonomic service management. The design of the autonomic service manager is provided and some key features such as self-configuration, self-healing and self-optimization are demonstrated. The design of a flexible and interoperable execution environment is also illustrated. Some preliminary tests are completed with a case study.

  • 158.
    Dai, William
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dubinin, Victor
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Christensen, James
    Function Block Implementation of Service Oriented Architecture: Case Study2014Ingår i: IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 112-117Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), initially developed for general purpose computing, is becoming increasingly popular in industrial automation, especially due to the growing importance of distributed measurement and control systems, Internet of Things and wireless sensor network infrastructures. There are two serious gaps in the current implementations of SOA for automation: the lack of a proper standard form for representing the logical relation between services at the system level, and, in particular, lack for a proper visual representation format enabling intuitive understanding and reconfiguration of services during the system lifecycle. In this paper, it is shown how these gaps can be filled using the IEC 61499 function block architecture in the most intuitive and natural way. The ideas are illustrated on example of systems, composed form intelligent mechatronic devices. Such features, as software reuse, flexibility, reconfigurability and scalability are demonstrated. The paper shows complementarity of the SOA and IEC 61499.

  • 159.
    Danielsson, Linn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Gamified Mobile Application and Stairstep Counter for Stair Walking2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Gamification is an area that has attracted a substantial amount of interest in recent years and is something that can be applied almost everywhere. Health is also an area that is frequently discussed regarding how a person's health and daily exercise can be improved. Applying gamification to motivate people to exercise more is something that has been done before although they are usually marketed as health application. What if an application's main purpose was not to count the amount calories burnt but instead the exercise is an additional part? In this thesis you will find the development of a prototype that is a gamified Android application with the purpose to motivate people to walk more in stairs. In order to develop an application there was a need for a stairstep counter to count the number of steps a person has taken in a stair. Hence a stairstep counter was developed using the open source machine learning framework, TensorFlow, with classification and neural networks. The counter uses the y- and z-axis of the mobile accelerometer to classify if a movement of a person was a step or not. It was trained with a custom dataset that was created using data from walking in a stair and data collected from other movements. Resulting stairstep counter used in the application is a counter that counts stairsteps rather accurately. The final result of this thesis was a mobile application that uses animation and competition elements to enhance a person's stair walk experience.

  • 160.
    Davidsson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    IoT för samhällsnyttiga tjänster: Designprinciper i praktiken2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 180 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Många samhällsnyttiga tjänster är idag manuella och med låg digitaliseringsgrad. Samhällsnyttiga tjänster finns i olika delar av samhället till exempel inom skola, äldreomsorg, vägnätet, vatten och avlopp och avfallshantering. Vissa av dessa tjänster är geografiskt spridda och behöver regelbundet övervakas eller hanteras på plats som till exempel vägnätet, vatten-och avlopp och avfallshantering. Detta sker förnärvarande till stor del manuellt och skulle kunna effektiviseras med hjälp av automatisering och digitalisering.

    Syftet med detta examensarbetet är att skapa förståelse för hur värdet av samhällsnyttiga tjänster skulle kunna höjas med hjälp av digitalisering och automatisering med IoT. Som en del i att samla in data för detta kommer en IT artefakt för hantering av hushållens sopkärl att tas fram.

    I examensarbetet har ett antal designprinciper framkommit som viktiga att ta hänsyn till vid design och utveckling av samhälssnyttiga tjänster. Dessa är energikonsumtion, informationssäkerhet, användaren och andra aktörer som medskapare av värde, robusthet, Öppen Data och API:er och IoT-lösningens arkitektur.

  • 161.
    de Silva, D.
    et al.
    Research Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Australia.
    Pang, Z.
    ABB Corporate Research, Västeras, Sweden.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Guest Editorial: Special Section on Developments in Artificial Intelligence for Industrial Informatics2019Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 15, nr 6, s. 3690-3692Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence of artificial intelligence (AI), empowered by robust computing infrastructure and abundance of data, maintains potential for radical transformation of human society, essentially a third phase in evolution. Numerous research endeavor, policy development, and thought-leadership are presently in progress aimed at discovering data-driven intelligent decision-making solutions for smart cities, smart grids, smart homes, and informed citizens as well as addressing potential risks posed by AI workplace automation. Joining this broad effort, this Special Section contributes six research articles that consolidate recent developments in AI for industrial informatics.

  • 162.
    De Silva, Daswin
    et al.
    Research Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia..
    Ranasinghe, Weranja
    Research Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia..
    Bandaragoda, Tharindu
    Research Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia..
    Adikari, Achini
    Research Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia..
    Mills, Nishan
    Research Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia..
    Iddamalgoda, Lahiru
    Research Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia..
    Alahakoon, Damminda
    Research Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia..
    Lawrentschuk, Nathan
    Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia..
    Persad, Raj
    North Bristol, NHS Trust, Bristol, United Kingdom..
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Gray, Richard
    School of Nursing and Midwifery, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia..
    Bolton, Damien
    Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia..
    Machine learning to support social media empowered patients in cancer care and cancer treatment decisions2018Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 10, artikel-id e0205855Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    A primary variant of social media, online support groups (OSG) extend beyond the standard definition to incorporate a dimension of advice, support and guidance for patients. OSG are complementary, yet significant adjunct to patient journeys. Machine learning and natural language processing techniques can be applied to these large volumes of unstructured text discussions accumulated in OSG for intelligent extraction of patient-reported demographics, behaviours, decisions, treatment, side effects and expressions of emotions. New insights from the fusion and synthesis of such diverse patient-reported information, as expressed throughout the patient journey from diagnosis to treatment and recovery, can contribute towards informed decision-making on personalized healthcare delivery and the development of healthcare policy guidelines.

    METHODS AND FINDINGS

    We have designed and developed an artificial intelligence based analytics framework using machine learning and natural language processing techniques for intelligent analysis and automated aggregation of patient information and interaction trajectories in online support groups. Alongside the social interactions aspect, patient behaviours, decisions, demographics, clinical factors, emotions, as subsequently expressed over time, are extracted and analysed. More specifically, we utilised this platform to investigate the impact of online social influences on the intimate decision scenario of selecting a treatment type, recovery after treatment, side effects and emotions expressed over time, using prostate cancer as a model. Results manifest the three major decision-making behaviours among patients, Paternalistic group, Autonomous group and Shared group. Furthermore, each group demonstrated diverse behaviours in post-decision discussions on clinical outcomes, advice and expressions of emotion during the twelve months following treatment. Over time, the transition of patients from information and emotional support seeking behaviours to providers of information and emotional support to other patients was also observed.

    CONCLUSIONS

    Findings from this study are a rigorous indication of the expectations of social media empowered patients, their potential for individualised decision-making, clinical and emotional needs. The increasing popularity of OSG further confirms that it is timely for clinicians to consider patient voices as expressed in OSG. We have successfully demonstrated that the proposed platform can be utilised to investigate, analyse and derive actionable insights from patient-reported information on prostate cancer, in support of patient focused healthcare delivery. The platform can be extended and applied just as effectively to any other medical condition.

  • 163.
    Degefa, Merkebu Z.
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Alahäivälä, Antti
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Kilkki, Olli
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Humayun, Muhammad
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Seilonen, Ilkka
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Lehtonen, Matti
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    MAS-Based Modeling of Active Distribution Network: The Simulation of Emerging Behaviors2016Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, ISSN 1949-3053, E-ISSN 1949-3061, Vol. 7, nr 6, s. 2615-2623Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Agent-based modeling of active distribution network helps to understand the dynamics and to design the control strategies for overall system efficiency. There is, however, a lack of generic and multipurpose agent definitions in existing studies. In this paper, a multi-agent system-based modeling of an active distribution network is presented using cooperative agents. A method to solve a network-wise objective of state estimation is explained with the proposed model. The network component agents are defined to be cooperative to meet the overall objectives and greedy to fulfil individual objectives such as energy cost minimization. A token-ring protocol is deployed for the agent communication among themselves, as well as with market and network operator agents. Furthermore, a MATLAB/Simulink model of active distribution network is used to simulate the emerging stochastic loading scenario, while the autonomous prosumer agents optimize their total energy cost responding to market price variations.

  • 164.
    Degermark, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Brodnik, Andrej
    Carlsson, Svante
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Small forwarding tables for fast routing lookups1997Ingår i: Computer communication review, ISSN 0146-4833, E-ISSN 1943-5819, Vol. 27, nr 4, s. 3-14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For some time, the networking community has assumed that it is impossible to do IP routing lookups in software fast enough to support gigabit speeds. IP routing lookups must find the routing entry with the longest matching prefix, a task that has been thought to require hardware support at lookup frequencies of millions per second.We present a forwarding table data structure designed for quick routing lookups. Forwarding tables are small enough to fit in the cache of a conventional general purpose processor. With the table in cache, a 200 MHz Pentium Pro or a 333 MHz Alpha 21164 can perform a few million lookups per second. This means that it is feasible to do a full routing lookup for each IP packet at gigabit speeds without special hardware.The forwarding tables are very small, a large routing table with 40,000 routing entries can be compacted to a forwarding table of 150-160 Kbytes. A lookup typically requires less than 100 instructions on an Alpha, using eight memory references accessing a total of 14 bytes.

  • 165.
    Degermark, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Brodnik, Andrej
    Carlsson, Svante
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Small forwarding tables for fast routing lookups1997Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    For some time, the Internet community has believed that it is impossible to do IP routing lookups in software fast enough to support gigabit speeds. IP routing lookups must find the routing entry with the longest matching prefix, a task that has been thought to require hardware support at lookup frequencies of millions per second. We present a forwarding table data structure designed for quick routing lookups. Forwarding tables are small enough to fit in the cache of a conventional general purpose processor. With the table in cache, a 200 MHz Pentium Pro or a 333 MHz Alpha 21164 can perform a few million lookups per second. This means that it is feasible to do a full routing lookup for each IP packet at gigabit speeds without special hardware. The forwarding tables are very small, a large routing table with 40,000 routing entries can be compacted to a forwarding table of 150--160 Kbytes. A lookup typically requires less than 100 instructions on an Alpha, using eight memory references accessing a total of 14 bytes.

  • 166.
    Degermark, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Engan, Mathias
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Nordgren, Björn
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Low-loss TCP/IP header compression for wireless networks1997Ingår i: Wireless networks, ISSN 1022-0038, E-ISSN 1572-8196, Vol. 3, nr 5, s. 375-387Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless is becoming a popular way to connect mobile computers to the Internet and other networks. The bandwidth of wireless links will probably always be limited due to properties of the physical medium and regulatory limits on the use of frequencies for radio communication. Therefore, it is necessary for network protocols to utilize the available bandwidth efficiently. Headers of IP packets are growing and the bandwidth required for transmitting headers is increasing. With the coming of IPv6 the address size increases from 4 to 16 bytes and the basic IP header increases from 20 to 40 bytes. Moreover, most mobility schemes tunnel packets addressed to mobile hosts by adding an extra IP header or extra routing information, typically increasing the size of TCP/IPv4 headers to 60 bytes and TCP/IPv6 headers to 100 bytes. In this paper, we provide new header compression schemes for UDP/IP and TCP/IP protocols. We show how to reduce the size of UDP/IP headers by an order of magnitude, down to four to five bytes. Our method works over simplex links, lossy links, multi-access links, and supports multicast communication. We also show how to generalize the most commonly used method for header compression for TCP/IPv4, developed by Jacobson, to IPv6 and multiple IP headers. The resulting scheme unfortunately reduces TCP throughput over lossy links due to unfavorable interaction with TCP's congestion control mechanisms. However, by adding two simple mechanisms the potential gain from header compression can be realized over lossy wireless networks as well as point-to-point modem links.

  • 167.
    Degermark, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT.
    Engan, Mathias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT.
    Nordgren, Björn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT. Swedish Institute of Copmuter Science, Kista, Sweden.
    Low-loss TCP/IP header compression for wireless networks1996Ingår i: Proceedings of the annual international conference on mobile computing and networking ; 2nd: MOBICOM'96, IEEE Communications Society, 1996, s. 1-14Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless is becoming a popular way to connect mobile computers to the Internet and other networks. The bandwidth of wireless links will probably always be limited due to properties of the physical medium and regulatory limits on the use of frequencies for radio communication. Therefore, it is necessary for network protocols to utilize the available bandwidth efficiently. Headers of IP packets are growing and the bandwidth required for transmitting headers is increasing. With the coming of IPv6 the address size increases from 4 to 16 bytes and the basic IP header increases from 20 to 40 bytes. Moreover, most mobility schemes tunnel packets addressed to mobile hosts by adding an extra IP header or extra routing information, typically increasing the size of TCP/IPv4 headers to 60 bytes and TCP/IPv6 headers to 100 bytes. In this paper, we provide new header compression schemes for UDP/IP and TCP/IP protocols. We show how to reduce the size of UDP/IP headers by an order of magnitude, down t...

  • 168.
    Degermark, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Köhler, Torsten
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Advance reservations for predictive service1995Ingår i: Network and Operating Systems Support for Digital Audio and Video: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Network and Operating System Support for Digital Audio and Video / [ed] Thomas D C Little; Riccardo Gusella, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 1995, s. 1-15Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We extend a measurement-based admission control algorithm suggested for predictive service to provide advance reservations for guaranteed and predictive service while keeping the attractive features of predictive service. The admission decision for advance reservations is based on information about flows that overlap in time. For flows that have not yet started, the requested values are used, and for those that have already started measurements are used. This allows us to estimate the network load accurately for the near future. To provide advance reservations we ask users to include durations in their requests. We provide simulation results to show that predictive service with advance reservations provides utilization levels significantly higher than those for guaranteed service.

  • 169.
    Degermark, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Köhler, Torsten
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Advance reservations for predictive service in the Internet1997Ingår i: Multimedia Systems, ISSN 0942-4962, E-ISSN 1432-1882, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 177-186Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We extend a measurement-based admission control algorithm suggested for predictive service to provideadvance reservations for guaranteed and predictive service.while retaining the attractive features of predictive service.The admission decision for advance reservations is based oninformation about flows that overlap in time. For flows thathave not yet started, the requested values are used, and forthose that have already started measurements are used. Thisallows us to estimate the network load accurately for thenear future. To provide advance reservations we ask usersto include durations in their requests. We present simulationresults to show that predictive service with advance reservations provides utilization levels significantly higher thanthose for guaranteed service, and comparable to those forpredicted service without advance reservations. Those utilization levels are reached without any preemption of otheradmitted flows. Finally, we discuss how to setup advancereservations over multiple hops in the Internet using resourcereservation setup protocols.

  • 170.
    Degermark, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Nordgren, B.
    Telia Research.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    RFC 2507: IP header compression1999Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 171.
    Degermark, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT.
    Pink, Stephen
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT. Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista, Sweden.
    Issues in the design of a new network protocol1996Ingår i: Multimedia Telecommunications and Applications: Third International COST 237 Workshop Barcelona, Spain, November 25-27, 1996 Proceedings / [ed] Giorgio Ventre, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 1996, s. 169-182Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe some of the issues in the design of a new packet switched network protocol. Adaptation to various network technologies along the dimensions of speed, error model, robustness, etc., is a goal for this new protocol. We look at the adaption in size of the packet header to the speed and robustness of the underlying network to allow efficient communication on low-speed wireless networks, for example. We also explore issues in resource reservation and multicast for real-time multimedia, the notion of a network "flow", a hybrid of datagrams and virtual circuits, and suggest common solutions for both mobile and multicast routing. The authors are engaged in the design of a network protocol, NP++, whose goal is flexibility over a wide dynamic range of speeds and varying kinds of hardware switching elements.

  • 172.
    Demin, Evgenii
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    University of Auckland, Penza State University, Department of Computer Science, University of Penza, Computer Science Department, Penza State University, Penza.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Automation services orchestration with function blocks: Web-service implementation and performance evaluation2016Ingår i: Service Orientation in Holonic and Multi-Agent Manufacturing: [International Workshop on Service Orientation in Holonic and Multi-agent Manufacturing, SOHOMA 2015, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 5-6 November 2015 / [ed] Theodor Borangiu ; Damien Trentesaux; André Thomas; Duncan McFarlane, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2016, s. 213-221Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents service-oriented implementation of distributed automation systems and the results of a practical performance measurement of Web-services deployed on different platforms. In the experiments we used a technique that allows one to separate the characteristics of the Web-service, such as the delays introduced by the medium of communication. It is shown that the technology development and deployment of Web-services significantly affect their performance

  • 173.
    Demin, Evgenii
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dubinin, Victor
    Computer Science Department, Penza State University, Penza.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    IEC 61499 distributed control enhanced with cloud-based web-services2015Ingår i: 2015 IEEE 10th Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA): Auckland, 15-17 June 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 972-977, artikel-id 7334249Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a framework for employing cloud- deployable web services in the design of distributed control systems in industrial automation. The paper demonstrates how a part of the control logic can be developed as a web service and deployed in the cloud to improve reusability and flexibility. In order to demonstrate the use of the framework we consider an example of Pick-and-Place Manipulator, which was originally designed as IEC 61499 function block application with a distributed control consisting of a high level and a low-level control logic. Firstly the high level control and its functionality is converted to a web services and deployed to a cloud. Secondly the application is modified such that the low level control interacts with these newly developed web services. The paper also presents an interface between low level control and web service using dynamic linked library that bridges communication between the two components It concludes with the simulation results of the of Pick-and-Place Manipulator implemented using the proposed framework.

  • 174.
    Deng, Yinbai
    et al.
    University of Auckland.
    Sorouri, Majid
    University of Auckland.
    Pang, Cheng
    University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    A distributed automation architecture enabling simulation-in-the-loop of energy-efficient buildings2013Ingår i: 15th International Conference on Computer Modelling and Simulation (UKSim 2013): Cambridge, United Kingdom, 10 - 12 April 2013 ; [proceedings], Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, s. 542-547Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel framework for designing and simulating the decentralized control of Building Management Systems (BMSs) based on the concept of virtual smart meters. The proposed approach uses simulation in realtime to allow building managers and users to have a thorough perception of the power consumption, which establishes the basis of Demand Side Management for energy-efficient buildings. It will be demonstrated that predefined power usage scenarios can be simulated in the closed-loop model and the results can be intuitively analyzed. More importantly, the decentralized control logics of the BMS subsystems can be developed independently from the deployment configurations

  • 175.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Drozdov, Dmitrii
    Computer Science Department, Penza State University, Penza.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    van Deventer, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Orchestration of Arrowhead services using IEC 61499: Distributed Automation Case Study2016Ingår i: Proceedings of 2016 IEEE 20th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2016), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, artikel-id 7733650Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel approach to automationof flexible manufacturing systems with mechatronic intelligenceand distributed control. The mechatronic intelligence layer isimplemented using a combination of wireless sensor/actuatornetworks with service-oriented architecture, where services arelocated at the device level, as well as in local and global Cloudsfollowing the Arrowhead framework.The machine/floor level coordination is implemented using thedistributed automation architecture of IEC 61499, which is alsoused as a graphical tool for orchestration of services.The paper discusses the enablers developed in-order to combineIEC 61499 and Arrowhead and the use is illustrated ona laboratory scale flexible factory example. By integration ofIndustrial IoT with IEC 61499, we envision that large gains interms of engineering effort and system operation performancecan be made.

  • 176.
    Diavidescu, George
    et al.
    IMT School for Advanced Studies Lucca.
    Stürzle, Thomas
    IRIDIA, CODE, Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Network planning in smart grids via a local search heuristic for spanning forest problems2017Ingår i: 2017 IEEE 26th International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE), Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 1212-1218, artikel-id 8001418Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart grids are automated, distributed energy exchange networks that, in contrast to traditional electricity grids, feature reconfigurable network topologies. Network planning is an essential function of smart grids that connects customers to energy sources using available physical links in the network. We model this as the problem of creating a spanning forest with a capacity constraint on each tree bounding its total weight. Each tree of the forest corresponds to a set of customers, rooted at a source. We call this the Capacitated Spanning Forest (CSF) problem. CSF is NP-complete even on unweighted graphs with two sources. We present a solution to this problem using a Local Search heuristic and demonstrate its performance on square grids and on a real-world sample grid topology.

  • 177.
    Drajic, Dejan
    et al.
    DunavNET, Serbia.
    Andersson, Karl
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Zhang, Kai
    Martel Innovate, Switzerland.
    Stembert, Nathalie
    Stembert Design, Netherlands.
    Malmberg, Katariina
    European Network of Living Labs, Belgium.
    Brékine, Anna
    Mandat International, Switzerland.
    Vanobberghen, Wim
    imec – SMIT – vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Habibipour, Abdolrasoul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Digitala tjänster och system.
    Waeben, Jan
    imec – SMIT – vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    User Engagement for Large Scale Pilots in the Internet of Things2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Advanced Technologies, Systems and Services in Telecommunications, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With an expected 50 billion connected devices by 2020, the Internet of Things (IoT) will reshape our environment with great economic opportunities. However, the IoT market evolution will depend directly on the end-user adoption, so it is necessary to support the Large Scale Pilots (LSPs) in order to actively engage end-users in the large scale pilot design, deployment and assessment. In this paper we are presenting end-user engagement methods, including co-creative workshops, crowdsourcing, Living Labs, and developed online tools and resources for end-user engagement, crowdsourcing and personal data protection.

  • 178.
    Drozdov, Dmitrii
    et al.
    Penza State University.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    Penza State University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Speculative computation in IEC 61499 function blocks execution: Modeling and simulation2017Ingår i: IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 748-755, artikel-id 7819259Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a speculative computation method for IEC 61499 function block (FB) systems is proposed to increase the level of parallelism when executing the FB system and thus to increase system's performance and to reduce response time on input events. Data and control dependencies in FB systems are recognized and defined as a basis for organizing speculative execution of FB algorithms. A simulation model of FB systems with speculative execution based on timed stochastic Petri nets is considered. In addition, the paper discusses the results of simulation experiments conducted in CPN Tools

  • 179.
    Drozdov, Dmitrii
    et al.
    Penza State University.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    Penza State University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Penza State University.
    Formal verification of cyber-physical automation systems modelled with timed block diagrams2016Ingår i: IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, ISIE 2016, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, s. 316-321, artikel-id 7744910Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a new modelling approach is presented to be used for formal-verification of block-diagram executable specifications of distributed industrial cyber-physical systems following the IEC 61499 standard. The approach allows usage of timers and arithmetic operations in the controller code. SMV model-checker is used as the target tool. The function block modelswith multiple communicating plant-controller closed-loops are transformed to the SMV modelling language using a dedicated model-generator tool. The paper first deals with SMV modelling of the IEC 61499 specific timer function block types. In particular, modelling of hierarchical function block systems with timers located at different levels of hierarchy is addressed. The paper then presents plant abstraction techniques so that the complexity of cyber-physical systems models is reduced. The abstraction uses discrete-timed state machine model implemented in UPPAAL. Delays in the plant model are interpreted as model time constraints. The approach is illustrated with an example of formal verification of a modular mechatronic automated system. The achieved results extend the abilities in validation of real cyber-physical automation systems. The paper also demonstrates how this result helps in counterexample guided simulation in Ciros 3D simulation environment, which improves practical usability of formal verification

  • 180.
    Drozdov, Dmitrii
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Formal Modelling of Distributed Automation CPS with CP-Agnostic Software2017Ingår i: Service Orientation in Holonic and Multi-Agent Manufacturing: Proceedings of SOHOMA 2016 / [ed] Theodor Borangiu, Damien Trentesaux, André Thomas, Paulo Leitão, José Barata Oliveira, Springer International Publishing , 2017, s. 35-46Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces the application of formal modelling to cyber-physical systems for the purpose of formal verification of cyber-physical agnosticism properties of decentralised automation software. Service-oriented cyber-physical systems are modelled using the IEC 61499 function block architecture. Then, the IEC 61499 model is represented in terms of SMV formal language, which is verified using the nuXmv model checker. The timestamped events mechanism is implemented in IEC 61499 using the existing syntax of the standard. The impact of jitter on the behaviour of physical system is demonstrated in both simulation within IEC 61499 execution environment and in counter-examples extracted from nuXmv. The methodology presented in this paper creates the premise for automatic verification of the cyber-physical agnosticism of systems

  • 181.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    et al.
    Penza State University.
    Senokosov, Ilya
    Penza State University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Auto-Generation of Distributed Automation Software Based on Formal Product Line Specification2017Ingår i: Industrial Applications of Holonic and Multi-Agent Systems: 8th International Conference, HoloMAS 2017, Lyon, France, August 28–30, 2017, Proceedings / [ed] Vladimír Mařík, Wolfgang Wahlster, Thomas Strasser, Petr Kadera, Springer, 2017, s. 80-91Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we demonstrate how some features of product lines related to the product assembly plan can be modelled in a formal way using finite state machines. Then we introduce a method for automatic generation of automation software that is empowering the production systems to produce the required range of products based on availability of components. We illustrate the concept on a very simple example, where products are limited to ordered tuples of components. The products can have different complexity which is reflected in the variable number of elements in the tuples. Benefits of automatic generation include reduced implementation cycle, along with assurance in abilities of manufacturing lines to produce exactly specified product descriptions.

  • 182.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    et al.
    University of Auckland, Penza State University, Department of Computer Science, University of Penza, Computer Science Department, Penza State University, Penza.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Hanisch, Hans Michael
    Institute of Information Sciences, Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Engineering Sciences, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Institute for Automation Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg.
    Synthesis of Safety Controllers for Distributed Automation Systems on the Basis of Reverse Safe Net Condition/Event Systems2015Ingår i: IEEE TrustCom-BigDataSE-ISPA 2015: Helsinki, 20-22 Aug. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 287-292, artikel-id 7345662Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ensuring safe operation is one of the basic requirements of the design of discrete event systems (DES), for example, discrete industrial automation systems. The most elegant approach to solve this problem is the synthesis of the safety controller on the basis of a sound theory. The current research for safety controller synthesis is performed using the description of plant and forbidden behavior, but the problem of adjusting the behavior of the existing control systems is not considered. In this paper, we propose a method of synthesis of adaptive safety controller models for distributed control systems based on reverse safe Net Condition/Event Systems (RsNCES), allowing to generate prohibiting rules to prevent the movement of closed loop systems to forbidden states. The method is based on backward search in the state space of the model. The method is illustrated by means of an example of a simple mechatronic system

  • 183.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    et al.
    University of Auckland, Penza State University, Department of Computer Science, University of Penza, Computer Science Department, Penza State University, Penza.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Shalyto, Anatoly
    ITMO University.
    Formal modeling and verification of IEC 61499 function blocks on the basis of transition systems2016Ingår i: 2016 International Siberian Conference on Control and Communications (SIBCON): Moscow, Russia, 12-14 May 2016, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, artikel-id 749170Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The IEC 61499 standard has become one of the key approaches to building distributed component-based control systems in industrial automation. The problem of adoption of this standard in industrial practice is often associated with incompletely defined semantics of functional blocks (FB), which are main design artifacts of the standard. In this paper we propose formal (operational) semantics of IEC 61499 FB using transition systems (by example of FB systems operating in accordance with the cyclic execution model). The proposed FB operational semantics is most convenient for the formal verification of FB systems on the basis of model checking as it describes the direct transitions between states. A limitation of this approach is the need to map hierarchical FB systems to flat models. The technique of code generation used for transforming FB transition systems to SMV models is briefly discussed followed by a simple case study.

  • 184.
    Dubinin, Victor
    et al.
    Penza State University, Penza, Russian Federation.
    Voinov, Artem
    Penza State University, Penza, Russian Federation.
    Senokosov, Ilya
    Penza State University, Penza, Russian Federation.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Implementation of distributed semaphores in IEC 61499 with consensus protocols2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An approach is proposed for the implementation of distributed semaphores in the IEC 61499 architecture on the basis of protocols for solving consensus in a network of unreliable processes that allows developing function blockbased control applications with complex types of interactions using the resources sharing. The models of distributed semaphores (in the form of coloured Petri nets) based on Paxos and Raft protocols for solving consensus are developed, simulation experiments are performed in the CPN Tools, comparative analysis and recommendations are given.

  • 185.
    Dubinin, Victor
    et al.
    Computer Science Department, Penza State University, Penza.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Automatic Generation of Automation Applications Based on Ontology Transformations2014Ingår i: Proceedings of 2014 IEEE 19th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2014): Barcelona, Spain, 16-19 Sept. 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 1-4, artikel-id 7005293Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper an ontology driven approach to the design of control systems, in particular, control applications of IEC 61499 standard is proposed. The source ontology is an ontological description of control object (plant) while the target ontology is an ontological description of a control system implemented using an appropriate programming language. For the ontologies transformation an extension of SWRL (called eSWRL) is informally introduced. Interpretation of eSWRL constructs is implemented using Prolog language. An example of transformation of the ontological description of a baggage handling system to the ontological description of a control application based on IEC 61499 function blocks (FB) is in detail considered. The corresponding transformation rules have been developed in the context of this example.

  • 186.
    Dubinin, V.N.
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, University of Penza.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Semantics-robust design patterns for IEC 614992012Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 279-290Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The international standard IEC 61499 for the design of distributed industrial control systems defines an abstract model of function blocks (FB) which allows many different semantic interpretations. As a consequence, in addition, so-called execution models were proposed to specify the execution order of FBs. The variety of models leads to the incompatibility of tools and hinders the portability of automation software. To achieve a degree of execution model independence, in this paper, design patterns are suggested that make FB systems-robust to changes of execution semantics. A semantic-robust pattern is defined for a particular source execution model. The patterns themselves are implemented by means of the FB apparatus and therefore are fairly universal. The patterns can be defined and implemented using the FB transformations expressed in terms of Attributed Graph Grammars.

  • 187.
    Dudin, Alexander
    et al.
    BSU.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dudin, Sergey
    BSU.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Socio-behavioral scheduling of time-frequency resources for modern mobile operators2013Ingår i: Modern Probabilistic Methods for Analysis of Telecommunication Networks: Belarusian Winter Workshops in Queueing Theory, BWWQT 2013, Minsk, Belarus, January 28-31, 2013. Proceedings, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2013, s. 69-82Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a mathematical foundation for scheduling of batch data produced by mobile end users over the time-frequency resources provided by modern mobile operators. We model the mobile user behavior by Batch Markovian Arrival Process, where a state corresponds to a specific user data activity (i.e. sending a photo, writing a blog message, answering an e-mail etc). The state transition is marked by issuing a batch of data of the size typical to the activity. To model the changes of user behavior caused by the environment, we introduce a random environment which affects the intensities of transitions between states (i.e., the probabilities of the user data activities). The model can be used for calculating probability of packet loss and probability of exceeding the arbitrarily fixed value by the sojourn time of a packet in the system conditional that the packet arrives to the system at moments when the random environment has a given state. This allows to compute the realistic values of these probabilities and can help to properly fix their values that can be guaranteed, depending on the state of the random environment, by a service provider

  • 188.
    Eberhardsson, Elias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    A Visualization Application for Anomaly Detection in Water Management Systems2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport beskriver och går igenom processen med att utforma och implementera en applikation för visualisering av data relaterade till vattenhanteringssystem. Datavisualiseringen i fråga är implementerad på en kartvy. Uppgifterna tillhandahålls via Aquaductus sensorenheter vilka placeras i vattenhanteringssystem, dessa för sen regelbundet över data till Aquaductus databas. Applikationen kan både ge en snabb överblick av status över en stor mängd sensorenheter, och är gjord som ett verktyg för att diagnostisera och lokalisera eventuella läckor eller blockeringar.

    Applikationen är gjord för att användas av kontorsarbetare, som är vana vid verktyg med många, många funktioner och har hög teknisk förmåga. Applikationen ska dock också fungera som ett verktyg för arbetstagare ute på fältet, som använder det på surfplattor eller möjligen mobiltelefoner. Detta breda utbud av tekniska färdigheter och användarmiljöer lägger vikt vid användargränssnittet och att utforma verktyg som kan användas på olika nivåer.

    Det färdiga verktyget levererar den kraft som behövs, men presenterar den kraften på ett användarvänligt sätt, upprätthållande av designfilosofin. Så levereras användbarhet och flexibilitet, som utlovat.

  • 189. Eichenberger, Nicole
    et al.
    Garz, Angelika
    Chen, Kai
    Wei, Hao
    Ingold, Rolf
    Liwicki, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    DivaDesk: A Holistic Digital Workspace for Analyzing Historical Document Images2014Ingår i: Manuscript Cultures, ISSN 1867–9617, Vol. 7, s. 69-82Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we present the concept of DIVADesk – a Virtual Research Environment (VRE) for scholarly work on historical documents inspired by the shift toward working with digital facsimiles. The contribution of this article is three-fold. First, a review of existing tools and projects shows that a holistic workspace integrating the latest outcomes of computational Document Image Analysis (DIA) research is still a desideratum that can only be achieved by intensive interdisciplinary collaboration. Second, the underlying modular architecture of the digital workspace is presented. It consists of a set of services that can be combined according to individual scholars’ requirements. Furthermore, interoperability with existing frameworks and services allows the research data to be shared with other VREs. The proposed DIVADesk addresses specific research with historical documents, as this is one of the hardest cases in computational DIA. The outcomes of this paradigmatic research can be transferred to other use cases in the humanities. The third contribution of this article is a description of already existing services and user interfaces to be integrated in DIVADesk. They are part of ongoing research at the DIVA research group at the University of Fribourg, Switzerland. The labeling tool DIVADIA, for example, provides methods for layout analysis, script analysis, and text recognition of historical documents. These methods build on the concept of incremental learning and provide users with semi-automatic labeling of document parts, such as text, images, and initials. The conception and realization of DIVADesk promises research outcomes both in computer science and in the humanities. Therefore, an interdisciplinary approach and intensive collaboration between scholars in the two research fields are of crucial importance.

  • 190.
    Eldstål-Damlin, Albin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Riliskis, Laurynas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    A comparison of two modes for AEAD services in wireless sensor networks2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of resource-limited sensor motes, security is often discarded or compromised upon. This report presents tests on SCM and CCM, two modes of operation for ensuring confidentiality and authenticity of messages passed between nodes in a wireless sensor network. The modes are compared with regards to time complexity and energy efficiency when run on the iRoad Mulle. We show that SCM is both faster and more energy efficient than CCM, as well as more suited for multi-hop routing topologies.

  • 191.
    Elkotob, Muslim
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Enabling communication service reconfigurability via guided cross layering2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A system architecture which natively supports cross-layer design in a general sense is an essential prerequisite for enabling communication services in the future heterogeneous Internet. A multitude of cross-layer approaches ranging from clean slate designs to actual implementations of cross-layer links in the standard TCP/IP stack have been suggested during the last decade. Yet, there is no agreement on a systematic integration of cross-layering into the actual Internet architecture. In this article we present a Guided Cross-layering Framework and a roadmap for its deployment in the Internet. We elaborate its key issue of identifying functional invariants in the present communication model. The invariants are the clean protocol stubs of the current TCP/IP stack. We describe the concept of meta-protocols and a design-deployment methodology for the framework. Our main postulate that promises an acceptance of the proposed architecture is the evolutionary, market-driven transformation of the current Internet architecture. On the example of the new ICSP (Integrated Communication and Signaling Protocol) protocol, we demonstrate the integration of CARD (Candidate Access Router Discovery), MIP (Mobile IP), and SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) in our framework which jointly optimize the performance and economic utilities of a multi-cell wireless network operator and the end user.

  • 192. Elkotob, Muslim
    et al.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    iRide: a cooperative sensor and IP multimedia subsystem based architecture and application for ITS road safety2009Ingår i: Communications Infrastructure, Systems and Applications: First International ICST Conference, EuropeComm 2009, London, UK, August 11-13, 2009, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] R. Mehmood, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present iRide (intelligent ride), an IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) application for warning drivers about hazardous situations on the road. iRide takes real-time information about road conditions and traffic situations from a wireless sensor network installed directly in the road surface. Upon logging to the iRide system, users start to receive periodic updates about the situation on the road along their route ahead. iRide is able to predict hazardous situations like slippery surface or dangerous distance to the nearest car and help drivers avoid accidents. We describe the service and the supporting network architecture of iRide. We discuss the major challenges associated with designing an IMS application for ITS, an intelligent transport system. Having a prototype implementation working on a small scale, we take it to the next step to perform system dimensioning and then verify the feasibility of having such a system using OPNET simulations.

  • 193.
    Engan, M.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Fransson, Pierre
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Selective truncating internetwork protocol: experiments with explicit framing2000Ingår i: Proceedings: Ninth International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks : 16 - 18 October 2000, Las Vegas, Nevada / [ed] Ton Engbersen, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2000, s. 220-224Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many emerging real-time applications generate layered data streams, which can be used effectively to adapt multicast real-time transmissions to heterogeneous bandwidth environments. However, these applications have not changed with regard to being sensitive to transient congestion and cannot wait a full round-trip time for sender-initiated adaptation. In this paper we propose the selective truncating internetwork protocol (STRIP) supporting layered data transfer, and capable of handling congestion at a finer level of granularity by truncating packets, i.e., stripping off less important data. STRIP inter-operates with the traditional IP infrastructure and can be introduced in a step-by-step fashion, starting where the benefits are obvious, for example with routers which are connected to bandwidth constrained links and which have a surplus of processing capacity. We describe the design and architecture of STRIP and compare it with solutions for differentiated forwarding on a per-packet basis. STRIP provides a simple mechanism that can meet the demands for real-time flows effectively by supporting low delay forwarding, avoiding data-unit reordering, and supporting various drop priorities at the same time

  • 194. Eriksson, Martin
    et al.
    Lucchese, Riccardo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Gustafsson, Jonas
    RISE - Swedish Institute of Computer Science.
    Ljung, Anna-Lena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik.
    Mousavi, Arash
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Varagnolo, Damiano
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Monitoring and Modelling Open Compute Servers2017Ingår i: Proceedings IECON 2017: 43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 7177-7184Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficient control of server rooms in modern data centers can help reducing the energy usage of this fast growing industry. Efficient control, however, cannot be achieved without: i) continuously monitoring in real-time the behavior of the basic thermal nodes within these infrastructures, i.e., the servers; ii) analyzing the acquired data to model the thermal dynamics within the data center. Accurate data and accurate models are indeed instrumental for implementing efficient data centers cooling strategies. In this paper we focus on a class of Open Compute Servers, designed in an open-source fashion and currently deployed by Facebook. We thus propose a set of methods for collecting real-time data from these platforms and a control-oriented model describing the thermal dynamics of the CPUs and RAMs of these servers as a function of both manipulable and exogenous inputs (e.g., the CPU utilization levels and the air mass flow produced by the server's fans). We identify the parameters of this model from real data and make the results available to other researchers.

  • 195.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Linné: an object oriented language with parallelism1990Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 196.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    STRI AB.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Virtual Power Plant for Grid Services using IEC 618502016Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 437-447Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper assesses the communication, information and functional requirements of Virtual Power Plants (VPPs). A conceptual formulation of the interoperability requirements is presented as well as a comparative study of their fulfillment by state-of-the-art communication techniques. VPP requirements are then mapped against services and information models of IEC 61850 and CIM power utility automation standards. Proposals are given for extensions of the IEC 61850 standard to enhance the interaction between VPP controller and the distributed energy resources. Finally the methodology and concepts are applied to a specific VPP consisting of hydro and wind plants, solar PV and storage facilities. Several applications to provide grid services from the proposed VPP in an existing 50 kV grid are covered. The implementation of the VPP communication and control architecture in the SCADA of demonstration plant is also presented.

  • 197.
    Faizi, Ana
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Information Security Risk Assessment in Cloud2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This research addresses the issue of information security risk assessment (ISRA) on cloud solutions implemented for large companies. Four companies were studied, of which three used cloud services and conducted ISRA, while one provided cloud services and consultancy to customers on ISRA. Data were gathered qualitatively to (1) analyze the cloud using companies’ practices and (2) to identify regularities observed by the cloud providing company. The COAT-hanger model, which focuses on theorizing the practices, was used to study the practices. The results showed that the companies aimed to follow the guidelines, in the form of frameworks or their own experience, to conduct ISRA; furthermore, the frameworks were altered to fit the companies’ needs. The results further indicated that one of the main concerns with the cloud ISRA was the absence of a culture that integrates risk management. In addition, the companies’ boards lacked interest in and/or awareness of risks associated with the cloud solutions. Finally, the finding also stressed the importance of a good understanding and a well written legal contract between the cloud providers and the companies utilizing the cloud services.

  • 198.
    Fan, Zheng
    et al.
    Department of Logistics Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology.
    Li, Wenfang
    Department of Logistics Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Riliskis, Laurynas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Mäkitaavola, Henrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    TinyMulle: a low-power platform for demanding WSN applications2010Ingår i: 6th International Conference on Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing: WiCOM '10, 23 - 25 Sept. 2010, Chengdu, China ; proceedings, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The research area of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is growing rapidly. WSN technology is making entrance into new application areas, for example industrial control and Critical Infrastructure (CI) environments. Energy efficiency is a highly prioritized goal of communication protocols and application design for WSN. However, the usage of WSN in both industrial and CI environments are starting to require more and more complex applications. In this paper, we present a new low-power wireless sensor platform nicknamed TinyMulle. The TinyMulle architecture consists of a 16-bit micro controller with a maximum speed of 20 MHz and 31kB of RAM, an IEEE 802.15.4 compatible radio transceiver and several on-board sensors. Even with its small physical size, it is a powerful node capable of meeting the ever more demanding requirements of today's applications. Power consumption experiments indicate that operational lifetimes for TinyMulle in the range of months to years is feasible. The support for TinyOS enables the new platform to reuse existing software components developed for other sensor platforms

  • 199.
    Feiertag, Nico
    et al.
    Symtavision Gmbh.
    Richter, Kai
    Symtavision Gmbh.
    Nordlander, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Jonsson, Jan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    A compositional framework for end-to-end path delay calculation of automotive systems under different path semantics2009Ingår i: Real-Time Systems Symposium, 2008: RTSS 2008 ; Nov. 30, 2008 - Dec. 3, 2008, Barcelona, Spain ; proceedings, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While the real-time systems community has developed very valuable approaches to timing and scheduling analysis for processors and buses over the last four decades, another very relevant issue has received only limited attention: end-to-end timing. Most of the known work poses restrictions on specific task activation and communication mechanisms, e.g. unbounded FIFO queues along event-triggered paths. In automotive systems, however, register buffers and periodic sampling are far more common. In this paper, we present a formal framework for the calculation of end-to-end latencies in multi-rate, register-based systems. We show that in systems with sampling, analysis must distinguish between different "meanings" of end-to-end timing. For instance, control engineers are mostly concerned with the "maximum age of data", i.e. the worst-case timing of the latest possible signal. In body electronics, the "first reaction" is key, i.e. worst-case timing of the earliest possible signal. Because the analysis of either case can be different, a clear distinction is mandatory. This paper gives examples and introduces the notion of such end-to-end timing semantics, thereby considering the specific mechanisms and effects typically found in automotive execution platforms such as over- and under-sampling and jitter.

  • 200.
    Fergus, Seamus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Internet Safety for Children: Stranger danger, misbehaviour and problems when online2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet has evolved and continues to evolve rapidly and as adults we understand the need to be careful with various issues including our privacy, scams, bullying and as adults we stumble across unwanted material that might be considered inappropriate. Children also need to be protected and this thesis will research what children do when they are online, and what protection is currently given to children. The research will also include input from teachers and parents and find out what experiences they have and what they are doing to protect children. The thesis will involve software testing to evaluate how effective parental control software is, and possibilities of it being hacked. This research will concentrate on smartphones, and in particular the Android operating system, the reason is that Android phones can be purchased cheaper than an iPhone, and therefore are more likely to be used by a child. A developer’s version of Android can also be configured to run it in a virtual machine running on a PC which makes various testing possible. The thesis will also involve reviewing other organisation’s research and findings and how it compares to my own research. The thesis will give advice on how to move forward in relation to keeping children safe online.

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