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  • 1601. Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Warg, Lars-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Learning and hypothesis testing in probabilistic inference tasks1985In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 305-313Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1602. Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Danielsson, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Lingvistisk analys av säkerhetssamtal inom Banverket2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate possible risk factors related to the quality of spoken communication between train drivers and train dispatchers at Banverket (Swedish Rail Administration). In a first stage 1422 recorded and transcribed dialogues were subject to an exploratory linguistic analysis. In a second stage 200 dialogues were sampled and made subject to a detailed analysis in terms of communication error types. Results showed an overall low frequency of communication errors. Errors actually observed were mainly related to deficiencies in identification and designation.

  • 1603.
    Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Davidsson, Staffan
    Volvo.
    Birell, Stewart
    Brunel University.
    Young, Mark
    Brunel University.
    Work domain analysis of driving information2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to drive in a safe and environmentally friendly manner a driver needs support on the skillbased, rule based and knowledge based level (Rasmussen, 1986). It can be argued that today's driverinformation mainly supports skill and rule based levels while the complex task of driving also needssupport on the knowledge based level, e.g. problem solving . The aim of this study was to identifyways to support problem solving and decision making in a driving information context and to studygaps, overlaps, strong and weak relations between the driver information functions and the purpose ofthe functions.Work Domain Analysis (WDA) (Vicente, 1999) was used to decompose the purpose of the driverinformation down to the component level. WDA is the first step of five in Cognitive Work Analysis(CWA). CWA belongs to the category of Ecological Interface Design that aims to aid the design ofhuman centred interfaces and systems that support problem solving and decision making in complexsocio-technical systems.The study was performed by researchers from Luleå University of Technology and Volvo Cars as wellas members of a Driving information project. The study was limited to driver information systems inprivate cars which means that the main purpose of the systems was to support drivers' goals e.g.navigate or maintain speed but also being environment friendly, etc. It should also be mentioned thatdriver information not only was limited to information within the car. Before and after driving was alsoincluded. The WDA identified five functional purposes of driving information: To support safe,efficient, environment friendly, legal and enjoyable transportation.The "Functional purpose" was decomposed into "abstract functions" e.g. support choice oftransportation, reduce energy exposure, improve friction, and maintain lateral and longitudinal distance.Further decomposition down to "physical form" showed several weak and some unexpected relationsbetween the purpose and the system. For instance, one conclusion was that the relation betweenspeedometer and safety was weak. The weak relations and the gaps then served as input for designimplications.In the design implications part it was concluded that planning could be improved in comparison withtoday's systems by e.g. internet services and pre- and post-trip information. New features in thenavigation system, such as route optimization based on safety or carbon footprint, could improve bothsafety and environmental friendliness. Feedback or Edutainment (Education by Entertainment) couldalso serve as a way to improve safety and green driving. A rather controversial and perhaps unrealisticsuggestion is that a private car could provide statistics or data about safety, environmental friendlinessor efficiency (Cost) for different types of transportation in order to make the choice of transportationoptimized.Another, more general conclusion is that the decomposition also showed the importance for a designerto ask the question "why?" when designing a product.

  • 1604.
    Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Fagerlönn, Johan
    Interactive Institute – Sonic Studio, Piteå.
    Auditory signs to support traffic awareness2009In: 16th World Congress and Exhibition on Intelligent Transport Systems 2009: 16th ITS World Congress ; Stockholm, Sweden, 21 - 25 September 2009, Red Hook: Curran Associates, Inc., 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Informative systems might contribute to sensory and cognitive driver distraction, which in turn can lead to a more dangerous driving behavior. In this study we evaluated auditory signs to support drivers traffic awareness during simulated driving. 18 truck drivers identified traffic situations based on information conveyed by brief sounds. Aspects of learning, interpretation and pleasantness of sounds were monitored and rated by the drivers. Sounds which were arbitrary mapped to traffic situations required longer learning times, resulted in degraded choice reaction performance, and were rated as less pleasant compared to sounds with a high level in context specific meaning.

  • 1605.
    Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Gärling, Anita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Bonnevier, Sara Sällström
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Danielsson, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    How to increase safety in complex systems: an ongoing project2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no Suppl. 1, p. 3234-3237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to describe an ongoing project with the aim of improving safety in an organization working with maintenance and development of the railway infrastructure in Sweden. The first sub goal was to investigate the Genta method, with 62 employees resulted in a description of these latent errors in the organization.eral Failure Types in the organization. Seminars and interviews, based on the Tripod Del Recommendations for an improvement toward a safety culture was suggested, action plans were formulated and, in some cases, implemented. A follow up study is planned in a two year perspective

  • 1606. Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Johansson, Roger
    Statens Väg- och Trafikinstitut, VTI.
    Trafik- och boendemiljö vid Turistvägen i Järvsö: en förmätning1988Report (Other academic)
  • 1607. Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Lundqvist, Anna
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Alinder, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Levander, Sten
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Neuropsychological aspects on driving after brain lesion: simulator study and on-road driving1997In: Applied neuropsychology, ISSN 0908-4282, E-ISSN 1532-4826, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 220-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    29 patients with brain lesion and 29 matched controls completed a neuropsychological test battery to assess perceptual, cognitive, and executive functioning and were tested on driving performance in a simulator and actual road conditions. The patients were socially well recovered with a high rate of employment. Patients performed significantly worse than controls on the test battery, especially on executive and cognitive functions. Patients drove as well as controls in predictable situations in the advanced simulator used In unpredictable situations, patients demonstrated longer reaction time (RT) and safety margins, as well as difficulties in allocating processing resources to a secondary task. Patients showed significantly less attention, worse traffic behavior, and less risk awareness when driving in real traffic. 41% of the patients did not pass the driving test. The neuropsychological test battery was factor analyzed into 4 factors: executive capacity, cognitive capacity, automatic attentional capacity, and simple perceptual-motor capacity. The second factor was the most significant, with a simultaneous capacity test predicting driving performance with 78% confidence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved)

  • 1608. Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, VTI.
    Changes in driver behaviour as a function of handsfree mobile phones: a simulator study1991In: Proceedings of the Conference Strategic Highway Research Program and Traffic Safety on Two Continents: in Gothenburg, Sweden, September 18-20, 1991, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, VTI , 1991, p. 27-44Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of a mobile telephone conversation on drivers' reaction time, lane position, speed level, and workload in two driving conditions (easy versus hard driving task) were studied in an advanced driving simulator. Forty subjects, experienced drivers in the ages 23-61 years, were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions. It was found that a mobile telephone conversation had a negative effect on drivers reaction time, when the driving task was easy. It led to a reduction in speed, when the driving task was easy. It had a negative effect on drivers' lane position, most pronounced when the tracking component of the driving task was difficult. Finally, it led to an increase in workload for both the easy and hard driving task. The effects were discussed in terms of what subtask, car driving or telephone conversation, the drivers gave the highest priority. Some implications for information systems in future cars are discussed.

  • 1609. Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, VTI.
    Changes in driver behaviour as a function of handsfree mobile telephones: a simulator study1994In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 441-451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of a mobile telephone task on drivers' reaction time, lane position, speed level, and workload were studied in two driving conditions (an easy or rather straight versus a hard or very curvy route). It was predicted that the mobile telephone task would have a negative effect on drivers' reaction time, lane position, and workload and lead to a reduction of speed. It was also predicted that the effects would be stronger for the hard driving task. The study was conducted in the VTI driving simulator. A total of 40 subjects, experienced drivers aged 23 to 61, were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions (telephone and easy or hard driving task versus control and easy or hard driving task). Contrary to the predictions, the strongest effects were found when the subjects were exposed to the easy driving task. In the condition where drivers had to perform the easy driving task, findings showed that a mobile telephone task had a negative effect on reaction time and led to a reduction of the speed level. In the condition where drivers had to perform the hard driving task, findings showed that a mobile telephone task had an effect only on the drivers' lateral position. Finally, the mobile telephone task led to an increased workload for both the easy and the hard driving task. The results are discussed in terms of which subtask, car driving or telephone task, the subjects gave the highest priority. Some implications for information systems in future cars are discussed

  • 1610. Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Statens Väg- och Trafikinstitut, VTI.
    Changes in driver behaviour as a function of handsfree mobile telephones: A simulator study1991Report (Other academic)
  • 1611. Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Statens Väg- och Trafikinstitut, VTI.
    Effects of a vision enhancement system on drivers´ ability to drive safely in fog1996In: Vision in vehicles - V: fifth international conference on vision in vehicles, held at the Kelvin Conference Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland in the autumn of 1993 / [ed] A.G. Gale, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1996, p. 263-271Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1612. Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, VTI.
    Effects of mobile telephone use on ederly drivers' behaviour - including comparisions to young drivers' behaviour1991Report (Other academic)
  • 1613. Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Statens Väg- och Trafikinstitut, VTI.
    Förarproblem med ny informationsteknologi?1988In: VTIs och TFBs forskardagar: rapportsammanställning av föredrag vid forskardagarna i Linköping 1988-01-12--13, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, VTI , 1988, Vol. 2, Beträffande trafiksäkerhet, trafikmedicin, information i trafiken, minsalt, kollektivtrafik, miljö, salters effekt på betong, p. 139-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1614. Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Nilsson, Lena
    VTI - Statens väg-och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Incident warning systems and traffic safety: a comparison between the PORTICO and MELYSSA test site systems2000In: Transportation Human Factors, ISSN 1093-9741, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 77-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we compared the effects on traffic safety of 2 different incident warning systems (IWSs), capable of presenting warning messages with different levels of detail. It was assumed that an IWS presenting a message with a low level of detail (i.e., "Warning") would produce a higher variation in driver behavior compared to a system that presented more detailed information (i.e., "Warning, in 1 km, use left lane"). The assumption was tested in a simulator study in which the Portuguese Road Traffic Innovations on a Corridor and Mediterranean Lyon Stuttgart Site for Advanced Transportation Telematics test site systems were simulated and used to present information that varied in level of detail in 4 steps. Fifty participants drove an 80-km route on a 2-lane motorway, where 3 different incidents occurred at randomly chosen distances from the starting point. The results showed that all IWSs made the participants reduce their speed level earlier compared to the control group. Subjective assessment of the IWS showed positive effects, and there was a tendency of a reduction of mental workload caused by the IWS. The assumption that a low level of detail in a message from an IWS would cause a higher variation in the participants' behavior, compared to a message with more detailed information, was not supported. Specific information from an IWS (i.e., "Change lane") resulted in 2 different strategies: One implied that the participant should trust and obey the recommendation, and the other implied that the participant should wait until the warned-for incident was visible and then follow the advice. The implications for the design of IWSs, as a consequence of the results from this study, are discussed

  • 1615. Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, VTI.
    MMI checklist: version 2.11991Report (Other academic)
  • 1616. Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Statens Väg- och Trafikinstitut, VTI.
    The effects of a mobile telephone task on driver behaviour in a car following situation1995In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 707-715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of a mobile telephone task on young and elderly drivers' choice reaction time, headway, lateral position, and workload were studied when the subjects were driving in a car-following situation, in the VTI driving simulator. It was found that a mobile telephone task had a negative effect upon the drivers' choice reaction time, and that the effect was more pronounced for the elderly drivers. Furthermore, the subjects did not compensate for their increased reaction time by increasing their headway during the phone task. The subjects' mental workload, as measured by the NASA-TLX, increased as a function of the mobile telephone task. No effect on the subjects' lateral position could be detected. Taken together, these results indicate that the accident risk can increase when a driver is using the mobile telephone in a car following situation. The reasons for the increased risk, and possible ways to eliminate it, are also discussed.

  • 1617. Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    The use of car phones and changes in driver behaviour2001In: International Journal of Vehicle Design. Heavy Vehicle Design, ISSN 1744-232X, E-ISSN 1741-5152, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 4-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of mobile telephone use on traffic safety is discussed in the article. A number of empirical studies are reviewed and it is concluded that the use of a mobile telephone concurrently with car driving may have a negative impact upon traffic safety. The sub-tasks of entering a telephone number and having a demanding conversation are especially likely to increase the risk of an accident. To minimise the negative impact from telephoning on traffic safety, a number of recommendations are suggested.

  • 1618. Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, VTI.
    What is the optimal level of detail in a message from an incident warning system: A comparison between the PORTICO and MELYSSA system1996Report (Other academic)
  • 1619. Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, VTI.
    Janssen, Wiel H.
    University of Groningen, Traffic Research Centre.
    Collision avoidance systems: effects of different levels of task allocation on driver behaviour1991Report (Other academic)
  • 1620. Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Väg- och trafikinstitutet (VTI).
    Järmark, Stina
    Väg- och trafikinstitutet (VTI).
    Svavelid, John
    Väg- och trafikinstitutet (VTI).
    Hennings, Ulf
    Väg- och trafikinstitutet (VTI).
    The effects of landmark presentation on driver performance and uncertainty in a navigation task: a field study1992Report (Other academic)
  • 1621.
    Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    The alarm system and a possible way forward2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no Suppl. 1, p. 2840-2844Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to make a review of studies concerning problems with alarm systems and to make a theoretical analysis of these problems. The aim is also to show some general design ideas to improve alarm presentation in process descriptions. Using research results from situation awareness and decision making a number of suggestions for further development of alarm systems are presented. Recommendations include providing operators of complex systems feedback that can support their mental models and situational awareness. Furthermore a recommendation is to design alarm systems that can learn from experience

  • 1622. Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Peters, Björn
    VTI - Statens väg-och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Östlund, Joakim
    VTI - Statens väg-och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Human factors aspects on joystick control of adapted cars2002In: Human factors in transportation, communication, health and the workplace: annual scientific meeting of the Europe Chapter of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Turin, November 7 to 9, 2001 / [ed] D. de Waard, Shaker Verlag, 2002, p. 81-97Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experiment was set up to investigate different joystick designs based on steer-by-wire technology. The experiment was carried out in a driving simulator. Both driving behaviour and perceived control of the car was registered and analysed. All participants had an SCI (spinal cord injury) at cervical level, i.e. drivers with tetraplegia. Two types of joystick were tested, one conventional (similar to what is used with computer games) and one modified with which the driver could control speed and steering independently. Both joysticks were tested with and without active feedback. The driving task consisted of rural road driving and a manoeuvre test with a double lane-change. The results presented here should be considered as preliminary and the study as a pilot study, which will be completed with a larger set of participants. So far, eight subjects have completed the experiment. The preliminary results cannot be used to draw any definite conclusion on which system design should be preferred. There was some evidence that active feedback provided a better lateral control and the drivers drove with larger safety margins with the modified joystick. However, the drivers' opinion seemed to be more in favour of the conventional passive joystick.

  • 1623. Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Rumar, K.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Driver attitudes and reactions to an in-vehicle route guidance system1992Report (Other academic)
  • 1624. Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Rumar, K.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Driver attitudes towards an anti collision system: a simulator study1991Report (Other academic)
  • 1625. Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Rumar, Kåre
    VTI - Statens väg-och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Driver attitudes concerning eleven different Prometheus functions1991Report (Other academic)
  • 1626. Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Svidén, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Waern, Yvonne
    Cognitive ITS: on cognitive integration of ITS functions around the driver's task1997In: Ergonomics and safety of intelligent driver interfaces, Mahwah, N.J.: IEEE Communications Society, 1997, p. 231-237Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1627. Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Svidén, Ove
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, VTI.
    Waern, Yvonne
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, VTI.
    On Cognitive Integration of IVHS Functions around the Driver's Task1994In: Proceedings of the 12th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association: Comptes rendus du 12e Congrès triennal de l'association internationale d'ergonomie, Toronto, Canada, August 15-19, 1994 / [ed] Sharon McFadden, Human Factors Association of Canada , 1994, p. 189-191Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1628. Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Svidén, Ove
    Wærn, Yvonne
    Cognitive IVHS: on cognitive integration of IVHS functions around the driver's task2008Report (Other academic)
  • 1629. Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Verwey, Willem B.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Designing the car of the future: concurrent telephoning and presentation of tactile anti-collision messages1992Report (Other academic)
  • 1630. Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Verwey, Willem B.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Designing the car of the future: II: concurrent presentation of familiar messages in the auditory and tactile modalities1993Report (Other academic)
  • 1631. Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Vogel, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kircher, Albert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Traffic sense: which factors influence the skill to predict the development of traffic scenes?2003In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 749-762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study was conducted to evaluate the skill to predict the development of traffic situations. A stop-controlled intersection was filmed over several days, and 12 scenes with varying traffic complexity were selected. In half of the scenes, the traffic rules were violated, in half of the scenes, the rules were observed. A total of 36 participants were asked to watch the scenes and predict how the scene would most likely develop in the 2 s after the film was paused. Additionally, the participants rated how certain they were about their prediction, and how complex and dangerous they assessed the scenes to be. With the method used here, experienced drivers were not found to make more correct predictions of situational development, and no difference in skill to predict could be found between genders. Nevertheless, more experienced drivers were more certain in their judgements and evaluated the situations on average as less complex and dangerous than did less experienced drivers. Scenes in which the traffic rules were violated were more difficult to predict correctly. The scenes in which the participants predicted violations were rated as more complex and dangerous. It is concluded that the low-cost method used here is more useful for examining which scenes are generally easy or difficult to predict and how they are experienced subjectively than to investigate differences in performance for different driver categories.

  • 1632.
    Alm, Irma
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Effects of biased mass media exposures on recall and ability to separate sources of information1987Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 1633.
    Alm, Irma
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Newspaper reports: do they influence remembering of the main session material?1990Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis was aimed at investigating whether pre-exposure to biased newspaper reports influences remembering of the main session material. In general, the results show that remembering of the main session material varies as a function of the pre-exposure to the biased newspaper reports. It seems that pre-exposure to newspaper reports facilitates the accessibility of the main session items. However, recognition of the main session material in general seems to decrease when the participants are pre-exposed to newspaper reports written in order to discredit the defendant, whereas pre-exposure to newspaper reports written in favour of the defendant seem to facilitate recognition of the main session material. It Was suggested that the various schema activated on basis of the biased newspaper reports produced the effects obtained. Further, the ability to distinguish the various sources of information decreased when additional information (i.e., interference) was introduced. Some of the results obtained inquire previous views on expertise and prior knowledge and are discussed further. Moreover, the limits to generalizability are also discussed.

  • 1634. Alm, Jaana
    Jag vet allt om jag: elevers uppfattning av identitet via fenomenografisk elevtextanalys2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1635. Alm, Joacim
    Rörlig grafik: ett sätt att engagera användare2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1636. Alm, Joacim
    et al.
    Öquist, Sofia
    Bredbandstelevisionens hot och möjligheter2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1637. Alm, Linda
    et al.
    Berglund, Stina
    Öhmark, Lina
    Att utveckla förskolebarns kommunikativa kompetens med drama som metod2002Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1638. Alm, Love
    Development of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for Analyzing Rinds and Layered Structures in Martian Rocks2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) offerers the possibility to study rinds and layered structures in a sample by creating a crater by employing repeated laser ablation. Previous studies have shown that the existence of craters can cause significant changes in both the thermal properties and the composition of the plasma. The occurrence of contributions to the plasma thorough plasma-crater interactions was studied for Martian atmospheric conditions using a sample consisting of a dolomite slab covered by an aluminum foil. The experiment showed that significant amounts of aluminum was present in the plasma after the laser had penetrated the foil completely. In four craters of different depth and a diameter of 1400 μm the aluminum content of the plasma was significantly lower when using a 600 μm beam diameter for spectral acquisition as compared to when using a 1400 μm beam. Additionally the differential penetration due to the Gaussian shape of the beam intensity profile was found to be a complicating factor by reducing the depth resolution of the LIBS measurement. The change in the composition of the plasma due to elemental fractionation was studied by observing the intensity of selected Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na and Si emission lines throughout crater formation. A homogeneous basalt slab was analyzed under Martian atmospheric conditions. Only Mg and Na exhibited a change in line intensity throughout the crater formation that is large enough to indicate a change in the composition of the plasma. When acquiring spectra using a beam with a diameter of 600 μm in craters with a diameter of 1400 μm the rate of change in line intensity for the different elements were not significantly different from the reference values. The conclusion is that using different two beam diameter, a larger for crater formation and a smaller for spectral acquisition improves the ability to separate between different layers in the sample without increasing the problem of changes in fractionation.

  • 1639.
    Alm Lönnefjord, Jonathan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Johansson, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Global project alignment and performance: Combining Chinese and Western management practices2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The research purpose is to add insights to the project management literature by studying a global project encompassing Chinese and Western project participants, to possibly increase the understanding of how project alignment can be achieved.

    Method – The analytical approach for this abductive and explorative study was anchored in a six-phase thematic analysis (Clarke & Braun, 2014). A single-case study approach was used encompassing 17 interviews and 61 days of observations at a multinational manufacturing firm in China. 

    Results - Both Chinese and Western project managers consider project effectiveness and efficiency when evaluating project success. However, there are several key nuances that separate the two groups, as Western project managers focus on customer satisfaction through efficient methods when evaluating project performance, whereas Chinese project managers focus on internal satisfaction through effective methods. The different viewpoints although similar affect the ability of manufacturing organizations to achieve alignment within global projects. To achieve alignment within global projects manufacturing organisations need to focus on three types of alignment while accounting for the nuanced view on project success; objective alignment, role alignment and internal alignment.

    Theoretical implications – Our study proposes an emergent model reducing the complexity of achieving alignment in global projects. The model contains three new types of alignment (objective, role and internal) that are actionable and direct compared to previous alignment types. The alignment types aids in the unification of Chinese and Western project managers view on project success.

    Practical implications – We expand the understanding of the Chinese and Western view on project success and provide insight into how alignment can be achieved in global projects. Our findings suggest that project managers should first achieve objective alignment before addressing role and later internal alignment in efforts to increase project performance. 

  • 1640. Alm, Marie
    et al.
    Olofsson, Marianne
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att stödja personer med fetma till livsstilsförändringar2008Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1641.
    Alm, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Effects of water on the mechanical propreties and micro-strucures of granitic rock at high pressures and high temperatures1982In: Issues in rock mechanics: proceedings Twenty-Third Symposium on Rock Mechanics ; the University of California, Berkeley, California, August 25 - 27, 1982 / [ed] Richard E. Goodman, New York: Society of Mining Engineers of the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers , 1982, p. 261-269Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1642.
    Alm, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Experimental deformation of granitic rocks1981In: Vol. 103, no 1, p. 134-136Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1643.
    Alm, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Experimental deformation of mylonitic rocks: results presented at the International Conference on the Effect of Deformation on Rocks, Göttingen, April 9-12, 19801980Report (Other academic)
  • 1644.
    Alm, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Fine-grained granitic rocks experimentally deformed at high temperatures and high pressures1977Report (Other academic)
  • 1645.
    Alm, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Influence of water on the strength and deformation properties of a granitic aplite at high pressures and temperatures1979Report (Other academic)
  • 1646.
    Alm, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Mechanical testing of powders and powder compacts1983In: Scandinavian journal of metallurgy, ISSN 0371-0459, E-ISSN 1600-0692, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 302-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from standard triaxial, uniaxial and bending tests are presented. Triaxial tests were performed at pressures in the range 0-200 MPa. Both initial loose powder samples and cylindrical precompacted specimens were studied under hydrostatic conditions. Most of the total volume compaction occurred at pressures below 10 MPa. Triaxial tests with superimposed axial loads showed no softening despite a 30% shortening of the length of specimens which initially were 60 mm long. Specimens deformed in triaxial tests showed a higher density and a higher uniaxial compressive strength than specimens compacted under hydrostatic conditions

  • 1647.
    Alm, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    The effect of water on the mechanical properties and microstructures of granitic rocks at high pressures and high temperatures1982In: Issues in rock mechanics: twenty-third Symposium on Rock Mechanics, the University of California, Berkeley, California, August 25-27, 1982 / [ed] Richard E. Goodman; Francois E Heuze, Society of Mining Engineers of the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers , 1982, p. 261-269Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1648.
    Alm, Ove
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Alm, B.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Stephansson, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Experimental deformation of rocks from the Kiruna District, northern Sweden1988In: Proceedings of the seventh quadrennial IAGOD symposium: held in Luleå, Sweden, August 18-22, 1986 / [ed] Ebbe Zachrisson, Taylor and Francis Group , 1988, p. 75-82Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1649.
    Alm, Ove
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Bäckström, Gunnar
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Thermal conductivity of NaF at high pressures1979Report (Other academic)
  • 1650.
    Alm, Ove
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Forslund, Josef
    Ljunggren, Christer
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Mattila, Ulf
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Mortensen, Tove-Heide
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Stephansson, Ove
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Bergmekaniska standardtester: en beskrivning av tester från Avdelningen för bergmekanik, Tekniska högskolan i Luleå1985Report (Other academic)
30313233343536 1601 - 1650 of 64200
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