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  • 151.
    Al-Jabban, Wathiq
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Briefing: Common laboratory procedures to prepare and cure stabilised soil specimens: a short review2020Ingår i: Geotechnical Research, ISSN 2052-6156, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 1-8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil stabilisation is used extensively to improve the physical and mechanical properties of soils to achieve the desired strength and durability properties. During the design process, laboratory investigation is conducted firstly to obtain an enhancement in soil strength and stiffness, in addition to the type and amount of binder required. The methods of preparing and curing specimens of soil–binder mixtures directly influence the properties of the stabilised soils. The most common laboratory protocols used for preparing and curing the specimens of stabilised soil are presented in this short review. The review focuses on several aspects such as homogenisation of the natural soil, mixing type and duration, mould type, moulding techniques and curing time and condition. This review can assist various construction projects that deal with soil improvement to choose an appropriate method for preparing and curing a soil–binder mixture to simulate the field conditions as much as possible and obtain uniform soil–binder mixtures.

  • 152.
    Al-Jabban, Wathiq
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Engineering Dept., University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Effect of Disintegration Times of the Homogeneity of Soil prior to Treatment2019Ingår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, nr 22, artikel-id 4791Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an experimental study to investigate the effect of various disintegration times on the homogeneity of pre-treated natural soil before mixing with cementitious binders. Various disintegration times were applied, ranging from 10 s to 120 s. Four different soils were used with different characteristics from high, medium and low plasticity properties. Visual and sieving assessment were used to evaluate the best disintegration times to allow for a uniform distribution of water content and small-sized particles that would produce a uniform distribution of the binder around the soil particles. Results showed that a proper mixing time to homogenize and disintegrate the soil prior to treatment depended on several factors: soil type, water content and plasticity properties. For high plasticity soil, the disintegration time should be kept as short as possible. Increasing the disintegration time ha negative effects on the uniformity of distribution of the binder around soil particles. The homogenizing and disintegration time were less important for low plasticity soils with low water content than for medium to high plasticity soils. The findings could assist various construction projects that deal with soil improvement through preparation of soil before adding a cementitious binder to ensure uniformity of distribution of the binder around soil particles and obtain uniform soil–binder mixtures

  • 153.
    AlJawad, Sadeq
    et al.
    Expert and Consultant Hydrogeologists, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Expert and Consultant Hydrogeologists, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    LTU team.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan, Howler, KRG, Iraq and Private Con sultant Geologist, Erbil, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Groundwater Quality and Their Uses in Iraq2018Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 123-144Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquifers are porous media with various physical criteria and hydraulic conditions that largely affect the quality of water they contain. When an aquifer is a sedimentary rock, its depositional environment draws along with its present recharge condition and the footprint of its groundwater quality. The geologic setting of Iraq consists of a sedimentary cover 4 – 13 km thick with a sequence of alternating pervious and impervious sedimentary rock beds of coarse clastics and fractured carbonates with fine clastics and hard rock carbonate. This succession has developed a successive multi aquifer systems. The present study has recognized the major formations that so far have been explored and sampled using available data to identify the probability of their water quality which might be obtained when drilling a well through any of the formations. From among tens of thousands of wells drilled to produce water from whatever horizons they encounter, only those wells which penetrate a single formation were considered. The results show that groundwater quality expressed as total dissolved solids in the explored 17 aquifers or aquifer systems are highly variable. Nevertheless, an indicative medium range value can be deduced for each. In principle, lower salinity values and carbonate water type associate with the unconfined aquifers that receive active contemporary recharge as in the case of the exposed aquifers in the High, and to less extend the Low Folded Zones. Even in the Stable Shelf where present recharge is limited, unconfined part of the aquifers is differentiated by their lower salinity and water type. On the other hand, a partial displacement of sea water in the marine deposit carbonates has as well occurred due to previous recharge periods. This was possible to the karstified carbonates of the Stable Shelf due to their high porosity. The finer marine deposits in the Mesopotamia Basin maintained their high groundwater salinity and marine water type. Water suitability for human drinking can be found in most of the aquifers especially aquifers in the High and Low Folded Zones. In the Stable Shelf, Al-Jazira, and even in the Mesopotamian Plain, recharge boundary conditions of the aquifer in the selected drilling spot should be carefully examined. The high variations of water quality in the aquifers in the latter zones requires an evaluation of water suitability well by well. However, most of the groundwater derived from the northern parts of the Stable Shelf and Al-Jazira Zones aquifers are suitable for agriculture, while that those of the southern parts and the Mesopotamian Plain are questionable or unsuitable.

  • 154. AlJawad, Sadeq B.
    et al.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Evaluation of Storm Runoff in Wadi Hauran, Western Iraq2017Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 25, artikel-id 6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Arid and semi arid regions are characterized by low frequency monthly rainfall events and high evaporation during the remaining dry days. Utilizing monthly rainfall means for water balance calculation risks a high error margin. Even when daily rainfall analysis methods are used to evaluate the resulting runoff in a valley course, errors may still be committed when wrong values are assigned to important field elements such as soil cover type, vegetation and land use. Accordingly and when the Soil Conservation Service method (SCS) is applied, single storm rainfall and validation of the estimated Curve Number (CN) value using valley flow measurements is necessary. The evaluation of annual runoff volume in a major valley in the Western Iraqi desert using the SCS method applied to single rainfall storm events and validated by actual historical runoff measurements has revealed that Wadi Hauran would exhibit no runoff flow in one year out of three and that runoff may exceed 69 mm depth in a single water year but the average depth for those years with runoff events is only 11.1 mm

    which amounts to about 64 Mm3 at a location in the center of its catchment area.

    Journal

  • 155.
    Alkaradaghi, Karwan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Geology, College of Science, Sulaimani University.
    Ali, Salahalddin S.
    Department of Geology, College of Science, Sulaimani University.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Evaluation of Land Use & Land Cover Change Using Multi-Temporal Landsat Imagery: A Case Study Sulaimaniyah Governorate, Iraq2018Ingår i: Journal of Geographic Information System, ISSN 2151-1950, E-ISSN 2151-1969, Vol. 10, nr 6, s. 247-260Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Land use & land cover change detection in rapid growth urbanized area have been studied by many researchers and there are many works on this topic. Commonly, settlement sprawl in area depends on many factors such as economic prosperity and population growth. Iraq is one of the countries which witnessed rapid development in the settlement area. Remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) are analytical software technologies to evaluate this familiar worldwide phenomenon. This study illustrates settlement development in Sulaimaniyah Governorate from 2001 to 2017 using Landsat satellite imageries of different periods. All images had been classified using remote sensing software in order to proceed powerful mapping of land use classification. Maximum likelihood method is used in the accurately extracted solution information from geospatial imagery. Landsat images from the study area were categorized into four different classes. These are: forest, vegetation, soil, and settlement. Change detection analysis results illustrate that in the face of an explosive demographic shift in the settlement area where the record + 8.99 percent which is equivalent to 51.80 Km2 over a 16-year period and settlement area increasing from 3.87 percent in 2001 to 12.86 percent in 2017. Accuracy assessment model was used to evaluate (LULC) classified images. Accuracy results show an overall accuracy of 78.83% to 90.09% from 2001 to 2017 respectively while convincing results of Kappa coefficient given between substantial and almost perfect agreements. This study will help decision-makers in urban plan for future city development.

  • 156.
    Alkaradaghi, Karwan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Geology, College of Science, Sulaimani University, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq. Kurdistan Institution for Strategic Studies and Scientific Research, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq.
    Ali, Salahalddin S.
    Department of Geology, College of Science, Sulaimani University, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq. Komar University of Science and Technology, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq.Komar Research Center, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Chabuk, Ali
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Landfill Site Selection Using MCDM Methods and GIS in the Sulaimaniyah Governorate, Iraq2019Ingår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, nr 17, artikel-id 4530Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A shortage of land for waste disposal is one of the serious problems that faces urban areas in developing countries. The Sulaimaniyah Governorate, located in the north of Iraq, is one of the major cities in the Kurdistan Region of the country, covering an area of 2400 km2 with a population of 856,990 in 2016. Currently, there is no landfill site in the study area that meets scientific and environmental criteria, and inappropriate solid waste dumping is causing negative environmental impacts. The process of landfill site selection is considered a complex process and is restricted by numerous factors and regulations. This paper proposes multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods in a model for landfill site decision. The model assumes the input of two groups of factors that need to satisfy the optimal values of weight coefficients. These groups of constants are natural factors and artificial factors, and they included thirteen selected criteria: slope, geology, land use, urban area, villages, rivers, groundwater, slope, elevation, soil, geology, road, oil and gas, land use, archaeology and power lines. The criteria were used in the geographic information system (GIS), which has a high capacity to process and analyze various data. In addition, multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods followed by the weighted linear combination (WLC) method were used to derive criteria weightings using a matrix of pair-wise comparison. Finally, all the multi criteria decision methods were combined to obtain an intersection of the suitability index map for candidate landfill sites. Seven appropriate sites for landfill were suggested, all of which satisfied the scientific and environmental criteria which were adopted in this study.

  • 157.
    Al-Khateeb, Mukdad
    et al.
    University of Technology, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    A Spatial Sustainable Development Model Based on Partnership between Government, Community and Specialist in Baghdad2016Ingår i: Creative Education, ISSN 2151-4755, E-ISSN 2151-4771, Vol. 7, nr 14, s. 1881-1890Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is facing fatal challenges: internal, external and natural that are threatening the well-being of the Iraqi community at present and certainly jeopardizing the sustainable development at all levels of Sustainable Development (SD)-Capitals: natural, human and social, and manufactured/financial. This paper is intended to discuss on establishing a Sustainable Neighborhood in Baghdad, where it could serve as an experimental project to test the forms of expenditure that would guarantee the best eco-efficient transformation of expenditure to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The paper illustrates the challenges of SD and the factors that would exacerbate their effect unless dealing with through scientific-well managed procedures based on green growth policiesand sustainable development strategies.

  • 158.
    Al-Khateeb, Mukdad
    et al.
    University of Technology.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sustainable University Model for Higher Ed-ucation Iraq2014Ingår i: Creative Education, ISSN 2151-4755, E-ISSN 2151-4771, Vol. 5, nr 5, s. 318-328Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Education can become another burden on the development unless addresses the internal, external and natural challenges by Sustainable Universities that provide an educational, cultural and teaching model through a sustainable development strategy. This paper tends to illustrate the dif-ferent challenges of sustainable development in Iraq coupled with the full ignorance of the concept and principles of sustainability and suggests a model for a sustainable university. Although the suggested model is rather complicated, but it is crucial to encompass the different affects of human resources on the sustainable development capitals, at and beyond, the university campus.

  • 159.
    Al-Madhlom, Qais
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Department of Geology, College of Science, Kufa University.
    Assessment of Groundwater Vulnerability in Northern Babylon Governorate, Iraq2016Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, nr 12, s. 883-902Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater is one of the main resources from the earth, especially for arid or semiarid

    countries. For this reason, it is very important to keep it unpolluted. Drastic

    Model is one of the widely used models to detect groundwater vulnerability to the

    contaminants that are found on ground surface. In this model, it is assumed that the

    vulnerability of the groundwater is affected by seven hydrological parameters. They

    are: depth from the surface ground to groundwater, net recharge into the aquifer

    from the surface, aquifer media, soil media, area topography, impact of vadose zone

    and aquifer hydraulic conductivity. In this study, the DRASTIC model was applied

    on the northern part of Babylon governorate in Iraq, to predict the vulnerability of

    Groundwater in that area. The results indicate that the vulnerability is very low to

    low grade.

  • 160.
    Al-Madhlom, Qais
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. University of Babylon, Coolege of Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Department of Geology, College of Science, Kufa University.
    Lindblom, Jenny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Abdullah, Twana
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Abid Hamza, Basher
    University of Babylon, Coolege of Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Seepage Velocity of Dibdibba Formation in Karbala, Iraq2017Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 279-290Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq highly depends on its surface water resources. Now it is facing water shortage problems. For these reasons, the utilization of groundwater will be increasing with time. Karbala Governorate is located in the central part of Iraq. It covers an area of 5034 km2 and the population exceeds one million. It is characterized by an arid or semiarid environment. Karbala Governorate lack surface water resource and consequently, groundwater is the only available resource. The main groundwater aquifer within the area is Dibdibba formation. It is composed of poorly sorted sand and sand stone with gravel. In this research hydrological and hydrogeological information were used to find out the magnitude and the direction of groundwater seepage velocity. The results indicate that groundwater flow toward the flood plain to the east of the study region. The seepage velocity ranges from 0 to 0.18 m/d, with a general increase when moving from the west to the east.

  • 161.
    Al-Madhlom, Qais
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. College of Engineering/Al-Musaib, University of Babylon, Hillah, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Hussain, Hussain Musa
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq.
    Site Selection of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Systems in Shallow Groundwater Conditions2019Ingår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 7, artikel-id 1393Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Underground thermal energy storage (UTES) systems are widely used around the world, due to their relations to heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) applications [1]. To achieve the required objectives of these systems, the best design of these systems should be accessed first. The process of determining the best design for any UTES system has two stages, the type selection stage and the site selection stage. In the type selection stage, the best sort of UTES system is determined. There are six kinds of UTES systems, they are: boreholes, aquifer, bit, tank, tubes in clay, and cavern [2–5]. The selection of a particular type depends on three groups of parameters. They are: Site specific, design, and operation parameters (Figure 1). Apart from site specific parameters, the other two types can be changed through the life time of the system. The site specific parameters, e.g., geological, hydrogeological, and metrological, cannot be changed during the service period of the  ystem. Therefore, the design of the best type should depend, at first consideration, on site specific parameters.

  • 162.
    Al-Madhlom, Qais
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq.
    Hamza, B.
    University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Kufa University, Kufa, Iraq.
    Site Selection Criteria of UTES Systems in Hot Climate2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the XVII ECSMGE-2019: Geotechnical Engineering foundation of the future, Iceland: The Icelandic Geotechnical Society (IGS) , 2019, Vol. 1, s. 1-8Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Underground Thermal Energy Storage UTES systems are widely used around the world. The reason is that UTES is essential in utilizing Renewable Energy sources (RE). The efficiency of the energy system relies strongly on the efficiency of the storage system. Therefore, in the installation of a hyper-energy system, a lot of attention is to be paid in improving the storage system. In order to design an efficient storage system, firstly, standard criteria are to be investigated. These explain the process of making high efficiency storage system that must be specified. The criteria, mainly, depends on: best type and best location. These two variables are in high interference with each other. The bond between the two variables is represented by the geological, hydrological, meteorological, soil, hydrogeological properties/factors of the site. These factors are specified by geo-energy mapping. Despite the importance of this type of mapping, there is no specific criteria/formula that defines the choice. This paper aims to: give a brief literature review for UTES systems (types, classification, advantages/disadvantages for each type, and examples of an installed system). In addition, some factors within geo-energy mapping are highlighted and standard criteria to achieve good storage system are suggested. The suggested criterion comprises a process to transfer the quantity values to quality values according to the expert opinion. The suggested criteria are defined through the following stages: selecting the best type of UTES systems according to hydro-geological in site conditions; using the analytical hierarchy process to rank the best location to install the storage system and then using ArcMap (GIS-Software) to provide representative results as maps. Karbala Province (Iraq) is the study area used here

  • 163.
    Al-Madhlom, Qais
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Chabuk, Ali
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. University of Babylon, Babylon, Hilla, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Lindblom, Jenny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    University of Kufa, Kufa, Najaf, Iraq.
    Potential use of UTES in Babylon Governorate, Iraq2020Ingår i: Groundwater for Sustainable Development, ISSN 2352-801X, Vol. 10, artikel-id 100283Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a global attention that the future energy systems will be based on renewable energy like solar and wind. The large-scale utilization of renewables in space heating and cooling requires large Thermal Energy Storage TES to overcome the varying supply and demand. The process of producing the best Underground Thermal Energy Storage UTES system pass through two steps: first, finding the best type of UTES system, second, finding the best locations to install UTES system. Both of these two steps depend extremely on the site specific parameters such that the depth to the groundwater, transmissivity, type of soil, the depth to the bedrock, and seepage velocity. The purpose of this paper is to explain some of the site specific parameters that the type of UTES-system depends on and explain the suitable type of UTES systems. This study considers Babylon province (Iraq) as study area. This province has electricity deficiency due to Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning HVAC applications. The methodology of this study includes reviewing the literature that consider the study area, and using Arc Map/GIS to visualize some of the in-site parameters. The results indicate that the best type of UTES system for the considered region is either aquifer or pit type, due to the type of the soil and the depth to the crystalline bedrock. The hydraulic conductivity and the seepage velocity in the considered region are (0.0023–2.5) m/d and (1.3 × 10−6 – 3.45 × 10−3) m/d respectively. These conditions satisfy the standards which regard aquifer type.

  • 164.
    Al-Maliki, Laheab A. Jasem
    et al.
    Department of Hydraulic Engineering Structu res, Faculty of Water Resources Engine ering, Green University of Al Qasim, Baghdad.
    Al-Mamoori, Suhaib Kareem
    Department of Environmental Planning, Faculty of Physical Planning, University of Kufa, Najaf.
    El-Tawel, Khaled
    Lebanese University, Faculty of Engineering, Beirut.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Najaf.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al Ali, Mohammed Jawad
    Department of Environmental Planning, Faculty of Physical Planning, University of Kufa, Najaf.
    Bearing Capacity Map for An-Najaf and Kufa Cities Using GIS2018Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 10, nr 5, s. 262-269Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An-Najaf province is situated in south-western part of Iraq. It is 70 meters above the sea level in the dry desert environment. The city is considered as one of the most important cities in Iraq, facing a fast population growth and continuous development in constructions such as residential complexes, hotels, bridges and shopping malls. Soil investigation data for An-Najaf Province (An-Najaf and Kufa cities) from 464 boreholes drilled by the National Centre for Construction Laboratories & Researches (NCCLR)/Babylon laboratory were used in this research. The data were analysed and possessed using Excel program then represented on the Geographical Information System (GIS) program by Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) tool to create an allowable bearing capacity map for the soil at depths 0 - 2 meters. The allowable bearing capacity is one of the most important soil characteristics to be considered when making a database for An-Najaf city soil. Geographical Information System GIS program enables to create reliable database for any characteristic and it is one of the best programs to produce an accurate map and allow ease in dealing with it. Those maps cover all the studied areas and by using contour lines, approximate values for no-data areas can be obtained. The results show that the allowable bearing capacity range is 5 - 20 Ton/m2 for both An-Najaf and Kufa cities. Kufa city has the range 5 - 9 Ton/m2. An-Najaf city has the range 7 - 18 at the center, 8 - 10 Ton/m2 at the north eastern part, 7 - 14 Ton/m2 for the north western part, 6 - 12 Ton/m2 at the south eastern and 12 - 19 Ton/m2 at the south western.

  • 165.
    Al-Mamoori, Sohaib Kareem
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Planning, Faculty of Physical Planning, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq.
    Al-Maliki, Laheab A. Jasem
    Department of Hydraulic Engineering Structures, Faculty of Water Resources Engineering, University of Al-Qasim Green, Babylon, Iraq.
    Al-Sulttani, Ahmed H.
    Department of Environmental Planning, Faculty of Physical Planning, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq.
    El-Tawil,, Khaled
    Faculty of Engineering, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq. Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Horizontal and Vertical Geotechnical Variations of Soils According to USCS Classification for the City of An-Najaf, Iraq Using GIS2019Ingår i: Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, ISSN 0960-3182, E-ISSN 1573-1529Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The unified soil classification system (USCS) first proposed by Casagrande and subsequently developed by the Army Corps of Engineers. It widely used in many building codes and books. An-Najaf city is the most important city in Iraq due to its religious and spiritual value in the Muslim world, so it is fast expanding and continuous developing city in Iraq. The data from 464 boreholes in the study area for depths of 0–26 m have been used. 13 Soil samples were collected from each borehole with 13 depths level (0–26) m with 2 m intervals. The USCS was applied to the soil samples from 13 depth levels borehole. This research aims to create a geodatabase for soil properties for An-Najaf. The ArcGIS 10.5 software was used to interpolate the spatial data to produce 33 geotechnical maps for fine soil, coarse soil and USCS for 13 depth levels. For numerical soil data, Ordinary Kriging has been used for interpolation mapping of Fine and Coarse percentage data for each depth. For non-numerical (nominal) soil data (USCS class), the Indicator Kriging method is used. The results show that the coarse soil occupied 85–95% for depth 0–16 m and consist of (SP, SP-SM, SM) while fine soil occupied 5–15% consisting of (OL, CH, ML) subsequently, this soil when compacted has a permeability of pervious to semi impervious, good shearing strength, low to very low compressibility and acceptable workability as a construction material. The results also show that after 16 m depths until 26 m, the fine soil percentage increased to 40% with a coarse soil percentage of 60%, indicating changes in soil characteristics as the permeability became semi-pervious to impervious, fair shearing strength, medium compressibility and fair workability as a construction material. The study results will provide help and saving time, efforts and money in preliminary engineering designs.

  • 166.
    Al-Mamoori, Sohaib Kareem
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Planning, Faculty of Physical PlanningUniversity of KufaNajafIraq.
    Al-Maliki, Laheab A. Jasem
    Department of Hydraulic Engineering Structures, Faculty of Water Resources EngineeringGreen University of Al QasimBaghdadIraq.
    El-Tawel, Khaled
    Faculty of Engineering, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al Ali, Mohammed Jawad
    Department of Environmental Planning, Faculty of Physical PlanningUniversity of KufaNajafIraq.
    Chloride, Calcium Carbonate and Total Soluble Salts Contents Distribution for An-Najaf and Al-Kufa Cities’ Soil by Using GIS2019Ingår i: Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, ISSN 0960-3182, E-ISSN 1573-1529, Vol. 37, nr 3, s. 2207-2225Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of the paper is to create geotechnical maps for three soil chemical properties in An-Najaf and Kufa cities’ soil by utilizing of GIS tools. This properties are the chloride concentration, calcium carbonate (CaCO 3) and total soluble salts where they affect the durability of reinforced structural elements. This paper provides an easy accurate way to represent soil properties levels for different depths of soil and create reliable database that will help engineers and decision makers. The data included in this paper were collected for (464) boreholes with depths up to 35 m distributed on residential areas in all of An-Najaf and Kufa cities. Arc-Map of GIS 10.2.1 was used to produce the maps. It has been concluded that chloride content in the soil of the study area range from - 0.01 to 0.99% and with an average of 0.5. The maximum value found in at depth 4–6 m while the minimum value found in location at depth 4–6, 8–10 and 14–16 m. The chloride content in most of An-Najaf province has exceeded the permissible limit and for all, this required taking percussions to protect foundations. While calcium carbonate content in the soil of the study area range from 53 to 0.18 and with an average of 26.6. The maximum and the minimum values found at depth 4–6 m. Calcium carbonate content is within the permissible limits in most locations except in some locations.

  • 167.
    Almuqdadi, Kadhim
    et al.
    Arab Academy-Denmark.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The waste of wars in Iraq: its nature, size and contaminated areas2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1991, new weapons were used for the first time by the American and British troops in Iraq. These weapons proved to have high destructive capability against armored machinery and tanks. Later, there were many signs of being a weapon to destroy the human beings, animals and plants, which raised huge controversy and sharp criticism among scientists, doctors and environmentalists. Despite the opacity and deception, many of the secrets of depleted uranium ammunition were exposed, and confirmed the seriousness of use and serious repercussions on the environment and public health, which stepped up the international campaign against its manufacturing and use. However, the brilliant military success and profits of the military industry tempted the Pentagon and NATO to continue production and use of these weapons. Despite the high human and environment risks DU was used in various conflicts like Iraq, Bosnia, Kosovo and Serbia, Afghanistan, Gaza, Lebanon and recently in Libya. It is noteworthy to mention that the public and even some scientists, researchers and news media are ignorant of the effects and risks of the use of DU in military operations. This raises the point that there should be a large campaign to raise public awareness to prevent the risk of DU weapons. Based on scientific research and updates, we would like to high light the waste of wars in Iraq: Our paper shed the light on the size of depleted uranium(DU) weapons used in the wars on Iraq and the legacy of waste (their nature, size, and the contaminated regions), as high risks on humans and the environment. This is one of the leading environmental, health and social tragic problems in Iraq. This problem should be addressed immediately, seriously and effectively.

  • 168.
    Almuqdadi, Kadhum
    et al.
    Arab Academy-Denmark.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Nature, size and contaminated areas of the waste of war in Iraq2013Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 93-107Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1991, new weapons were used for the first time by the American and British troops in Iraq. These weapons proved to have high destructive capability against armored machinery and tanks. Later, there were many signs of being a weapon to destroy the human beings, animals and plants, which raised huge controversy and sharp criticism among scientists, doctors and environmentalists.Despite the opacity and deception, many of the secrets of depleted uranium ammunition were exposed, and confirmed the seriousness of use and serious repercussions on the environment and public health, which stepped up the international campaign against its manufacturing and use.However, the brilliant military success and profits of the military industry tempted the Pentagon and NATO to continue production and use of these weapons. Despite the high human and environment risks DU was used in various conflicts like Iraq, Bosnia, Kosovo and Serbia, Afghanistan, Gaza, Lebanon and recently in Libya.It is noteworthy to mention that the public and even some scientists, researchers and news media are ignorant of the effects and risks of the use of DU in military operations. This raises the point that there should be a large campaign to raise public awareness to prevent the risk of DU weapons.Based on scientific research and updates, we would like to high light the waste of wars in Iraq: Our paper shed the light on the size of depleted uranium(DU) weapons used in the wars on Iraq and the legacy of waste (their nature, size, and the contaminated regions), as high risks on humans and the environment. This is one of the leading environmental, health and social tragic problems in Iraq. This problem should be addressed immediately, seriously and effectively.

  • 169.
    Almuqdadi, Kadhum
    et al.
    Arab Academy-Denmark.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Risks of the military uses f depleted uranium on humans and the environment2013Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 163-203Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Great Development in the military industry had been witnessed in the past two decades, especially in depleted uranium weapons. These weapons were first used by USA and its allies in 1991 in Iraq. Later they were used in Bosnia (1995), Kosovo and Serbia (1999) Afghanistan (2001) and finally Iraq (2003).The manufacturers and users of these weapons continued to blackout the nature of these weapons and deny the harm caused on the public health, animals and the environment.After a short period of time, facts were revealed by the investigations and research executed by large number of scientists and investigators.This paper highlights the important effects caused by the use of depleted uranium weapons on human health and environment.

  • 170.
    Al-Rawabdeh, Abdulla M.
    et al.
    University of Calgary, Alberta.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Taani, Ahmed A.
    Yarmouk University.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    A GIS-based drastic model for assessing aquifer vulnerability in Amman-Zerqa groundwater basin, Jordan2013Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, nr 5, s. 490-504Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Amman-Zerqa Basin (AZB) is a major basin in Jordan. The concentration of economic, agricultural and social activities within the basin makes it of prime importance to Jordan. Intensive agricultural practices are widespread and located close to groundwater wells, which pose imminent threats to these resources. Groundwater contamination is of particular concern as groundwater resources are the principal source of water for irrigation, drinking and industrial activities. A DRASTIC model integrated with, and GIS tool has been used to evaluate the groundwater vulnerability of AZB. The Drastic index map showed that only 1.2% of the basin’s total area of 3792 km2 lies in the no vulnerable zone and about 69% is classified as having low pollution potential. The results also revealed that about 30% of the catchment area is moderately susceptible to pollution potential and slightly 1% is potentially under high pollution risk. These results suggest that almost one third of the AZB is at moderate risk of pollution potential. These areas are mainly in the north-east and central parts of the basin where the physical factors like gentle slope and high water table well support the chances of getting shallow aquifer water polluted. Areas with high vulnerable pollution are mainly the central of Amman old city.

  • 171.
    Al-Rawabdeh, Abdullah
    et al.
    Department of Geomatics Engineering, University of Calgary.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Taani, Ahmed
    Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Yarmouk University.
    Al-Khateeb, Fadi
    Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, Alberta.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Modeling the risk of groundwater contamination using modified DRASTIC and GIS in Amman-Zerqa basin, Jordan2014Ingår i: Central European Journal of Engineering, ISSN 1896-1541, E-ISSN 2081-9927, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 264-280Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Amman-Zerqa Basin (AZB) is the second largest groundwater basin in Jordan with the highest abstraction rate, where more than 28% of total abstractions in Jordan come from this basin. In view of the extensive reliance on this basin, contamination of AZB groundwater became an alarming issue. This paper develops a Modified DRASTIC model by combining the generic DRASTIC model with land use activities and lineament density for the study area with a new model map that evaluates pollution potential of groundwater resources in AZB to various types of pollution. It involves the comparison of modified DRASTIC model that integrates nitrate loading along with other DRASTIC parameters. In addition, parameters to account for differences in land use and lineaments density were added to the DRASTIC model to reflect their influences on groundwater pollution potential. The DRASTIC model showed only 0.08% (3 km2) of the AZB is situated in the high vulnerability area and about 30% of the basin is located in the moderately vulnerable zone (mainly in central basin). After modifying the DRASTIC to account for lineament density, about 87% of the area was classified as having low pollution potential and no vulnerability class accounts for about 5.01% of the AZB area. The moderately susceptible zone covers 7.83% of the basin’s total area and the high vulnerability area constitutes 0.13%. The vulnerability map based on land use revealed that about 71% of the study area has low pollution potential and no vulnerability area accounts for about 0.55%, whereas moderate pollution potential zone covers an area of 28.35% and the high vulnerability class constitutes 0.11% of AZB. The final DRASTIC model which combined all DRASTIC models shows that slightly more than 89% of the study area falls under low pollution risk and about 6% is considered areas with no vulnerability. The moderate pollution risk potential covers an area of about 4% of AZB and the high vulnerability class constitutes 0.21% of the basin. The results also showed that an area of about 1761 km2 of bare soils is of low vulnerability, whereas about 28 km2 is moderately vulnerable. For agriculture and the urban sector, approximately 1472 km2 are located within the low vulnerability zone and about 144 km2 are moderately vulnerable, which together account for about 8% of the total agriculture and urban area. These areas are contaminated with human activities, particularly from the agriculture. Management of land use must be considered when changing human or agricultural activity patterns in the study area, to reduce groundwater vulnerability in the basin. The results also showed that the wells with the highest nitrate levels (81-107 mg/l) were located in high vulnerable areas and are attributed to leakage from old sewage water.

  • 172.
    Al-Rawabdeh, bdullaabdulala
    et al.
    University of Calgary, Department of Geomatics Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Attya, Hussain
    University of Calgary, Department of Geomatics Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    GIS Applications for Building 3D Campus, Utilities and Implementation Mapping Aspects for University Planning Purposes2014Ingår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 19-28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In city planning managing the third dimension is becoming a necessity. Using 3D GIS modeling within a GIS environment offers a flexible interactive system for providing the best visual interpretation because it aids the planning and decision-process. Previous 3D virtual models did not have to be completely accurate. It did need to be a relatively accurate representation of the true simulation of reality. Every point in 3D GIS models has their true coordinates, so they can express terrain features in an intuitive way which enhances the management and analysis of a proposed project through 3D visualization.A university campus is a complex infrastructure. New students and first- time visitors have a hard time orientating themselves and finding places. This paper discusses the concept of 3D GIS modeling techniques using the following simple procedure to generate a university campus as a real 3D GIS model which will show the effectiveness of the 3D GIS modeling approach. The 3D GIS model provides access to mapping data to support planning, design, and data management. Intelligent GIS models and GIS tools help community planning and apply regional and discipline-specific standards. Integration of GIS spatial data with campus organization helps to improve quality, productivity, and asset management. The following study built 3D GIS map and all utility information for Al al-Bayt University campus as a case study. The primary objective is to establish a 3D GIS for the Al al-Bayt university campus, Jordan to improved data management (e.g., maps, plans, usage of facilities, services) and to develop methods using 3D spatial analysis for specific applications.

  • 173.
    Alshammari, Musa
    et al.
    College of Engineering, University of Kerbala, Karbala, Iraq.
    Al Juboury, Maad F.
    College of Engineering, University of Kerbala, Karbala, Iraq.
    Naji, Laith A.
    Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Faisal, Ayad A. H.
    Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Zhu, Hongshan
    Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, P.R. China.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Naushad, Mu
    King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Synthesis of a Novel Composite Sorbent Coated with Siderite Nanoparticles and its Application for Remediation of Water Contaminated with Congo Red Dye2020Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research, ISSN 1735-6865, E-ISSN 2008-2304Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Re-use of the byproduct wastes resulting from different municipal and industrial activities in the reclamation of contaminated water is real application for green projects and sustainability concepts. In this direction, the synthesis of composite sorbent from the mixing of waterworks and sewage sludge coated with new nanoparticles named “siderite” (WSSS) is the novelty of this study. These particles can be precipitated from the iron(II) nitrate using waterworks sludge as alkaline agent and source of carbonate. Characterization tests using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping revealed that the coating process was correctly achieved and siderite nanoparticles were planted on the surface of the composite sorbent. Interaction between Congo Red dye and composite sorbent was evaluated through a set of batch tests under the variation of agitation time, pH of aqueous solution, and sorbent dosage. The results proved that the prepared sorbent had a high ability in the treatment of water contaminated with Congo Red dye in comparison with previous studies and the maximum adsorption capacity reached to maximum value i.e. 9416 mg/g. The sorption process was governed by electrostatic attractions; however, Sips and Pseudo-second-order models described this process with coefficient of determination greater than 0.99.

  • 174.
    Al-Taie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Bearing Capacity Affecting the Design of Shallow Foundation in Various Regions of Iraq Using SAP200 & SAFE softwares2014Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 35-52Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bearing pressure is the load per unit area along the foundation bottom. The value of bearing pressure can be obtained from soil exploration. In this research, three sites in Iraq were tested (Mosul at north, Baghdad at middle and Basrah at south) for the best type of foundation to be chosen. Seventy nine samples were taken from twenty three boreholes drilled to a depth ranging from 1to 24m, from various sites for the three sites. Samples were tested for their size; Atterberg limits; direct shear; unconfined compression; consolidation and SPT tests. The results showed that the nature of soil in Mosul was generally were silty clay to clay (in some areas silt or sand) with high to very high plasticity. In Baghdad, it was loam clay, silty clay, and in some areas silt. Its plasticity range was medium to high and non-plastic in few sites. For Basrah, the soil type was clay loam and in many places was sand or silt. The value of plasticity was medium. The average and the worst values of bearing capacity were: 177KN/m2 and 77KN/m2 for Mosul; 125 KN/m2 and 68 KN/m2 for Baghdad; and 84KN/m2 and 24 KN/m2 for Basrah. These values were used in a computer model (SAP2000 and SAFE softwares) to find the best suitable foundation in each site. The model suggests that spread or continuous and raft (if basement is used for building with many floors) are suitable for Mosul. For Baghdad, spread and raft type of foundations are suitable. While, for Basrah, raft foundation type are to be used in some areas where building should be less than three floors and for other areas, deep foundation (piles or pier) can only to be used.

  • 175.
    Al-Taie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Effect of bearing capacity on designing foundations in Iraq using STAAD Pro- v8i2014Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 2014, nr 6, s. 292-303Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of Iraqi soil is classified as Quaternary deposits, especially in the Mesopotamian plain and tributaries of the River Tigris. Soil varies from north to south of Iraq. These differences in soil af-fected the process to select the suitable type of foundation. This research is to study the effect of bearing capacity on shallow foundations in different regions of Iraq. Seventy nine samples were collected from 23 boreholes at three different locations (Mosul at the North, Baghdad at the middle and Basrah at the south of Iraq). The samples were collected at varying depth between 1 to 24m. They were subjected to the following testes: Atterberg limits, sieve and hydrometers, consolidation, direct shear, unconfined compression and the filed (SPT test). The values of the bearing capacity parameters (ϕ and c) were obtained from the above tests. The results obtained were used in the application of the general equation of the bearing capacity. Then, the model of a building was designed (two floors, with mat foundation type) using STAAD Pro software. The average values of bearing capacity in each region were applied in the program (Mosul= 177KPa, Baghdad= 125KPa and Basrah= 84KPa). In addition, the worst bearing capacity values were also used for the three regions (Mosul = 77KPa, Baghdad= 68 KPa and Basrah= 24KPa). The results obtained from the average and worst bearing capacity indicated that for Mosul, we could use shallow foundation (spread and mat used if there was basement) for different areas and for buildings with many sto-ries. For Baghdad region, shallow foundation was more suitable for building not higher than five stories. Finally, for Basrah region, shallow foundations were an appropriate selection, but for most areas deep foundation was the right choice.

  • 176.
    Altaie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Effect of Material Used in Concrete Mixture on the Foundation Stresses on Soil2015Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 7, nr 10, s. 668-675Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable design, green architecture and sustainable construction are new methods for design and construction that are employed for environmental and economic challenges. Clay and bricks proved as sustainable building materials. In this paper, crush brick in the concrete mixture instead of normal coarse aggregate will be used. STAAD Prov8i software was applied for the designed of a hypothetical building in different sites of the three locations in Iraq (Mosul at the north, Baghdad at the center and Basrah at the south). The input model data used in the software were depending on the field and laboratory tests done for twenty three sites in the three locations of Iraq. Concrete properties values were used in the software for concrete mixture with crushed bricks. The results values of base pressure obtained from the software were low for the three locations. The maximum values of base pressure under the foundation for both the average and the minimum bearing capacity values for Mosul region for the normal strength concrete and air-entrained were (94, 84) kPa and (91, 82) kPa respectively, for Baghdad region were (89, 82) kPa and (86, 81) kPa respectively. Finally, for Basrah, the results for the base pressure were (84, 77) kPa and (82, 76) kPa, respectively. The results values of the base pressure were less for all locations compared with the base pressure values obtained from a previous work for the same locations. The use of crushed brick as aggregate in the concrete mixture is economical due to its availability as local material and it is durable materials with low weight.

  • 177.
    Altaie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Estimation of Settlement under Shallow Foundation for Different Regions in Iraq Using SAFE Software2015Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 7, nr 7, s. 379-386Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Foundation design must satisfy limited values of settlement. Settlement is an essential criterion in the design process of shallow foundations. To calculate the settlement under different types of shallow foundations, 79 samples were taken from twenty-three sites distributed in three regions:Mosul, Baghdad and Basrah in the northern, central and southern parts of Iraq. Field and laboratory tests were performed to obtain the strength parameters to calculate the bearing capacity. The results obtained for the bearing capacity were used in SAFE software. The software was used to design and analyze the foundation and to calculate the settlements under two types of foundations (raft and continuous) for the three regions. Average and minimum values of bearing capacity wereused. The software used subgrade reaction modules values for the design and analysis. According to the results, the suitable, safe and economical type of foundation to be used in Mosul, Baghdad and Basrah regions for the average value of bearing capacity is the continuous type for the first two regions while the raft type is recommended for Basrah region. In case that the minimumbearing capacity values are used, raft foundation is recommended for Mosul and Baghdad. While deep foundation is the suitable type of foundation for Basrah region.

  • 178.
    Al-Taie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Reconstruction and Projects Department, Minister of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Evaluation of Foundation Settlement under Various Added Loads in Different Locations of Iraq Using Finite Element2016Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, nr 5, s. 257-268Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Settlement is an important criterion in the design of the foundations. It is classifying into immedi-ate (or elastic) settlement and consolidated settlement (primary and secondary). The factors that affect the shallow foundation settlement are the applied loads, soil stiffness, and geometric shape of foundation. Calculations of settlement depend on the parameters of soil which can be obtained from field and laboratory tests. Field and laboratory tests were conducted for twenty three sites in three different regions in Iraq (Mosul, Baghdad, and Basrah). In this research, field and laboratory tests results adopted for two sites from each region depended on the maximum and minimum bearing capacity values. Settlement for each site was calculated using numerical (mathematical) calculations and PLAXIS software under different added loads. The results of settlements beneath the foundation were competing for the sites with maximum value of bearing capacity in Mosul; Baghdad and Basrah. Also, the comparison conducted for sites of minimum bearing capacity value and the results showed different settlement values of each site. The change of settlement values under different loads was linearly in the six sites using numerical (mathematical) calculations. While, the settlement values obtained from PLAXIS software for sites with maximum bearing ca- pacity value showed that Mosul site had the highest value due to the type of soil layers and the dif- ference models of soil used in the software. Basrah site had a settlement value higher than Bagh- dad site due to the soil layers of sand type only. PLAXIS results for sites with minimum bearing capacity showed that for Basrah site the soil went to failure. While, the settlement values for Mosul and Baghdad sites were close to each other due to have nearly same soil layers. Therefore, high rise buildings could not be used in some sites. Also, soil in some locations and under some added loads needed to be improved before the implementation of any constructions.

  • 179.
    Altaie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Materials and the style of buildings used in Iraq during the Islamic period2012Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 2, nr 2, s. 69-97Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Islamic period in Iraq lasted 1002 years (637-1639 AD). During this period big cities were constructed and old cities were reconstructed. There was development of the materials used and the design. Bricks, grill wage, plaster, gypsum and marble and stones were used. The environmental conditions were taken in the design of the buildings. The walls were thick and basements and badgur were established. This makes it easier to cool or heat the house. Tar was used to protect the buildings from moisture. New style of buildings was established using new engineering innovations. Well-designed arches and domes were noticed during this period. Islamic buildings had special features such as minarets, arches, domes, vaults, gilding, patterns and decorations.

  • 180.
    Altaie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Progress of building materials and foundation engineering in ancient Iraq2012Ingår i: Advanced Materials Research, ISSN 1022-6680, E-ISSN 1662-8985, s. 220-241Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans realised the importance of housing since the dawn of history. The first man used the caves as shelter. When agricultural activities dominated the life style of humans, villages started to be constructed. Later these were developed into cities. The dawn of civilization started in Iraq. The inhabitants in that time used the available natural materials in their construction. Reviewing the progress of engineering practices of ancient Iraq, reveals the facts that the inhabitants were aware of the principles of construction and engineering. The materials used and the design of the buildings were very suitable from both environmental and engineering perspectives. This work is a critical review of the progress and development of engineering practices and construction materials used in ancient Mesopotamia

  • 181.
    Al-Taie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The need to develop a building code for Iraq2014Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 6, nr 10, s. 610-632Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Building Code is a legal document provided a minimum level of safety and health for the construc-tions to make public living in safe buildings. People recognize the importance of constructing the buildings in safe conditions, since the dawn of civilization. Many countries around the world were facing different kind of disasters such as fires, earthquakes, etc. These disasters made builders to develop methods for safe construction to avoid any disaster. Later, these developments became codes and standards. Since, the middle of the last century many countries established its local codes. This research represents a review of the importance of the codes with a short history for them. Furthermore, reviews for some national codes (Egyptian, Syrian and Arabia Saudi) were done as well as comparison between load’s correction factors, geotechnical requirements and materials used in concrete. Most of the national codes were highly based on the ACI, British and Germany codes and standards. In addition, a review and comparison were presented for International codes (American (ACI) and European (EC)) through a case study. EC code is becoming more common for the world. Eurocode give more flexibility to the user to employ their own standards (national annex). To find the best suitable foundation design to be used in Iraq and the differences when using the American and European codes, a building model was designed and analyzed using STAAD Pro., and SAFE softwares for three locations (Mosul, Baghdad and Basrah). The combination loads used in the two softwares were for ACI and EC codes. Results obtained were very similar. The type of foundation to be chosen for Mosul location is spread or continuous. For Baghdad location the suitable type is raft and for Basrah the choice is raft and piles.In view of the fact that Iraq has no national code engineers and designers were depending on the ACI and British codes and standards. It is very important to have an Iraqi code because it will im-prove the quality and safety of the design and construction of buildings as well as its economic value.

  • 182.
    Altaie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The progress of buildings style and materials from the Ottoman and British occupations of Iraq2012Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 2, nr 2, s. 41-51Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The period of ottoman occupation of Iraq was characterized by the same style of buildings and they used local materials as did their predecessors. At the beginning of ottoman occupation, governors were focusing on build mosques and religion schools (Tkaya). Houses were built in random styles depending on the experiences of the builders. For this reason, the houses became irregular and expanded randomly. This lead to the shrinkage of the areas of the roads where they became very narrow and used to referred to as “Drbuna”. At the end of the ottoman period the style of buildings changed and it was reflecting European renaissance influences such as the government campus known as “Qishla”. In 1917 the British army occupied Iraq. During this period the buildings were more inclined to the European style. New materials were used for the first time like cement and iron (Schliemann). The new materials and design destroyed the Iraqi heritage and cultural identity. It is believed that the new housing style did not take into consideration the Iraqi environment.

  • 183.
    Al-Taie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Saaed, Tarek Edrees
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Foundation assessment in different parts of Iraq using STAAD Pro v8i2013Ingår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 273-281Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Foundation is considered as one of the main parts of any structure such as buildings, railways, bridges, etc. The type of foundation used is highly dependent on the type and properties of soil. The design of foundations requires many factors that should be defined such as the load that the foundation is going to hold, geological conditions of the soil under the foundation, type of soil and the local building code criteria.There are number of differences in the geological and soil conditions in Iraq. As a consequence, these differences are reflected on the type of foundation to be used. Despite these differences, same materials and style of buildings are used all over Iraq. The main problems of Iraqi soil are high gypsum content, salinity and shallow water table depth. These factors that influence the foundations are the soil properties and the amount of loads that transmitted by the superstructure.The situation had been analysed through a case study which illustrated the link between soil and foundation types in three different parts of Iraq (Mosul, Baghdad and Basra). One building was analysed using STAAD. Pro software in these regions. It is evident that Iraqi designers and engineers require local code to define all the loads, materials and design of the foundation to be used. The use of local materials might be very effective from both engineering and economic perspectives.

  • 184.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hazardous wastes problems in Iraq: a suggestion for an environmental solution2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq passed through many destructive wars where the country infrastructures have been destroyed. Consequently, various types of hazardous wastes generated from 1991 and 2003 wars are exposed in different parts of Iraq without any aspect of human and environment considerations. Contaminants are found in the form of contaminated rubble with depleted uranium (DU). Landfill disposal is still an economical and vital solution that should serve between 500-1000 years for confining hazardous wastes like DU. The longevity of a hazardous waste landfill is mainly controlled by clay based liners. There are many factors affecting the performance of clay liners. These factors were discussed in this research. The main requirements of hazardous waste landfills were listed according to USEPA and German regulations. Finally, the main aspects of landfill siting criteria in Iraq were suggested.

  • 185.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hazardous wastes problems in Iraq:a suggestion for an environmental solution2013Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 81-91Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq passed through many destructive wars where the country infrastructures have been destroyed. Consequently, various types of hazardous wastes generated from 1991 and 2003 wars are exposed in different parts of Iraq without any aspect of human and environment considerations. Contaminants are found in the form of contaminated rubble with depleted uranium (DU). Landfill disposal is still an economical and vital solution that should serve between 300-1000 years for confining hazardous wastes like DU. The longevity of a hazardous waste landfill is mainly controlled by clay based liners. There are many factors affecting the performance of clay liners. These factors were discussed. The main requirements of hazardous waste landfills were listed according to USEPA and German regulations. Finally, the main aspects of landfill siting criteria in Iraq were suggested.

  • 186.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Proposed site selection criteria for hazardous waste disposal facilities in Iraq2012Ingår i: Waste Management and the Environment VI / [ed] V. Popov; H. Itoh; C.A. Brebbia, WIT Press, 2012, s. 309-319Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hazardous wastes in Iraq can be considered as a looming crisis due to its severe impact on health and environment after the 1991 and 2003 wars. The most dangerous type is depleted uranium waste. It is classified by EU and USEPA as Low-Level radioactive Waste and a simple and sufficiently safe way of isolating it from the biosphere is to turn it into a landfill confined within tight dikes. Selection of a disposal site requires a number of conditions to be fulfilled, like socio/economic, environmental and geotechnical criteria, which, in combination, determine where such landfills can be located. This is particularly obvious for Iraq, with its large desertic areas that are available for constructing landfills of hazardous waste. The climatic conditions are suitable and the deep groundwater level valuable for minimizing or avoiding contamination of the area. Heavy rain may occasionally fall requiring special measures to be taken for maintaining stability and tightness. This paper lists suitable site selection criteria for landfills of hazardous waste with special respect to Iraq. An example of a suitable disposal site is described and assessed.

  • 187.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hydraulic properties of smectite clays from Iraq with special respect to landfills of DU-contaminated waste2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfills of material contaminated by depleted uranium and other low-level radioactive waste must be isolated from the biosphere for a sufficiently long time. This can be effectively made in desert climate by collecting contaminated waste in suitable areas confined by tight embankments and covering them with very tight clay liners protected from desiccation and erosion by suitably composed filters and coarse rock fill. Examples of design principles and construction are described in the paper. The clay liners are made of air-dry expanding clay that can be found in sufficient quantities in Iraq and that provide very good tightness at low cost. The construction technique is well known from various projects.

  • 188.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hydraulic properties of smectite clays from Iraq with special respect to landfills of DU-contaminated waste2013Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 109-125Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfills of material contaminated by depleted uranium and other low-level radioactive waste must be isolated from the biosphere for a sufficiently long time. This can be effectively made in desert climate by collecting contaminated waste in suitable areas confined by tight embankments and covering them with very tight clay liners protected from desiccation and erosion by suitably composed filters and coarse rock fill. Examples of design principles and construction are described in the paper. The clay liners are made of air-dry expanding clay that can be found in sufficient quantities in Iraq and that provide very good tightness at low cost. The construction technique is well known from various projects.

  • 189.
    Alwan, Khaldoon Khaled
    et al.
    Department of Geology, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Kubaisi, Manal Shakir Ali
    Department of Geology, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Validity of Existing Rain Water Harvesting Dams within Part of Western Desert, Iraq2019Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 11, nr 12, s. 806-818Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study area is located within the western part of Iraq between Latitude

    (32˚45'0'' - 34˚0'0'') North and longitude (39˚30'0'' - 40˚45'0'') East within

    Anbar Governorate. It covers an area of 4767.423 Km 2 with elevation ranges

    from 360 to 840 m. The general slope decreases from southwest to northeast.

    Five old dams identified in the study area. The results of SWAT model

    showed high curve number (70 - 85) indicating low filtration and runoff rate

    (1.2 - 8.2) mm for the period (1994-2014). These dams have catchment areas

    ranged between (118.03 - 673.41) km 2. They were to be used for agricultural

    purposes. The results according to the Food, Agriculture Organization (FAO)

    standards for their distance from agricultural areas using a GIS showed that

    all are not suitable except dam number (1). The distance to roads showed that

    dams (1, 4) are highly suitable, (2, 3) are low suitable and dam (5) is not suitable.

    The average annual quantity of rain water that can be harvested from

    the 5 dams is about 12.9 million cubic meters.

  • 190.
    Alzeyadi, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Rawabdeh, Abdulla M.
    Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    A Novel Coating Method for Create Filter Media Capable to Remove Phosphate from Wastewater Effectively2019Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 11, nr 8, s. 443-463Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Filtration materials coating with metallic oxides represented a good method for phosphate sorption. However, most of the researchers utilize chemicals as a source of metallic oxides and heating process to set the chemicals over the filtration materials. This study is aimed to introduce the furnace bottom ash FBA as a source of metallic oxides; it is available free because it is dumped as a waste material from power generation plants. The method of creating new filter media involves coating the limestone and sand by FBA, and the ordinary Portland cement OPC utilized as binder to binding the mixture materials. The water is the factor which is responsible for activating the OPC. All factors such as mixed materials ratio, water content and age of reaction have subjected to optimization process. The results revealed that the optimal mixture for phosphate removal consists of 40% FBA, 5% OPC from dry weight of supporting material, 35% water ratio from the total weight of FBA and OPC, and 14 days are enough to complete the materials reaction. Limestone-furnace bottom ash LFBA indicated high capacity for phosphate sorption and possibility  of  efficiency  regenerate.  This  study  demonstrates  a  new  method  for coating the filtration materials more convenient with sustainability approach.

  • 191.
    Alzeyadi, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Alattabi, Ali
    School of Civil Engineering, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    Study of Biomass Bottom Ash Efficiency as Phosphate Sorbent Material2019Ingår i: Civil Engineering Journal, ISSN 2476-3055, Vol. 11, nr 5, s. 2392-2401Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Excessive richness of nutrients in water bodies such as rivers, lakes and ponds lead into deterioration of aquatic life as a results of dense growth of algae. Phosphate is one of the main nutrients that should be controlled to prevent this serious issue. Utilizing low cost material as a phosphate sorbent is offering a treatment method characterized as a sustainable solution. In this study the efficiency of biomass bottom ash BBA as phosphate sorbent material from aqueous solution is investigated. Batch experiments were undertaken, in which a particular mass of BBA was brought into contact with the phosphate solution. The experiments studied the influence of pH (different phosphate solutions were prepared with pH range 4 to 8), temperature (adsorption capacity measured at the temperature range of 10 to 30 °C), and contact time. In addition, the adsorption isotherm models were also applied to better understand the mechanism of phosphate sorption by BBA. The results revealed that the bonding between the cations (BBA surface) and anions (phosphate solution) is significantly affected by the pH of the solution. BBA presents an excellent phosphate sorption, especially, at low pH value and temperature around 20 oC. The method of this research can be adopted as a followed strategy for examination the capability of selected material for phosphorus removal from wastewater.

  • 192.
    Al-Zubaydi, Jaffar
    et al.
    Applied Geology Department, College of Science, University of Babylon.
    Alabidi, Abdulkadhim
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Al-Janabi, Ali
    Applied Geology Department, College of Science, University of Babylon.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Engineering and Tectonic Study of Rocks Discontinuities in the Proposed Abo-Hederya Quarry Site, Missan SE Iraq2016Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, nr 8, s. 525-534Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A detailed field survey of discontinuity (fractures) was carried out in the proposed Abo-Hederya Quarry Site, 70 km east Missan city, south-east of Iraq, where Al-Mukdadiya Formation (Upper Miocene-Pliocene) is exposed. The discontinuity survey was carried out in 10 stations covering the study area. At each station notes were collected about beds (lithology, thickness and orientation) and discontinuities (orientation, density, spacing, persistence and aperture). The slope stability analysis suggests that there is no real hazard area that could affect the quarry in future. Tectonic analysis demonstrates that tension fractures are common in the study area, while shear fractures (okl, hko, hol and hkl) are the less. The maximum principal stress direction in the study area is N (15 - 40) E, which is compatible with the regional tectonic stress in the area.

  • 193.
    Al-Zuheri, Atiya
    et al.
    Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Rashad, Haider
    Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Maliki, Ali A.
    Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Hussain, Hassain M.
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Determination of the chemical Structure of the Iraqi Oil Shale and its hydrocarbon Forms2018Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 7-20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The global impact of shale oil has revolutionized the world’s energy markets, resulting in significantly lower oil prices, higher global gross domestic product, changing geopolitics and shifted business models for oil and gas companies. Further and developed research initiative is required to fill critical gaps in knowledge at the interface of shale oil development along with environmental protection, so countries can prepare better for its energy future. This paper explores the characterization of Iraqi originated oil shale using various analytical techniques, such as mass spectrometry (MS), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrography (GC/MS). Based upon analytical results, it is found that the majority of chemical structure is in aliphatic hydrocarbon forms.

  • 194.
    Ameen, Ameen Mohammed Salih
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur .
    Ibrahim, Zainah
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur .
    Othman, Faridah
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Minimizing the Principle Stresses of Powerhoused Rock-Fill Dams Using Control Turbine Running Units: Application of Finite Element Method2018Ingår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, nr 9, artikel-id 1138Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on improving the safety of embankment dams by considering theeffects of vibration due to powerhouse operation on the dam body. The study contains two ainparts. In the first part, ANSYS-CFX is used to create the three-dimensional (3D) Finite Volume (FV)model of one vertical Francis turbine unit. The 3D model is run by considering various reservoirconditions and the dimensions of units. The Re-Normalization Group (RNG) k-𝜀𝜀 turbulence modelis employed, and the physical properties of water and the flow haracteristics are defined in theturbine model. In the second phases, a 3D finite element (FE) numerical model for a rock-fill dam iscreated by using ANSYS®, considering the dam connection with its powerhouse represented by fourvertical Francis turbines, foundation, and the upstream reservoir. Changing the upstream watertable minimum and maximum water levels, standers earth gravity, fluid-solid interface, hydrostaticpressure, and the soil properties are onsidered. The dam model runs to cover all possibilities forturbines operating in accordance with the reservoir discharge ranges. In order to minimize stressesin the dam body and increase dam safety, this study optimizes the turbine operating system byintegrating turbine and dam models.

  • 195.
    Amini, Ata
    et al.
    Kurdistan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Sanandaj, Iran.
    Kolahchi, Abdolnabi Abdeh
    Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Institute, SCWMRI, AREEO, Tehran, Iran.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Moghadam, Mehdi Karami
    Department of Agriculture, Payame Noor University (PNU), Tehran, Iran.
    Mohammad, Thamer
    Department of Water Resources Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Application of TRMM Precipitation Data to Evaluate Drought and Its Effects on Water Resources Instability2019Ingår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, nr 24, artikel-id 5377Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present research was carried out to study drought and its effects upon water resources using remote sensing data. To this end, the tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) satellite precipitation, the synoptic stations, and fountain discharge data were employed. For monitoring of drought in the study area, in Kermanshah province, Iran, the monthly precipitation data of the synoptic stations along with TRMM satellite precipitation datasets were collected and processed in the geographic information system (GIS) environment. Statistical indicators were applied to evaluate the accuracy of TRMM precipitation against the meteorological stations’ data. Standardized precipitation index, SPI, and normalized fountain discharge were used in the monitoring of drought conditions, and fountains discharge, respectively. The fountains were selected so that in addition to enjoying the most discharge rates, they spread along the study area. The evaluation of precipitation data showed that the TRMM precipitation data were of high accuracy. Studies in temporal scale are indicative of the strike of drought in this region to the effect that for most months of the year, frequency and duration in dry periods are much more than in wet periods. As for seasonal scales, apart from winter, the frequency and duration of drought in spring and autumn have been longer than in wet years. Moreover, the duration of these periods was different. A comparison between the results of changes in fountain discharges and drought index in the region has verified that the drought has caused a remarkable decline in the fountain discharges.

  • 196.
    Baby, Sultana Nasrin
    et al.
    Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Arrowsmith, Colin
    Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Application of GIS for Mapping Rainwater-Harvesting Potential: Case Study Wollert, Victoria2019Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 14-21Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Water is a basic normal asset for supporting the condition of life. Accessible water assets are feeling the squeeze because of expanding demand. Soon wa- ter,  which  we  have  epended  upon  to  be  accessible  and  an  unconditional present of nature will turn into a rare roduct. Protection and conservation of water assets are desperately required. In many parts of Victoria, water supply to communities is limited. Rainwater harvesting systems can provide water ator near the point of demand. The systems can be owner and utility operated and  managed.  Rainwater  collected  using  existing  structures,  i.e.  rooftops, parking lots, playgrounds, parks, ponds, floodplains etc., has few negative en- vironmental impacts compared to other technologies for water resources de- velopment. Rainwater is relatively clean and the quality is usually acceptablefor many purposes with little or even no treatment. The physical and chemi- cal properties of rainwater are usually superior to sources of groundwater that may have been subjected to contamination. The present study was intended to measure the rooftop rainwater harvesting potential using GIS techniques. The GIS examination utilized in this investigation was basically an efficient assess- ment  of  rooftop  water  collecting  in  the  chose  Wollert  which  is  a  suburb  in Melbourne, Victoria. With the use of GIS it was conceivable to appraise the ag- gregate sum of water harvestable at the household level. It is very tedious work to assess the catchments available for rooftop rainwater harvesting. Here the roof surfaces are the catchments and GIS is employed to calculate the area of various  types  of  roofs  and  their  potential  for  planning  for  the  area  under study.  As  a  result  Eucalypt  Estate  Wollert  has  huge  potential  and  can  makeabove 179.11 litres water available per person per day throughout the year.

  • 197.
    Baby, Sultana Nasrin
    et al.
    School of Mathematical and Geospatial Sciences, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Arrowsmith, Colin
    School of Mathematical and Geospatial Sciences, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Abbas, Nahlah
    School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Spatial Decision Support System for CoastalZone Management under a ChangingClimate in Victoria, Australia2018Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 10, nr 10, s. 637-642, artikel-id 87732Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ultimate aim of using spatial  datasets and  spatial  data modelling is  fo- cused on enabling a sustainable environment by bringing the public policies into  practice.  The  consequence  will  be  sustainable  spatially  aware  strategic planning for  all  levels  of  Australian government.  Geographical  Information Systems (GIS) are the platform that can serve this aim provided that model, current process and spatial datasets are fit for purpose. To bring public policy into practice a broad range of knowledge from different disciplines is needed. Most decision making processes are pressured in terms of time and driving forces and also the process is beyond the knowledge of individuals in the var- ious  disciplines.  There  is  a  need  for  immediate  uptake  models  and  tools which are relevant to the target subject that will facilitate this decision making process. This paper focuses on realizing the utility in spatial data and spatial data handling in order to help climate change adaptation programs at local government level. Web-based mapping tools can assist planners prepare for the changing climate conditions in Bass Coast Shire Council. The GIS team has gathered data from various climate research organizations to understand projections of what different climate scenarios might look like over the next 100-year period. From this website demo it is hoped that the user will under- stand  how  the  tool  works,  background  information  on  different  GIS  plat- forms, access to interactive mapping, online geospatial analysis tools, videos, open source resource, sea level tools, modelling, 3D visualization and direct download access to various planning and natural resource data sets relating to environment  management.  Some  results  from  our  elevation  data  analysesthrough these Web map visualization tools are provided.

  • 198.
    Baby, Sultana Nasrin
    et al.
    Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Wojcik, Bozena
    Senior GIS Officer at City of Whittlesea, Melbourne, Australia.
    Murone, Adrian
    Arborist and Aspiring Urban Forester, Melbourne, Australia.
    Martin-Chew, Linda
    Consultant/Director Plan-It Rural PL and Senior Strategic Policy Planner at City of Whittlesea, Melbourne, Australia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Developing an Automated City of Whittlesea Urban Tree Canopy Inventory Using Airborne LiDAR and Aerial Imagery2019Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 11, nr 12, s. 828-840Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The City of Whittlesea is in Melbourne’s north and is one of the largest municipalities in metropolitan Melbourne. The council GIS team using current aerial photos from 2017 and LiDAR (“LiDAR” stands for Light Detection and Ranging) point clouds 2009 products to identify trends in urban tree canopy cover in the established suburbs of the municipality between 2009 and 2017. The tree canopy coverage was calculated for residential properties, road reservations, public land and park sites within urban parts of Bundoora, Epping, Lalor, Mill Park, Thomastown, and South Morang. From the total project area of approximately 3499 hectares a test site was selected based on an extension of one of the LIDAR data tiles (e325n5828). This project investigates only 6 meters and higher tree canopy cover within the project area. The objectives of the project were to establish a methodology to calculate the urban tree canopy coverage from LiDAR 2009 data, that can be replicated in future calculations. The calculated urban tree canopy coverage from LiDAR 2009 data is 9%, compared to 8% coverage in 2017, based on aerial photography. This estimate was compared to similar Local Governance Areas that range from 12% to 40%. A key to planning and managing urban tree canopy is first to understand the quantity, quality, tree density and distribution of the resource across the landscape. Tree inventories and urban tree canopy analyses comprise an assortment of tools, technologies, and procedures that help us understand the structure and function of our urban tree canopy. The data and information gleaned from urban tree canopy assessments enable resource professionals and policymakers to make informed decisions about ordinances, housing diversity strategy, and budgeting, future tree planting programs and reduce urban heat islands.

  • 199.
    Beyaztas, Ufuk
    et al.
    Department of Statistics, Bartin University, Bartin, Turkey.
    Salih, Sinan Q.
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Chau, Kwok-Wing
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Yaseen, Zaher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Construction of functional data analysis modeling strategy for global solar radiation prediction: application of cross-station paradigm2019Ingår i: Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1994-2060, E-ISSN 1997-003X, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 1165-1181Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To support initiatives for global emissions targets set by the United Nations Framework Convention on climate change, sustainable extraction of usable power from freely-available global solar radia- tion as a renewable energy resource requires accurate estimation and forecasting models for solar energy. Understanding the Global Solar Radiation (GSR) pattern is highly significant for determin- ing the solar energy in any particular environment. The current study develops a new mathematical model based on the concept of Functional Data Analysis (FDA) to predict daily-scale GSR in the Burk- ina Faso region of West Africa. Eight meteorological stations are adopted to examine the proposed predictive model. The modeling procedure of the regression FDA is performed using two different internal parameter tuning approaches including Generalized Cross-Validation (GCV) and Generalized Bayesian Information Criteria (GBIC). The modeling procedure is established based on a cross-station paradigm wherein the climatological variables of six stations are used to predict GSR at two targeted meteorological stations. The performance of the proposed method is compared with the panel data regression model. Based on various statistical metrics, the applied FDA model attained convincing absolute error measures and best goodness of fit compared with the observed measured GSR. In quantitative evaluation, the predictions of GSR at the uahigouya and Dori stations attained corre- lation coefficients of R     0.84 and 0.90 using the FDA model, respectively. All in all, the FDA model introduced a reliable alternative modeling strategy for global solar radiation prediction over the Burkina Faso region with accurate line fit predictions.

  • 200.
    Bhagat, Suraj Kumar
    et al.
    Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Technology, Ambo University, Ambo, Ethiopia.
    Tiyasha, Tiyasha
    Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Technology, Ambo University, Ambo, Ethiopia.
    Welde, Wakjira
    Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Technology, Ambo University, Ambo, Ethiopia.
    Tesfaye, Olana
    Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Technology, Ambo University, Ambo, Ethiopia.
    Tung, Tran Minh
    Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Salih, Sinan Q.
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Sustainable Developments in Civil Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Evaluating Physical and Fiscal Water Leakage in Water Distribution System2019Ingår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 10, artikel-id 2091Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing population, the need for research ideas on the field of reducing wastage of water can save a big amount of water, money, time, and energy. Water leakage (WL) is an essential problem in the field of water supply field. This research is focused on real water loss in the water distribution system located in Ethiopia. Top-down and bursts and background estimates (BABE) methodology is performed to assess the data and the calibration process of the WL variables. The top-down method assists to quantify the water loss by the record and observation throughout the distribution network. In addition, the BABE approach gives a specific water leakage and burst information. The geometrical mean method is used to forecast the population up to 2023 along with their fiscal value by the uniform tariff method. With respect to the revenue lost, 42575 Br and 42664 Br or in 1562$ and 1566$ were lost in 2017 and 2018, respectively. The next five-year population was forecasted to estimate the possible amount of water to be saved, which was about 549,627 m3 and revenue 65,111$ to make the system more efficient. The results suggested that the majority of losses were due to several components of the distribution system including pipe-joint failure, relatively older age pipes, poor repairing and maintenance of water taps, pipe joints and shower taps, negligence of the consumer and unreliable water supply. As per the research findings, recommendations were proposed on minimizing water leakage.

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