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  • 1851.
    Altaie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Effect of Material Used in Concrete Mixture on the Foundation Stresses on Soil2015In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 7, no 10, p. 668-675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable design, green architecture and sustainable construction are new methods for design and construction that are employed for environmental and economic challenges. Clay and bricks proved as sustainable building materials. In this paper, crush brick in the concrete mixture instead of normal coarse aggregate will be used. STAAD Prov8i software was applied for the designed of a hypothetical building in different sites of the three locations in Iraq (Mosul at the north, Baghdad at the center and Basrah at the south). The input model data used in the software were depending on the field and laboratory tests done for twenty three sites in the three locations of Iraq. Concrete properties values were used in the software for concrete mixture with crushed bricks. The results values of base pressure obtained from the software were low for the three locations. The maximum values of base pressure under the foundation for both the average and the minimum bearing capacity values for Mosul region for the normal strength concrete and air-entrained were (94, 84) kPa and (91, 82) kPa respectively, for Baghdad region were (89, 82) kPa and (86, 81) kPa respectively. Finally, for Basrah, the results for the base pressure were (84, 77) kPa and (82, 76) kPa, respectively. The results values of the base pressure were less for all locations compared with the base pressure values obtained from a previous work for the same locations. The use of crushed brick as aggregate in the concrete mixture is economical due to its availability as local material and it is durable materials with low weight.

  • 1852.
    Altaie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Estimation of Settlement under Shallow Foundation for Different Regions in Iraq Using SAFE Software2015In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 7, no 7, p. 379-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Foundation design must satisfy limited values of settlement. Settlement is an essential criterion in the design process of shallow foundations. To calculate the settlement under different types of shallow foundations, 79 samples were taken from twenty-three sites distributed in three regions:Mosul, Baghdad and Basrah in the northern, central and southern parts of Iraq. Field and laboratory tests were performed to obtain the strength parameters to calculate the bearing capacity. The results obtained for the bearing capacity were used in SAFE software. The software was used to design and analyze the foundation and to calculate the settlements under two types of foundations (raft and continuous) for the three regions. Average and minimum values of bearing capacity wereused. The software used subgrade reaction modules values for the design and analysis. According to the results, the suitable, safe and economical type of foundation to be used in Mosul, Baghdad and Basrah regions for the average value of bearing capacity is the continuous type for the first two regions while the raft type is recommended for Basrah region. In case that the minimumbearing capacity values are used, raft foundation is recommended for Mosul and Baghdad. While deep foundation is the suitable type of foundation for Basrah region.

  • 1853.
    Al-Taie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Reconstruction and Projects Department, Minister of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Baghdad.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Evaluation of Foundation Settlement under Various Added Loads in Different Locations of Iraq Using Finite Element2016In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 257-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Settlement is an important criterion in the design of the foundations. It is classifying into immedi-ate (or elastic) settlement and consolidated settlement (primary and secondary). The factors that affect the shallow foundation settlement are the applied loads, soil stiffness, and geometric shape of foundation. Calculations of settlement depend on the parameters of soil which can be obtained from field and laboratory tests. Field and laboratory tests were conducted for twenty three sites in three different regions in Iraq (Mosul, Baghdad, and Basrah). In this research, field and laboratory tests results adopted for two sites from each region depended on the maximum and minimum bearing capacity values. Settlement for each site was calculated using numerical (mathematical) calculations and PLAXIS software under different added loads. The results of settlements beneath the foundation were competing for the sites with maximum value of bearing capacity in Mosul; Baghdad and Basrah. Also, the comparison conducted for sites of minimum bearing capacity value and the results showed different settlement values of each site. The change of settlement values under different loads was linearly in the six sites using numerical (mathematical) calculations. While, the settlement values obtained from PLAXIS software for sites with maximum bearing ca- pacity value showed that Mosul site had the highest value due to the type of soil layers and the dif- ference models of soil used in the software. Basrah site had a settlement value higher than Bagh- dad site due to the soil layers of sand type only. PLAXIS results for sites with minimum bearing capacity showed that for Basrah site the soil went to failure. While, the settlement values for Mosul and Baghdad sites were close to each other due to have nearly same soil layers. Therefore, high rise buildings could not be used in some sites. Also, soil in some locations and under some added loads needed to be improved before the implementation of any constructions.

  • 1854.
    Altaie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Materials and the style of buildings used in Iraq during the Islamic period2012In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 69-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Islamic period in Iraq lasted 1002 years (637-1639 AD). During this period big cities were constructed and old cities were reconstructed. There was development of the materials used and the design. Bricks, grill wage, plaster, gypsum and marble and stones were used. The environmental conditions were taken in the design of the buildings. The walls were thick and basements and badgur were established. This makes it easier to cool or heat the house. Tar was used to protect the buildings from moisture. New style of buildings was established using new engineering innovations. Well-designed arches and domes were noticed during this period. Islamic buildings had special features such as minarets, arches, domes, vaults, gilding, patterns and decorations.

  • 1855.
    Altaie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Progress of building materials and foundation engineering in ancient Iraq2012In: Advanced Materials Research, ISSN 1022-6680, E-ISSN 1662-8985, p. 220-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans realised the importance of housing since the dawn of history. The first man used the caves as shelter. When agricultural activities dominated the life style of humans, villages started to be constructed. Later these were developed into cities. The dawn of civilization started in Iraq. The inhabitants in that time used the available natural materials in their construction. Reviewing the progress of engineering practices of ancient Iraq, reveals the facts that the inhabitants were aware of the principles of construction and engineering. The materials used and the design of the buildings were very suitable from both environmental and engineering perspectives. This work is a critical review of the progress and development of engineering practices and construction materials used in ancient Mesopotamia

  • 1856.
    Al-Taie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    The need to develop a building code for Iraq2014In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 6, no 10, p. 610-632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building Code is a legal document provided a minimum level of safety and health for the construc-tions to make public living in safe buildings. People recognize the importance of constructing the buildings in safe conditions, since the dawn of civilization. Many countries around the world were facing different kind of disasters such as fires, earthquakes, etc. These disasters made builders to develop methods for safe construction to avoid any disaster. Later, these developments became codes and standards. Since, the middle of the last century many countries established its local codes. This research represents a review of the importance of the codes with a short history for them. Furthermore, reviews for some national codes (Egyptian, Syrian and Arabia Saudi) were done as well as comparison between load’s correction factors, geotechnical requirements and materials used in concrete. Most of the national codes were highly based on the ACI, British and Germany codes and standards. In addition, a review and comparison were presented for International codes (American (ACI) and European (EC)) through a case study. EC code is becoming more common for the world. Eurocode give more flexibility to the user to employ their own standards (national annex). To find the best suitable foundation design to be used in Iraq and the differences when using the American and European codes, a building model was designed and analyzed using STAAD Pro., and SAFE softwares for three locations (Mosul, Baghdad and Basrah). The combination loads used in the two softwares were for ACI and EC codes. Results obtained were very similar. The type of foundation to be chosen for Mosul location is spread or continuous. For Baghdad location the suitable type is raft and for Basrah the choice is raft and piles.In view of the fact that Iraq has no national code engineers and designers were depending on the ACI and British codes and standards. It is very important to have an Iraqi code because it will im-prove the quality and safety of the design and construction of buildings as well as its economic value.

  • 1857.
    Altaie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    The progress of buildings style and materials from the Ottoman and British occupations of Iraq2012In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 41-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The period of ottoman occupation of Iraq was characterized by the same style of buildings and they used local materials as did their predecessors. At the beginning of ottoman occupation, governors were focusing on build mosques and religion schools (Tkaya). Houses were built in random styles depending on the experiences of the builders. For this reason, the houses became irregular and expanded randomly. This lead to the shrinkage of the areas of the roads where they became very narrow and used to referred to as “Drbuna”. At the end of the ottoman period the style of buildings changed and it was reflecting European renaissance influences such as the government campus known as “Qishla”. In 1917 the British army occupied Iraq. During this period the buildings were more inclined to the European style. New materials were used for the first time like cement and iron (Schliemann). The new materials and design destroyed the Iraqi heritage and cultural identity. It is believed that the new housing style did not take into consideration the Iraqi environment.

  • 1858.
    Al-Taie, Entidhar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Saaed, Tarek Edrees
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Foundation assessment in different parts of Iraq using STAAD Pro v8i2013In: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 273-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Foundation is considered as one of the main parts of any structure such as buildings, railways, bridges, etc. The type of foundation used is highly dependent on the type and properties of soil. The design of foundations requires many factors that should be defined such as the load that the foundation is going to hold, geological conditions of the soil under the foundation, type of soil and the local building code criteria.There are number of differences in the geological and soil conditions in Iraq. As a consequence, these differences are reflected on the type of foundation to be used. Despite these differences, same materials and style of buildings are used all over Iraq. The main problems of Iraqi soil are high gypsum content, salinity and shallow water table depth. These factors that influence the foundations are the soil properties and the amount of loads that transmitted by the superstructure.The situation had been analysed through a case study which illustrated the link between soil and foundation types in three different parts of Iraq (Mosul, Baghdad and Basra). One building was analysed using STAAD. Pro software in these regions. It is evident that Iraqi designers and engineers require local code to define all the loads, materials and design of the foundation to be used. The use of local materials might be very effective from both engineering and economic perspectives.

  • 1859.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Performance of Clay Liners in Near-Surface Repositories in Desert Climate2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wars in Iraq (1991 and 2003) generated various types of hazardous waste (HW) in the form of soil contaminated by depleted uranium (DU). Other HW emanated from destroyed army vehicles and remnants of Iraqi nuclear facilities holding various types and amounts of chemical and radioactive material. The negative impact of the various wastes on the health conditions of the population was reported from different parts of Iraq, showing an enhanced frequency of cancer and abnormally born infants. For isolating the wastes, which represent low-level and short-lived intermediate level radioactive wastes, near-surface repositories (NSR) are proposed since they represent the least expensive way of solving future problems with sufficient safety. Internationally, the timeframe of the containment of such wastes is designated to be 300 years. Site selection affects and largely controls the selection of a suitable design the aim being to minimize or eliminate migration of hazardous elements from the waste to the environment. The formulation of siting criteria is the first vital step toward the resolution of the problem. Site selection criteria are proposed taking in account three major factors: environmental, geological and socio-economic factors. Accordingly, Iraqi deserts, which make up 60% of Iraq, represent the number one candidate for locating a safe disposal facility, primarily because of the low population, suitable topography, climatic conditions, seismic stability and availability of raw materials. Long-term performance of NSR is directly related to the function of top and bottom liner systems. They should be designed so that they are mutually compatible and combine to effectively isolate the waste. Liners are considered as the main elements of any disposal facility on the ground surface and a properly designed top liner system is of particular importance since it will minimize or eliminate water percolation into the waste body. Compacted clay liners (CCL) should preferably have with a low hydraulic conductivity, which is achievable by proper selection of raw materials, compaction density and construction methods. A further criterion is that they must not soften significantly by expansion on wetting, which puts a limit to the smectite content and density. The liners can consist of native material found near the landfill site, and be used after simple processing, primarily drying and crushing, or be mixed with fillers like silty sand. Since the hydraulic conductivity is the key property of a reliable CCL, relevant experimental determination of the hydraulic conductivity is vital. The common practice in geotechnical laboratories is to apply high hydraulic gradients for getting results quickly but this can lead to non-conservative, incorrect results. The present study involved determination of the hydraulic conductivity of a smectite-rich clay sampled at places within reasonable distance from potential NSR sites. Various hydraulic gradients were applied to samples compacted to several different densities, using two permeants and two filter types. It was concluded that the outflow filter can significantly affect the evaluated conductivity especially when applying high hydraulic gradients. This was partly explained by clogging of outflow filters of conventional fine-porous type by torn-off clay particles at such gradients. A major conclusion was that the gradient in laboratory testing should not exceed 100 m/m.In order to assess the suitability of available raw materials within the Iraqi Deserts, two smectitic soils termed as Green and Red clays were investigated for potential use in CCLs. Both clays are fairly rich in smectite, which calls for mixing them with properly graded silt/sand material from the desert for modifying the expandability. The shear strength, swelling pressure, hydraulic conductivity and creep properties were determined and used for defining criteria for selecting suitable clay-sand ratios. The results showed that 30-50% Green clay mixed with sand and 40-60% Red clay mixed with sand were suitable for constructing top liners with a hydraulic conductivity of 1×10-9 - 1×10-10 m/s. For bottom liners, 70% Green clay mixed with sand and 80% Red clay mixed with sand would be suitable; they were found to have a hydraulic conductivity of 1×10-11 m/s.The long-term performance of CCL is controlled by a number of processes like long periods of extreme dryness and short periods of very heavy rain. The percolation of water through the top liner system of a number of design alternatives were simulated using the code HELP 3.95D and subsequently by the FE program VADOSE/W. For the assumed NSR concept the slope stability of the top liner is essential and it was determined by using FE technique considering various slope angles. The engineering properties, primarily the hydraulic conductivity, swelling pressure and shear strength of 30-50% Green clay mixed with sand were introduced in the simulations. Two initial water contents of the compacted materials were considered representing 1) optimum water content (“wet case”), and 2) air‐dry conditions (“dry case”). Application of the HELP code decided the selection of suitable CCL having a thickness of 0.5 m and inclined by 5.7ᵒ. More detailed analyses with VADOSE/W showed that a mixture at the dry case would bring 0.5 mm (0.5 litre of leaking water per square meter) through CCL in an eight year simulation period. Long-term simulations (up to 300 years) showed that CCL would undergo continuous drying without reaching saturation even in the case of periods of very heavy rain (616 mm) for the wet and dry cases. The slope stability factor for the rather steep angle 30ᵒ was found to be 1.5 for the most critical case representing complete water saturation. In conclusion, the proposed materials and design features are believed to be suitable for practical application.

  • 1860.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Performance of landfills of hazardous waste with special respect to the function of clay liners2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis is based on four papers related to the performance of near-surface low-level (LLW) repositories (landfills) focusing on construction and performance of clay liners in the cappings. The first paper discusses the source of hazardous wastes, their location and their impact on public health. The paper also discusses the scientific basis of the selection of the isolation of such wastes taking in account also cost issues. The paper also shows rules and principles of composing and constructing isolation of such waste according to American and German regulations. The second paper deals with the criteria for locating plants for processing and disposal of hazardous waste in Iraq with special respect to environmental, geological and socio-economic factors. Referring to these criteria a potential disposal site in the Al-Jezira desert is assessed in the paper. The third paper describes the properties of two candidate Iraqi smectitic clays of potential value for isolating hazardous wastes. These clays have been and are still being examined in order to determine their performance and usability for waste isolation. The fourth paper, finally, discusses in detail the hydration-dehydration processes in clay liners in cappings of waste landfills in desertic climates. It also deals with construction issues.

  • 1861.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hazardous wastes problems in Iraq: a suggestion for an environmental solution2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq passed through many destructive wars where the country infrastructures have been destroyed. Consequently, various types of hazardous wastes generated from 1991 and 2003 wars are exposed in different parts of Iraq without any aspect of human and environment considerations. Contaminants are found in the form of contaminated rubble with depleted uranium (DU). Landfill disposal is still an economical and vital solution that should serve between 500-1000 years for confining hazardous wastes like DU. The longevity of a hazardous waste landfill is mainly controlled by clay based liners. There are many factors affecting the performance of clay liners. These factors were discussed in this research. The main requirements of hazardous waste landfills were listed according to USEPA and German regulations. Finally, the main aspects of landfill siting criteria in Iraq were suggested.

  • 1862.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hazardous wastes problems in Iraq:a suggestion for an environmental solution2013In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 81-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq passed through many destructive wars where the country infrastructures have been destroyed. Consequently, various types of hazardous wastes generated from 1991 and 2003 wars are exposed in different parts of Iraq without any aspect of human and environment considerations. Contaminants are found in the form of contaminated rubble with depleted uranium (DU). Landfill disposal is still an economical and vital solution that should serve between 300-1000 years for confining hazardous wastes like DU. The longevity of a hazardous waste landfill is mainly controlled by clay based liners. There are many factors affecting the performance of clay liners. These factors were discussed. The main requirements of hazardous waste landfills were listed according to USEPA and German regulations. Finally, the main aspects of landfill siting criteria in Iraq were suggested.

  • 1863.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Proposed site selection criteria for hazardous waste disposal facilities in Iraq2012In: Waste Management and the Environment VI / [ed] V. Popov; H. Itoh; C.A. Brebbia, WIT Press, 2012, p. 309-319Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hazardous wastes in Iraq can be considered as a looming crisis due to its severe impact on health and environment after the 1991 and 2003 wars. The most dangerous type is depleted uranium waste. It is classified by EU and USEPA as Low-Level radioactive Waste and a simple and sufficiently safe way of isolating it from the biosphere is to turn it into a landfill confined within tight dikes. Selection of a disposal site requires a number of conditions to be fulfilled, like socio/economic, environmental and geotechnical criteria, which, in combination, determine where such landfills can be located. This is particularly obvious for Iraq, with its large desertic areas that are available for constructing landfills of hazardous waste. The climatic conditions are suitable and the deep groundwater level valuable for minimizing or avoiding contamination of the area. Heavy rain may occasionally fall requiring special measures to be taken for maintaining stability and tightness. This paper lists suitable site selection criteria for landfills of hazardous waste with special respect to Iraq. An example of a suitable disposal site is described and assessed.

  • 1864.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Natural smectitic soils for protective liners in arid climate2014In: Applied Clay Science, ISSN 0169-1317, E-ISSN 1872-9053, Vol. 102, p. 104-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compacted clay liners (CCL) can be used to isolate hazardous wastes like the soil and military scrap contaminated with depleted uranium that emanated from the Iraqi wars in 1991 and 2003. Near-surface repositories for such dangerous waste can preferably be located in the Iraqi deserts, which make up 60% of the territory of Iraq. CCLs are usually constructed using a mixture of clayey soil and coarse material compacted in air-dry form or suitably wetted. In the present study, two smectitic soils from Iraq, termed Green and Red clays, were investigated for potential use in CCLs. The shear strength, swelling pressure, hydraulic conductivity and creep properties were determined and used for preliminary design of top and bottom liners. The engineering properties were determined for various dry densities and water contents ranging from air-dry to fully saturated conditions. The results showed that mixtures of sand and 30-50% Green clay, and mixtures of sand and 40-60% Red clay are suitable for constructing top liners with a hydraulic conductivity between 1×10-10 - 1×10-9 m/s. For bottom liners, mixtures of sand and 70% Green clay and mixtures of sand and 80% Red clay can be considered. They were found to have a hydraulic conductivity of 1×10-11 m/s for a density at saturation of 2.1 g/cm3 (dry density 1.7 g/cm3). As to the slope stability of top liners, the shear strength for different clay percentages was found to guarantee slope stability for 18o inclination under both air-dry and water saturated conditions.

  • 1865.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hydraulic properties of smectite clays from Iraq with special respect to landfills of DU-contaminated waste2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfills of material contaminated by depleted uranium and other low-level radioactive waste must be isolated from the biosphere for a sufficiently long time. This can be effectively made in desert climate by collecting contaminated waste in suitable areas confined by tight embankments and covering them with very tight clay liners protected from desiccation and erosion by suitably composed filters and coarse rock fill. Examples of design principles and construction are described in the paper. The clay liners are made of air-dry expanding clay that can be found in sufficient quantities in Iraq and that provide very good tightness at low cost. The construction technique is well known from various projects.

  • 1866.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hydraulic properties of smectite clays from Iraq with special respect to landfills of DU-contaminated waste2013In: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 109-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfills of material contaminated by depleted uranium and other low-level radioactive waste must be isolated from the biosphere for a sufficiently long time. This can be effectively made in desert climate by collecting contaminated waste in suitable areas confined by tight embankments and covering them with very tight clay liners protected from desiccation and erosion by suitably composed filters and coarse rock fill. Examples of design principles and construction are described in the paper. The clay liners are made of air-dry expanding clay that can be found in sufficient quantities in Iraq and that provide very good tightness at low cost. The construction technique is well known from various projects.

  • 1867.
    Al-Taie, Laith
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hydraulic properties of smectite rich clay controlled by hydraulic gradients and filter types2014In: Applied Clay Science, ISSN 0169-1317, E-ISSN 1872-9053, Vol. 87, p. 73-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The common practice in geotechnical laboratories is to apply high hydraulic gradients for getting results in reasonable time but this can jeopardize the accuracy. In this paper, the hydraulic conductivity of a smectite rich clay from Iraq was determined under different hydraulic gradients (5 to 10000 m/m) using several densities and two permeants. Also, two types of filters were used, ordinary stainless steel sintered filter and sand/silt filter, in order to examine the possible effect of clogging by dragged clay gel particles. It was concluded that the outflow filter can affect the evaluated conductivity especially when applying high hydraulic gradients. For sintered filters the hydraulic conductivity was reduced as the gradient increased, while the conductivity increased as the hydraulic gradient increased when using sand/silt filters. For salt water the impact of the gradient was less obvious than for distilled water. A theoretical model was derived for selecting safe hydraulic gradients as a function of dry density, hydraulic gradient, swelling pressure and permeant type. A major conclusion was that the gradient in laboratory testing should not exceed 100 m/m.

  • 1868.
    Altenstedt, Johanna Parikka
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater. Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Den sociala offentligheten: en mediepedagogisk studie av den reflexiva familjen och internet2004Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med avhandling är att på ett övergripande plan studera modernismens förändringspotentialer utifrån ett familjeperspektiv. På den teoretiska nivån är syftet att studera familjen som en mediepedagogisk kontext utifrån ett senmodernistiskt förändringsperspektiv. På en mer specifik nivå studeras familjen empiriskt som en domän för medierade relationer och medierad kommunikation beträffande familjens inre dynamik, samt familjens egen konstruktion av sin representation i förhållande till andra aktörer i samhället via hemsidor på internet. Det finns även ett metodologiskt syfte inbyggt i studien genom ett försök att utveckla ett synsätt som tillåter att se internet som ett epistemologiskt fält - en sorts social offentlighet där även privatheten blir synlig och där relationerna konstrueras och reproduceras. Detta sker utifrån en ansats som tar fasta på kritisk metodologi för att på ett reflekterande sätt kunna fånga den vetenskapliga validiteten utan att kompromissa på att se det oväntade i förändringsprocesserna. Avhandlingens första forskningsfråga kretsar kring familjen och internet. Den handlar om hur ungdomar använder internet hemma och om hur väl deras föräldrar är insatta i detta, t ex hur kunskapsauktoriteten respektive relationsauktoriteten ser ut i hemmen. Frågan ställdes år 2000 till cirka hundra svarspersoner och utifrån denna empiriska explorativa undersökning fortsatte forskningsprocessen mot den andra forskningsfrågan, som i sin tur handlade om hur familjer presenterar och representerar sig själva via "familjesidor" på internet, och om det var möjligt att se "olika typer" av familjer utifrån deras självkonstruerade webbsidor. Genom en webbsidestudie söker man sedan svaret på om det är möjligt att upptäcka hur singelfamiljer, kärnfamiljer och familjer med avlidna barn, s k änglafamiljer, konstruerade sina representationer på nätet samt hur innehållet med speciell inriktning på internet, och i belysningen av begrepp som auktoritet, relation och tradition skilde sig på dessa sidor beroende på vilken "kategori av familj" det handlade om. Den här delen av licentiat thesis består av en diskursstudie, där främst Foucaults begrepp används. Dessa empiriska forskningsfrågor tillsammans med den teoretiska basen försöker att hjälpa oss att förstå en del av modernismens förändringsprocesser. En slutsats är att familjer har blivit reflexiva processer och bör studeras som sådana, medan internet och de nya medierna skapar ett relationsteknologiskt landskap som jag benämner i denna studie "den sociala offentligheten" för att betona skillnaden till Habermas "borgerlig offentlighet" eller den senare synlighetsbaserade offentligheten. De metodologiska funderingarna löper som en röd tråd igenom hela studien och en tredje forskningsfråga handlar således om hur den kritiska samhällsvetenskapliga metodologin kan tillämpas inom mediepedagogik, och då särskilt för internetstudier. Mediepedagogiken är disciplinen som kan hantera mediesamhällets medieinnehåll och medietexter utan att förlora sitt fokus på människor som skapar relationer mellan varandra med hjälp av dessa medier. I denna studie har man lagt tonvikten på familjerna, men kunskaperna kan hjälpa oss även att studera andra sociala fenomen och processer där relationer skapas eller upprätthålls med hjälp av medier och relationsteknologin.

  • 1869.
    Altin, Anton
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Bremstedt Pedersen, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    En policy är bara så bra som personens förmåga att efterleva den: Ett arbete om informationssäkerhetspolicys och hur de följs på arbetsplatsen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today new applications are used by companies in order to save money and streamline the business process. The advantages are plenty, but considerations have to be made to ensure that the company’s information does not end up in the wrong hands. The aim of this paper is to examine how employees view company policy, in order to figure out whether it is bad policies or the human factor that is the culprit behind information leaks. Earlier studies have shown that more than 50% of information breaches are a result of internal mishappenings. How can companies use policies to ensure that this does not happen? How can they motivate their employees to adhere to such policies? In this paper we conclude, by interviewing employees that regardless of how good a policy is written, it cannot possibly be effective unless the employees are knowledgeable or motivated to adhere to it.

  • 1870.
    Altmojo, Udayanto Dwi
    et al.
    Aalto Univ, Dept Elect Engn & Automat, Aalto, Finland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Aalto Univ, Dept Elect Engn & Automat, Espoo, Finland.
    Salcic, Zoran
    Univ Auckland, Dept Elect & Comp Engn, Auckland, New Zealand.
    On Achieving Reliable Communication in IEC 614992018In: 2018 IEEE 23RD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND FACTORY AUTOMATION (ETFA), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2018, p. 147-154Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a novel extension for communication in the IEC 61499 standard. Inspired by the features found in the formal programming language SystemJ, the extension supports reliable and guaranteed communication in distributed execution of function block application(s)/program(s). The extension utilizes mechanisms agnostic on underlying network protocols and are based on formal semantics that guarantee data delivery. The use of proposed extension, called channel, is demonstrated in an industrial automation-type example.

  • 1871.
    Altorkmany, Lobna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Energy Efficient Eradication of Legionella in Hot Water Systems2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Disease related to unsafe water, poor sanitation, and lack of hygiene is some of the most common causes of illness and death all around the world. Since the first detection of Legionella in Philadelphia 1976, Legionella is recognized to cause Legionellosis which is associated with two distinct forms: Legionnaires’ disease and Pontiac fever. The fact that vaccination against Legionella disease is not efficacious enhances the effort towards developing the existence disinfection methods and inventing new technologies. Re-colonization of Legionella in hot water systems may occur within a few days or weeks after disinfection since conventional disinfection methods significantly reduce but do not eliminate pathogens. Understanding the conditions favoring Legionella occurrence in hot and cold systems will aid in developing new treatment technologies that minimize or eliminate human exposure to legionella pathogens. The work introduces the Anti-Bact Heat Exchanger (ABHE) system as a new innovative system inspired by nature. Compared to conventional disinfection methods, the ABHE system proposed to achieve continuous thermal disinfection of bacteria in hot water systems and in simultaneously saving energy and reducing the required costs. Thermodynamic analysis, experimental test and simulation validation of the ABHE by the Engineering Equation Solver (EES)-based model were achieved to define the thermal performance of the ABHE system at given operation conditions. The experimental test shows high potential of recovering heat and thus saving energy by the ABHE system. In addition, pumping power (PP) was relatively small compared to the recovered heat which implies that less energy was required compared to the recovered heat. The effect of working parameters such as temperatures and flow rate on the thermal performance of the ABHE system was furthermore investigated. The study shows that supplied water temperature has similar effects as the disinfection temperature. Namely, increasing supplied water temperature enhances the regeneration ratio (RR) but it requires a large plate heat exchanger (PHE) area and PP. On the contrary, increasing the temperature in use results in a reduced PHE area and PP. Flow rate has the greatest influence on the thermal performance of the ABHE system. Increasing flow rate leads to an increase in the required area of the PHE. The EES-based model investigated the effect of the length and the width of the plates used in the PHE on the RR and the required area of the PHE. Then, the EES-based model was used to optimize the ABHE system in which the PHE area is minimized or the RR of the ABHE system is maximized.

  • 1872.
    Altorkmany, Lobna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Kharseh, Mohamad
    Civil Environmental Engineering Department, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ljung, Anna-Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Effect of Working Parameters of the Plate Heat Exchanger on the Thermal Performance of the Anti-Bact Heat Exchanger System to Disinfect Legionella in Hot Water Systems2018In: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 141, p. 435-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the current study is to analyze the effect of different working parameters on the thermal performance of the Anti-Bact Heat Exchanger system (ABHE). The ABHE system is inspired by nature and implemented to achieve continuous disinfection of Legionella in different human-made water systems at any desired disinfection temperature. In the ABHE system, most of the energy is recovered using an efficient plate heat exchanger (PHE). A model by Engineering Equation Solver (EES) is set-up to figure out the effect of different working parameters on the thermal performance of the ABHE system. The study shows that higher supplied water temperature can enhance the regeneration ratio (RR), but it requires a large PHE area and pumping power (PP) which consequently increase the cost of the ABHE system. However, elevate temperature in use results in a reduced PHE area and PP, which accordingly reduce the cost of the ABHE system. On the other hand, the EES-based model is used to study the effect of the length and the width of the plates used in the PHE on the RR and the required area of the PHE. Finally, taking into account the geometrical parameters, flow arrangement and the initial operating conditions of the PHE, the EES-based model is used to optimize the PHE in which its area is minimized, and the RR of the ABHE system is maximized.

  • 1873.
    Altorkmany, Lobna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Kharseh, Mohamad
    Civil Environmental Engineering Department, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Ljung, Anna-Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Experimental and Simulation Validation of ABHE for Disinfection of Legionella in Hot Water Systems2017In: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 116, p. 253-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The work refers to an innovative system inspired by nature that mimics the thermoregulation system that exists in animals. This method, which is called Anti Bacteria Heat Exchanger (ABHE), is proposed to achieve continuous thermal disinfection of bacteria in hot water systems with high energy efficiency. In particular, this study aims to demonstrate the opportunity to gain energy by means of recovering heat over a plate heat exchanger. Firstly, the thermodynamics of the ABHE is clarified to define the ABHE specification. Secondly, a first prototype of an ABHE is built with a specific configuration based on simplicity regarding design and construction. Thirdly, an experimental test is carried out. Finally, a computer model is built to simulate the ABHE system and the experimental data is used to validate the model. The experimental results indicate that the performance of the ABHE system is strongly dependent on the flow rate, while the supplied temperature has less effect. Experimental and simulation data show a large potential for saving energy of this thermal disinfection method by recovering heat. To exemplify, when supplying water at a flow rate of 5 kg/min and at a temperature of 50 °C, the heat recovery is about 1.5 kW while the required pumping power is 1 W. This means that the pressure drop is very small compared to the energy recovered and consequently high saving in total cost is promising.

  • 1874. Altorkmany, Lobna
    et al.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Overview of legionella bacteria infection: control and treatment methods2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1875.
    Altorkmany, Lobna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Overview of Legionella Bacteria Infection: Control and Treatment Methods2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the first recognized outbreak of Legionnaires' disease (LD) in 1976, it has become an increasing problem around the world especially in poor countries. Legionella (L) causes an estimated 15,000 annual cases of pneumonia in USA, and leads to death in about 20% of the cases. L is found worldwide in both natural and artificial environments e.g. spa pools, cooling towers. It infects people by inhaled contaminated aerosols that can transmit several km. The optimal temperature for L growth is 20-45C. Control of L is therefore an important health issue. Many treatment methods are used; biocides, ionisation, ozone, UV-radiation, pressure, and thermal treatment. Only thermal treatment can completely eliminate L, which is killed almost instantly at 70C. Current paper gives an overview of the Legionella problem and treatment methods.

  • 1876.
    Altun, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Framtidens elförsörjning med  solceller2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1877.
    Al-Turjman, Fadi M.
    et al.
    Department of Computer Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Northern Cyprus Campus.
    Imran, Muhammad
    College of Computer and Information Sciences, King Saud University.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Value-Based Caching in Information-Centric Wireless Body Area Networks2017In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a resilient cache replacement approach based on a Value of sensed Information (VoI) policy. To resolve and fetch content when the origin is not available due to isolated in-network nodes (fragmentation) and harsh operational conditions, we exploit a content caching approach. Our approach depends on four functional parameters in sensory Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). These four parameters are: age of data based on periodic request, popularity of on-demand requests, communication interference cost, and the duration for which the sensor node is required to operate in active mode to capture the sensed readings. These parameters are considered together to assign a value to the cached data to retain the most valuable information in the cache for prolonged time periods. The higher the value, the longer the duration for which the data will be retained in the cache. This caching strategy provides significant availability for most valuable and difficult to retrieve data in the WBANs. Extensive simulations are performed to compare the proposed scheme against other significant caching schemes in the literature while varying critical aspects in WBANs (e.g., data popularity, cache size, publisher load, connectivity-degree, and severe probabilities of node failures). These simulation results indicate that the proposed VoI-based approach is a valid tool for the retrieval of cached content in disruptive and challenging scenarios, such as the one experienced in WBANs, since it allows the retrieval of content for a long period even while experiencing severe in-network node failures.

  • 1878. Aludden, Johan
    Att hitta stora primtal2002Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1879. Alvaeus, Niklas
    Trafiksäkerhetsaspekter på stödremsan och dess utformning1999Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1880.
    Alvarenga, Rodrigo A.F.
    et al.
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Dewulf, Jo
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Guinée, Jeroen
    Leiden University, the Netherlands.
    Schulze, Rita
    Leiden University, the Netherlands.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Bark, Glenn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Drielsma, Johannes
    Euromines, Belgium.
    Towards product-oriented sustainability in the (primary) metal supply sector2019In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 145, p. 40-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consideration of sustainable supply of (primary) metals is increasingly influencing the policy agenda of western societies. Environmental sustainability can be managed from different perspectives, including a site-oriented one (strongly used by the mining sector) and a product-oriented one (as with life cycle assessment). The objectives of this article are to analyse and discuss the differences in these perspectives; to discuss potential benefits to the metal/mining sector of also considering the product-oriented perspective; and to propose ways for a smooth implementation. We made use of literature and expert knowledge, on top of interviews with different stakeholders, to identify why and how these perspectives are (not) used in the metal/mining sector. Moreover, we identified three key concerns related to the implementation of a product-oriented perspective in the sector (e.g., use of unrepresentative life cycle inventory (LCI) datasets for metal-based products) and proposed three corrective actions for all of them (e.g., increase the quantity and quality of LCI). Finally, we discuss how the corrective actions could be implemented in the sector in a smooth way and some potential benefits from its implementation.

  • 1881.
    Alvarez Cabrera, Tanya
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    SBW Feedback: Design of feedback system for increased usability in monostable SBW shifters2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Electromechanical shift-by-wire car transmission systems make way for new innovative shifter designs such as monostable shifters that spring back to a starting position after a gear has been chosen. Unfortunately the radical change in the communication between the user and shifter has resulted in accidents due to incorrect gear selection. The inadequate usability of the monostable shifters can be attributed to the feedback it provided to users.

     

    The aim of the thesis project was to develop a feedback concept that would improve the usability of a monostable shifter and to study if auditory feedback could be introduced to vehicle systems. By implementing design theory, benchmarking and various creativity methods five concepts with feedbacks in different modalities were developed. The concepts were evaluated in a usability study that involved 25 test participants. A review of the observations from the usability study along with an analysis of the interviews and collected data resulted in the final VRA concept. VRA was a multimodal concept with permanent visual feedback and optional auditory feedback. The shifting pattern was shown on the instrument cluster where the active gear was highlighted through light intensity, color and shape contrasts. The solid blue block, within which the abbreviation for the active gear was displayed, could be seen in the peripheral view. It was perceived as calm and helped the users navigate the shifter. A female machine voice that had a Swedish pronunciation was chosen as the auditory feedback to accompany the “P”, “R” and “D” gear selections. None of the users were indifferent towards the auditory feedback, some perceived it as caring while others found it annoying. Since the analysis did not indicate that auditory feedback was crucial, the VRA concept included an option to turn on or off the sound.

     

    Monostable shifters behave differently compared to traditional polystable shifters, therefore with the changes in the physical movement the communication must also be reviewed. It is recommended to include the shifting pattern on the instrument cluster together with monostable shifters, as it makes up for the loss of the visual and haptic information from the physical shifter. Although the usability study showed that auditory feedback was not necessary, improvements were observed among people who favored it. The auditory information would most likely be better received if earcons were implemented instead of speech. 

  • 1882. Alvarez Garcia-Bobia, Luis
    et al.
    Garcia Cesa, Victor Jose
    A Mobile Web 2.0 community service based on near-field communication2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Similar to the adoption of the Internet during the ‘90s‘, consumer demand is influencing companies to adopt mobile as a new channel for communications, marketing, service delivery and payment. Internet adoption started with companies providing basic information, which quickly evolved into service delivery, marketing and e-commerce. The same phenomenon and adoption curve is unfolding in the mobile world today, as consumers are demanding information and media whenever and wherever they need it. As a result, companies are looking for new ways to satisfy this increasingly mobile consumer base. Moreover, the arrival of Web 2.0 has led to radical changes as regards not only technical specifications of the net, but in the ways both software developers and end-users use the Web. The next step is now to have Web 2.0 technology implemented on mobile platforms, since it will lead to a further development of them, and will make group communication systems accessible for almost everyone and everywhere, opening at the same time the door for a huge new upcoming market. This thesis focuses on the idea of extending social relationships created in the Web to portable devices, thus making it able for the people to communicate and interact with each other regardless of where they are. These tasks can be carried out by platforms that give support and services to mobile devices through the net. They will also allow people to meet and share experience in new ways, even though they are not always easy to use, especially not with mobile terminals that have limited capabilities. In this aspect, it is important to minimize set up time, since it is always the bottleneck of a communication process. Regarding that, one communication technology which a lot of research is being done in nowadays is NFC (Near Field Communication). It has limited range, but on the other hand its set up time is much faster than other existent technologies, such as Bluetooth. Since NFC enables quick connection establishment it could be a suitable technology to be applied in Social Network building and extending purposes. As a proof of concept, a mobile Social Network platform has been developed with the purpose of providing Social-Network-related services to cell phone common users, such as profiles and users management, storage of relationships between users, privileges and privacy control, multimedia sharing services, etc. In addition of using NFC for building social networks, the platform also takes advantage of third-party APIs offered by external social networks to access them. As for Near Field Communication technology, it has been used in the service maybe where it suited the most, provided its fast connection capabilities, that is friends adding. Finally a solid, modular, and easily extensible prototype has been built. The user can enjoy common social network services, at least in a basic way. Some other services considered to be interesting were added as well. As for future work, next step could be adding innovative features taking advantage of the Web 2.0 possibilities, since the platform base is already implemented.

  • 1883.
    Alvarez, Manuel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Distribution Network Planning Considering Capacity Mechanisms and Flexibility2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) has posed challenges to the distribution system operator (DSO) from the operation and regulatory point of view. High penetration of DERs could have negative impacts on the performance of the distribution grid, and depending on the regulatory framework, the DSO's remuneration as well. In liberalized electrical systems, the focus on promoting eciency has led to the implementation of an incentive-based regulation that exerts additional pressure on the DSOs to reduce costs. Additionally, the European Parliament Directive 2009/72/EC establishes a regulatory unbundling among the distribution, production, and retailing activities within the same vertically integrated electric utility.

    A way of helping the DSO to cope with the posed challenges is by providing it with exibility. This exibility can be acquired from the planning stage, and later be used during the system operation. This exibility can stem from the DSO's ability to exert control on the demand and the supply side to balance the system and correct its operational state.

    Based on the European DSOs' current situation at facing the increasing penetration of DERs, this thesis investigates in non-wired exible grid tools to solve the distribution network expansion problem. The investigation focuses on exibility providers, in particular on energy storage systems and hydropower, and also on capacity mechanisms to translate the capacity from DERs into the grid's capacity for planning purposes.

    Given that the share of renewable sources among the DERs is increasing, and considering the importance of energy storage systems in providing exibility to balance renewable energy production, the eort has been turned on to developing a hydropower model and a generic storage model that t both planning and operational studies.

    Given the need for gearing the DERs' behavior into the DSO's decision making process during the planning and operational timescales, the design and implementation of a distribution capacity mechanism have been developed. The design of the capacity mechanism has been conceived considering its integration within the distribution network expansion problem.

    The outcomes of this thesis can be synthesized as follows: 1) A generic hydraulic/storage model provided with an equivalent marginal cost that aids in considering the impact of present decisions in the future costs. 2) A market oriented distribution capacity mechanism that gears DERs and the DSOs to benefit mutually. 3) A distribution network expansion planning formulation that integrates the capacity resource from DERs through the distribution capacity mechanism.

  • 1884.
    Alvarez, Manuel
    et al.
    Universidad Simón Bolívar, Caracas.
    Bermúdez, Juan
    Universidad Simón Bolívar, Caracas.
    Marginal pricing via penalty factors in the Venezuelan hydrothermal system2006In: 2006 IEEE PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition: Latin America, TDC'06, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2006, article id 4104756Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The work shown next deals with the definition of nodal marginal prices, in the context of an economic dispatch solution with transmission losses. The losses are incorporated through penalty factors obtained from line distribution factors, using a linearization process. This study is applied to the hydrothermal venezuelan system, considering plants with regulation capability and run-of-river dams. The objective function to be minimized includes present and future thermal costs. In addition, a discussion is given about the correct location of the slack node, in order to get similar results to these associated to an OPF solution. © 2006 IEEE.

  • 1885.
    Alvarez, Manuel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Zhong, Jin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Gil-de-Castro, Aurora
    University of Cordoba, Electronics and Electronic Technology Area, University of Cordoba.
    A Smart Distribution Toolbox for Distribution System Planning2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution system planner should be able to coordinate smart grid solutions in order to find cost effective expansions plans. These plans should be able to deal with new added system uncertainties from renewable production and consumers while guaranteeing power quality and availability of supply. This paper proposes a structure for distribution systems planning oriented to help the planner in deciding how to make use of smart solutions for achieving the described task. Here, the concept of a system planning toolbox is introduced and supported with a review of relevant works implementing smart solutions. These are colligated in a way that the system planner can foresee what to expect with their combined implementation. Future developments in this subject should attempt to theorize a practical algorithm in an optimization and decision making context.

  • 1886.
    Alvarez, Manuel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Jabr, Rabih
    American University of Beirut.
    Cossent, Rafael
    Universidad Pontificia de Comillas.
    Frías, Pablo
    Universidad Pontificia de Comillas.
    Zhong, Jin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Capacity Mechanisms for Distribution Network Expansion Planning2019In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1887.
    Alvarez, Manuel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Frías, Pablo
    Comillas Pontifical University, Madrid, Spain.
    Cossent, Rafael
    Comillas Pontifical University, Madrid, Spain.
    Jabr, Rabih
    American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Zhong, Jin
    The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    A Capacity Mechanism Design for Distribution Network Expansion Planning2018In: 2018 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2018 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe (EEEIC / I&CPS Europe), 2018, article id 8493874Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Capacity remuneration mechanisms have been originally oriented to ensure availability and continuity of supply on the power generation pool. Equivalent generation-based capacity mechanisms could be implemented to enhance and prolong the usability of the distribution grid. In particular, such capacity mechanisms would provide an alternative to traditional expansion options leading to investment deferral. In this work, a distribution capacity mechanism to fit within a distribution network planning methodology will be proposed and discussed. The capacity mechanism will be outlined following similar guidelines as for the design of capacity mechanisms used in the energy only market. The result of the design is a volume based capacity auction for a capacity-constrained system, oriented to both the active and the reactive power provision.

  • 1888.
    Alvarez Perez, Manuel Alejandro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Stochastic Planning of Smart Electricity Distribution Networks2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The penetration of intermittent Distributed Generation (DG) brought additional uncertainty to the system operation and planning. To cope with uncertainties the Distribution System Operator (DSO) could implement several strategies. These strategies range from the inclusion of smart technologies which will increment system’s flexibility and resiliency, to improvements in forecasting, modeling, and regulatory pledge that will facilitate the planning activity. Regardless of the nature of the solutions, they could be collected in a sort of toolbox. The planner will access the toolbox to conform cost effective plans, better able to deal with any uncertainty. The present work will address the problem of distribution system planning under uncertainties, considering smart solutions along with traditional reinforcements, in the short-term lead time up to 3 years ahead. The work will be focused on three aspects that are the cornerstones of this work:

     • A planning facilitating strategy: Distribution Capacity Contracts (DCCs).

     • A flexibility enabler technology: Energy Storage.

     • A binding methodology: Multistage Stochastic Programming. Stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP). 

    Under the present directive of the European Parliament concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity, distribution companies are not allowed to own DG but entitled to include it as a planning option to differ investment in traditional grid reinforcements. An evaluation of the regulatory context will lead this work to consider DCCs as a planning alternative available in the toolbox. The impact of this type of contract on the remuneration of the DG owner will be assessed in order to provide insight on its willingness to participate. The DCCs might aid the DSO to defer grid i ii investments during planning stages and to control the network flows during operation. 

    Given that storage solutions help to match in time production from intermittent sources with load consumption, they will play a major role in dealing with uncertainties. A generic storage model (GSM) based on a future cost piecewise approximation will be developed. This model inspired by hydro-reservoirs will help assessing the impact of storage in planning decisions. This model will be tested by implementing it in short-term hydro scheduling and unit commitment studies. 

    To trace a path towards the future of this research work, a discussion on the planning problem formulation, under consideration of the lead time, the expansion options, the smart strategies, and the regulatory framework will be presented. Special focus will be given to multistage stochastic programming methods and in particular to the SDDP approach.

  • 1889.
    Alvarez Perez, Manuel Alejandro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bermúdez, Juan
    Universidad Simón Bolívar.
    Zhong, Jin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. The University of Hong Kong.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    A Generic Storage Model Based on a Future Cost Piecewise-Linear Approximation2019In: IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, ISSN 1949-3053, E-ISSN 1949-3061, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 878-888Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents a generic storage model (GSM) inspired by the scheduling of hydraulic reservoirs. The model for steady state short-term (ST) operational studies interlaces with the long-term (LT) energy scheduling through a piecewise-linear Future Cost Function (FCF). Under the assumption that a Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP) approach has been used to solve the energy schedule for the LT, the FCF output from that study will be processed to obtain an equivalent marginal opportunity cost for the storage unit. The linear characteristic of a segment of the future cost function (FCF) will allow a linear modeling of the storage unit production cost. This formulation will help to coordinate the renewable resource along with storage facilities in order to find the optimal operation cost while meeting end-point conditions for the long-term plan of the energy storage. The generic model will be implemented to represent a battery storage and a pumped-hydro storage. A stochastic unit commitment (SUC) with the GSM will be formulated and tested to assess the day-ahead scheduling strategy of a Virtual Power Plant (VPP) facing uncertainties from production, consumption, and market prices.

  • 1890.
    Alvarez Perez, Manuel Alejandro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bermúdez, Juan
    Universidad Simón Bolívar.
    Zhong, Jin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    A Hydro-Reservoir Generic Storage Model for Short-Term Hydrothermal Coordination2017In: IEEE PES PowerTech Manchester 2017: towards and beyond sustainable energy systems, 2017, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, article id 7980882Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents a linear solution for the short-term hydro-thermal scheduling problem linked to long-term conditions through a piecewise-linear Future Cost Function (FCF). Given end-point conditions to conform long-term water releases, and given actual reservoir conditions, a segment of a pre-built piecewise future cost function will be chosen. The linear characteristic of the FCF segment will allow a linear modeling of the hydro-power plant, in a similar fashion as a thermal unit with an equivalent marginal opportunity cost. A short-term hydro thermal coordination problem will be formulated considering parallel and cascaded hydro-reservoirs. Three study cases involving different reservoir configurations and scenarios will be computed to test the model. The results of this model mimics coherently the future-cost hydro-thermal coordination problem for the different configurations tested. Given similarities with other forms of energy storage, a new theoretical model for generic storage will be proposed and discussed.

  • 1891.
    Alvarez Perez, Manuel Alejandro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bermúdez, Juan
    Department of Energy Conversion and Transport, Simón Bolívar University.
    Zhong, Jin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Reservoir-Type Hydropower Equivalent Model Based on a Future Cost Piecewise Approximation2018In: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 155, p. 184-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The long-term (LT) scheduling of reservoir-type hydropower plants is a multistage stochastic dynamic problem that has been traditionally solved using the stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP) approach. This LT schedule of releases should be met through short-term (ST) scheduling decisions obtained from a hydro-thermal scheduling that considers uncertainties. Both time scales can be linked if the ST problem considers as input the future cost function (FCF) obtained from LT studies. Known the piecewise-linear FCF, the hydro-scheduling can be solved as a one-stage problem. Under certain considerations a single segment of the FCF can be used to solve the schedule. From this formulation an equivalent model for the hydropower plant can be derived and used in ST studies. This model behaves accordingly to LT conditions to be met, and provides a marginal cost for dispatching the plant. A generation company (GENCO) owning a mix of hydro, wind, and thermal power will be the subject of study where the model will be implemented. The GENCO faces the problem of scheduling the hydraulic resource under uncertainties from e.g. wind and load while determining the market bids that maximize its profit under uncertainties from market prices. A two-stage stochastic unit commitment (SUC) for the ST scheduling implementing the equivalent hydro model will be solved.

  • 1892.
    Alvarez Perez, Manuel Alejandro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Cossent, Rafael
    Universidad Pontificia de Comillas.
    Zhong, Jin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Regulatory Matters Affecting Distribution Planning With Distributed Generation2017In: CIRED - Open Access Proceedings Journal, E-ISSN 2515-0855, Vol. 2017, no 1, p. 2869-2873Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Under the present European directive concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity, distribution companies are not allowed to own distributed generation (DG) but encouraged to include it as a planning option to defer investment in traditional grid reinforcements. Distribution system operators (DSOs) have used the provision of capacity contracted to DG as a viable alternative under current regulatory arrangements. Here, the topics bonding DSOs and DG owners under the present regulation will be explored and a planning structure that considers distribution capacity contracts as a planning option will be proposed. This will serve as a road map for DSOs to implement its preferred planning tools in an optimisation context, considering costs of investment, reliability, operation, and capacity provision while complying with current regulation.

  • 1893.
    Alvarez Perez, Manuel Alejandro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Cossent, Rafael
    Universidad Pontificia de Comillas.
    Zhong, Jin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Remuneration Assessment of a VPP Providing Distribution Capacity Services2017In: IEEE PES PowerTech Manchester 2017: towards and beyond sustainable energy systems, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, article id 7980881Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Distribution System Operator (DSO) might consider a capacity contract as a planning alternative to defer grid investments. A Virtual Power Plant (VPP) might be able to provide such capacity and change its production as requested by the DSO. This article presents an assessment of the impact of this type of distribution capacity contract (DCC) on VPP's remuneration. This assessment is done by comparing the optimal production / bidding strategy which maximize its profit, under presence or absence of these contracts. The impact of intermittent generation and storage while evaluating these scenarios will be investigated as well. A stochastic unit commitment will be used to determine the VPP's strategy under uncertainties from wind power, load, market prices, and the requested power by the DSO. The model showed that the VPP involvement in distribution capacity contracts can improve its remuneration when certain types of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) are used to provide the service.

  • 1894. Alvarez Vergara, Davey
    Design, technical development and prototyping of products for sensory stimulations of mentally handicapped2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project was to develop products or prototypes for sensory stimulation of individuals with mental disability. The objective is that with this products improve the overall functioning of persons with mental handicaps. A side objective was to create an illustrative guideline scheme to assist in the development of additional sensory products.The project was systematically executed using problem solving methods and with the support of the people that collaborated with information to the project. A substantial amount of background studies were made to obtain knowledge about mental disabilities, treatments and the functioning of the senses. The work can be summarized by four concepts designed with the intention to stimulation of the sense of hearing, touch and vision, and encourage the improvement of cognitive, communication and motor skills.One of the most important aspects in rehabilitation is, the rate of recurrence of the exercises, and to encourage the user to use the products,they were designed so they can be used both as an exercise tool and as a plaything. These solutions can give a child with disability a chance to continue the rehabilitation work at home, and to improve vital functions that are needed to obtain better possibilities to function independently in society.

  • 1895. Alvarez Villa, Ruben
    Mapping and analyses of the process for auto-rickshaw manufacturing2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, many auto-rickshaws used in India are similar in design of the Piaggio Ape C from 1956, based on the Vespa. There are millions of people in need of a low priced and efficient means of transportation. A huge market for these auto-rickshaws exist in India because the population there is over 1,2 billion people. This thesis aims to continue the development of the vehicle platform for a new hybrid auto-rickshaw that is more environmentally friendly and better suited for its users. The goals for this hybrid auto-rickshaw are improving vehicle handling, impact safety, passenger and driver ergonomics. The thesis is focused in the analysis of the available manufacturing processes, in order to propose efficient and economical production methods for the monocoque chassis of the auto-rickshaw. The conceptual design of the hybrid auto-rickshaw has been improved due to the study and analysis of different manufacturing methods. The studies carried out shows which are the most feasible designs for production of each part.The revised structure of the chassis and the manufacturing techniques proposed are used to estimate the cost of the whole vehicle. The estimation of costs gives an idea of the final price of the vehicle, in order to evaluate the economical viability of this project.

  • 1896. Alvarsdotter, Freja
    Customer loyalty: a multiple case study in the Swedish chemical commodity market2006Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The marketing of today is increasingly shifting towards customer orientation, customer understanding and synergistic relationships. This shift has given new possibilities for companies operating in commodity markets to differentiate them selves and no longer be completely dependent on price. The commodity companies can rise above their commodity markets and differentiate their commodity products. Customer loyalty is the factor that can make the relationship between two companies more stabile. A company has a unique advantage over the competitors if its customers want to stay with the company. The purpose of this thesis was to find out how the determinants and moderators of customer loyalty can be characterised and described in a commodity market. A multiple case study has been performed by interviewing four customers of a Swedish chemical commodity company. The factors describing and characterising customer perceived value, customer satisfaction and switching costs, all said to influence customer loyalty, and customer loyalty has been investigated. This study shows that the customer satisfaction perceived by the customers is influencing the customer loyalty. The customer satisfaction is in turn influenced by the customer value perceived. The switching costs only influence the satisfaction-loyalty linkage on this market if they are high.

  • 1897. Alveblom, Maria
    Hur tonåringar påverkas av att leva med acne: En systematisk litteraturöversikt2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1898. Alvedro Buño, José Luis
    et al.
    Cabada Gutierrez, Beatriz
    Life cycle assessment of two parts of a crane: supporting member, crane member2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to compare the environmental impact of two alternative ways of manufacturing two different parts of a crane, for HIAB Company. To realize the study it is used the LCA. -The first part of the report is a detailed explanation of what is an LCA. An LCA is a systematic tool that enables the analysis of environmental loads of a product throughout its entire life cycle and the potential impacts of these loads on the environment. The essence of life cycle assessment is the identification, examination, and evaluation of the relevant environmental implications of a material, process, product, or system across its life span from creation to waste or, preferably, to re-creation in the same or another useful form. The LCA will provide the company a new environmental perspective on their manufacturing processes, and help it to choose the most effective process, identifying key environmental issues associated with both alternatives. -The second part is the LCA of the two different ways of manufacturing two different parts of a crane. There are several LCA software tools in the market, but the price of an LCA software tool can be around several thousand Euros and this is the reason that prevented us from carrying out the analysis with any LCA software, so the calculation are made with EXCEL. The studied products are the crane member and the supporting member, so actually are realized two different assessments, that are divided in assessment 1(crane member) and assessment 2 (supporting member). The new designs of both pieces are made with new higher strength steels, with better mechanical properties, therefore the dimensions and weight of the pieces will be reduced, but the company wants to know the environmental impact of them. These assessments are based on public available free resource, because it was impossible to get all the data from the company, so the results are not exactly, but the calculation are made with EXCEL, so is easy to obtain different results only changing the input parameters. After the assessment we can establish the following conclusions. Crane member: The new design is less environmentally friendly due to some elements of the new steel. Supporting member: Every phase analyzed in this study have a less environmental impact in the new design. -The last part of the report is a summary of different LCA software tools and shows an example of what can be done if you have access to an LCA software, the Simapro.

  • 1899.
    Alves, Mariana
    et al.
    Arkitektur- och designcentrum.
    Ehrnberger, Karin
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Jahnke, Marcus
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Wikberg-Nilsson, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    NOVA: Verktyg och metoder för normkreativ innovation2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Alla är sig själv närmast. Och vi gör oftast som vi är vana att göra. Vi styrs av de normer och värderingar som har format oss - även om vi tror att vi är innovativa. Resultatet riskerar att bli lösningar som diskriminerar och begränsar. En stor utmaning är att förstå andra människors behov. Om vi kan använda ett normkritiskt perspektiv och se bortom våra egna ramar kan vi nå en större potential inom innovation. Men att förverkliga den potentialen är lättare sagt än gjort. Det krävs vad vi kallar normkreativitet. Normkreativitet bygger på en medvetenhet om att normer och värderingar kan begränsa och diskriminera. Men den kräver också ett analytiskt arbete att undersöka människors verkliga situation och djupliggande behov - och samtidigt ett kreativt arbete att omsätta kritik och kunskap i nya lösningar. NOVA innehåller konkreta verktyg och handfasta metoder för alla som vill skapa sådana normkreativa lösningar. Materialet är baserat på praktiskt erfarenhet och forskning från en mängd olika projekt och studier. Formatet är valt för att gynna kreativitet och samverkan. Fokus är på normer som diskriminerar, men egentligen är innehållet användbart i alla innovationssammanhang. All innovation handlar ju om att utmana normer.

  • 1900.
    Alveteg, Ellen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Dra stråken till sin spets: En undersökning av extended techniques för viola genom instudering av Viola Spaces av Garth Knox2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Efter att ha gått en kurs i fri improvisation där jag fick utforska min violas möjligheter till att producera ljud, väcktes en nyfikenhet hos mig kring utökade speltekniker som kan förekomma i nutida konstmusik, så kallade extended techniques. Jag fick tips om etydsamlingen Viola Spaces av Garth Knox där olika extended techniques presenteras och bestämde mig för att studera in fyra av dem. De etyderna jag valde behandlar olika stråktekniker, nämligen sul ponticello, sul tasto, tremolo och olika sätt att dra stråken på.

    Under arbetets gång redogör jag för de svårigheter jag stötte på under min inlärningsprocess av etyderna samt hur jag gick till väga för att lösa dem. Arbetet redovisas dels genom videoinspelningar som jag gjorde i samband med mina övningstillfällen och dels genom material från de anteckningar jag förde under processen. Jag tar också upp tolkningsfrågor av notationen och reflekterar kring instruktionerna om hur musiken ska framföras.

    Arbetet har resulterat i att jag känner mig bättre förberedd på att spela nutida konstmusik än vad jag gjorde tidigare. Jag har också utökat min kunskap om olika stråktekniker.

     

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