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  • 151.
    Pang, Cheng
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, University of Auckland, University of Auckland, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering.
    Pakonen, Antti
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.
    Buzhinsky, Igor
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    A study on user-friendly formal specification languages for requirements formalization2017Ingår i: IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 676-682, artikel-id 7819246Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Formal methods and languages are used to prove the correctness of various industrial systems, especially mission-critical ones. They can also be viewed as a means to provide safety and correctness demonstration to the stakeholders of such systems. In domains such as nuclear power plant engineering, the benefits from structured safety evidences would seem obvious. However, most stakeholders in nuclear power industry are not even familiar with formal notations. As a result, to promote the applications of formal methods in practice, the first step is to make formal specification languages (FSLs) more accessible. With user-friendly FSLs, users can focus on safety requirements rather than on their sophisticated formalization. This paper, as a preliminary work towards an integrated framework supporting transparent safety demonstration, reviews existing approaches applied to facilitate requirements formalization and formal specifications. Moreover, the common features of user-friendly languages and their tool supports are also summarized.

  • 152.
    Pang, Cheng
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Shalyto, Anatoly
    ITMO University.
    A Portability Study of IEC 61499: Semantics and Tools2014Ingår i: 12th IEEE Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN 2014): Porto Alegre, Brazil, 27 - 30 July 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 440-445Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The second edition of the IEC 61499 standard aims to clarify the interpretation ambiguities of function block’s execution semantics. This resolves the pivotal issue of realizing portable and interoperable implementations of the IEC 61499 reference architecture. As the IEC 61499 standard is about entering its technology takeoff phase, these clarifications are timely and important. It is hence expected that more innovators of automation software tools, runtime environments, and control hardware will start adopting this technology. To assist such adoption, this paper presents a study of existing IEC 61499 tools’ portability issues. In particular, the features of currently active IEC 61499 tools, such as FBDK, ISaGRAF, 4DIAC, and nxtStudio are outlined. Their incompatibility issues due to different execution semantics are exemplified. Moreover, it is also illustrated in this paper how these issues can be addressed by complying with the updated norms.

  • 153.
    Pang, Cheng
    et al.
    University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Automatic model generation of IEC 61499 function block using net Condition/Event Systems2008Ingår i: Proceedings, IEEE INDIN 2008: 6th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics : July 13-16, 2008, Daejeon Convention Center, Daejeon, Korea, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2008, s. 1133-1138Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The IEC 61499 standard establishes a framework specifically designed for the implementation of decentralized reconfigurable industrial automation systems. However, the process of distributed system's validation and verification is difficult and error-prone. This paper discusses the needs of model generators which are capable of automatically translating IEC 61499 function blocks into formal models following specific execution semantics. In particular, this paper introduces the prototype Net Condition/Event Systems model generator and aims to summarize the generic techniques of model translation.

  • 154. Pang, Cheng
    et al.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    IEC 61499 function block implementation of Intelligent Mechatronic Component2010Ingår i: 2010 8th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics: (INDIN 2010); Osaka, Japan, 13 - 16 July 2010, Piscataway. NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2010, s. 1124-1129Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new approach of implementing Intelligent Mechatronic Component (IMC) using the IEC 61499 Function Block standard. In particular, this paper tries to address two issues during the engineering process of IMCs: a systematic approach of developing and organizing IMC elements and a seamless and scalable way supporting IMC composition and reconfiguration. A case study implementation example is presented to illustrate how the results from this work can be applied and integrated in Function Block development tools.

  • 155.
    Pang, Cheng
    et al.
    University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Systematic closed-loop modelling in IEC 61499 function blocks: A case study2009Ingår i: Elsevier IFAC Publications / IFAC Proceedings series, ISSN 1474-6670, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 199-204Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In industrial automation, verification and validation using closed-loop plant-controller models is getting recognized as the way to verify the controller's logic and the resulting controlled object's behaviour. To tackle the issues preventing wide adoption of closed-loop verification, a model-integrated design framework supporting structural model development and verification has been recently proposed. This work presents a follow-up case study of the proposed model design methodology following the Model-View-Control design pattern to develop closed-loop models using IEC 61499 function blocks. In particular, this paper tries to identify and address the generic issues of closed-loop modelling and the issues specific to IEC 61499 function block model development

  • 156.
    Pang, Cheng
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, University of Auckland, University of Auckland, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    University of Auckland, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering.
    Towards formal verification of IEC61499: Modelling of data and algorithms in NCES2007Ingår i: INDIN 2007: 5th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, [July 23-27 2007, Vienna, Austria], Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2007, s. 879-884Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to demonstrate the modelling details of IEC61499 basic function blocks by means of Net Condition Event Systems (NCES). In particular, the paper discusses modelling of basic data types, Boolean algebra and arithmetic operations of unsigned integer, and of simple algorithms in basic function block. The behaviour of the modelled IEC61499 systems can be verified by using model checking tools such as iMATCh and SESA.

  • 157.
    Pang, Cheng
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, University of Auckland, University of Auckland, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dai, Wenbin
    University of Auckland, Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Towards IEC 61499 models of computation in Ptolemy II2016Ingår i: Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2015: Yokohama, Japan, 9-12 Nov. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, s. 1988-1993, artikel-id 7392392Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The prospects of cyber-physical systems (CPS) have been well disseminated and recognized in diverse industries. In industrial automation domain, continuous research on CPS technologies has been funded strategically and globally. One important research challenge in industrial CPS is the modelling of physical processes in continuous domains connected with control systems in discrete domains. Such co-modelling must leverage state-of-the-art standards and tools for practicality. One feasible combination is the IEC 61499 standard for event-driven control and the Ptolemy II platform for heterogeneous model composition. Furthermore, by implementing the computational models of IEC 61499 in Ptolemy II, the behavioural discrepancies of the same IEC 61499 application under different execution semantics can be analysed. As a foundation work towards these goals, this paper investigates the principles of modelling basic IEC 61499 elements using existing Ptolemy II structures. It is aimed to provide some initial insights for engineering industrial CPS based on IEC 61499 and Ptolemy II.

  • 158.
    Pang, Cheng
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dai, William
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    IEC 61499 Based Model-Driven Process Control Engineering2014Ingår i: Proceedings of 2014 IEEE 19th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2014): Barcelona, Spain, 16-19 Sept. 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 1-8, artikel-id 7005088Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In process control engineering, most requirements for the control system are conventionally specified in piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&IDs). The process design and control requests captured in P&IDs are manually interpreted and then implemented in process automation software. This manual develop-ment highly relies on multi-disciplinary expertise and becomes laborious and error-prone for complex systems. This paper reports a study on applying model-driven approach to facilitate the engineering workflow from P&IDs to control software. The foundations of this work are the IEC 62424 standard, which bridges the gap of information exchange between process design and control engineering, and the IEC 61499 standard, which provides the distributed control architecture for process measurement and automation. The model transformation pathway from IEC 62424 P&ID to IEC 61499 application has been formally defined and then demonstrated on a case-study water heating system for a three-floor building.

  • 159.
    Pang, Cheng
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Deng, Yinbai
    University of Auckland.
    Sorouri, Majid
    University of Auckland.
    Virtual smart metering in automation and simulation of energy-efficient lighting system2013Ingår i: Proceedings of 2013 IEEE 18th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2013): Cagliari, Italy, 10-13 September 2013, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, artikel-id 6648040Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Building Automation and Control System (BACS) is a promising contributor for conserving building energy consumption. This paper proposes a virtual smart metering approach as an integral part of BACS for the demand control of building services. It can assist consumers to monitor the energy consumption and take measures to rationalize their energy efficiency at a finer granularity. This virtual smart metering enables the simulation-based energy efficiency evaluation of different automation and control strategies. It also establishes the load controlling infrastructure for further Demand Side Management at building side. A prototype lighting control system using virtual smart metering has been developed, where different control strategies can be simulated. It has been demonstrated that how intelligent lighting control taking daylight luminance and occupant presence into account can achieve better energy efficiency

  • 160.
    Pang, Cheng
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Fantuzzi, Cesare
    Department of Science and Methods for Engineering, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia.
    Time-complemented event-driven control framework for distributed motion control systems based on IEC 61499 and IEEE 15882011Ingår i: INDIN 2011: 2011 9th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics : Campus of Faculty of Science and Technology, New University of Lisbon, Caparica, Lisbon, Portugal : 26- 29 July, 2011, Piscataway, N.J: IEEE Communications Society, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a preliminary study towards the applications of IEC 61499 Function Block standard in distributed motion control systems, where synchronization is of crucial importance. In particular, an investigation on the possibilities of applying event-driven function blocks in the time-based motion control system has been performed on the SIDEL SL90 packaging machine's control system. To achieve the required high-precision time synchronization and to provide the reference time, the IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol has been implemented in this work as the essential part of the packaging control system. A time-complemented event-based control framework has also been proposed.

  • 161.
    Pang, Cheng
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Mayer, Horst
    nxtControl GmbH.
    Towards Cyber-Physical Approach for Prototyping Indoor Lighting Automation Systems2014Ingår i: Conference Proceedings / IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, ISSN 1062-922X, s. 3643-3648Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During daily operations of a building, a significant amount of energy is spent on indoor illumination. The choice of different lighting sources and control strategies can notably affect the energy consumption. To achieve the most economical lighting design, a number of factors from both physical and cyber perspectives must be considered. More importantly, these factors must be taken into account during early design phrases of building architecture and automation systems. This paper proposes an infrastructure towards the cyber-physical approach for prototyping indoor illumination. In particular, the distributed lighting automation system is modeled using the IEC 61499 standard. The lighting energy performance of a building is evaluated according to the EN 15193 standard. By integrating the evaluation methodology of energy efficiency in the development of lighting automation systems, adequate indications regarding the correlation between physical and cyber designs can be revealed. The proposed design approach has been demonstrated on a case study house, where the impacts of different lighting control strategies on the house’s energy efficiency can be intuitively compared.

  • 162.
    Pang, Cheng
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Yan, Jeffrey
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Time-Complemented Event-Driven Architecture for Distributed Automation Systems2015Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man & Cybernetics. Systems, ISSN 2168-2216, Vol. 45, nr 8, s. 1165-1177Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-driven and event-driven control models are two fundamental design paradigms applied in distributed control systems for synchronizing decentralized activities. This paper proposes a unified architecture for combining both approaches. The combination offers the best of both worlds’ properties, such as the expressiveness of event-driven programming and the determinism of time-driven logic. The foundations of this symbiosis are the IEC 61499 Function Block standard providing event-driven distributed control architecture and the IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol establishing the basis for highly-accurate time synchronization. The proposed time-complemented event-driven distributed control model aims at improving the modularity and flexibility of automation software with satisfactory control performance. The new control model has been compared with conventional centralized and distributed control approaches analytically and by simulation. The comparison results reveal that the proposed control model is efficient and flexible. Finally, a reference example has been used to demonstrate merits of the new approach.

  • 163.
    Pang, Cheng
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Yan, Jeffrey
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Jennings, Steven
    Interroll Holding GmbH, Hoeferhof 16, 42929 Wermerlskirchen.
    Distributed IEC 61499 material handling control based on time synchronization with IEEE 15882011Ingår i: ISPCS 2011: proceedings : 2011 International IEEE Symposium on Precision Clock Synchronization for Measurement, Control and Communication : September 14-16, 2011, hosted by TU München, Munich, Germany, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2011, s. 126-131Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a method of time-driven control with high-precision synchronous clocks in distributed control systems built following the IEC 61499 standard. It investigates the impact of applying time-driven control on performance of material handling systems. A time-driven control system for a multi-diverter conveyor line has been developed using IEC 61499 Function Blocks architecture with support of the IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol. Analytic performance model has been developed and comparisons between the time-driven and two other possible control designs have been conducted and elaborated in terms of costs, logic design, and system throughput

  • 164.
    Papakonstantinou, Nikolaos
    et al.
    Aalto University, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Sierla, Seppo
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Charitoudi, Konstantinia
    University of South Wales, Faculty of Computing, Engineering and Science (FCES), University of South Wales.
    O'Halloran, Bryan
    School of Mechanical, Industrial, & Manufacturing Engineering, Oregon State University.
    Karhela, Tommi
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Tumer, Irem
    School of Mechanical, Industrial, & Manufacturing Engineering, Oregon State University.
    Security impact assessment of industrial automation systems using genetic algorithm and simulation2014Ingår i: Proceedings of 2014 IEEE 19th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2014): Barcelona, Spain, 16-19 Sept. 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 1-8, artikel-id 7005094Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of the research on security of industrial automation systems has focused on countermeasures such as intrusion detection, certificate management or public key infrastructures. Due to limited resources, countermeasures should be focused to prevent the attacks with highest potential for damage. The impact of an attack can only be determined through a detailed analysis of the interactions of the automation system and the physical system under control. Attacks against single components are similar to ordinary component failures, so our focus is on deliberate damage to several components, since such scenarios are not considered in reliability engineering methods used for industrial automation systems. A simulation based security impact assessment method is proposed, using genetic algorithms to explore the range of possible attacks

  • 165.
    Patil, Sandeep
    et al.
    University of Auckland.
    Bhadra, S.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Closed-loop formal verification framework with non-determinism, configurable by meta-modelling2011Ingår i: Proceedings of the 37th IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON 2011), Melbourne, VIC: IEEE Communications Society, 2011, s. 3770-3775Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Formal verification of embedded control systems using closed-loop plant-controller models is getting increasingly popular. In this paper we propose a new method reducing complexity of model-checking on account of infusing non-determinism into certain parts of the plant model during formal verification process guided by a software tool. Net Condition/Event Systems (NCES) formalism is used for modular design of closed-loop models which are verified by ViVe and SESA model-checkers. Its performance is compared to modelling with finite state verified with SMV and UPPAAL and is proven to be superior.

  • 166.
    Patil, Sandeep
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Drozdov, Dmitrii
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Dubinin, Victor
    Computer Science Department, Penza State University, Penza, Penza State University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Cloud-Based Framework for Practical Model-Checking of Industrial Automation Applications2015Ingår i: Technological Innovation for Cloud-Based Engineering Systems: 6th IFIP WG 5.5/SOCOLNET Doctoral Conference on Computing, Electrical and Industrial Systems, DoCEIS 2015, Costa de Caparica, Portugal, April 13-15, 2015, Proceedings / [ed] Luis M. Camarinha-Matos ; Thais A. Baldissera ; Giovanni Di Orio; Francisco Marques, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2015, s. 73-81Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we address practical aspects of applying the model-checking method for industrial automation systems verification. Several measures are proposed to cope with the high computational complexity of model-checking. To improve scalability of the method, cloud-based verification tools infrastructure is used. Besides, closed-loop plant controller modelling and synchronization of transitions in the SMV (input language for symbolic model checking) model aim at complexity reduction. The state explosion problem is additionally dealt with by using an abstraction of the model of the plant with net-condition event systems, which is then translated to SMV. In addition, bounded model-checking is applied, which helps to achieve results in cases when the state space is too high. The paper concludes with comparison of performance for different complexity reduction methods

  • 167.
    Patil, Sandeep
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Drozdov, Dmitrii
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Adapting Software Design Patterns To Develop Reusable IEC 61499 Function Block Applications2018Ingår i: 2018 IEEE 16th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), IEEE, 2018, s. 725-732Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Design patterns in software engineering is a generic solution provided for repeatable problems occurring frequently in a software design. They are used a lot in the field of software engineering, especially for object-oriented software development. Different standards exist for design and development of industrial cyber-physical systems and the IEC 61499 standard is one of them. The standard presents a reference component architecture for design and development of distributed industrial cyber-physical systems. There is a lack of design patterns for application development with IEC 61499 standard and this paper address this by proposing some patterns. The design patterns presented are inspired by popular design patterns used in software engineering.

  • 168.
    Patil, Sandeep
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Drozdov, Dmitrii
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Penza State University.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Aalto University, Helsinki.
    Refactoring of IEC 61499 function block application: A case study2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial Cyber-Physical System applications, especially distributed ones are designed and implemented in many standard approaches, one of them being IEC 61499 distributed programming standard. This article presents a case study of applying couple of refactoring methods and techniques in order to improve readability, maintainability, reuse-ability and debugging friendliness of existing function block applications. The article presents some software metrics for pre and post refactoring function block applications for measuring the effectiveness of refactoring.

  • 169.
    Patil, Sandeep
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    University of Auckland, Penza State University, Department of Computer Science, University of Penza.
    Pang, Cheng
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Neutralizing Semantic Ambiguities of Function Block Architecture by Modeling with ASM2015Ingår i: Perspectives of System Informatics: 9th International Ershov Informatics Conference, PSI 2014, St. Petersburg, Russia, June 24-27, 2014. Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Andrei Voronkov ; Irina Virbitskaite, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2015, s. 76-91Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Function Blocks Architecture of the IEC 61499 standard is an executable component model for distributed embedded control systems combining block-diagrams and state machines. The standard aims at the portability of control applications that is however hampered by ambiguities in its execution semantics descriptions. In recent years several execution models have been implemented in different software tools that generate mutually incompatible code.This paper proposes a general approach to neutralizing these semantic ambiguities by formal description of the IEC 61499 in abstract state machines (ASM). The model embodies all known execution semantics of function blocks. The ASM model is further translated to the input format of the SMV model-checker which is used to verify formally properties of applications. In this way the proposed verification framework enables the portability checking of component-based control applications across different implementation platforms compliant with the IEC 61499 standard.The paper first discusses different existing execution semantics of function blocks and the portability issues across different IEC 61499 tools. Then a modular formal model of function blocks’ operational semantics in ASM is introduced and exemplified in the paper by the cyclic execution semantics case for a composite function block. Subsequently, the SMV model is generated and model-checking is illustrated for a simple test case.

  • 170.
    Patil, Sandeep
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    University of Auckland, Penza State University, Department of Computer Science, University of Penza.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Formal Modelling and Verification of IEC61499 Function Blocks with Abstract State Machines and SMV: Execution Semantics2015Ingår i: Dependable Software Engineering: Theories, Tools, and Applications : First International Symposium, SETTA 2015, Nanjing, China, November 4-6, 2015, Proceedings / [ed] Xuandong Li; Zhiming Liu; Wang Yi, New York: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2015, s. 300-315Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    IEC 61499 Standard for Function Blocks Architecture is an executable component model for distributed embedded control system design that combines block-diagrams and state machines. This paper proposes approach to formal modelling of IEC61499 function block execution semantics for popular model checking environment of SMV using Abstract State Machines. An operational semantics of IEC 61499 application with two-stage synchronous execution model is presented using this framework. This paper first introduces the importance of model checking function block applications in different execution semantics. It highlights the uses of formal verification, such as, verifying portability (behavior) of component based control applications across different implementation platforms compliant with the IEC 61499 standard. The formal model is applied on an example IEC 61499 application. The paper compares the verification results of this IEC 61499 application with two-stage synchronous execution model and the same application with cyclic execution model presented in the earlier work. With this comparison, we verify the portability of the IEC61499 applications across different platforms.

  • 171.
    Patil, Sandeep
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    University of Auckland, Penza State University, Department of Computer Science, University of Penza, Computer Science Department, Penza State University, Penza.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Formal Verification of IEC61499 Function Blocks with Abstract State Machines and SMV -- Modelling2015Ingår i: IEEE TrustCom-BigDataSE-ISPA 2015: Helsinki, 20-22 Aug. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, Vol. 3, s. 313-320, artikel-id 7345666Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    IEC 61499 Standard for Function Blocks Architecture is an executable component model for distributed embedded control system design that combines block diagrams and state machines. This paper proposes rules for formal modelling of IEC61499 function blocks for popular model checking environment of SMV using Abstract State Machines as an intermediate model. This paper first proposes a formal description of the IEC 61499 in abstract state machines (ASM). The formal description for main artifact of the standard (function block) is presented in the paper. The ASM model is further translated to the input format of the SMV model checker which is used to formally verify properties of applications developed in IEC 61499 standard. In this way the proposed verification framework enables the formal verification of the IEC 61499 control systems. The paper also highlights the other uses of verification such as portability of IEC 61499 based control applications across different implementation platforms compliant with the IEC 61499 standard. The formal model is applied on an example IEC 61499 controller, and the SMV model for the Basic Function block is explained in detail.

  • 172.
    Patil, Sandeep
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    McMillin, Bruce
    Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla.
    Implementation of FREEDM Smart Grid distributed load balancing using IEC 61499 function blocks2013Ingår i: Proceedings of Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2013: 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE, IEEE Communications Society, 2013, s. 8154-8159Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents implementation of one of the Distributed Grid Intelligence (DGI) applications: Load Balancing, using the IEC61499 architecture. This enables system level design of distributed load balancing application with a direct pathway to deployment to hardware. The use of IEC 61499 improves scalability, re-configurability and maintainability of automation software. The application was deployed to commercial programmable automation devices and embedded controller (ARM based TS-7800). The application was verified using co-simulation approach: control and power system simulated using Matlab on PC networked with the number of distributed hardware running load balance algorithm. The use of IEC 61499 facilitates deployment of hardware independent function block model to the variety of compliant hardware.

  • 173.
    Patil, Sandeep
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Pang, Cheng
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Counterexample-guided simulation framework for formal verification of flexible automation systems2015Ingår i: IEEE 13th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), 2015: Cambridge, United Kingdom, 22-24 July 2015, Piscataway, Nj: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 1192-1197, artikel-id 7281905Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a framework for formal verification of industrial automation software in an intuitive way. The IEC 61499 function block architecture is assumed to be the input language, and the Intelligent Mechatronic Components (IMC) architecture is assumed as an underlying design pattern for the applications, which implies autonomous control logic in each IMC and their compositions to systems in a plug-and-play way. Then the system is automatically verified using model checking and the counter examples for the failed model checking properties are played back step-by-step and state-by-state in the simulation model that most industrial automation control systems would have built as the basis for initial testing. Net Condition Event Systems formalism (a modular extension of Petri net) is used to model the decentralized control logic and discrete-state dynamics of the plant. The model is then subjected to model checking using the ViVe/SESA tool chain. The method's application is illustrated using a simple pick and place manipulator. A closed loop model of Plant and Controller is used. Controller is extensively verified for safety, liveliness and functional properties of the robot. We then show how a counter example for deadlock detected by the model checker is played back in the simulation model for visualizing how exactly the system deadlocked.

  • 174.
    Patil, Sandeep
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Pang, Cheng
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Yan, Jeffrey
    Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, University of Auckland.
    On composition of mechatronic components enabled by interoperability and portability provisions of IEC 61499: a case study2013Ingår i: Proceedings of 2013 IEEE 18th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2013): Cagliari, Italy, 10-13 September 2013, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, s. 4-, artikel-id 6648136Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Interoperability is one of the most important features expected from distributed automation architectures. Achieving interoperability involves addressing issues related to synchronization of behavior, communication protocols, and data presentation formats. In this paper a case study on deployment of an automation application to a network of control devices with three different hardware/software platforms is presented to exploit benefits of the IEC 61499 architecture. Firstly, an overall control application with essentially distributed logic was created. This control application was then validated using closed-loop simulation and finally deployed to a network of control devices

  • 175.
    Patil, Sandeep
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Sorouri, Majid
    University of Auckland.
    Formal verification of intelligent mechatronic systems with decentralized control logic2012Ingår i: Proceedings of the 17th IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2012): Krakow, Poland, 17 - 21 September 2012; [including workshops], Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces an approach to automatic verification of mechatronic systems designed as plug-and-play of Intelligent Mechatronic Components (IMC). The control logic of the system is composed from autonomous controllers of the IMCs and is automatically verified using model-checking. Net Condition Event Systems formalism (a modular extension of Petri net) is used to model the decentralized control logic and discrete-state dynamics of the plant. A re-configurable pick and place robot is used as an illustrative example. At first a three cylinder pick and place robot is used to design our new master-slave architecture for controller design and then the NCES models are re-used without much modification in a new 6 cylinder pick and place robot. The control model is then subjected to model checking using the ViVe/SESA model checker. A multi closed loop model of Plant and Controller is used and controller is extensively verified for safety, liveliness and functional properties of the robot. Computational Tree Logic (CTL) is used to specify these properties.

  • 176.
    Patil, Sandeep
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    McMillin, Bruce
    Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Department of Computer Science, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla.
    Towards formal verification of smart grid distributed intelligence: FREEDM case2016Ingår i: Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2015: Yokohama, Japan, 9-12 Nov. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, s. 3974-3979, artikel-id 7392719Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a model-checking framework for the purpose of design and implementation of robust smart grid applications based on distributed intelligence. The paper first introduces distributed grid intelligence approach to smart grid automation and related challenges of their verification. We then introduce the case study example and how model-checking can be applied to the presented system implemented in IEC 61499 standard. In the end we present the initial results of our model-checking application to smart grid applications. The paper will conclude with some issues faced during the research and corrective steps to address these issues in future.

  • 177.
    Peltola, Jukka
    et al.
    Aalto University, Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Sierla, Seppo
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Adapting Keyword Driven Test Automation Framework to IEC 61131-3 Industrial Control Applications Using PLCopen XML2014Ingår i: Proceedings of 2014 IEEE 19th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2014): Barcelona, Spain, 16-19 Sept. 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 1-8, artikel-id 7005185Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Factory Acceptance Testing should involve customer's experts and knowledge in defining, reading and validating tests, while keeping labor costs at moderate level. This involvement requires a testing approach, which hides implementation details and emphasizes domain terminology. Keyword driven testing is seen a viable test automation solution to reduce cost and enable customer involvement in acceptance testing. We propose an approach for adaptation of Keyword driven testing framework to IEC 61131-3 industrial process control applications. It utilizes importing of application elements, presented with PLCopen XML, and transforming them to proxy objects to be used as variables in test code, with domain specific names. Benefits include simplification of test and keyword specifications and hiding of implementation details from testers

  • 178.
    Prähofer, Herbert
    et al.
    Johannes Kepler University Linz, Linz, Austria.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Zoitl, Alois
    Johannes Kepler University Linz, Linz, Austria.
    Guest Editorial Information Technology in Automation2018Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 14, nr 6, s. 2745-2747Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The papers in this special section focus on information technology in industrial automation applications. Information technologies play a crucial role in the current and future developments of industrial automation. There are numerous strategic agendas on future manufacturing that have appeared recently worldwide and all of them emphasize the role of information technologies in automation in shaping up the future of production industries. For example, according to the German development agenda Industrie 4.0, the main driving force of the new industrial revolution is the Internet of things (IoT) and Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). The IoT concept is becoming a major driver for many industrial applications. In manufacturing, it leads to flattening of the control pyramid, thus, increasing flexibility and enabling unprecedented level of production flexibility and adaptability, making it possible and feasible to produce products in smaller amounts, with shorter time to markets and higher economic efficiency. In the manufacturing environment, CPS comprise smart machines, storage systems, and production facilities capable of autonomously exchanging information, triggering actions, and controlling each other independently. The research community effort has been focusing on systems interoperability, performance, and efficiency of the design process, as well as assurance in the correctness of systems behavior.

  • 179.
    Ramis, Borja
    et al.
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Gonzalez, Luis
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Iarovyi, Sergii
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Lobov, Andrei
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Lastra, José L. Martinez
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Aalto University, Helsinki.
    Dai, William
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Knowledge-based web service integration for industrial automation2014Ingår i: 12th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, INDIN 2014: Porto Alegre, Brazil, 27 - 30 July 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 733-739, artikel-id 6945604Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Web services are widely used for enterprise software development. Web service protocols simplify application integration thanks to interface description that can be processed at runtime and, in addition, due to mature and widely used standards for transportation and internetworking. Implementation of service-oriented architecture starts to get acceptance in the field of industrial automation ranging from international research project to the first implementations in industry including first commercial controller devices supporting web service communication protocols and executing deterministic control at the same time. The current research step is to allow knowledge-based integration of industrial automation systems and to exploit full potentials of run-time reconfiguration and adaptation of industrial systems. This paper demonstrates implementation of knowledge-based industrial system, the architecture and ontology model that can be generalized for implementation of other production systems.

  • 180.
    Rantala, Miia
    et al.
    Semantum Oy, Espoo, Finland.
    Niemistö, Hannu
    Semantum Oy, Espoo, Finland.
    Karhela, Tommi
    Semantum Oy, Espoo, Finland; Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Sierla, Seppo
    Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Applying graph matching techniques to enhance reuse of plant design information2019Ingår i: Computers in industry (Print), ISSN 0166-3615, E-ISSN 1872-6194, Vol. 107, s. 81-98Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates how graph matching can be applied to process plant design data in order to support the reuse of previous designs. A literature review of existing graph matching algorithms is performed, and a group of algorithms is chosen for further testing. A use case from early phase plant design is presented. A methodology for addressing the use case is proposed, including graph simplification algorithms and node similarity measures, so that existing graph matching algorithms can be applied in the process plant domain. The proposed methodology is evaluated empirically on an industrial case consisting of design data from several pulp and paper plants. 

  • 181.
    Ruusu, Reino
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Espoo.
    Santillán Martínez, Gerardo
    Aalto University, Helsinki.
    Karhela, Tommi
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland .
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Sliding mode SISO control of model parameters for implicit dynamic feedback estimation of industrial tracking simulation systems2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A tracking simulator is an online simulation system that achieves a permanent state synchronization with the targeted process by dynamically calibrating the model state after comparing process measurements with model results. Tracking simulators are a powerful industrial application that can be utilized as a plant-wide virtual sensor for process monitoring and diagnosis as well as a predictive tool to provide production forecasts based on the current state of the plant. In a tracking simulator, the online calibration is performed by a dynamic estimation method. One of the most adopted dynamic estimaton methods is implicit dynamic feedback, which is based on the adjustment of model parameter using feedback controllers to align simulation results and process outputs. Thus far, PI controllers have been the most popular approach for the implementation of implicit dynamic feedback estimators. Other feedback control techniques could be employed to improve the reliability of applications based on this estimation method. This paper presents an implicit dynamic feedback estimation approach based on sliding mode controllers (SMC) for industrial tracking simulation systems. In contrast to PI controllers, SMC controllers can be more easily tuned and they are robust against uncertainties related to the simulation model behavior and measurement noise. In this work, the SMC-based approach for estimation of tracking simulation systems is described, implemented and tested using a representative laboratory-scale process.

  • 182.
    Santillán Martínez, G.
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Helsinki .
    Sierla, S.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Helsinki .
    Karhela, T.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Helsinki .
    Lappalainen, J.
    VTT Technical Research Center of Finland Ltd, Espoo.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Helsinki .
    Automatic Generation of a High-Fidelity Dynamic Thermal-hydraulic Process Simulation Model from a 3D Plant Model2018Ingår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 6, s. 45217-45232, artikel-id 434288Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic thermal-hydraulic simulation models have been extensively used by process industry for decision support in sectors such as power generation, mineral processing, pulp and paper, and oil and gas. Ever-growing competitiveness in the process industry forces experts to rely even more on dynamic simulation results to take decisions across the process plant lifecycle. However, time-consuming development of simulation models increases model generation costs, limiting their use in a wider number of applications. Detailed 3D plant models, developed during early plant engineering for process design, could potentially be used as a source of information to enable rapid development of high-fidelity simulation models. This paper presents a method for automatic generation of a thermal-hydraulic process simulation model from a 3D plant model. Process structure, dimensioning and component connection information included in the 3D plant model is extracted from the machine-readable export of the 3D design tool and used to automatically generate and configure a dynamic thermal-hydraulic simulation model. In particular, information about the piping dimensions and elevations is retrieved from the 3D plant model and used to calculate head loss coefficients of the pipelines and to configure the piping network model. This step, not considered in previous studies, is crucial for obtaining high-fidelity industrial process models. The proposed method is tested using a laboratory process and the results of the automatically generated model are compared with experimental data from the physical system as well as with a simulation model developed using design data utilized by existing methods on the state-of-the-art. Results show that the proposed method is able to generate high-fidelity models which are able to accurately predict the targeted system, even during operational transients.

  • 183.
    Santillán Martínez, Gerardo
    et al.
    Aalto University, Helsinki.
    Karhela, Tommi
    Aalto University, Helsinki.
    Ruusu, Reino
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Espoo.
    LAckman, Tuomas
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Espoo.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Towards a systematic path for dynamic simulation to plant operation: OPC UA-enabled model adaptation method for tracking simulation2017Ingår i: Proceedings IECON 2017: 43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 5503-5508Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A tracking simulator is an online simulation system that utilizes dynamic parameter estimation for calibrating model parameters to achieve state synchronization with the process. It can be utilized as a plant-wide virtual sensors or as a predictive tool to provide production forecasts based on the current state of the plant. The appearance of industrial applications based on tracking simulators has been hindered by high development cost and time-consuming sustainability of simulation models. In order to overcome this, dynamic simulation models developed during the process design and engineering stages could be used for implementing industrial tracking simulators. However, before these models can be utilized online, they require going through a model adaptation procedure where their structure and parameters are updated. This paper presents a model adaptation method for the implementation of tracking simulators which utilizes OPC Unified Architecture to adapt simulation models developed during the engineering phases of the process plant and apply them at the operation and maintenance stages. In this work, the method is described, implemented and tested using a representative process.

  • 184.
    Santillán Martínez, Gerardo
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Karhela, Tommi
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland .
    Ruusu, Reino
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Espoo.
    Sierla, Seppo A.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    An Integrated Implementation Methodology of a Lifecycle-Wide Tracking Simulation Architecture2018Ingår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 6, s. 15391-15407Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A tracking simulator is a decision support application in which dynamic estimation is used to continuously align the results of an online first principle simulation model with the measurements of the targeted plant. They are a holistic application where current and future plant information is available for operation support of process plants. Existing tracking simulators have focused on the application of online and offline methods for estimation of their underlying first principle models (FPMs). However, these systems have been less attractive than similar alternatives based on empirical modeling, due to the lack of systematic approaches that address challenges across the tracking simulation lifecycle, such as laborious development of FPMs and high integration costs with the process or with other systems and simulation methods. In contrast, the approach presented in this paper integrates a tracking simulation architecture and various simulation methods to address the described challenges as follows. In order to tackle time-consuming development of FPMs, a method for generating tracking simulation models from models created during design phase is proposed. The process of connecting the tracking simulator to the physical plant and initializing the tracking simulator is automated. An optimization method for tracking simulation applications is developed to overcome drawbacks of available methods. The simulation architecture developed applies the proposed methodology during the various phases of tracking simulation. Furthermore, it exploits industrial communication standards to avoid the need for point-to-point integration of various simulators and other systems used over the course of the tracking simulator lifecycle. The work is demonstrated with laboratory process equipment.

  • 185.
    Sardesai, A.R.
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Mazharullah, O.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Reconfiguration of mechatronic systems enabled by iec 61499 function blocks2006Ingår i: Proceedings of the Australasian Conference on Robotics and Automation 2006 / [ed] Bruce MacDonald, Australian Robotics and Automation Association , 2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses a new approach to the development of industrial manufacturing control systems. In industry, there is an increasing need for more intelligent and agile control systems which are able to be flexible in their operations. Through use of the new IEC 61499 standard, a new design methodology for modeling industrial control systems has been developed with these goals in mind. A design pattern for the control of automation devices has been created and tested. In addition, a distributed intelligent automation system has been developed in which different devices are able to interact, communicate and adjust to their respective environments. In order to view and test the developed system, a web based Human-Machine Interface (HMI) has been created. This HMI is able to be run on any internet enabled device, including Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) and mobile phones. Through this HMI the workflow of the system can be viewed and modified.

  • 186.
    Savolainen, Roope
    et al.
    Systems Modelling and Simulation, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Espoo.
    Sierla, Seppo A.
    Systems Modelling and Simulation, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Espoo.
    Karhela, Tommi
    Systems Modelling and Simulation, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Espoo.
    Miettinen, Tuomas
    Systems Modelling and Simulation, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Espoo.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    A framework for runtime verification of industrial process control systems2017Ingår i: Proceedings: 2017 IEEE 15th International Conference on Industrial Informatics, INDIN 2017, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 687-694, artikel-id 8104856Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     Despite the significant research on automation systems verification, further work is needed on methods for the industrial scale verification of automated processes that are able to cover control software errors, sensor and actuator errors as well as design errors in the process to be controlled. In this paper, such an approach is based building on previous work on runtime verification using plant simulation models created during the plant design process. A framework for runtime verification is proposed based on keyword driven testing that is applied to the entire automated process rather than only to control software. Through the use of ontologies, the framework is made independent of any particular simulator. The approach is demonstrated with a case study from the mineral processing industry.

  • 187.
    Sierla, Seppo A.
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Karhela, Tommi A.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Automatic Generation of Pipelines Into a 3D Industrial Process Model2017Ingår i: IEEE Access, ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 5, s. 26591-26603Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation has become an established technique to support the design of complex, mechatronic or cyber-physical systems. Ideally, simulations should already be performed at an early design phase before high-cost design commitments are made, and the recent advances in the digitalization of design information open possibilities for automatic generation of simulation models. However, high-fidelity simulation model building depends on accurate data. In particular, first-principles models are desirable source information for simulations, but such models generally are not available at an early design stage. This paper investigates the automatic generation of first-principles 3-D models for piping intensive systems based on design information that is available at an early design stage, namely piping & instrumentation diagrams (P&ID). An algorithm is presented for the generation of such 3-D models based on machine-readable P&ID information. The main focus of the algorithm is the automatic generation of feasible pipelines into the 3-D models, so that the model has sufficient information, which can be exploited in further work to automatically generate high fidelity first-principles thermo-hydraulic simulations.

  • 188.
    Sierla, Seppo A.
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Kyrki, Ville
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Aarnio, Pekka
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Automatic assembly planning based on digital product descriptions2018Ingår i: Computers in industry (Print), ISSN 0166-3615, E-ISSN 1872-6194, Vol. 97, s. 34-46Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a new concept in which a digital twin derived from a digital product description will automatically perform assembly planning and orchestrate the production resources in a manufacturing cell. Thus the manufacturing cell has generic services with minimal assumptions about what kind of product will be assembled, while the digital product description is designed collaboratively between the designer at an OEM and automated services at potential manufacturers. This has several advantages. Firstly, the resulting versatile manufacturing facility can handle a broad variety of products with minimal or no reconfiguration effort, so it can cost-effectively offer its services to a large number of OEMs. Secondly, a solution is presented to the problem of performing concurrent product design and assembly planning over the organizational boundary. Thirdly, the product design at the OEM is not constrained to the capabilities of specific manufacturing facilities. The concept is presented in general terms in UML and an implementation is provided in a 3D simulation environment using Automation Markup Language for digital product descriptions. Finally, two case studies are presented and applications in a real industrial context are discussed

  • 189.
    Sierla, Seppo
    et al.
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Hurkala, Marcin
    Department of Electrical Engineering, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Charitoudi, Konstantinia
    University of South Wales.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Security risk analysis for smart grid automation2014Ingår i: 2014 IEEE 23rd International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 1737-1744, artikel-id 6864877Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The reliability theory used in the design of complex systems including electric grids assumes random component failures and is thus unsuited to analyzing security risks due to attackers that intentionally damage several components of the system. In this paper, a security risk analysis methodology is proposed consisting of vulnerability analysis and impact analysis. Vulnerability analysis is a method developed by security engineers to identify the attacks that are relevant for the system under study, and in this paper, the analysis is applied on the communications network topology of the electric grid automation system. Impact analysis is then performed through co-simulation of automation and the electric grid to assess the potential damage from the attacks. This paper makes an extensive review of vulnerability and impact analysis methods and relevant system modeling techniques from the fields of security and industrial automation engineering, with a focus on smart grid automation, and then applies and combines approaches to obtain a security risk analysis methodology. The methodology is demonstrated with a case study of fault location, isolation and supply restoration smart grid automation.

  • 190.
    Siivola, Eero
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland .
    Sierla, Seppo A.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Niemistö, Hannu
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland .
    Karhela, Tommi
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland .
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Requirement verification in simulation-based automation testing2017Ingår i: IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 740-743, artikel-id 7819257Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence of the Industrial Internet results in an increasing number of complicated temporal interdependencies between automation systems and the processes to be controlled. There is a need for verification methods that scale better than formal verification methods and which are more exact than testing. Simulation-based runtime verification is proposed as such a method, and an application of Metric temporal logic is presented as a contribution. The practical scalability of the proposed approach is validated against a production process designed by an industrial partner, resulting in the discovery of requirement violations

  • 191.
    Sinha, Roopak
    et al.
    Auckland University of Technology.
    Dowdeswell, Barry
    Auckland University of Technology.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Slicing the Pi: Device-specific IEC 61499 design2015Ingår i: IEEE 13th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), 2015: Cambridge, United Kingdom, 22-24 July 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 1257-1262, artikel-id 7281915Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The IEC 61499 Function Block standard describes an architecture to support the development and reuse of software components for distributed and embedded industrial control and automation systems. Often distributed over heterogeneous execution platforms, IEC 61499 applications are highly re-configurable; users can map individual function blocks to run on any available device. However, the standard does not allow differentiating between the capabilities of different devices in a heterogeneous platform. In this paper, we present a framework that facilitates the utilization of device-specific capabilities during the design of function block applications. Device capabilities are wrapped-up in Basic function blocks linking to low-level device drivers, allowing designers to access device features with ease during the design phase. The framework is completely compatible with the IEC 61499 standard, and remains highly flexible. As a case study, we show how function block applications utilizing low-level capabilities of Raspberry Pi devices can be written and deployed using the Holobloc FBDK development environment. This particular setting of using function blocks to program the Raspberry Pi also results in an ideal, low-cost research and teaching platform for distributed computers

  • 192.
    Sinha, Roopak
    et al.
    Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Dowdeswell, Berry
    Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Helsinki .
    TORUS: Scalable Requirements Traceability for Large-Scale Cyber-Physical Systems2019Ingår i: ACM transactions on cyber-physicals systems, ISSN 2378-962X, Vol. 3, nr 2, artikel-id 15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) contain intertwined and distributed software, hardware, and physical components to control complex physical processes. They find wide application in industrial systems, such as smart grid protection systems, which face increasingly complex communication and computation needs. Due to the scale and complexity of the interactions that occur within CPS, tracing requirements through to the system components and software code that implement them is often hard. Existing requirements management systems do not scale well, and traceability is difficult to implement and maintain in highly heterogeneous systems. However, the information trace that links provide is crucial for supporting testing and certification activities in safety-critical environments such as smart grids.

    The well-formed models of power systems provided by the IEC 61850 standard and the software design structure provided by the IEC 61499 Function Blocks standard can be leveraged to automate many traceability operations. We present Traceability of Requirements Using Splices (TORUS), a novel traceability framework for the development of large-scale safety-critical CPS. TORUS introduces splices, autonomous graph-based data structures that automatically create and manage trace links between requirements and components through the inevitable changes that occur during system development. The formal, graph-based structure of TORUS lends itself well to the development of sophisticated algorithms to automate the extraction of useful traceability information such as historical records and metrics for requirements coverage and component coupling. By capturing not only the current state of the system but also historical information, TORUS allows project teams to see a much richer view of the system and its artifacts.

    We apply TORUS to the development of a protection system for smart grid substations. In addition, through a number of experiments in splice creation, modification, and application of automated algorithms, we show that TORUS scales easily to large systems containing hundreds of thousands of requirements and system components and millions of possible trace links.

  • 193.
    Sinha, Roopak
    et al.
    Auckland University of Technology, Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Auckland University of Technology.
    Pang, Cheng
    Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, University of Auckland, University of Auckland, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Helsinki.
    Martinez, Gerardo Santillán
    Aalto University, Helsinki, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Helsinki.
    Kuronen, Juha
    Fortum Oyj, Helsinki.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Requirements-Aided Automatic Test Case Generation for Industrial Cyber-physical Systems2016Ingår i: 20th International Conference on Engineering of Complex Computer Systems, ICECCS 2015: Gold Coast, Australia, 9 -11 December 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, s. 198-201, artikel-id 7384248Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial cyber-physical systems require complex distributed software to orchestrate many heterogeneous mechatronic components and control multiple physical processes. Industrial automation software is typically developed in a model-driven fashion where abstractions of physical processes called plant models are co-developed and iteratively refined along with the control code. Testing such multi-dimensional systems is extremely difficult because often models might not be accurate, do not correspond accurately with subsequent refinements, and the software must eventually be tested on the real plant, especially in safety-critical systems like nuclear plants. This paper proposes a framework wherein high-level functional requirements are used to automatically generate test cases for designs at all abstraction levels in the model-driven engineering process. Requirements are initially specified in natural language and then analyzed and specified using a formalized ontology. The requirements ontology is then refined along with controller and plant models during design and development stages such that test cases can be generated automatically at any stage. A representative industrial water process system case study illustrates the strengths of the proposed formalism. The requirements meta-model proposed by the CESAR European project is used for requirements engineering while IEC 61131-3 and model-driven concepts are used in the design and development phases. A tool resulting from the proposed framework called REBATE (Requirements Based Automatic Testing Engine) is used to generate and execute test cases for increasingly concrete controller and plant models.

  • 194.
    Sinha, Roopak
    et al.
    IT and Software Engineering, Auckland New Zealand.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Gomes, Luis
    Fac. Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Monte de Caparica Portugal.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    A Survey of Static Formal Methods for Building Dependable Industrial Automation Systems2019Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 15, nr 7, s. 3772-3783Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial automation systems need to be highly dependable; they should not merely function as expected but also do so in a reliable, safe and secure manner. Formal methods are mathematical techniques used to describe computer systems, both hardware, and software. Formal methods can greatly aid in developing dependable systems and can be used across all phases of the system development lifecycle, right from customer requirement gathering through design and implementation, verification and validation (testing), maintenance and even documentation. This state-of-the-art survey reports existing formal approaches for creating more dependable industrial automation systems, focussing on static or offline, as opposed to runtime or online, formal methods. This article categorises existing works as per the requirements engineering, design and implementation, and testing phases of the system development life cycle, allowing us to identify gaps in current research and promising future directions for each of these phases.

  • 195.
    Sinha, Roopak
    et al.
    Auckland University of Technology, School of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Auckland University of Technology.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Pang, Cheng
    Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, University of Auckland, University of Auckland, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dowdeswell, Barry
    School of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Auckland University of Technology.
    Requirements engineering of industrial automation systems: Adapting the CESAR requirements meta model for safety-critical smart grid software2016Ingår i: Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2015: Yokohama, Japan, 9-12 Nov. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, s. 2172-2177, artikel-id 7392423Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements engineering is the first stage in the development of any system. For safety-critical industrial systems like smart-grids, we must ensure that requirements are properly elicited, defined, analyzed and managed. This paper adapts the requirements framework developed in the CESAR European project, called the CESAR requirements meta-model, to support all aspects of requirements engineering for safety-critical systems. This enables the formalization of requirements in order to automate and assist in many aspects of later stages in the system development life cycle. Using a smart grid system from the FREEDM project, we illustrate that the adapted requirements engineering framework is comprehensive and rich for large safety-critical systems. We find that the use of the IEC 61499 function block standard provides an appropriate system modelling and implementation framework, which complements the strengths of the proposed requirements engineering framework. Traceability links between requirements and components of an IEC 61499 system model can help with automatic test case generation and formal analysis of requirements.

  • 196.
    Sinha, Roopak
    et al.
    Auckland University of Technology.
    Pnag, Cheng
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Martinez, Gerardo Santillán
    Aalto University, Helsinki, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Automatic test case generation from requirements for industrial cyber-physical systems2016Ingår i: Automatisierungstechnik, ISSN 0178-2312, Vol. 64, nr 3 (Special Issue), s. 216-230Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial cyber-physical systems require complex software to orchestrate heterogeneous mechatronic components and control physical processes. This software is typically developed and refined iteratively in a model-driven fashion. Testing suchmulti-dimensional systems is extremely difficult as subsequent refinements may not correspond accurately with previous system models.

  • 197.
    Sinha, Roopak
    et al.
    Auckland University of Technology.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Salcic, Zoran
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Park, Hee Jong
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Competitors or Cousins?: Studying the Parallels between Distributed Programming Languages SystemJ and IEC614992014Ingår i: Proceedings of 2014 IEEE 19th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2014): Barcelona, Spain, 16-19 Sept. 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 1-7, artikel-id 7005073Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We face a glut of languages for programming distributed software today. However, only a few languages have proven their potential with wider practical use in different domains of computing. We picked two such languages, meant for different domains, to see if they could cross-pollinate and enrich one another. Specifically, we chose SystemJ, a language to program distributed embedded systems, and IEC61499, the next generation standard for distributed industrial automation control software. Unsurprisingly, we found similar structures and artifacts between the two. We also found significant differences mainly due to differing domain-specific requirements. This comparison leads to observations and guidelines for improving both languages, and we discuss directions towards an “ideal” distributed software programming language.

  • 198.
    Sorouri, M.
    et al.
    University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Salcic, Z.
    University of Auckland.
    Rule-based composition of intelligent mechatronic components in manufacturing systems using prolog2013Ingår i: 2013 11th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, INDIN 2013: Bochum; Germany; 29 July 2013 through 31 July 2013, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, s. 242-247, artikel-id 6622889Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 199.
    Sorouri, Majid
    et al.
    University of Auckland.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Salcic, Zoran
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Software Composition and Distributed Operation Scheduling in Modular Automated Machines2015Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 865-878Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a new software composition method for automated machines that exploits their mechatronic modularity. It is demonstrated that desired behavior of a certain class of machines can be composed of behaviors of its mechatronic components, including fully decentralized scheduling and operation control. This aims at increased performance of software design and maintenance, as well as systems' flexibility and reconfigurability. The IEC 61499 Function Blocks' (FBs) architecture is used as an implementation platform that enables system-level simulation and transparency of deployment. A configurable pick-and-place (PnP) manipulator with decentralized control synthesized using the proposed approach is chosen as an illustrative example

  • 200.
    Sorouri, Majid
    et al.
    University of Auckland.
    Patil, Sandeep
    The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Distributed control patterns for intelligent mechatronic systems2012Ingår i: 2012 IEEE 10th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN 2012: Beijing, China, 25 - 27 July 2012, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2012, s. 259-264Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a step-by-step approach for developing modular and reusable logic controllers of mechatronic systems. Following that, it presents the results of employing three distributed control methods, including master-slave, peer-to-peer and independent controllers on a pick-and-place robot as a simple showcase of implementing a distributed control system on industrial applications, using the emerged IEC 61499 standard. Moreover, it addresses possibilities and challenges of using each approach.

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