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  • 151.
    Buffington, John
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Comparison of mass customization and generative customization in mass markets2011Ingår i: Industrial management + data systems, ISSN 0263-5577, E-ISSN 1758-5783, Vol. 111, nr 1, s. 41-62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Mass customization has yet to fulfill its original purpose as established by marketing researchers to become an alternative to mass production, largely due to its inability to achieve mass market levels of efficiency. The purpose of this study is to survey consumer's perceptions, willingness and capabilities of participating in a mass customization system, and understand the implications of its findings related to an alternative production system, generative customization. Design/methodology/approach - After an extensive literature review of mass customization, consumer behavior, complex adaptive systems and generative design, a survey was conducted across US and Swedish consumers relative to their willingness and perceptions regarding mass customization, with hypotheses based upon extant research standards. Findings - The survey results found that consumers are ambivalent toward mass customization in mass markets, and a conceptual alternative (generative customization) appears to achieve, at least conceptually, the necessary objectives relative to product design conceptualization and fulfillment that mass customization cannot achieve. Research limitations/implications - A lack of significant findings from extant research regarding consumer perceptions and tolerances regarding mass customization in mass markets is a limitation to this study. The discussion of a new concept (generative customization) as a viable alternative to mass customization as a result of the survey findings needs to be validated empirically in future research. Originality/value - The paper empirically validates a definition of mass customization as a complementary rather than an alternative to mass production. It also introduces and develops the concept of generative customization as viable alternative to mass production, albeit one that must be empirically validated in future research

  • 152.
    Buffington, John
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Designing 21st century supply chains using complex adaptive system (CAS) strategies2010Ingår i: Distribution Business Management Journal, ISSN 1535-1254, Vol. 9, s. 10-14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 153.
    Buffington, John
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Product design and supply chain fulfillment through a generative customization solution to achieve discontinuous innovation2010Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of discontinuous innovation Is to Disrupt Existing Market Equilibrium and create new combinations of Consumers, Producers, and Markets, But It Is Yet to Be Stood in an Aggregate from product design and supply chain systems. Without an Aggregate System Representation Of The innovation continuum (market equilibrium, incremental and discontinuous innovation) for elements of product design and Supply Chain Fulfillment, IT Will Be more DIFFICULT for companies to Develop an innovation strategy as result. Presently, There Is no structural component for the definition of innovation for an Integrated Product Design and Supply Chain Fulfillment System to Assist in this problem.Through the use of theoretical constructs from Various disciplines and new concepts, a conceptual framework is intro Established That the concept of generative customization As A Solution To The research problems, as noted Above. The author Established an innovative continuum of generative Which customization enable Within a Complex Adaptive System (CAS) environment. In this model, The Role of the consumer and producer are Defined Within a principal-agent relationship, and interact in an emergent, dynamic Manner. Lastly, the product design process occurs through a generative design process Where The Consumer Is Virtually Involved, and a human cognition, generative design, product design process is Established.

  • 154.
    Buffington, John
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Amini, Mehdi
    Department of Marketing and Supply Chain Management, Fogelman College of Business and Economics, University of Memphis.
    Keskinturk, Timur
    Department of Business Administration, Istanbul University.
    Development of a product design and supply-chain fulfillment system for discontinuous innovation2012Ingår i: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, E-ISSN 1366-588X, Vol. 50, nr 14, s. 3776-3785Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the lengthy product development lifecycle process, high cost, and low success rate, many firms avoid considering discontinuous innovation strategies, in spite of their increase in frequency and importance in many markets. Even with advances in automation and technology, many of the techniques being utilised in product development are relatively unchanged, and the definition of discontinuous innovation itself lacks a structural component. To address this problem, the authors developed a methodology for generative customisation to implement discontinuous innovation. Using the emerging technologies of generative design and agent-based modelling, the authors developed a methodology to create product inventions and measure product innovations using a complex adaptive system (CAS) model. This appears to be the first model that represents a complex adaptive system environment to measure the success of discontinuous innovation in the development of a market equilibrium agent model.

  • 155.
    Buffington, John
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    McCubbrey, Donald
    Department of Information Technology and Electronic Commerce, Daniels College of Business, University of Denver.
    A conceptual framework of generative customization as an approach to product innovation and fulfillment2011Ingår i: European Journal of Innovation Management, ISSN 1460-1060, E-ISSN 1758-7115, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 388-403Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to address the problem in research of a lack of a holistic conceptual framework related to incremental and discontinuous innovation. Too often, the term "innovation" is used without an understanding of how it can be applied in a product design and supply chain fulfillment system. In this study, the goal is to develop a holistic "innovation continuum" to treat innovation as a complex adaptive system (CAS). Design/methodology/approach: A comprehensive literature review was conducted, and from it, four propositions and a conceptual framework were developed. Findings: The authors determined that an "innovation continuum" can be established through the use of a complex adaptive system. Two, incremental innovation is determined to possess adaptive qualities, and can be enhanced through the use of collaboration and evolutionary algorithms. Three, discontinuous innovation is established as a creative process enabled through expert designers, and improved through the use of generative design. Next, a supply chain system for incremental innovation can be assisted by the use of adaptive systems, but it is not proven that a generative customization system (for discontinuous innovation) can be improved through the use of a CAS. Originality/value: The paper has established an "innovation continuum" linking incremental and discontinuous innovation within one holistic system. It establishes the use of evolutionary algorithms to improve the viability of incremental innovation, and generative design for discontinuous innovation. Finally, the concept of generative customization as an end to end product design and supply chain fulfillment solution for discontinuous innovation is established

  • 156.
    Bullvåg, Erlend
    et al.
    Nord University Business School.
    Hersinger, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Johansen, Malin
    Bodö Science Park.
    Middleton, Alexandra
    Oulu University Business School.
    Mineev, Andrei
    Nord University Business School.
    Ovesen, Sissel
    Bodö Science Park.
    Pedersen, Pål
    Nord University.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Simonen, Jaakko
    Oulu University Business School.
    Business Index North: A periodic report with insights to business activity and opportunities in the Arctic2017Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 157.
    Bäckström, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Industrial selling: case studies of Swedish manufacturing small and medium sized enterprises2002Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The research problem in this thesis has been formulated as: How can industrial selling performed by Swedish manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises in the different selling situations be characterized? The research problem has been further developed in forms of three research questions dealing with selling activities, individuals involved in selling, and selling processes in the different selling situations. The selling situations included are; new selling task, modified selling task and routine selling task. Selling in this study has been defined as the activities performed by any individual(s) for the purpose of doing business at an individual customer level. Further, small and medium-sized companies have been defined as companies with 10-249 employees. The intention with this research has not been to quantitatively describe and generalize findings to all Swedish manufacturing SMEs. Instead, an exploratory and descriptive perspective has been adopted. The ambition, however, have been to begin to understand how Swedish manufacturing SMEs perform industrial selling. The approach for this study is to be considered qualitative. In order to address our research problem and research questions, four case studies in two different industries were investigated. Within the manufacturing industry, one small and one-medium sized company was selected. Similarly, one small and one medium-sized company in the electronics industry were identified. Personal interviews were used in order to collect data. Totally, we have interviewed 19 respondents in different positions within the selected companies. The findings indicate that selling activities performed by the manufacturing SMEs in this study are complex and includes a variety of different activities. In addition to activities included in the conceptual framework, a new class of activities was identified, where the selling company was engaged in developing the customer's operations fundamentally. The individuals we found to be involved in selling were many and represented several different functions within the selling company. Furthermore, the findings indicate that the studied companies included external individuals when performing their selling. Finally, we also found that the performed selling activities could be described in several selling processes. Our findings indicate that the selling processes vary from rather simple and transaction-oriented selling processes to more complex processes dealing with both long-term customer relationships and single transactions.

  • 158.
    Bäckström, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Personal selling and relationships: a review and explorative essay2008Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall scope of this doctoral thesis is focusing on selling. The thesis contains two studies; Study A is a synopsis of a licentiate thesis published in 2002, while Study B contains three journal articles. Study A examined industrial selling in Swedish manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The research addressed three research questions dealing with selling activities, individuals involved in selling, and selling processes in three different selling contexts. Study A adopted a qualitative research approach; it used a case study research strategy and collected the primary data through personal interviews. The study included four cases, interviewing a total of 19 respondents in various positions within the selected companies. The study's findings indicate that selling activities performed by manufacturing SMEs in this study are complex and include a variety of activities. The numerous individuals found to be involved in selling represented several different functions within the selling company. Furthermore, the findings indicated that the studied companies included external individuals when performing their selling activities. Finally, the performed selling activities could be described in several selling processes. These findings suggest that the selling processes vary from rather simple and transaction-oriented selling processes to more complex processes dealing with both long-term customer relationships and single transactions. Study B examined relationships in selling in the financial services industry, looking specifically at the relationships between members of a sales force and other members of the same organization as well as relationships between salespeople and customers. All three articles included in this study applied a quantitative research approach. The first article, "The Impact of Incentives on Interfunctional Relationship Quality: Views from a South African Firm," sought to discover the extent to which different functional groupings perceived the incentives an organization offers its personnel as being "fair." The setting for the research in this article was a small- to medium-sized marketer of financial services in a South African context. Data were collected using questionnaires; 141 usable responses were received, representing a response rate of 81 percent. The findings from this article provide evidence that small but significant differences exist in the perceptions of the fairness of incentives provided. The second article, "Trusting Relationships. How Salespeople View the Quality of Relationships with Friends and Customers," as well as the third article "Personal Acquaintances and Salespeople in Financial Services: Differences Between Customers and Friends," deals with the relationships between salespeople and friends, salespeople and good customers, and salespeople and bad customers. However, the two articles used different scales to measure these relationships. In the second article, relationships were measured using the Trusting Relationship questionnaire; in the third article, relationships were measured using the Personal Acquaintance measure. Data from both articles were gathered from a large Swedish firm in the financial services industry through questionnaires sent to salespeople. The questionnaire resulted in 119 usable responses for both articles, corresponding to a response rate of 60.1 percent. Based on the results presented in both articles, salespeople do not perceive relationships with friends in the same way as they perceive their relationships with customers. Similarly, both articles provide evidence that salespeople perceive relationships with good customers to be different from those with bad customers.

  • 159.
    Bäckström, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Trusting relationships: how salespeople view the quality of relationships with friends and customers2008Ingår i: Bestuursdinamika, ISSN 1019-567X, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 20-27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Friendships between customers and salespeople are frequently unquestioned phenomena. The marketing and sales literature suggests that the relationships between salespeople and their customers often develop into close friendships. Moreover, salespeople are often encouraged to treat customers like their best friends. What if this exhortation rests on a false premise and customers are not the same as friends? This study sheds light on the nature of friendship between salespeople and their customers. A survey was undertaken of the sales force of a large Swedish financial services company. Contrary to the literature, salespeople do not perceive the relationship quality with customers in the same way as they view relationships with friends. Furthermore, there are significant differences between how salespeople view relationship quality between "good" and ''bad'' customers. These findings have important managerial and research implications.

  • 160.
    Bäckström, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Berggård, Glenn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Gedda, Oskar
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Pedagogik språk och Ämnesdidaktik.
    Persson, Anders J
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Prellwitz, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering.
    Weber, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Wikberg-Nilsson, Åsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Det uppkopplade samhället och högre utbildning2014Ingår i: NU 2014: Umeå 8-10 oktober : abstracts, Umeå: Umeå universitet. Pedagogiska institutionen , 2014, s. 123-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 161.
    Bäckström, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Nel, Deon
    Deakin University, Melbourne.
    Trusting relationships and personal acquaintance: implications for business friendships2009Ingår i: Journal of General Management, ISSN 0306-3070, E-ISSN 1759-6106, Vol. 34, nr 3, s. 37-55Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Friendship is very often a component of business relationships. Organisations frequently have relationships with their suppliers, customers and collaborators that could be described as 'friendly'. However, there is little comparative evidence concerning the extent to which business friendships resemble true social friendships. This article illustrates some differences that may exist between social and business friendships, with particular reference to the extent that interpersonal relationships are trusting, and are based on the nature of personal acquaintance. This means that managers need to understand the differences between business and personal friendships and adjust the type of interactions they, and those who report to them. have with customers, suppliers, collaborators, and the like.

  • 162.
    Bäckström, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Campbell, Colin
    Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Nel, Deon
    University of the Witwatersrand.
    Personal acquaintances and salespeople in financial services: differences between customers and friends2009Ingår i: Journal of Financial Services Marketing, ISSN 1363-0539, E-ISSN 1479-1846, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 26-39Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The existence, benefit and management of customer-salesperson relationships in the marketing of financial services are topics of increasing interest. Much of the sales and marketing literature implies that because of time spent together, salespeople and some of their customers develop close relationships that are akin to friendships. Evidence from social psychology confirms that strong relationships are founded in deep knowledge of others gained over long periods after sharing personal information. This paper reports on the results of a study of salespeople's assessments of their personal acquaintance with customers and friends in a financial services setting. The results indicate that salespeople do not classify customers as friends on all the dimensions of personal acquaintance. Furthermore, the nature of personal acquaintance differs between 'good' customers (those salespeople enjoy serving), and 'bad' (those they do not), with the exception of the personal acquaintance dimensions of interaction frequency and personal disclosure. We discuss the implications for practice and make recommendations for future research

  • 163.
    Bäckström, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    A step towards integrated supervisory control of complex machining processes1998Ingår i: Changing the ways we work: shaping the ICT-solutions for the next century : proceedings of the Conference on Integration in Manufacturing, Göteborg, Sweden, 6-8 October 1998 / [ed] Nils Mårtensson; Ronald Mckay; S. Björgvinsson, IOS Press, 1998, s. 769-780Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 164.
    Bäckström, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Deployment of quality and productivity requirements in integrated process control1999Ingår i: Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on Computers and Industrial Engineering, 1999, Vol. 2, s. 70-74Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 165.
    Bäckström, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Integration of real-time quality control and process monitoring2000Ingår i: The 33RD CIRP International Seminar on Manufacturing Systems: the manufacturing systems in its human context : a tool to extend the global welfare : 5-7 June, 2000, Stockholm, Sweden : proceedings, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2000, s. 414-419Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 166.
    Bäckström, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    On the application of quality function deployment in integrated supervisor process control2000Ingår i: 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Production Engineering: CAPE 2000 Bury St Edmunds, 2000 / [ed] J.A. McGeough, Bury St Edmunds: Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 2000, s. 531-540Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 167. Cai, D.Q.
    et al.
    Xie, M.
    Goth, T.N.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Bäckström, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    A study of control chart for adjusted processes1999Ingår i: Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on Computers and Industrial Engineering, 1999, Vol. 1, s. 443-447Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 168.
    Candell, Olov
    et al.
    Saab Aerotech, Linköping.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Söderholm, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Server-oriented information logistics as support to intelligent transport services2010Ingår i: 16th World Congress and Exhibition on Intelligent Transport Systems 2009: 16th ITS World Congress ; Stockholm, Sweden, 21 - 25 September 2009, Curran Associates, Inc., 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Today‟s society is dependent on an increasing volume of transportation services, which contributes to escalating requirements on economy, dependability, safety, and sustainability of applied transportation systems. When dealing with complex transportation systems with long life cycles, maintenance is fundamental to ensure these critical requirements. The increasing requirements and the technological development have also lead to the emerging approach of eMaintenance, which applies innovative Information & Communication Technology (ICT) to achieve effective information logistics for maintenance purposes. This paper describes the role and development of service-oriented eMaintenance solutions to enable intelligent transportation services and some related research efforts within railway and aviation.

  • 169.
    Capaci, Francesca
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    A Two-Step Monitoring Procedure for Knowledge Discovery in Industrial Processes under Feedback ControlIngår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 170.
    Capaci, Francesca
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Adapting Experimental and Monitoring Methods for Continuous Processes under Feedback Control: Challenges, Examples, and Tools2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous production covers a significant part of today’s industrial manufacturing. Consumer goods purchased on a frequent basis, such as food, drugs, and cosmetics, and capital goods such as iron, chemicals, oil, and ore come through continuous processes. Statistical process control (SPC) and design of experiments (DoE) play important roles as quality control and product and process improvement methods. SPC reduces product and process variation by eliminating assignable causes, while DoE shows how products and processes may be improved through systematic experimentation and analysis. Special issues emerge when applying these methods to continuous process settings, such as the need to simultaneously analyze massive time series of autocorrelated and cross-correlated data. Another important characteristic of most continuous processes is that they operate under engineering process control (EPC), as in the case of feedback controllers. Feedback controllers transform processes into closed-loop systems and thereby increase the process and analysis complexity and application of SPC and DoE methods that need to be adapted accordingly. For example, the quality characteristics or process variables to be monitored in a control chart or the experimental factors in an experiment need to be chosen considering the presence of feedback controllers.

    The main objective of this thesis is to suggest adapted strategies for applying experimental and monitoring methods (namely, DoE and SPC) to continuous processes under feedback control. Specifically, this research aims to [1] identify, explore, and describe the potential challenges when applying SPC and DoE to continuous processes; [2] propose and illustrate new or adapted SPC and DoE methods to address some of the issues raised by the presence of feedback controllers; and [3] suggest potential simulation tools that may be instrumental in SPC and DoE methods development.

    The results are summarized in five appended papers. Through a literature review, Paper A outlines the SPC and DoE implementation challenges for managers, researchers, and practitioners. For example, the problems due to process transitions, the multivariate nature of data, serial correlation, and the presence of EPC are discussed. Paper B describes the issues and potential strategies in designing and analyzing experiments on processes operating under closed- loop control. Two simulated examples in the Tennessee Eastman (TE) process simulator show the benefits of using DoE methods to improve these industrial processes. Paper C provides guidelines on how to use the revised TE process simulator under a decentralized control strategy as a testbed for SPC and DoE methods development in continuous processes. Papers D and E discuss the concurrent use of SPC in processes under feedback control. Paper D further illustrates how step and ramp disturbances manifest themselves in single-input single-output processes controlled by variations in the proportional-integral-derivative control and discusses the implications for process monitoring. Paper E describes a two-step monitoring procedure for multivariate processes and explains the process and controller performance when out-of-controlprocess conditions occur.

  • 171.
    Capaci, Francesca
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Contributions to the Use of Statistical Methods for Improving Continuous Production2017Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Complexity of production processes, high computing capabilities, and massive datasets characterize today’s manufacturing environments, such as those of continuous andbatch production industries. Continuous production has spread gradually acrossdifferent industries, covering a significant part of today’s production. Commonconsumer goods such as food, drugs, and cosmetics, and industrial goods such as iron,chemicals, oil, and ore come from continuous processes. To stay competitive intoday’s market requires constant process improvements in terms of both effectivenessand efficiency. Statistical process control (SPC) and design of experiments (DoE)techniques can play an important role in this improvement strategy. SPC attempts toreduce process variation by eliminating assignable causes, while DoE is used toimprove products and processes by systematic experimentation and analysis. However,special issues emerge when applying these methods in continuous process settings.Highly automated and computerized processes provide an exorbitant amount ofserially dependent and cross-correlated data, which may be difficult to analyzesimultaneously. Time series data, transition times, and closed-loop operation areexamples of additional challenges that the analyst faces.The overall objective of this thesis is to contribute to using of statisticalmethods, namely SPC and DoE methods, to improve continuous production.Specifically, this research serves two aims: [1] to explore, identify, and outlinepotential challenges when applying SPC and DoE in continuous processes, and [2] topropose simulation tools and new or adapted methods to overcome the identifiedchallenges.The results are summarized in three appended papers. Through a literaturereview, Paper A outlines SPC and DoE implementation challenges for managers,researchers, and practitioners. For example, problems due to process transitions, themultivariate nature of data, serial correlation, and the presence of engineering processcontrol (EPC) are discussed. Paper B further explores one of the DoE challengesidentified in Paper A. Specifically, Paper B describes issues and potential strategieswhen designing and analyzing experiments in processes operating under closed-loopcontrol. Two simulated examples in the Tennessee Eastman (TE) process simulatorshow the benefits of using DoE techniques to improve and optimize such industrialprocesses. Finally, Paper C provides guidelines, using flow charts, on how to use thecontinuous process simulator, “The revised TE process simulator,” run with adecentralized control strategy as a test bed for developing SPC and DoE methods incontinuous processes. Simulated SPC and DoE examples are also discussed.

  • 172.
    Capaci, Francesca
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Kulahci, Murat
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Vanhatalo, Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Exploring the Use of Design of Experiments in Industrial Processes Operating Under Closed-Loop Control2017Ingår i: Quality and Reliability Engineering International, ISSN 0748-8017, E-ISSN 1099-1638, Vol. 33, nr 7, s. 1601-1614Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial manufacturing processes often operate under closed-loop control, where automation aims to keep important process variables at their set-points. In process industries such as pulp, paper, chemical and steel plants, it is often hard to find production processes operating in open loop. Instead, closed-loop control systems will actively attempt to minimize the impact of process disturbances. However, we argue that an implicit assumption in most experimental investigations is that the studied system is open loop, allowing the experimental factors to freely affect the important system responses. This scenario is typically not found in process industries. The purpose of this article is therefore to explore issues of experimental design and analysis in processes operating under closed-loop control and to illustrate how Design of Experiments can help in improving and optimizing such processes. The Tennessee Eastman challenge process simulator is used as a test-bed to highlight two experimental scenarios. The first scenario explores the impact of experimental factors that may be considered as disturbances in the closed-loop system. The second scenario exemplifies a screening design using the set-points of controllers as experimental factors. We provide examples of how to analyze the two scenarios

  • 173.
    Capaci, Francesca
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Vanhatalo, Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Kulahci, Murat
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Simulating and Analyzing Experiments in the Tennessee Eastman Process Simulator2015Ingår i: ENBIS-15, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In many of today’s continuous processes, the data collection is usually performed automatically yielding exorbitant amount of data on various quality characteristics and inputs to the system. Moreover, such data are usually collected at high frequency introducing significant serial dependence in time. This violates the independent data assumption of many industrial statistics methods used in process improvement studies. These studies often involve controlled experiments to unearth the causal relationships to be used for robustness and optimization purposes.

    However real production processes are not suitable for studying new experimental methodologies, partly because unknown disturbances/experimental settings may lead to erroneous conclusions. Moreover large scale experimentation in production processes is frowned upon due to consequent disturbances and production delays. Hence realistic simulation of such processes offers an excellent opportunity for experimentation and methodological development.

    One commonly used process simulator is the Tennessee Eastman (TE) challenge chemical process simulator (Downs & Vogel, 1993)[1]. The process produces two products from four reactants, containing 41 measured variables and 12 manipulated variables. In addition to the process description, the problem statement defines process constraints, 20 types of process disturbances, and six operating modes corresponding to different production rates and mass ratios in the product stream.

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the use of the TE process with an appropriate feedback control as a test-bed for the methodological developments of new experimental design and analysis techniques.

    The paper illustrates how two-level experimental designs can be used to identify how the input factors affect the outputs in a chemical process.

    Simulations using Matlab/Simulink software are used to study the impact of e.g. process disturbances, closed loop control and autocorrelated data on different experimental arrangements.

    The experiments are analysed using a time series analysis approach to identify input-output relationships in a process operating in closed-loop with multivariate responses. The dynamics of the process are explored and the necessary run lengths for stable effect estimates are discussed.

  • 174.
    Capaci, Francesca
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Kulahci, Murat
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Vanhatalo, Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    A two-step procedure for fault detection in the Tennessee Eastman Process simulator2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    High-technological and complex production processes and high availability and sample frequencies of data in large scale industrial processes need the concurrent development of appropriate statistical control tools and monitoring techniques. Therefore, multivariate control charts based on latent variables are essential tools to detect and isolate process faults.Several Statistical Process Control (SPC) charts have been developed for multivariate and megavariate data, such as the Hotelling T2, MCUSUM and MEWMA control charts as well as charts based on principal component analysis (PCA) and dynamic PCA (DPCA). The ability of SPC procedures based on PCA (Kourti, MacGregor 1995) or DPCA (Ku et al. 1995) to detect and isolate process disturbances for a large number of highly correlated (and time-dependent in the case of DPCA) variables has been demonstrated in the literature. However, we argue that the fault isolation capability and the fault detection rate for processes can be improved further for processes operating under feedback control loops (in closed loop).The purpose of this presentation is to illustrate a two-step method where [1] the variables are pre-classified prior to the analysis and [2] the monitoring scheme based on latent variables is implemented. Step 1 involves a structured qualitative classification of the variables to guide the choice of which variables to monitor in Step 2. We argue that the proposed method will be useful for many practitioners of SPC based on latent variables techniques in processes operating in closed loop. It will allow clearer fault isolation and detection and an easier implementation of corrective actions. A case study based on the data available from the Tennessee Eastman Process simulator under feedback control loops (Matlab) will be presented. The results from the proposed method are compared with currently available methods through simulations in R statistics software.

  • 175.
    Capaci, Francesca
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Kulahci, Murat
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Vanhatalo, Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Simulating Experiments in Closed-Loop Control Systems2016Ingår i: ENBIS-16 in Sheffield, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Design of Experiments (DoE) literature extensively discusses how to properly plan, conduct and analyze experiments for process and product improvement. However, it is typically assumed that the experiments are run on processes operating in open-loop: the changes in experimental factors are directly visible in process responses and are not hidden by (automatic) feedback control. Under this assumption, DoE methods have been successfully applied in process industries such as chemical, pharmaceutical and biological industries.

    However, the increasing instrumentation, automation and interconnectedness are changing how the processes are run. Processes often involve engineering process control as in the case of closed-loop systems. The closed-loop environment adds complexity to experimentation and analysis since the experimenter must account for the control actions that may aim to keep a response variable at its set-point value.  The common approach to experimental design and analysis will likely need adjustments in the presence of closed-loop controls. Careful consideration is for instance needed when the experimental factors are chosen. Moreover, the impact of the experimental factors may not be directly visible as changes in the response variables (Hild, Sanders, & Cooper, 2001). Instead other variables may need to be used as proxies for the intended response variable(s).

    The purpose of this presentation is to illustrate how experiments in closed-loop system can be planned and analyzed. A case study based on the Tennessee Eastman Process simulator run with a decentralized feedback control strategy (Matlab) (Lawrence Ricker, 1996) is discussed and presented. 

  • 176.
    Capaci, Francesca
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Vanhatalo, Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Bjarne, Bergquist
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Kulahci, Murat
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi. DTU Compute, Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science.
    On Monitoring Industrial Processes under Feedback ControlIngår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 177.
    Capaci, Francesca
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Vanhatalo, Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Kulahci, Murat
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Managerial implications for improvingcontinuous production processes2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Data analytics remains essential for process improvement and optimization. Statistical process control and design of experiments are among the most powerful process and product improvement methods available. However, continuous process environments challenge the application of these methods. In this article, we highlight SPC and DoE implementation challenges described in the literature for managers, researchers and practitioners interested in continuous production process improvement. The results may help managers support the implementation of these methods and make researchers and practitioners aware of methodological challenges in continuous process environments.

  • 178.
    Capaci, Francesca
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Vanhatalo, Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Kulahci, Murat
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi. Technical university of Denmark .
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    The Revised Tennessee Eastman Process Simulator as Testbed for SPC and DoE Methods2019Ingår i: Quality Engineering, ISSN 0898-2112, E-ISSN 1532-4222, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 212-229Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering process control and high-dimensional, time-dependent data present great methodological challenges when applying statistical process control (SPC) and design of experiments (DoE) in continuous industrial processes. Process simulators with an ability to mimic these challenges are instrumental in research and education. This article focuses on the revised Tennessee Eastman process simulator providing guidelines for its use as a testbed for SPC and DoE methods. We provide flowcharts that can support new users to get started in the Simulink/Matlab framework, and illustrate how to run stochastic simulations for SPC and DoE applications using the Tennessee Eastman process.

  • 179.
    Caruana, Albert
    et al.
    University of MaltaMsidaMalta.
    Vella, Joseph
    University of MaltaMsidaMalta.
    Konietzny, Jirka
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Chircop, Saviour
    University of MaltaMsidaMalta.
    Corporate greed: its effect on customer satisfaction, corporate social responsibility and corporate reputation among bank customers2018Ingår i: Journal of Financial Services Marketing, ISSN 1363-0539, E-ISSN 1479-1846, Vol. 23, nr 3/4, s. 226-233Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate greed has received increasing attention in recent years with various stories hitting the headlines, particularly after the global financial crisis and the ensuing negative attitudes toward banks. Customer satisfaction and corporate social responsibility are known to have a positive effect on corporate reputation among customers, but perceived corporate greed is likely to impede their effect. Corporate greed, customer satisfaction, corporate social responsibility and corporate reputation are considered, and a research model is proposed. Results indicate that the effect of corporate greed is stronger on corporate social responsibility than on customer satisfaction, implying that corporate social responsibility activities may be futile if the company is perceived to be acting greedily by its customers. Thus, perceptions of corporate greed need to be dealt with swiftly, to enable management to enhance the corporate reputation of the firm.

  • 180.
    Cassar, Mario
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Investigating the persuasive impact of online textual content: A narrative theory approach2019Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Higher levels of competition in online channels and the resulting information overload among customers is becoming an issue of increasing concern among marketers who seek to provide persuasive content. Past research has revealed that storytelling is an effective tool to achieve persuasion. Research has also suggested that consumers are essentially storytellers who narrate their experiences in the form of stories. Several researchers have looked at consumers’ stories and investigated the effect that these stories have on their receivers.

     In the last decade the research about storytelling has shifted to the online world. There is a board agreement amongst researchers that this is indeed very persuasive when compared to other forms of promotional online content. Although online content can possess various characteristics, textual content is the dominant type of content employed by both consumers and sellers/producers. This thesis asks:

     What effect do characteristics of online textual content have on persuading consumers?

     This research question is grounded in Narrative Paradigm Theory that is used to present a conceptual model that allows for the development of more specific research questions dealing with characteristics of online textual content. To do this, a distinction is first drawn between user generated content (UGC) and producer generated content (PGC). In both cases, textual content can be story- or argument-based and can possess various other characteristics, that can be basic (valence and word count), stylistic (story-/ argument-based) and semantic (use of meaning in words). The thesis seeks to investigate what effect these characteristics have on the persuasion process of customers viewing online textual content. It seeks to understand what characteristics make textual content, (whether UGC or PGC) believable and influential and whether the knowledge learnt from UGC can be used by marketers to create persuasive content. A further aim of the research, is to identify an analytical tool that can help content creators identify the persuasive potential of any given text.

    The main research question and model gave rise to the following five sub-research questions:

    RQ1: What are the themes and concepts used by reviewers expressing differing customer satisfaction when posting UGC?

    RQ 2: Does the narrative force resulting from reviews posted as UGC differ by declared customer satisfaction ratings?

    RQ3: What is the impact of different content type and length of online textual reviews on narrative believability and purchase intention?

    RQ4: Does objective knowledge effect the impact of different content type of online textual reviews on narrative believability and purchase intention?

    RQ5: Does story-based textual PGC improve website stickiness?

     To answer these research questions, four empirical studies are undertaken. Study one analyses the first two research questions whilst the remaining three studies each analyse a further research question. Different research methods for collecting and analysing data were used to address the research questions. Using different research methods is regarded advantageous because it allows for methodological rigorousness. The first study employs the qualitative analytical tools using the Diction and Leximancer software while the three other studies make us of an experimental approach. Experimental designs are preferred when the goal of the research is theory application. This doctoral thesis is presented in a monograph format comprising five chapters: Introduction, Literature review, Methodology, Empirical studies, and Conclusion. The latter indicates how the research contributes to the body of knowledge by providing multiple theoretical and managerial implications.

  • 181.
    Cassar, Mario
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Caruana, Albert
    University of Malta Msida Malta ; University of Bologna Bologna Italy.
    Vella, Joseph
    University of Malta Msida Malta.
    Positioning of wine tourism websites across different country winescapes: a lexical analyses and implications2018Ingår i: International Journal of Wine Business Research, ISSN 1751-1062, E-ISSN 1751-1070, Vol. 30, nr 4, s. 394-409Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeInvestigates the extent to which wine tour-operating companies are successfully using their websites to communicate persuasive and meaningful differences to customers in their quest to clearly position their product offering.

    Design/methodology/approachText data are collected from 250 websites that promote wine tourism in five different countries' winescapes. Lexical, regression and hierarchical clustering analyses are used.

    FindingsLexical analysis using DICTION can distinguish among websites from different countries' winescapes and French wines obtain the best mean review scores from customers while US, Napa Valley, websites obtain the lowest scores. DICTION dimensions allow for meaningful clusters and can also predict TripAdvisor’s mean review scores.

    Practical implicationsThere is a need to pay better attention in the development of website content and the critical role that both syntax and semantics can play in facilitating the use of a firm’s website, specifically in terms of clear positioning.

    Originality/valueUses lexical analyses of website narratives to understanding current positioning of firms.

  • 182.
    Cassar, Mario
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Dabirian, Amir
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Diba, Hoda
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Konietzny, Jirka
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Self-Affirmation of Narcissists on Social Media: A Study Proposing a New Method of Categorization on Facebook Ads2018Ingår i: Back to the Future: Using Marketing Basics to Provide Customer Value : Proceedings of the 2017 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference / [ed] Nina Krey, Patricia Rossi, Cham: Springer, 2018, s. 93-101Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the possibility of creating a new category of Facebook ads based on the personality of the user. The introduction of social media channels such as Facebook has provided a new platform for performing self-affirmation theory tests and related behavioral studies. This paper is based on the subsidiary hypothesis that while self-affirming themselves, Facebook users disclose information about their personality. A lexical analysis of each user’s Facebook posts can therefore be used for the purpose of profiling the user. The analysis and categorization of users’ posts based on their behavioral and personality traits can potentially assist marketers interested in targeted marketing to reach a specific audience through this powerful online channel. Hence, this study proposes an innovative method that measures narcissistic personality by analyzing a user’s Facebook posts.

  • 183.
    Cassar, Mario L.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Caruana, Albert
    Department of Corporate Communication, University of Malta, Msida.
    Konietzny, Jirka
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Positioning narratives of wine tourism websites: a lexical analysis across two different regions2018Ingår i: Journal of Wine Research, ISSN 0957-1264, E-ISSN 1469-9672, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 49-63Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wine tourism is becoming an increasingly important tourism niche with various regions competing for tourism dollars. It is often assumed that differentiation in the sector is region based. This research investigates the positioning narratives from websites of a sample of top wine tour service firms across the US and Australia. Analysis is undertaken using an innovative methodology that combines computer-based lexical analysis followed by hierarchical clustering on principal components. The research seeks to determine the extent to which identified clusters are region based and whether the positioning narratives on websites can provides useful clusters across regions. Results are reported, implications are discussed, limitations are noted and possible areas for further research are indicated.

  • 184.
    Cenamor, Javier
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design. Department of Management, University of Vaasa, Vaasa, Finland.
    Oghazi, Pejvak
    School of Social Sciences, Södertörn University, Södertörn, Sweden.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design. Entrepreneurship and Management, Hanken School of Economics, Finland.
    Addressing dual embeddedness: The roles of absorptive capacity and appropriabilitymechanisms in subsidiary performance2019Ingår i: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 78, s. 239-249Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how subsidiaries can manage dual embeddedness with both local partners and a multinational enterprise. Specifically, we examine the role of absorptive capacity and appropriability mechanisms on subsidiary performance. We analyse how absorptive capacity and appropriability enable subsidiaries to successfully address knowledge challenges related to internal and external networks. We conducted an empirical analysis on a sample of 165 subsidiaries. Our results suggest that absorptive capacity has a direct, positive effect on subsidiary performance, which is greater in emerging countries. The study also found an indirect effect of absorptive capacity on subsidiary performance, which is mediated through appropriability mechanisms. These findings extend the literature on international networks, dual embeddedness and absorptive capacity.

  • 185.
    Cenamor, Javier
    et al.
    Lund University, Department of Business Administration, School of Economics and Management, Lund, Sweden.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi. University of Vaasa, School of Management, Vaasa, Finland.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Hanken School of Economics, Entrepreneurship and Management, Helsinki, Finland.University of St. Gallen, Global Center Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Institute of Technology Management, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    How entrepreneurial SMEs compete through digital platforms: The roles of digital platform capability, network capability and ambidexterity2019Ingår i: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 100, s. 196-206Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization offers unprecedented opportunities for entrepreneurial small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). However, many entrepreneurial SMEs lack resources and capabilities or suffer from inertia, which hampers these opportunities. This study investigates how entrepreneurial SMEs can enhance performance through digital platforms. Specifically, the study examines the effect of digital platform capability and network capability on entrepreneurial SMEs’ financial performance. The study also examines how exploitation and exploration orientations moderate this relationship. Based on analysis of 230 entrepreneurial SMEs, the results indicate that digital platform capability has a positive indirect effect on entrepreneurial SMEs’ performance via network capability. The study also shows that exploitation and exploration orientations negatively and positively moderate this effect, respectively. The results suggest that entrepreneurial SMEs can enhance their performance through digital platform capability by aligning this capability with their orientation. These findings thereby enrich the literature on entrepreneurial SMEs and capabilities. 

  • 186.
    Cervantes, Michel
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik.
    Wallström, Åsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Forskarskola för kvinnor omgång 4 (2009-2011)2008Ingår i: Genus i norrsken, ISSN 1654-7640, Vol. 1, nr 3-4Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 187.
    Chan, Anthony
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Environmental issues and the information technology industry: essays on branding and product development2011Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The information technology industry has played a critical role in enabling economic development and advancing living standards around the world for the last 50 years. While the contributions of IT have benefited all of us, the technologies have also generated huge quantities of electronic waste, and consumed significant energy. The manufacturing and production of IT related products and services consume large quantities of natural resources and generate enormous amounts of pollutants in the environment. The advent of the Internet, the PC revolution, and the communications evolution converged in the last several years to provide an unprecedented level of access for individual consumers to real-time information wherever they are through the use of smartphones and related technologies. Devices such as these have a short, finite service life, and are often part of a planned obsolescence product introduction cycle. It is clear that progress will mean even more consumer electronic devices in the future and unfortunately we do not currently have effective solutions to deal the consequences of such growth.Turning the tide on such a significant trend will require determination and cooperation of governments, industry, and consumers around the world. As a society we are only beginning to tackle this global challenge. This dissertation consists of five essays that cover the gambit of green issues and the development of products, applications and brands. It will first look at green branding efforts by IT companies and how discrepancies between consumer perceptions and substantiated environmental performance can have important managerial implications. While technologies such as smartphones contribute to the overall e-waste challenge, they can also play an important part in enabling sustainable consumption strategies by organizations and individuals. The effectiveness of green branding can also be measured concretely in social media. Such brand perception data are extremely useful to the design of brand strategies. Lastly, the ability for IT vendors to communicate their environmental commitment is crucial for any branding efforts. Readability is a key measure of the effectiveness of written communication and the readability of corporate environmental mission statements will be examined. This dissertation will conclude with and identification of managerial implications, an acknowledgement of the limitations, and an outlining of directions for future research.

  • 188.
    Chan, Anthony
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Functional versus emotional dimensions in green branding for IT companies: a study of corporate websites2009Ingår i: Proceedings: ANZMAC Annual Conference, Australian & New Zealand Marketing Academy , 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper attempts to uncover the reasons behind the discrepancies between perceived "greenness" of an IT brand and an objective evaluation of the company's sustainability practices through the study of corporate websites as brand positioning tools. Different elements of a corporate branding strategy are examined. Key findings include: 1) Corporate websites of all studied companies are similar in terms of content and design, indicating websites are not a differentiating factor. 2) IT company websites appeal to the functional dimension of green brand positioning strategies and less on the emotional dimension. 3) IT companies are mindful of accusations of greenwashing and are careful about their environmental claims. Areas for further research are suggested.

  • 189.
    Chan, Anthony
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Pitt, Leyland F.
    Segal Graduate School of Business, Simon Fraser University, Beedie School of Business Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Nel, Deon
    Department of Marketing, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Faculty of Business and Law, School of Management and Marketing, Deakin University, Melbourne, Flinders University, Adelaide.
    Let’s face it: Using Chernoff faces to portray social media brand image2014Ingår i: Corporate Ownership & Control, ISSN 1727-9232, E-ISSN 1810-3057, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 609-615Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The age of social media sees that brands are consciously utilizing social media to reach existing customers, acquire new ones, establish credibility, maintain reputation, or simply become part of the conversation. Those who manage brands need to understand the strategic importance of their visibility, the sentiment toward them, and the passion with which they are discussed in the most popular social media relative to competitors. This study describes a source of data of brand visibility in social media, and then presents a simple yet powerful graphical tool for portraying this information. This permits, it is contended, a means of quickly assimilating and understanding this information. The managerial implications of the approach are discussed, its limitations are acknowledged, and avenues for future research are identified.

  • 190.
    Chan, Anthony
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Mills, Adam
    How readable are environmental policy statements?: an exploratory study within the IT industry2011Ingår i: Corporate Ownership & Control, ISSN 1727-9232, E-ISSN 1810-3057, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 258-267Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental policy statements are nowadays fairly ubiquitous, particularly among large organizations. Environmental policy statements continue to be seen as an important element in the sustainability initiatives of organizations. However, if they are to have a chance of achieving the desired positive outcomes that those in their favor highlight, they must first be readable and comprehensible to the targeted stakeholders. To investigate the readability of environmental policy statements of IT companies, the individual environmental policy statements were collected of the IT companies within the 2009 Greenfactor study. A readability calculation tool was then employed to assess the readability of each of these environmental policystatements. Results are reported, and the implications are considered, while limitations are noted and directions for future research are identified.

  • 191.
    Chibba, Aron
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Supply Chain Quality Management: Exploring performance of manufacturing organizations2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis addresses the issue of quality performance in supply chains in the manufacturers’context. Research shows that the management and performance of supply chains play a major rolein gaining competitive advantage, especially in times of decreasing international trade barriers andquickly evolving information technology. Some researchers claim that it is the supply chain itselfthat competes on a market and not merely the organisations with their specific strategies andgoals. Supply chain performance has been widely discussed in the research literature in recentyears. However, this research points out that supply chain quality management (SCQM) and itsimpact on firm performance (both inter-organisational and intra-organisational) have not beensufficiently understood. Further studies are needed to identify the direct and indirect impact ofSCQM practices on firm performance at multiple levels.A problem that many organisations face is the lack of resources and knowledge on how to managesupply chain quality performance (i.e., which performance to measure, how to controlperformance, and how to improve performance). Studies show that often even large companiesmeasure effectiveness using key performance indicators (KPI) and that these indicators often donot depict key characteristics critical to organisational performance or customer behaviour.Therefore, such indicators might be inadequate for fully capturing the performance of supplychains. As quality management standards evolve, managers need to adapt to changingrequirements. To fulfil the new version of ISO 9001, organisations are required to determinecriteria and apply methods to ensure effective operation and control of their processes (both intraorganisationaland inter-organisational performance). This includes monitoring and measuringperformance indicators. The quality performance of a supply chain is dependent on its ability toimprove and thereby enable organisations to stay competitive over time. Good measurements ofsupply chain quality performance must reflect this ability. To do so, organisations need to knowwhich measures and metrics to use and how to analyse performance of their supply chains.From the seven studies presented in this thesis we are able to draw a number of more generalconclusions that bear on the main research question: What improves quality performance of supplychains that include manufacturing? At the process level, it has been found that manufacturersshould focus on the quality and delivery performance of each process within the organisation. Atthe internal, integrated supply chain level, a manufacturing organisation should focus on quality(conformance), delivery performance (on-time delivery), and cost cutting in the internal supplychain. Collaboration using cross-functional teams seems most appropriate when working withproduct development. The use of a process-oriented mapping tool was found to facilitatedescription of information flows and physical material flows and also to identify disturbances thatcould be improved and rationalized to generate a better flow in the total supply chain. At both theupstream and downstream sides of the supply chain, one-sided measures that depict performanceover organisational boundaries were found to be the most common. At the downstream side of asupply chain, suppliers could be chosen based on cost, conformance, speed, and flexibility. At theupstream side, procedures that handle changing requirements and information about delays orincorrectness of materials were found to influence flow. The results from these seven studies arethe basis for the development of a supply chain quality improvement model. In the literature,supply chain performance is often discussed on a strategic level with measures for quality,flexibility and delivery. Managers also need metrics that can be followed up on at a detailed level(e.g., capacity load, breakdown rates, claims, cost of poor quality, and lead-times). To bridge thisgap, a Key Performance Indicators Matrix of supply chain quality performance indicators formanufacturers is proposed.

  • 192. Chiká, Attila
    et al.
    Hinterhuber, Hans H.O*Brien, ChristopherSegerstedt, AndersLuleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.Whybark, D. Clay
    Production economics - an evergreen: a conference organized in honour of professor Robert W. Grubbström, Linköping Institute of Technology, Sweden, May 8-9, 20092011Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 193.
    Chipp, Kerry
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    When elephants fight: South African washing powder wars2019Övrigt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning outcomes

    An understanding of the competitive landscape and consumer dynamics of an emerging market, especially how a small local company learns to take on and deal with global players. Similarly, embeddedness within a market leads to increasing the competitiveness of local brands as they understand local consumers better than international ones. Local brands are also more likely to use home-based and innovative marketing strategies.

    Case overview/synopsis

    Bliss Chemicals, through their flagship brand, MAQ washing powder, captured market share from global multinationals during a price war. Nevertheless, their competitive landscape and their customer base are dynamic; the company cannot afford to rest on its laurels for long. The case provides insight into the marketing activities of both large and medium enterprises in an emerging market. It also demonstrates the type of marketing activation that engenders strong consumers’ response.

    Complexity academic level

    The case can be used in undergraduate, MBA and executive education courses on marketing, consumer behaviour, bottom of the pyramid or international marketing courses. It could also be used in business strategy courses on market entry, dealing with stronger competitors, price wars and doing business in Africa.

  • 194.
    Chipp, Kerry
    et al.
    Industrial Economics and Management, KTH, Stockholm.
    Chohan, Raeesah
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Ferreira, Caitlin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi. Management Studies, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Ringas, Astrid
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    British Food Journal: gaining global ground2016Ingår i: British Food Journal, ISSN 0007-070X, E-ISSN 1758-4108, Vol. 118, nr 1, s. 2-8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 195.
    Chipp, Kerry
    et al.
    University of Pretoria.
    Strandberg, Carola
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Nath, Atanu
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Sogndal.
    Abduljabbar, Meyser
    School of Industrial Engineering and Management, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Content Curatorship and Collaborative Filtering: A Symbolic Interactionist Approach2018Ingår i: Back to the Future: Using Marketing Basics to Provide Customer Value : Proceedings of the 2017 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference / [ed] Nina Krey, Patricia Rossi, Cham: Springer, 2018, s. 705-715Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the premise whether sophisticated algorithms that drive curatorship of content for consumers consider a symbolic interactionist perspective on consumer desire for content and whether content offerings, personalisation and the consequent shaping of curatorship algorithms can be based on such an understanding. Curatorship of online content, whether this be product or information based, drives value, consumer engagement and profitability. Curatorship and recommender systems also deliver a personalised experience of the product or services. A review of the reasoning behind such systems reveals that most follow an empirical perspective, namely, the use of statistical tools and information systems algorithms on a behavioural dataset. A theoretically driven approach appears to be lacking. This paper seeks a theoretical approach to online content curatorship embedded in symbolic interactionism. In addition, it seeks to tease out the approach to one that embraces both notions of content curation based on similarity but also on a desire for difference and change. The paper looks at symbolic interactionism in the context of social and individual selves, its role in collaborative filtering, advances a set of propositions for a curation and collaborative filtering model and ends with the possible implications for marketing.

  • 196.
    Chipp, Kerry
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi. University of Pretoria, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Wocke, Albert
    University of Pretoria, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Strandberg, Carola
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Chiba, Manoj
    University of Pretoria, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Overcoming African institutional voids: Market entry with networks2019Ingår i: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 31, nr 3, s. 304-316Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Literature on modes of entry has focussed on firm-level strategies. The predominant theories used are Institutional Theory and the resource based view. Using an alternate approach, network theory, the paper demonstrates an additional mode of entry: multiple firms entering together as an extension of an existing loose network, known as a bridging network. The extension of an external network across borders is an appropriate mode of entry in emerging markets with no pre-existing networks or existing networks within a market that are weak, immature or missing.

    Design/methodology/approach

    A conceptual review, which develops four propositions, demonstrating that market entry with bridging networks may be the preferred mode of entry in the presence of institutional voids. Alternative modes may not be viable due to costs and risks associated with overcoming such voids

    Findings

    Existing theory and case examples supports the contention that market conditions facilitate firms to enter as networks rather than as singular entities. These conditions are found in markets with institutional voids and explain the dominant form of business groups in many countries and the operation of loose strategic alliances in emerging markets. Network entry facilitates market access speed may allow for local ties to remain undeveloped or be a first step in building in-country networks.

    Originality/value

    This paper heeds to the call for a network ecosystem approach to market entry, arguing that firms may enter as a collective in subsistence and emerging markets which would explain the preponderance of business groups and loose alliances found.

  • 197.
    Chohan, Raeesah
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi. School of Management Studies, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Watson, Richard
    c Department of Management Information Systems, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Beedie School of Business, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada.
    Perspectives: client–agency opportunism: how does it happen and what can we do about it?2019Ingår i: International Journal of Advertising, ISSN 0265-0487, E-ISSN 1759-3948Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While it is seldom spoken about openly, opportunism always prevails in client–agency relationships and could lead to their demise. This study directs attention to client–agency opportunism by describing how it happens and ends with a discussion on how today’s client–agency dynamics can be improved.

  • 198.
    Chronéer, Diana
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    A change in supply chain information for Swedish process industries and its consequence on a changed development focus2006Ingår i: The International Journal of Integrated Supply Management, ISSN 1477-5360, E-ISSN 1741-8097, Vol. 2, nr 1-2, s. 149-167Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    How can process industries cope when there is a need for information change in product development? This paper focuses on examining if a changed development focus in process industry can be supported by an integration of supply chain information in product development. This is achieved by focusing on two theoretical perspectives, namely, technology management and supply chain management. The research is based on case studies and a survey addressing companies in various process industries. The paper reveals that an analysis of the information that flows in the entire supply chain can help managers obtain a better understanding of what new competences and knowledge are required in product development. The need for this new type of information can be further formalised by building networks that act like a support to product development. This can be one integration sector between the two theoretical perspectives: technology management and supply chain management.

  • 199.
    Chronéer, Diana
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Conducting product development in process industries - are there differences in networking?2002Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 200.
    Chronéer, Diana
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Customer-oriented trend in steel and pulp/paper industries: an investigation of the information and communication flow in product development projects1999Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Organization of product development projects is today at focus in many organizations. In process industries, like steel and pulp/paper, process and product development are seen as an integrated part. Product development has often been the result of a process development. Heavy investments and costly production give process a priority role in product development. There are indications in the study that steel and pulp/paper industries are headed towards a more customer-oriented approach in product development projects. Information from both internal functions as marketing and external actors as customers are of importance. However, there is a need of a more systematic approach to handle the communication and information flow in product development projects. Interfaces between R&D, marketing and other functions should be strengthening with suitable integrating mechanism. The thesis consists of a frame of reference and four appended papers. The main work is based on case studies at four companies dealing with steel or paper products.

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