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  • 151.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    The music classroom: a local place and a public space; Hannah Arendt’s thinking about democracy as a fundament for educational activities that offer music as a language of us all2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several youngsters need and use art-based expressions to communicate their feelings, experiences and ideas. To be able to handle different forms of expressions is a human right. But even if this is something that we all can agree upon, several questions have to be formulated. The aim of the paper is to present the message of democracy in current curricula, and investigate Hannah Arendt’s thoughts about democracy as a guideline for organizing of music education in Swedish schools. What challenges and priorities do music educators achieve from Hannah Arendt’s writings in this respect? A crucial starting point in Arendt’s thinking was the balance between Vita Activa (the action life), consisting of work, production and action, and Vita Contemplativa (the philosophical thinking life) consisting of different forms of thinking. Arendt sought to see and make connections between the two possible. She meant that Vita Activa takes place in the world wherein we are born, through speech and action, where actors and audience depend on each other. In the social context we become clear to our selves and to others through interaction. In those interactive activities we need different forms of languages to try, modify, and create ideas and insights. But to reach common sense, we also need to step back, Arendt says, and think, imagine, value and reflect. In the paper the thoughts are used and connected to contexts, which are constituted by communication in and through music. Questions that have to be elaborated upon when using Arendt’s view of democracy are for example; Who is expected to make their voices heard, who is seen as a possible participant, and who has access to the specific areas? The paper discuss how and to what extent Arendt’s thoughts about democracy can be used to put light on how Swedish schools, based on expressions in the current curricula, can offer Music as a language for all.

  • 152.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    The perils, possibilities and practices of assessment in music education2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The tension between assessment and music teaching and learning within formal schooling has been an enduring educational dilemma. The ‘possibilities’ of assessment in music education is further agitated by recent neo-liberalistic accountability movements and standards agendas in the Western world. The question is how assessment impact on classroom practices. We ask ourselves how students' expressed 'creativity' and musical learning can be responded upon and graded, and what practices - including formative feedback processes - that encourage students’ musical learning. The symposium takes a holistic view of musical learning and knowledge as a starting point, and aims at discussing and reflecting upon possibilities and challenges with assessment in schools. Holistic or multi-dimensional musical learning can be defined as structural, tensional, acoustical, bodily, emotional and existential, which in turn can be expressed as skills, analytic knowledge, creativity, expressivity and music making. One issue that will be treated uniformly across the presentations at the symposium is what constitutes the formulation of achievement criteria that are connected to practice, that are possible to communicate and at the same time describe relevant qualities of expressed musical knowledge. Another issue is how teachers use criteria in formative assessment, and how students’ learning and creativity is encouraged, rather than limited. A third one is how achievement criteria can help students to reflect upon and assess their own musical learning and knowledge. Related to those issues are questions about the language used in formulation and communication of achievement criteria, which in turn is connected to imaginations and expectations among teachers. How can collaborative aspects of musical knowledge be taken into account, and in what ways can holistic musical learning be expressed in action by students and assessed by teachers? Last but not least questions of quality and equality relevant to reflect upon, which also will be done. The symposium will be dialogical and interactive in nature with audience insights shared on key thematic issues.   We wish to use ”a whole morning”. First part: Introduction 10 min, presentation 1: 12 min, pres 2: 12 min, pres 3: 12 min, pres 4: 12 min, pres 5: 12 min. First summary, and a couple of questions 10 min. (Coffe break) Second part, pres 6: 12 min, pres 7: 12 min, pres 8: 12 min, pres 9: 12 min, pres 10: 12 min, dialogical summary 10-15 min, discussion the rest of the time.   Each speaker includes questions, or another kind of ”bridge” to the next speaker in his/her presentation to keep the read thread throughout the presentations, which we think also will engage the audience.   Introduction: Assessment of expressed musical learning form a holistic point of view – the weight and danger of conceptualisation. Cecilia Ferm Thorgersen, Associate Professor in Music Education, School of Music in Piteå, Luleå University of Technology, SWEDEN (10 min)   What can various approaches to the assessment of music learning tell us about our values and philosophical strands when seen in a historical perspective? Geir Johansen, Professor in Music Education, Norwegian Academy of Music, Oslo, NORWAY (12min).   Revisioning assessment of music creativities in educational settings: From practice to theory. Pamela Burnard, Associate professor, Cambridge University, GB, (12 min).   Teachers as artists and artists as teachers. Meeting the challenge of artistic assessment in music education program: a pragmatist suggestion. Lauri Väkevä, Professor, Sibelius Academy, Helsinki, FINLAND.   Equal assessment of musical knowledge in relation of creativity and holistic musical learning, Fredrik Påhlsson, PhD-student, Royal College of Music in Stockholm, SWEDEN. (12 min)   Students' use of criterion based, formative assessment in lower secondary schools.  Jon-Helge Sætre, Faculty of Education and International Studies, Oslo University College, Oslo, NORWAY. (12min)   The dimension of Self Concept in assessment of musical learning in primary schools. Joakim Hellgren, PhD-student, School of Music, Luleå University of Technology, SWEDEN (12 min).   Music teachers reflections upon new classroom assessment practices in Norwegian lower secondary school. John Vinge, PhD-student, Norwegian Academy of Music, Oslo/ Hedmark University Collage NORWAY (12 min)   Some reflections upon formulations of achievement criteria for assessment in music within a Swedish national curriculum reform. Annika Falthin, PhD-student, Royal College of Music in Stockholm, SWEDEN: (12 min)   From conceptions of quality to criteria and back again: In search for a professional didactical discourse on qualities in popular music. Olle Zandén, Assistant professor, Stockholm, University, SWEDEN. (12 min).   Summing up – challenges and possibilities in dialogue Cecilia and Pamela (10-15 min)   Discussion 15 min.    

  • 153.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    To learn an aesthetic language: a study of how hard of hearing children internalise dance2007Ingår i: Australian Online Journal of Arts Education, ISSN 1833-1505, Vol. 3, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 154.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Traversing the chiasm of lived teaching and learning experience: Embodied practicum in music teacher education2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies of educational quality in music teacher training have valued practicum as one of the most important parts of music teacher education. Not a least have those experiences in the field been appreciated by students. In order to develop high quality music teacher education, we have to understand what happens in practicum contexts; in the meeting between, teacher students, practicum supervisors, students, steering documents, culture, and music, when students perceive that they learn how to teach music in adequate ways. This paper tries to understand such meetings and learning situations from a phenomenological perspective, namely based on the concept ”chiasm” as developed by Maruce-Merlau-Ponty. Expressed by the Greek letter χ (chi), chiasm means a crisscrossing of the perceiving and the perceived, self and other, language and meaning. Chiasm also signifies an inter-twining, an intersection, reversibility, or the process of flowing of phenomena one into another. Chiasm is a contextual encounter of individuals and groups who, by taking action together, can change and transform their life-worlds. Chiasm can symbolically represent practicum as an intertwining of theory and practice. Like the crosspiece, practicum within music teacher education can become an endless journey and the meeting place of a student teacher’s self with the world of different and unique music teaching and learning experiences, unpredictable turns, challenges and wonders. This paper attempts to communicate a glimpse of such a journey, expressed through five music teacher students’ stories. The stories were produced through individual and group interviews performed within a larger Norwegian-Swedish research project focusing educational quality in music teacher education. Hopefully the analysed stories can contribute with knowledge about how individuals and groups embody knowledge about their musical teaching and learning life-worlds, whether and how they exercise the power of self-reflective thinking and apply it to solve problems, to challenge existing assumptions, and to create new spaces and conditions for change, through action.

  • 155.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Traversing the chiasm of lived teaching and learning experience: embodied practicum in music teacher education2015Ingår i: Nordisk musikkpedagogisk forskning: Årbok, ISSN 1504-5021, Vol. 15, s. 9-24Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies of educational quality in music teacher education have valued practicum as one of the most important parts of music teacher education. Not a least have those experiences in the field been appreciated by students. In order to develop high quality music teacher education, we have to understand what happens in practicum contexts: in the meeting between, teacher students, practicum supervisors, students, steering documents, culture, and music, when student teachers perceive that they learn how to teach music in adequate ways. This paper tries to understand such meetings and learning situations from a phenomenological perspective, namely based on the concept ”chiasm” as developed by Maurice Merlau-Ponty. Expressed by the Greek letter χ (chi), chiasm means a crisscrossing of the perceiving and the perceived, self and other, and language and meaning. Chiasm also signifies an inter-twining, an intersection, reversibility, or the process of flowing of phenomena one into another. By that, chiasm can symbolically represent practicum as an intertwining of theory and practice. Like the crosspiece, practicum within music teacher education can become an endless journey and the meeting place of a student teacher’s self with the world of different and unique music teaching and learning experiences, unpredictable turns, challenges and wonders. This article attempts to communicate a glimpse of such a journey, expressed through five music teacher students’ stories. The stories were produced through individual and group interviews performed within a larger Norwegian-Swedish research project focusing educational quality in music teacher education. Hopefully the analysed stories contribute with knowledge about how individuals and groups embody knowledge about their musical teaching and learning life-worlds. Key-words; music teacher education, practicum, educational quality, chiasm, flesh

  • 156.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Ville och musikundervisingen2011Ingår i: Grundskoletidningen, ISSN 1652-7844, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 157.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Ömsesidig nyfikenhet och respekt: fenomenologisk didaktik som utgångspunkt för musikundervisning i grundskolans lägre åldrar2009Ingår i: Nordisk musikkpedagogisk forskning: Årbok, ISSN 1504-5021, Vol. 11, s. 161-177Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In music educational discussions of today, the engagement regarding youngsters' musical everyday culture, identity and knowledge is prominent. So is what status these musical features get in the schools' music lessons. Arguments are put forward that adolescents of today experience music in school, and music in their lives as separate entities, although playing of popular music is the most common activity within music classes at school. A question is what can be said to constitute adolescents' everyday culture, and what it implies to develop musical knowledge within school-frames. Such discussions steered my curiosity towards young children's experiences of music within and outside school. The specific aim for the article was to illuminate and discuss what consequences life-world-phenomenological Didaktik might have for music education in the early stages of compulsory school. The results of the philosophical investigation imply that a life-world-phenomenological way of thinking about teaching and learning music can facilitate teachers in how to offer pupils to develop their embodied experiences and knowledge. Phenomenological Didaktik encourage teachers to take care of children's musical cultures, and to challenge them in common learning situations through mutual curiosity and respect. How children's musical knowledge and experience can be related to teaching content is also illuminated in the article.

  • 158.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Öppenhet och medvetenhet: en fenomenologisk studie av musikdidaktisk interaktion2004Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    My interest in the problem I have chosen has grown from my practise as a music teacher in Swedish compulsory schools. My ontological and epistemological standpoints belong to a life-world-phenomenological way of thinking. By this I mean that the world is around us and in us, we are in the world, but experience it in different ways from our earlier experiences. An assumption in the study is that method and theory can hardly be separated from each other. When it comes to my view on teaching and learning, I have a holistic perspective. I don’t think you can separate content and methods. I think that the development of an individuals’ music experience and music knowledge needs to be in focus. With that foundation of understanding as a startingpoint, I believe that learning is constituted by our experiences in the world. I will also stress that learning does not arise nor is it formed in a vacuum, it is instead found in a complex context. The aim of the study is to describe, analyse and try to understand music teaching and learning interaction between teachers and pupils at music lessons in years 4-6 of compulsory school. There is a focus on the teacher’s words, actions and reflections. In what ways do teachers interact with pupils in musical learning processes? What aspects of the teaching and learning interaction are important when the aim is to offer the pupils, musical experience? How do the teachers reflect upon the interaction? According to a phenomenological way of looking at the world, the mean is to find a method that makes it possible to understand individuals and social groups from the lived relations they have to their environments, the world they live and participate in. The purpose is not solely to enlighten the things that already exist, but to see new connections between what is already existing. I followed three teachers for one semester, observed them and let them reflect via e-mail on the notes I wrote them every week. The generated written material was analysed by a method inspired by phenomenology. The results are presented in two parts. The first part is based on the observations. It is presented as themes and aspects that through the analysis seemed to be important and represent different sides of the phenomenon. The themes focus the following; How the teachers related to the incorporated musical knowledge of the pupils, in which way the teachers were open to the initiatives of the pupils, how musical experience was made possible, how the acts of the pupils were handled and finally which symbols were used in the interaction. The second part is based on the teachers’ reflections and is presented in two themes; Conditions that influence the quality of the interaction, and balance. Each theme is commented, related to practise and earlier research, and put into a broader context. In the last chapter some pervading characteristics such as inter-subjective creation of meaning, and distribution of responsibility are discussed.

  • 159.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Alerby, Eva
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Pedagogik språk och Ämnesdidaktik.
    Dance education: a question of embodied knowledge2004Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 160.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Alerby, Eva
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Pedagogik språk och Ämnesdidaktik.
    Konsten att dansa eller dansandets konst: dans som förkroppsligad kunskap2006Ingår i: Lärandets konst: betraktelser av estetiska dimensioner i lärandet, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2006, s. 157-168Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 161.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Gullberg, Anna-Karin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Hentschel, Linn
    Umeå universitet.
    Mars, Annette
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Nyberg, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Wachenfeldt, Thomas von
    Umeå universitet.
    Collaborative learning as Common Sense: Structure, Roles and Participation Amongst Doctoral Students and Teachers in Music Education – Beyond Communities of Practice2017Ingår i: Visions of Research in Music Education, ISSN 1938-2065, Vol. 29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The article communicates an investigation of how collaborative learning is constituted in a PhD-course, namely Collaborative learning in music educational settings. The course was organized and run in a way that aimed to investigate, develop and encourage collaborative learning among students and teachers in the third circle. Material produced and analysed included log-books, assignments, peer-response, after-thoughts, and a Facebook discussion-thread. The results are presented as descriptions of the constituent parts of collaborative learning occurring in the “rooms” of the course. The results show the importance of structure as well as awareness when it comes to roles and kinds of participation.

  • 162.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Johansen, Geir
    Relations of quality and competence: some reflections regarding educational quality in music teacher education2008Ingår i: Finnish Journal of Music Education, ISSN 1239-3908, Vol. 9, nr 1-2, s. 65-82Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 163.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Johansen, Geir
    Norges Musikkhøgskole.
    Student music teachers' learning trajectories: a relational perspective2012Ingår i: Educating Music Teachers for the New Millennium.: multiculturalism, professionalism and music teacher education in the contemporary society : a report from a research and development project, Oslo: Norwegian Academy of Music , 2012, s. 187-206Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 164.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Johansen, Geir
    NMH.
    Juntunen, Marja-Leena
    Sibeliusakademien.
    Mapping the teaching of musikdidaktik: addressing the possibilities and challenges of meetings between the instrumental and school music traditions in music teacher education2010Ingår i: Crossing Borders: Nordic Research in Music Education in an International Perspective / [ed] Karin Johansson, Lund University: Malmö Academy of Music , 2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION The current situation within music teacher education in Finland, Norway and Sweden is to some extent characterized by a lack of interrelational communication between the musikdidaktik traditions of instrumental teaching and classroom teaching. In fact these traditions live more or less separate lives. In Finland, the two traditions are taught separately, entitled differently and to a large extent they use different terminology. They also have different historical roots: instrumental pedagogy has strong Russian and Central European influences whereas the school music tradition has its main roots in German-Scandinavian music education along with educational science. At a general level, the characteristics of instrumental didaktik in Sweden can be described as focusing on the instrument, it’s repertoire, challenges and techniques whereas the classroom didaktik is primarily focused at group activities and the importance of shared musical experience. The circumstance that the teachers of instrumental didaktik are often employed not only at the academy but also work as municipal culture school teachers or musicians differ from that of the classroom didaktik teachers who more frequently holds positions at the academy. This difference makes it hard to organize meetings between the two traditions. In Norway, a fully instrumental music teacher education separated from a parallel education for becoming school music teachers was offered by one of the conservatories up to the middle of the 1990ies. Today, music teacher education is organized so that the two paths run in parallel during one educational course, but still their cultural characteristics still entail differences: While the instrumental tradition seems oriented towards instruction and inherent value positions along with keeping and nurturing the advantages of the teacher role in master-apprenticeship relations, the classroom tradition is more generally oriented, including a variation of teaching forms as well as searching for a balance between musical and non-musical values and between child centered and subject centered teaching. In a broader picture the differences between the two educational traditions appear as embedded in two different cultures. The instrumental tradition origins in the several hundred year old master-apprenticeship tradition which can be said to constitute the educational practice of music and musicians themselves. The school music tradition appears as melanged by two ingrediences: Educational theory and music education approaches like the ones connected with Jaques-Dalcroze, Orff and Kodaly. In addition to that the situation in question seems to be similar in all the three countries in question, so, too, does the challenges at the labor market. New challenges for the music teaching profession emerge at an increasing speed. For example, to an increasing degree both instrumental and classroom teachers are required to teach various genres and styles of music, they face a big variety of learners and have to cope with different learning situations and environments as well as having to relate to the challenges of their pupils' informal musical learning outside school. THE STUDYThe overarching aim of the present study is to map and describe the various musikdidaktik traditions in Finland, Sweden and Norway and to reach knowledge upon which suggestions can be made to attain closer contacts and cooperation between different didaktik traditions. By studying and articulating the differences and similarities between countries and traditions we are looking for the ways in which the teaching traditions can learn from and empower each other. We believe that this can be done through acknowledging the specific features and goals of the two traditions and through having them to mirror each other. In sum we believe that this will contribute significantly to inform the field of music teacher education with respect to existing as well as new challenges at the labour market.The first phase of the research process which is in progress examines how music teachers' professional competence is defined and described along with how the process of becoming a ”good” teacher is treated in the Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish instrumental (pedagogy) and classroom didaktik traditions as embodied in relevant literature. In the second phase of the study, we will observe and interview teachers in each country as regards the strenghts, weaknesses and possibilities of the two traditions, including their potential for empowering each other. The research material of the first phase of the study consists of the syllabuses of music teacher education at one institution for higher music education in each of the countries. Along with this we will study the textbook material which is used at the various courses of classroom and instrumental didaktik.Hermeneutic text analysis will be applied to grasp the traditions as they appear in/through the texts studied. This includes analyzing the texts from each country and then compare the results in order to create a full picture of the phenomenon. Interpretation will depart from posing questions like the following to the collected material: (1) How is the process of the student music teachers’ teacher development described or discussed? (2) How is this related to the teacher-student relationship? (3) What principles for content selection are utilized and what content is selected? (4) What is considered as good teaching in the texts? (5) What qualifications and competences is given priority and how are these qualifications and competences described and treated? Finally we will look for reasoning indicating how the educating organization’s responsibility for the process of becoming a good teacher is considered as well as when, where and how the learning process of becoming a good teacher should take place. In the paper presentation, the preliminary results concerning the differences and similarities between countries and traditions will be discussed followed by a discussion about what the traditions can learn from each other. The presentation will also invite a discussion about the study at large including its importance, challenges, and implications.

  • 165.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Johansen, Geir
    Norges Musikkhøgskole.
    Juntunen, Marja-Leena
    Sibeliusakademien.
    Music teacher educators’ visions of music teacher preparation in Finland, Norway and Sweden2016Ingår i: International Journal of Music Education, ISSN 0255-7614, E-ISSN 1744-795X, Vol. 34, nr 1, s. 49-63Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigate the assumptions, ideals and beliefs of 12 professors who teach the courses in instrumental teaching and classroom music teaching, called instrumental Musikdidaktik and classroom Musikdidaktik. Drawing on Hammerness’ concept of teachers’ vision we concentrate on the professors’ visions of good teaching, an ideal graduate, and their subject as a whole as well as how those visions can be extended to denote some of the teaching traditions at play. This was examined by individual interviews that constituted one part of a varied set of data collection strategies. The professors’ visions were not necessarily consistent with those of their colleagues. Still they were strongly related to, steered, and limited by established teaching traditions. We suggest that vision might constitute a functional concept among music teacher educators and that clear program visions should be formulated in music teacher education institutions through collective collegial work.

  • 166.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Johansen, Geir
    Norges Musikkhøgskole.
    Juntunen, Marja-Leena
    Sibeliusakademien.
    Professors's visions of music-teacher education2012Ingår i: XVI Nordic Musicological Congress, Stockholm 2012: Abstracts / [ed] Jacob Derkert, Stockholm: Department of Musicology and Performance Studies Stockholm University , 2012, s. 35-36Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments at the labour market for music teachers require a broader understanding of the music teacher profession than before and cause music teachers to establish themselves as versatile music workers at various levels and areas of music education. This requires music teacher education to not only offer a variety of relevant courses but also to ensure that the student music teachers profit from the potential synergies of relating to and reflecting on the learning outcomes of those courses in relation to each other. As a basis for succeeding in such an endeavour, studies into the characteristics and manifestations of the various educational traditions at play are very much needed. In addressing this need empirically we found the notion and concept of vision a possible point of departure. Drawing on Hammerness (2006), we conceive of music teachers’ visions as entailing ‘images of an ideal practice’ (ibid.: 1), bringing together their hopes, cares and dreams with their understandings. As such, a vision represents a goal for them that also is within the realms of possibility. In turn, vision connects to their understandings, dispositions; and practices as well as notions of accessible tools.While the role and function of visions among teachers and student teachers have been scrutinized by several scholars, vision’s role in the teacher education of particular subjects and the role of the teacher educators’ visions have not yet been systematically studied. We hold that these visions may turn out to be equally important for the quality of teaching and learning in music teacher education as (music) teachers' visions may prove to be in the areas and schools for which the student music teachers are qualified. Furthermore, the professors’ visions can be expected to influence the visions of student music teachers and teacher freshmen and thus constitute a kind of visions of second degree.Hence, in this presentation we will address the following question: What characterizes the visions of musikdidaktik professors and how do these visions relate to their notions of understandings, dispositions, practices, and tools within the musikdidaktik subject as a learning community?The study is positioned within the field of research on higher music education and how that education can be further developed. The theoretical framework draws on teacher thinking research (e.g. Jyrhämä 2002; Kansanen 1999), questions of teaching and teacher development in teacher education (Darling- Hammond 2006;Darling- Hamond & Bransford ed. 2005) and the understanding of teaching and learning in musikdidaktik (e.g., Ferm & Johansen 2008, Juntunen 2007). The study is a shared project between three researchers from Sweden, Norway and Finland each examining one music teacher education programme in their country which educates both classroom and instrumental music teachers. The data consist of four semi-structured interviews of musikdidaktik professors from each country representing musikdidaktik for classroom, voice, piano, and strings. The results will be presented and discussed in connection with professors’ visions of good practice, professors’ visions of an ideal graduate, and professors’ visions of the musikdidaktik subject as a whole. The ways in which similarities and differences between countries and musikdidaktik traditions emerge from the visions will be discussed in relation to music teacher education, as well as music teaching practice.

  • 167.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Karlsen, Sidsel
    Hedmark University College.
    Fifteen years of innovative leadership: Professor Sture Brändström and the development of the research environment at the Department of Music and Media in Piteå2010Ingår i: Music, education and innovation: Festschrift for Sture Brändström, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2010, s. 5-11Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 168.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Örebro Universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Being - is it possible in a space offered by music education?: a philosophical investigation of how music education can embrace the space of being presented at the 'origin of the work of art'2012Ingår i: XVI Nordic Musicological Congress, Stockholm 2012: abstracts / [ed] Jacob Derlert, Stockholm: Department of Musicology and Performance Studies Stockholm University , 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Martin Heidegger claims that a work of art contains an intrinsic power to open the space of Being. If a work of art can be a musical work of art, then music possesses the power to strike us and hence throw us into Being. We will examine Heidegger’s thinking in relation to the new Swedish syllabus for the subject music. This theoretical study is animated by a living example of a young boy who is about to conquer music.Further, art, as Heidegger describes it, will be focused upon and discussed in relation to how it can exist within music education. How is it possible to relate to music as a work of art with the same distinctions as Heidegger presents for us, by looking upon art as a thing as well as a tool but also as an as an opener to the space that constitutes the gap between earth and world? We argue that the educator has an unquestionable role in this creational space of origin seen as an educational practice.To be able to understand, draw parallels and exemplify Heidegger’s thinking, we choose to relate the investigation of those two main issues to the Swedish national syllabus for the subject music. Heidegger’s thinking is then related to the new Swedish governing documents, an investigation aiming to explore how the syllabus embraces and performs Heidegger’s thinking in music educational practice. The presentation ends with a discussion about how music education can offer students a place in Being, and music educators’ roles as parts of the creational origin process of a work of art.

  • 169.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Thorgersen, Ketil
    Aesthetic communication in music education: student's awareness2007Ingår i: International Society for the Philosophy of Music Education Symposium, 2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 170.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Wennergren, Ann-Christine
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Skriftlig respons i fokus inför deltagarorientrade seminarier2015Ingår i: Seminariet i högre utbildning: Erfarenheter och reflektioner, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, s. 155-173Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 171.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Zandén, Olle
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Implementation of a new assessment system: consequences for teaching and learning of music in Swedish schools year 5-72013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last years several reforms have influenced the educational system in Sweden. A new curriculum for the compulsory school has offered teachers and pupils a totally new system for assessment. A new credit scale is constructed and all pupils will be graded already in the 6th grade, which means that new teacher groups will have to grade their pupils’ performances. The curriculum describes criteria in three qualitative levels for each subject by defining aspects of a holistic knowing and describing three levels of competence within each of these aspects. Clarity and transparency have been steering concepts in the formulation process in order to offer parents and pupils a better possibility to understand and influence education and assessment in schools. At the same time teachers are expected to make holistic assessments of the pupils’ acquired knowledge. In a subject as music, teachers’ subject knowledge and conceptions of quality can transcend what is currently possible for them to verbalize. In several other subjects written and spoken language constitute the primary media of communication. Musical knowledge though, can be expressed and experienced in sounding forms, a mode of expression which is not easily transduced into writing or speaking. Hence, high demands for verbal clarity in aims and assessment may result in essential parts of music being excluded from teaching and learning, based on a view that these aspects are too complicated to assess equally, or impossible to communicate verbally in a clear way. There is a risk that the new demands on clarity and transparency may reduce the subject to comprise only those aspects that can be easily measured and talked about. The current study aims to systematically and critically investigate in which ways the Swedish curriculum with its new assessment- and grading regime influences music teachers’ practice and their students’ musical learning in grade 5 to 7. Earlier research has generally stated that educational reforms take time to implement, but recent reforms in England and USA give evidence that teaching methods and content can change rapidly, given a strong external pressure, for example through economic incentives, inspections, school choice and public display of schools’ and pupils’ performances. Music education could become an easy prey for such pressures, given that music teachers lack a tradition to accompany music with words and that musical assessment criteria often are perceived as subjective, as compared to objective measurables. The demand for clear and explicit criteria offers challenges, since differences between credit levels are expressed as assessable qualities and not measurable quantities. A forced verbalisation of these quality aspects may get consequences for music teachers’ evolving understanding of knowledge aspects, as well as for their experience of and qualitative evaluation of students’ musical achievements and expressions. The first phase of the study includes interviews with music teachers teaching in year 5-7 about changes in their teaching practices as well as their perceptions of the new demands in Lgr11. The second phase will be a survey, aiming to map the implementation scenario among Swedish music teach in the same years. The third and final part gets its inspiration from Engeström’s activity theory where structural and intentional contradictions are expected to have a key function for learning and development. In this phase the teachers’ as well as the students’ perspectives are focused through participant observation, interviews, and collegial conversations. The teachers define the problems found in practice, which are discussed among colleagues who together create strategies for further development. A model for general development work will be constructed through the project. By limiting the investigation to teachers who teach music in year 5-7 the study can claim to generate new knowledge concerning a group of teachers that have been neglected earlier. In the presentation at the conference we will present the study as a whole and also communicate some preliminary results from the first phase interview study.

  • 172.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Zandén, Olle
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Vinge, John
    Norges Musikkhøgskole.
    Nyberg, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Andersson, Ninnie
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Väkevä, Lauri
    Sibeliusakademien.
    Assessment as learning in music education: The risk of ‘criteria compliance’ replacing ’learning’ in the Scandinavian countries2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment as learning in music education - the risk of ‘criteria compliance’ replacing ’learning’ in the Scandinavian countriesRecent reforms in England and USA give evidence that teaching methods and content can change rapidly, given a strong external pressure, for example through economic incentives, inspections, school choice and public display of schools’ and pupils’ performances. Educational activities in the Scandinavian countries have increasingly become dominated by obligations regarding assessment and grading. A common thread is the demand for equal and just assessment and grading through clear criteria and transparent processes. Torrance (2007) states that clarity in assessment procedures, processes and criteria has underpinned widespread use of coaching, practice and provision of formative feedback to boost achievement, but that such transparency encourages instrumentalism. He concludes that the practice of assessment has moved from assessment of learning, through assessment for learning, to assessment as learning, with assessment procedures and practices coming completely to dominate the learning experience and ‘criteria compliance’ replacing ‘learning’. Thus, formative assessment, in spite of its proven educational potential, threatens to be deformative (Torrance, 2012). In the symposium we will explore to what extent and how this development is visible from four perspectives. Four examples of assessment investigation of dance and music education in primary, lower and upper secondary schools will function as entrances to the dilemma.The symposium will start with an introduction of assessments demands in general and in the Scandinavian countries specifically, ending up in the theories of Torrance, and the risk of assessment as learning or even. Thereafter the following perspectives and settings will be described.Professionalism in Action – Music Teachers on an Assessment JourneyIf assessment practices within education have led, as Torrance (2007) claims, to instrumentalism in the form of “assessment as learning [and] criteria compliance” (p. 281-282), how can teachers and researchers reclaim the exploratory notions of (music) education? In an ongoing collaborate Research and Development and Participatory Action Research project, a group of Swedish upper secondary school music teachers together with a researcher investigates issues regarding assessment, for instance why equality is not spelled “exactly the same thing” and how teachers balance professionalism with accountability. Demands on documentation of dance knowledge in upper secondary schools in Sweden – how does that processing assessment practice?In the syllabuses from Gy11, expressed dance performance can be seen as an embodied action. Though, students and teachers are asked to evaluate themselves and fill out a written rubric in the same way as all other subjects at studied upper secondary schools. The focus on criteria-referenced feedback can have coherence to assessment as learning instead of assessment for learning. Based on observations, conversations and written reflections teachers are expressing the insufficiency with the rubric in combination to dance. How is the demand on documentation processing the assessment practice? Through a study of grading conversation teachers´ conception of qualities are illuminated. What is the base for what is assessed and communicated and how is that effect the teaching professionalism? What is prepossessing teachers´ conceptions of qualities?An outline of an understanding of assessment as didactical self-defence strategiesThe findings of Vinge (2014) indicate a clear tendency towards a systematic criterion based assessment practice in the compulsory music of subject in lower secondary schools in Norway. This change in practice follows the implementation of the latest curriculum reform (LK06, the knowledge reform), a curriculum reform initiated to enhance student learning within the frames of international competency comparison. Music teachers make use of new assessment principles and techniques designed to enhance student learning, associated with the so-called assessment for learning concept. However, the analysis indicates that these principles and techniques are being used mainly for grading purposes and settings – assessment of learning. All though teachers seem to face lots of difficulties in the construction of various assessment schemes; once adopted they seem to become important tools in the teachers’ strive for effectiveness and control. This poses a central question, which will be elaborated in this presentation: Who is assessment actually for? Is it for the students or the teacher? Teaching for learning or teaching for documentation: on the effects of a curriculum reformThe Swedish 2011 curricular reform brought considerable change to the school system. Among other changes, grading was to take place from school year 6 and not from year 8 and a new grading regime was introduced with more grades and more detailed criteria than in the preceding curricula. In this presentation, preliminary results from a survey among music teachers in Swedish compulsory school will be discussed. The survey is based on the findings in a qualitative study of music teachers’ perceptions of this reform (Zandén & Ferm, forthcoming) and aims at giving a representative picture of the effects of the reform on music education and music teachers’ professional situation. Finally Lauri Väkevä will draw lines between the different contributions, comment critically, and conclude with with a Finnish perspective.

  • 173.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Activity: Fagdidaktikk mellom skole og lærerutdanning: an inter-Nordic perspective2007Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 174.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Activity: Meaning making in Swedish compulsory schools: What do we know and what do we need to know?2013Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 175.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Activity: Nettverkskonferansen i universitets- og høgskolepedagogikk: a bottom up studie2007Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 176.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Activity: Research in music education conference: embodiment and identity making in musik didaktik education2007Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 177.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Activity: Researching Music Teacher Education in the Nordic Countries: Where do we stand and where are we heading?2013Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 178.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Aktivitet: Bundeskongress Musikunterricht2014Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 179.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Aktivitet: Musik som mångdimensionell uttrycksform för alla: Frågor om lärande, demokrati och bedömning i svensk grundskola2012Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Installationsföreläsning

  • 180.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Cross roads, crossing borders, and meetings in the common world: A sociological phenomenological view on cross boundary research – Spotify as a case2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The presentation will enlighten and discuss the need and challenges of border-crossing research, when complex phenomena that include art, technology and Bildung are to be investigated. A developing project Evolving Bildung in the nexus of streaming services, art and users - Spotify as a case will function as a starting-point for a reasoning regarding what constitutes border-crossing research, and what dilemmas as well as new meeting points that appear in a process where border crossing is at stake. Material to make an analysis possible was gathered during a lunch-to-lunch symposium where scholars from music education, musicology, psychology, media and communication, English literature, management, Big-data, and sound engineering met and discussed collaboration in relation to the mentioned project. The material was analyzed from a sociological phenomenological perspective. The result of the analysis shows the challenges with, and importance of, meetings in the common world to make border-crossing research possible, at the same time as a belonging to a specific scientific world defines a researcher. Concepts, methods, attitudes, and theories have to, at least to some extent, be redefined based upon new common agreements. Such a process demands researchers to occasionally leave their own “truths” and be open and curios in the common world.

  • 181.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Cultural Citizenship through aesthetic communication in Swedish schools: democracy, inclusion and equality in the face of assessment policies2016Ingår i: European Journal of Philosophy in Arts Education, ISSN 2002-4665, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 68-95Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current Swedish society differences are growing regarding who has the right to learn and use artistic forms of expression. Where a citizen comes from, socially and geographically, more and more determines her tools for handling life. A variety of steering documents state that all Swedish youths should have the right to learn and use artistic forms of expression. At the same time the demands on equal assessment and grading are growing stronger in Sweden, which force teachers to put efforts on documentation and grading, instead of musical learning. The aim of this article is to present and discuss possibilities for pupils to develop Cultural Citizenship through music in the school situation where different views of equality are competing. This article discusses to what extent it is possible to conduct democratic inclusive music education towards Cultural Citizenship in the current time of increased demands of documentation, assessment and grading. To come close to the phenomena of Cultural Citizenship in music educational settings, and to offer theoretical tools for understanding and reflection, the to some extent contradictory political and educational philosophies of Hannah Arendt was used. The philosophical exploration implies a need of teachers’ authority and responsibility when it comes to an agreed upon view of the musical world, and ways to organize meetings with that world in inclusive ways in schools towards a functional Cultural Citizenship.

  • 182.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    The risk of unequal gender role conservation: Informal ensemble playing from the perspective of an upper secondary female guitarist2017Ingår i: 21st Century Music Education: Informal Learning and Non-Formal Teaching Approaches in School and Community Contexts / [ed] Ruth Wright, Betty Anne Younker and Carol Beynon, London Ontario: Canadian Music Educators' Association, 2017, s. 21-38Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 183.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Christophersen, Catharina
    Bergen University College, Grieg Academy.
    Inclusive arts education in two Scandinavian primary schools: a phenomenological case study2017Ingår i: International Journal of Inclusive Education, ISSN 1360-3116, E-ISSN 1464-5173, Vol. 21, nr 5, s. 463-474Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies indicate that ideas related to special education could influence the way arts education is performed and motivated in schools. Further investigation is therefore required in order to raise awareness of how perspectives on inclusion can serve as a starting point for arts education, and vice versa. This article takes it starting point in an ethnographic double case study of arts education practices. Data were collected during the school year 2013/2014 in two Scandinavian schools (for pupils aged 6–13) with an articulated commitment to the arts. The methods used for data collection were observation and interviews. The material was analysed from a phenomenological point of view, and the analysis showed a predominantly holistic view of inclusion in the two schools. Five dimensions of inclusion were identified through the analysis: providing arts education for allbeing connected to something largerallowing access to different forms of expression and communicationestablishing preconditions for holistic inclusion, and developing special arts education. The results indicate that these schools have made considerable progress in developing an inclusive arts learning environment. Results also suggest that a holistic inclusive view of education encourages a functional and vivid arts education for ‘all’, both inside and outside the classroom.

  • 184.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Ekberg, Niclas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Pedagogik språk och Ämnesdidaktik.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Allan, Jon
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Burkhart, Patrick
    Evolving Bildung in the Nexus of Streaming Services, Art andUsers : Spotify as a Case 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The changed landscape of media, with digital distribution as a keyfactor, creates new conditions for people’s access to cultural expressions. This has mainly been studied through technical and financial perspectives, focusing on the record industry, file sharing, human–technology interaction, and click frequency. New questionsare necessary for an understanding of what functions streamed musicand art expressions can have in people’s lives, and how companies such as Spotify relate to these functions.The aim of the study is to explore Bildung in the nexus of streaming services, art and users, with Spotify as a case study. Research questions: How and to what extent do technical, legal, economic, and ethical factors control possibilities for meaningmaking in the interaction between streaming media such as Spotify, arts, and human beings? How does the quality of art/music distributed through streaming influence opportunites for Bildung? How do users make meaning in the specific contexts? To what extent is the user involved in her own Bildung via the algorithms making up the participation?

    To achieve this aim and address the research questions an interdisciplinary study is needed, which makes it possible to understand the complex phenomena of a streaming media platform in relation to Bildung. Technicians and researchers from the humanities and social sciences will approach the research problem and form a holistic understanding of streaming media in relation to human beings, art, and technology. Hence, combinations of methodological approaches are required. Big-data analysis will provide access to how varied demographics use Spotify. The Spotify users’ activities, experiences of streaming media interactions, and meaning-making will be accessed through qualitative netnographical observations, shadowing, and interviews. Sound quality analysis will clarify what aesthetic values are involved in the most appreciated listening experiences, which will be related to Bildung.

  • 185.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Vinge, John
    Norway Academy of Music, Oslo.
    Väkevä, Lauri
    Sibelius Academy of the University of the Arts Helsinki.
    Zandén, Olle
    Linnæus University, Sweden.
    Assessment as learning in music education: the risk of ‘criteria compliance’ replacing ’learning’ in the Scandinavian countries2017Ingår i: Research Studies in Music Education, ISSN 1321-103X, E-ISSN 1834-5530, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 3-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent reforms in England and USA give evidence that teaching methods and content can change rapidly, given a strong external pressure, for example through economic incentives, inspections, school choice and public display of schools’ and pupils’ performances. Educational activities in the Scandinavian countries have increasingly become dominated by obligations regarding assessment and grading. A common thread is the demand for equal and just assessment and grading through clear criteria and transparent processes. Torrance (2007) states that clarity in assessment procedures, processes and criteria has underpinned widespread use of coaching, practice and provision of formative feedback to boost achievement, but that such transparency encourages instrumentalism. He concludes that the practice of assessment has moved from assessment of learning, through assessment for learning, to assessment as learning, with assessment procedures and practices coming completely to dominate the learning experience and ‘criteria compliance’ replacing ‘learning’. Thus, formative assessment, in spite of its proven educational potential, threatens to be deformative (Torrance, 2012). In the article we will explore to what extent and how this development is visible in two cases, presenting music education in one Norwegian and one Swedish compulsory school setting. Three thematic threads run through this exploration: quality, power and instrumentalism. 

  • 186.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Wennergren, Ann-Christine
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Utveckling av responskompetens: seminariet som träningsarena2016Ingår i: Det goda seminariet: Forskarseminariet som lärandemiljö och kollegialt rum / [ed] Marie Cronqvist & Alexander Maurits, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag, 2016, s. 133-155Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 187.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Zandén, Olle
    Department of Music and Art, Linnaeus University, Linnéuniversitetet.
    Swedish music teachers’ relations to an assessment reform: a national view: Specific focus on documentation demands and teachers’ autonomy2016Ingår i: Bulletin of empirical music education research, ISSN 2190-3174Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate Swedish compulsory school music teachers’ relations to a curriculum reform with specific focus on changes in teaching, documentation demands and professional autonomy. The research questions are: To what extent and in what ways have Swedish music teachers adapted to the new compulsory school curriculum (Lgr11)? What changes in documentation demands and practices are reported? To what extent do Swedish music teachers perceive a change in their professional autonomy during the implementation of Lgr11? To answer these questions, a survey was constructed and a random sample of 200 schools was drawn from the 3,252 Swedish schools with pupils in year 6 that were registered at that time by the Swedish National Agency of Education. The survey was completed by 201 music teachers at the 171 schools that agreed to participate, and it generated both quantitative and qualitative data. The findings are presented according to the following themes: Adaptation to the new curriculum, Approach to curriculum, Changes in documentation demands and practices, Possible causes for increased documentation, Documentation’s place in planning and teaching, and Perception of change in professional autonomy. The main outcomes state that the national criteria for grading rather than the aims of the curriculum are steering the teachers in their planning, performance and evaluation of teaching. The implications for practice is that teachers have to claim a space for discretionary power in order to be able to run their classrooms in ways that harmonise with both their conceptions of quality and with the documentation and grading demands.

  • 188.
    Ferm-Thorgersen, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Music education and Technology: The need and challenges of cross-boundary research – Evolving bildung through streaming media as a case2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 189.
    Ferm-Thorgersen, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Music in Future Schooling: Towards Conservation or Reconstruction of Curriculum Structures and Rationale? :A Swedish Holistic Perspective2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 190.
    Ferm-Thorgersen, Cecilia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Nordic research focusing composition education in relation to primary and secondary schools: What do we know and what do we have to investigate further?2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As the focus on composition, as a part of compulsory and upper secondary music education, has become more clearly outspoken and valued in steering documents lately in the Nordic countries, the need of research has increased. The aim of the symposium is to give a picture of what is going on within the Nordic network when it comes to composition education research in schools, and connect that to existing curricula, as well as to music teacher education. After a short introduction of the situation mentioned above, six examples of ongoing or recent research will be shortly (11 min) presented, and connected to the theme of the symposium. In the end Jon-Helge Sætre will draw lines between the existing perspectives and findings, teaching and learning practices in Nordic schools, the field of music education research, and to what is needed to be investigated further according to his view of the situation (11 min). Finally a discussion between the participants and the audience will take place. Claiming semiotic space with classroom composing: meeting the challenge of the new Finnish national core curriculum Juha Ojala & Lauri Väkevä This conjoint presentation is based on the philosophical-theoretical rationale and practical cases described in our book Säveltäjäksi kasvattaminen ("Educating a composer”; Finnish National Board of Education 2013) that collected together Finnish practices of classroom composing under the theoretical frame of semiotic pragmatism. In the rationale of the book, we portrayed composing as a key practice in building musical lives. Instead of mere creative production of listenables, composing can be seen as quintessential way of claiming semiotic space in the social-cultural realm of sonic actions and transactions. Through several examples of Finnish classroom composing, we argue that such perspective can help us to build a comprehensive view of composing-based music pedagogy that is not stuck to genre-based distinctions between creative approaches, nor restricted to the specific agendas of teaching methods. This, we maintain, is the best way to realize the democratic and inclusive goals of the new Finnish core curriculum for the comprehensive school music. Some key findings from a PhD-study on composition education: The Dynamics of Collaborative Creative Music-Making: Reflection-in-action, facilitation and interaction Tine Grieg Viig This Ph.D.-project focuses on the educational perspectives of collaborative processes where children and young adolescents compose music together with professional artists. The study aims at making a contribution to an on-going discussion of creative processes in the field of music education. Through asking how creative competencies in creative music-making can be taught, learned and developed, this research is based on three case studies where professional artists and children collaborate in creative processes composing music. Interviews with focus groups and leaders of the projects, observations and video-recordings of the creative process along with the musical material make up the empirical data in all the cases. Through a sociocultural perspective on learning and interaction, important foci in the study are the reflection-in-action and facilitation of the creative process through scaffolds and dynamic interaction. The findings point at the important role of an expanded repertoire in these processes, as a basis for the reflection in- and through the musical material in for example aesthetic, artistic and structural modes of reflection-in-action. This includes a discussion of the facilitator role, and the different modes an experienced leader of composition workshops utilizes in the scaffolding of creative collaborative practices. Passed and now intertwining when learning is at stake. - Composing and learning in a musical theatre project Annette Mars This contribution presents a study investigating musical learning among 9th grade adolescents in a Swedish lower secondary school. The adolescents collaboratively composed songs for a self-written musical, which they taught to their peers. The purpose of the study was to explore the ways adolescents acquire musical knowledge in this specific setting. A sociocultural perspective was employed; and the method used was observation and interviews with the adolescents. The results demonstrated that the adolescents’ choice of tools when learning and peer teaching composition, were the same as their teachers’. The written score was distinct in all their musical learning, suggesting the dominance of the written paradigm. In conclusion, in order to support students’ musical learning, music teachers need to know how to create possibilities for peer teaching, and when to interfere and guide the adolescents in a Zone of Proximal Development. Composing with iPads in a 7th-grade music classroom Marja-Leena Juntunen Based on a recent study, this presentation discusses a case in which a music teacher in a Finnish lower secondary-level school explored the possibilities of using iPads in a 7th-grade music classroom (compulsory general music course) searching for opportunities for creative and integrated experimentation with movement, music and technology. The iPads were used to facilitate creative activities and production that included music and movement improvisation and composition, combined with a video recording, and its subsequent editing to match the composed music. The project was facilitated by the teacher’s willingness to incorporate mobile devices in the music classroom in a way that integrated bodily activities and creative production with the use of technology. The case has been examined from three perspectives: students’ experiences, development of agency, and embodied learning. In the presentation, the results of the study will be discussed shortly. Loose control, listen to each other, and create – understanding cooperative music making from a chiasmic perspective Cecilia Ferm Thorgersen In order to create democratic milieus for creative musical group work, relations between individuals and the musical world should be investigated. One way of coming close to the interaction between subjects and music in such environments is to use philosophy as a tool for understanding. In the current article the philosophy of flesh and chiasm as developed by Merleau-Ponty in his later works, is used to acquire knowledge about cooperative composition. Chiasm means criss-crossings between the perceiving and the perceived, self and other, and language and meaning. The aim of the study was to describe and understand the phenomenon of cooperative composing from a pupil’s point of view. The experiences of five 15 years old pupils involved in a New music project constitute the access to the phenomenon. Themes that describe the phenomenon of cooperative composing showed to be: To embody new areas, Intertwinement of ideas, The function of language and symbols in chiasmic communication, Challenges and wonders, and To grow into the field of contemporary composition. Exploring the boundaries of musical meaning making: Using a graphic programming environment to develop higher order thinking in composition Peter Falthin In music composition, manner and methods are often integral to the aesthetic position in which a piece is conceived. This is not to say that choice of method and tools will bring with them a predestination for musical form and expression but rather that a composition as a whole comprises also the process of its making. This paper will discuss some aspects of composition learning that has surfaced in different studies by the author concerning students first encounter with computer programming as a means for composition and development of musical thinking. Some critical issues are connected to, attitude that to varying degree can be sceptical or curious, difficulties to evaluate materials and ideas due to unfamiliarity with the medium, lack of cultural context which can be both confusing and liberating and the indirectness of the medium putting demands on a composer to operate on meta-levels when planning for structures, sound design, playing activities, expression and communication. Results show that the challenge is sometimes positively experienced, and there are several cases where this has meant a turning point for musical reconceptualization far beyond the scope of the original project. Other times the experience is more problematic and seems to cause anxiety and a sense of lack of orientation. The difference does not necessarily correspond with the ability to reach solid musical results in the sense of being able to realize one’s ideas. A number of questions emerge around the role of experience and attitude to learning and thinking in music composition and how it can be dealt with. What do we know and what is to be investigated further? Jon-Helge Sætre Will be formulated upon a reading of and reflection upon the short presentations sent to Jon-Helge in beforehand.

  • 191.
    Frödin, Kerstin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    CD produktion BIS records Höör Barock Telemann, Corelli, Bach2016Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kammarmusiksprojekt med ensemble Höör Barock. Konserter samt CD-inspelning på skivbolaget BIS records. Musik av Telemann, Corelli mfl.

    Invigningskonsert Trollhättans Tidig musikdagar 12 maj 2016

    Releasekonsert den 10 november 2016, Johannes kyrka, Malmö.

    Medverkande:

    Dan Laurin, ledning och blockflöjt

    Hannah Tibell (konsertmästare) barockviolin

    Kanerva Juutilainen, barockviolin

    Roknic, barockviola

    Loftsdottir, barockcello

    Hanna Thiel, viola dagamba

    Joakim Peterson, violone

    Emelie Roos, blockflöjter

    Per Bengtsson, barockoboe

    Kerstin Frödin, barockoboe

    Nina Grigorjeva, harpa, barockfagott

    Anna Paradiso, cembalo

    Dohyo Sol, lutor

    Mats Hultkvist, orgel

  • 192.
    Frödin, Kerstin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Champs d’étoiles: Studying gestural interaction in contemporary musical performance2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    As a performer, on recorders and historical oboes, I use my own artistic activity as research laboratory. My project, situated in a contemporary Western art music context, deals with questions related to the score and its impact on how musicians work with gestures and communication. A live music performance is a multimodal experience where several layers of communication are at work simultaneously, and where structural and emotional meaning is conveyed through embodied practice.

     

    Main Contribution 

    Qualitative analysis of gesture is an emerging practice, which has proven to efficiently provide insight into artistic process (Spissky, 2017, Östersjö, 2016). My research method builds on analysis of video documentation from which gestures and communication between musicians are categorized and coded. My method also includes stimulated recall sessions, music analysis and comparisons between rehearsals and concerts.

     

    The video documentation that will be presented here was collected from the rehearsal process and performances of Champs d’étoiles, a suite for baroque instruments by the Swedish composer Kent Olofsson, composed 2008 – 2016 for the ensemble ‘Lipparella’. The composition is multilayered, inspired by period music for the instruments but, is at the same time, clearly situated in a contemporary art music tradition.

    With a duration of more than 70 minutes, Champs d’étoiles has become a cornerstone in the repertoire of the ensemble, which has performed it on numerous occasions over the years.

     

    This long process has afforded the ensemble valuable insights, both on the micro level, such as bodies, movements and communication, and the macro level, such as events, productions and projects (Fleishman 2012). As a member of the ensemble studied, I approach the material from an insider perspective: that of my own embodied experience of the interaction within the group.

     

    Conclusion

    This unusually long and close collaboration between composer and ensemble has enabled us to further develop both these micro and the macro perspectives. Further, the insider research perspective, in combination with detailed analysis of the use of gestures and non-verbal communication in the ensemble, offers deeper insights than can be obtained merely through a rehearsal process. The new knowledge acquired through the research takes the work of the ensemble to a higher level that can be described as a verbalized collective awareness of the embodied perspective. The research thus provides refined tools that can feed back into the artistic process and the musical interpretation. 

  • 193.
    Frödin, Kerstin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    estik, kommunikation och samspel i musikalisk gestaltning2016Ingår i: Musikforskning i dag, Växjö, 2016, s. 14-14Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mitt forskningsprojekt handlar om samspel och kommunikation mellan musikeri ensembler utan dirigent. Jag tar avstamp ifrån min egen musikerverksamhet,mina bägge instrument barockoboe och blockflöjt och min repertoar som spännermellan såväl tidig som experimentell samtida konstmusik. Syftet är att studerahur musiken styrs, vilken typ av information som förmedlas under spelet mellanmusikerna, vilka resurser som används och hur vi musiker arbetar med dessafrågeställningar, framförallt genom rörelser och gestik. Vilka parametrar samspelarnär kommunikationen fungerar som allra bäst och vilka kommunikationsprocessertar vid då samspelet inte fungerar lika bra?Min forskning utgår både ifrån ett through-time perspektiv och in-timeperspektiv där throughtime belyser såväl den enskilda musikerns arbetsprocessur ett längre perspektiv som ensemblens repetitionsarbete. Genom bland annatvideodokumentationer söker jag även belysa det mer flyktiga och svårfångadein-time perspektivet, dvs hur samspel och kommunikation kan fungera i stunden.Här spelar en mängd parametrar in och skeenden kan inte isoleras eller upprepas.Med hjälp av filmerna observerar jag gestik och rörelser ur flera perspektiv såsom 1)impulser som har att göra med samspelet och kommunikationen mellan musiker 2)gestikens betydelse för den musikaliska gestaltningen 3) historiskt perspektiv, gestiki relation till det musikaliska materialet 4) jämförelse mellan olika instrument 5) hurkommunikationen påverkas av akustik och rumsliga förutsättningar.Målet med min forskning är att medvetandegöra dessa processer och se hurrörelsens olika funktioner och roller kan bidra till den musikaliska gestaltningen,instuderingen, kommunikationen och samspelsförmågan. Presentationenkommer att innehålla exempel på videodokumentationer från konsert- ochrepetitionssituationer i kammarmusikaliska sammanhang där jag själv medverkarsom musiker. 

  • 194.
    Gall, Marina
    et al.
    Graduate School Education, University of Bristol.
    Pance, Branka Rotar
    University of Ljubljana, Academy of Music.
    Stöger, Christine
    Hochschule für Musik und Tanz, Köln.
    Brändström, Sture
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Sammer, Gerhard
    University of Music, Würzburg.
    Learning from each other: music teacher training in Europe with a special focus on England, Slovenia, Sweden and Germany2009Ingår i: 17th EAS Conference, ISME European Regional Conference, Tallinn (Estonia), 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 195.
    Gullberg, Anna-Karin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Boom town music education: a co-creating way to learn music within formal music education2006Ingår i: 9th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition: Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna, August 22-26 2006, proceedings / [ed] Mario Baroni, Society for Music Perception , 2006, s. 1622-1627Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The general purpose of this presentation is to discuss how alternative forms of learning strategies in exclusively designed contexts may strengthen the development of musical, social and personal competences. Research in music education has confirmed that how knowledge in music is created is highly correlated with context qualities, as for example the organization of musical learning and social interaction. Still, it is difficult to free the practice of learning in music from conservatoire tradition and didactic "hidden curricula's". Formal learning situations means benefiting from experienced teachers and mentors, but music institutions all too often suffer by institutionalization and a levelling of cultures. On the other hand informal music learning is largely characterised by co-creating and peer learning. By not paying sufficient attention to learning processes within smaller groups, the great opportunities for powerful growth in personal and social skills, are also passed over.In the autumn of 2005, a completely new curriculum in music education - BoomTown Music Education (BTME) - was born within the School of Music in Piteå but as a branch of the municipal music project BoomTown in Borlänge. The educational baseline is resting on scientific theories and previous research dealing with informal learning strategies. Peer learning and playing by the ear is here acknowledged and strongly supported. The philosophy of BTME opens up to a wider musical, social and ethnic variety and is supported by a mixture of guest musicians, artists, innovators etc. Several research projects are started, and data is already collected by observations during rehearsals and concerts. An interesting body of knowledge will also come from student's diaries and written reflections, collected since the start. Research results will in time contribute with important knowledge about how learning in music is affected by the organisation and design of learning contexts.

  • 196.
    Gullberg, Anna-Karin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    BoomTown Music Education: an introduction2010Ingår i: Music, education and innovation: Festschrift for Sture Brändström, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2010, s. 123-143Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 197.
    Gullberg, Anna-Karin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Conforming Spheres: Limitations in Higher Music Education2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presentation wants to visualize and create an interactive discussion about the legitimation of higher music education within popular music – its obstacle and potentials as an institution of plurality within a university context.There are some well-known conditions that are more or less tabooed and sometimes act as sources for the noncompliance in institutional flexibility. The schools of music are traditionally constructed by three; at least, “biotopes” of definable thinking and acting from which students, personnel and management have experience of and are recruited from. These fields are the conservatoire tradition, the Free Church’s organizations (perhaps mainly in Sweden), and the recycling system of musicians/teachers inside music institutions on different levels of education. This trinity of spheres brings on shared experiences of expertise, social training and familiarity but also exclusion, non-equality, self-righteousness, anti-intellectual preferences and conventional preferences. This is not by any sense exclusive for higher music education but in a faculty that could facilitate innovative expressions, self-independence and global engagement – why not go for it!Circumstances above results in the fact that even if popular music (in a broad sense) is the essence of music activities in the conservatories in Sweden, the learning contexts are still predictable bosoms for music students all the way from voluntary music school (during elementary school years), through aesthetic gymnasia, pre-educations like folk high schools, straight forward to the School of music to, perhaps, a teacher education for elementary school and voluntary music school. As a consequence of this recycling situation the plurality and differences that e.g. Biesta, 2006 highlights as necessary, can perhaps be linked more to genre expansion than to democratic and existential content.

  • 198.
    Gullberg, Anna-Karin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Formspråk och spelregler: en studie i rockmusicerande inom och utanför musikhögskolan1999Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 199.
    Gullberg, Anna-Karin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Music Teachers as Conscious Cosmopolites2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A music teacher student 2013 will meet children born 2040, during their career. Scandinavian as well as the rest of the worlds university curriculum have an elusive picture of what kind of learning contexts they will have to design when meeting the “Millennium children” and who can blame them? What we can do is to facilitate an institutional consciousness expansion in how to assist student music teachers developing sustainable skills for acting flexible in future, unfamiliar and multicultural contexts. This collaboration with “the other” has to go beyond music genre and subcultural identities and interact with societal changes and needs. Institutions are not in its essence flexible and new or alternative music styles will probably always be “pedagogizied” to fit in educational settings. The informal and socialising “rules of the conservatoire game” is still stronger than the millennium voice of internationalisation and collaboration in global communities. Globalization can become a kind of new renaissance. It is a paradigm shift that directs toward a circulatory worldview. “The others” will be in our lives no matter what. The question is – how do we want to respond to that. With fear or dialogue?The university as a whole is also in an era of “paradigmatic transition” (Santos, 2012, p8). It is ”confronted with strong questions for which it has so far provided only weak answers”. Or as Kemp resonates, “The great theme in political debate and within political movements, national as well as international, have since the end of 90th been the phenomena globalization. It is this globalisation that gives the idea of a cosmopolitan new actuality. But, as earlier said, it has not reached our institutions of learning and education. Many of our teachers within compulsory school are still blind for the fact” (Kemp, 2005 p29). When discussing the position of the university in the new world order, Santos (2012) raises the question whether the university can successfully reinvent itself as a centre of knowledge in a globalizing society with many other centres. The question of legitimation of university educations in future society is of great importance when it comes to global artistic expressions like music.

  • 200.
    Gullberg, Anna-Karin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Skolvägen eller garagevägen: studier av musikalisk socialisation2002Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this dissertation project, three studies of socialisation in music are presented. In study one, two groups of musicians, one from a University College of Music and the other, a rock group from the non- university music scene, were asked to arrange and record a finished version of a ‘rock song’, especially created for this project. The second study treated how music students in teacher training programs, and students without formal music education experienced and interpreted the diverse versions of the songs created. The third, a interview study, focused more exclusively on the informants early musical socialisation and how their different learning strategies and experiences of music correlated with their wish to start and maintain studies in music education programmes. The theoretical background for the project as a whole reached across several research fields, for example Music pedagogy, Psychology and Social psychology. In study one, information concerning thinking and acting before and during the studio recordings was collected. Results showed that the final versions of the songs created, belonged to stylistically different genres of composition. The College Group made a jazzy pop song and the Rock Group’s version was within the style of hardcore music. The two versions not only sounded completely different, they were also within a musical province, which the other group felt strong antipathy for. The observation data and information from the interviews showed very separate attitudes to music making and to learning strategies when playing in an ensemble. Listeners’ comments in study two, clearly showed that the populations differed in experience of tempos, intensity, variation and focus on the lyrical material. The students with formal training in music preferred other styles of music than other undergraduates, and showed more diffuse knowledge of music styles within the rock genre. Study three indicated that students at music colleges are socialised with a specific set of values, which exclusively prevail within colleges of music. The final stage in a long process of development is their time at the music college. The study also shed light on the relationship between formal and non-formal learning amongst pop- and rock musicians. Results would suggest that in the way one is performing music and which genre that is to be favoured, is motivated by the way one has played and learned music. Early musical influences, formal musical training and musical preferences – the musical socialisation – is influencing people’s interpretation of both institutional and non- institutional learning environments. The students are educated within a school context with its associated set of values and norms regarding musical, tastes in music, musical form and performance, as well as gaining musical competence. Future music teachers must be prepared for meeting an audience with a broad range of different music experiences and expectations. It is reasonable to expect that what is to be demanded of music teachers, is to be open minded and have understanding which is to be emphasized in multicultural societies. Music teachers, and the music teacher education in music colleges, must thus learn to understand and cope with many different learning situations. The question is whether music colleges have the “right stuff” for providing this competence during the student’s years at school?

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