Change search
Refine search result
2345678 201 - 250 of 1121
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 201. Cupillard, Samuel
    et al.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Glavatskih, Sergei
    Thermohydrodynamic analysis of a journal bearing with a microgroove on the shaft2014In: Computational Thermal Sciences, ISSN 1940-2503, E-ISSN 1940-2554, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 47-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, thermohydrodynamic performance of a journal bearing with a microgroove created on the shaft is analyzed. A plain journal bearing is modeled using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package. Navier-Stokes and energy equations are solved. The rotor-stator interaction is treated by using a computational grid deformation technique. The goal is to examine the pressure/temperature distribution in the bearing film. Results are presented in terms of typical bearing parameters as well as flow patterns. Results are also compared to the bearing with a smooth shaft. The effect induced by a microgroove on pressure distribution is explained for different bearing configurations, eccentricities, and microgroove depths. It is shown that the microgroove produces a local drop in pressure which, averaged over one revolution, decreases the load carrying capacity. The load carrying capacity is further decreased by using deeper microgrooves. With thermal effects considered, the microgroove carries more cold lubricant into the warmest regions of the bearing. This effect, more pronounced with deeper microgrooves, is due to a global flow recirculation inside the microgroove, which improves mixing

  • 202. Cupillard, Samuel
    et al.
    Glavatskih, Sergei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    3D thermodynamic analysis of a textured slider2008In: Proceedings of NORDTRIB 2008, 13th Nordic Symposium on Tribology: Scandic Rosendahl Hotel, Tampere, Finland, June 10 - 13, 2008 / [ed] Jaakko Kleemola; Arto Lehtovaara, Tampere: Tampere University of Technology, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of a 3D inlet textured slider bearing with a temperature dependent fluid is performed. Numerical simulations are carried out for a laminar and steady flow. Hot and cold lubricant mixing in the groove is modelled and examined for different operating conditions. Thermohydrodynamic performance of the bearing is analysed for different texture lengths. Results show that texture has a stronger and positive influence on load carrying capacity when thermal effects are considered. This beneficial effect is at a maximum for the longest dimples with a length shorter than the pad length. Texture is also beneficial for the load carrying capacity when the sliding speed and inlet flow rate are varied: with an appropriate supply mass flow, load carrying capacity can be increased by 6-7% at low sliding speeds.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 203. Cupillard, Samuel
    et al.
    Glavatskih, Sergei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    3D thermohydrodynamic analysis of a textured slider2009In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 42, no 10, p. 1487-1495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of a 3D inlet textured slider bearing with a temperature dependent fluid is performed. Numerical simulations are carried out for a laminar and steady flow. Hot and cold lubricant mixing in the groove is modelled and examined for different operating conditions. Thermohydrodynamic performance of the bearing is analysed for different texture lengths. Results show that texture has a stronger and positive influence on load carrying capacity when thermal effects are considered. This beneficial effect is at a maximum for the longest dimples with a length shorter than the pad length. Texture is also beneficial for the load carrying capacity when the sliding speed and inlet flow rate are varied. The load carrying capacity of the slider can be increased by up to 16% in severe operating conditions (high sliding speed).

  • 204. Cupillard, Samuel
    et al.
    Glavatskih, Sergei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Computational fluid dynamics analysis of a journal bearing with surface texturing2008In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part J, journal of engineering tribology, ISSN 1350-6501, E-ISSN 2041-305X, Vol. 222, no 2, p. 97-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis of a lubricated conformal contact is carried out to study the effect of surface texture on bearing friction and load carrying capacity using computational fluid dynamics. The work focuses on a journal bearing with several dimples. Two- and three-dimensional bearing geometries are considered. The full Navier-Stokes equations are solved under steady-state conditions with a multi-phase flow cavitation model.The coefficient of friction can be reduced if a texture of suitable geometry is introduced. This can be achieved either in the region of maximum hydrodynamic pressure for a bearing with high eccentricity ratio or just downstream of the maximum film for a bearing with low eccentricity ratio. An additional pressure build-up produced as a result of the surface texture has been shown at low eccentricity ratios.

  • 205. Cupillard, Samuel
    et al.
    Glavatskih, Sergei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Effect of surface texturing on journal bearing performance2006In: ASIATRIB 2006: proceedings of the third Asia International Conference on Tribology, October 16-19, Kanazawa, Japan, Minato-ku: Kikai Shinkou Kaikan , 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 206. Cupillard, Samuel
    et al.
    Glavatskih, Sergei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Inertia effects in textured hydrodynamic contacts2010In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part J, journal of engineering tribology, ISSN 1350-6501, E-ISSN 2041-305X, Vol. 224, no 8, p. 751-756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A flow analysis is carried out for a parallel textured slider to investigate the role of fluid inertia. Numerical simulations are performed for a laminar, two-dimensional, steady and isothermal flow. Stokes solutions are compared with Navier-Stokes solutions at the same Reynolds number. A range of texture depths is analysed. It is shown that there is an optimum value of texture depth that provides maximum load-carrying capacity. It is also shown that there is a critical depth value. Inertia has a negative effect on the load-carrying capacity for depths higher than the critical value, whereas it has a positive effect for lower depths. For a given texture depth, these effects are amplified as the Reynolds number increases. The global effect of inertia is positive when a realistic configuration of a parallel textured slider with a fore-region is considered.

  • 207. Cupillard, Samuel
    et al.
    Glavatskih, Sergei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Thermal analysis of lubricant flow in a textured inlet contact2008In: Proceedings of the 19th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena (ISTP-19): Reykjavik, Iceland, August 17-21, 2008 / [ed] Sigurdur Brynjolfsson; Olafur Petur Palsson; Jong H. Kim, University of Iceland, Faculty of Industrial Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance of an inlet textured contact is analysed for a temperature dependent lubricant flow. Thermal effects are analysed for different shear rates. Shearing of lubricant and subsequent heating reduce load carrying capacity and frictional losses compared with isothermal conditions. Load carrying capacity of a parallel surface contact can be improved by using texturing at the inlet when thermal effects are considered. It is also shown that for the different convergence ratios considered, the texture enables the sustaining of a load until a certain critical shear rate is reached. This critical shear rate depends on a number of factors such as the convergence ratio and lubricant parameters including the viscosity-temperature coefficient and the dynamic viscosity at reference temperature.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 208.
    Dagli, Deniz
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Zeinali, Amin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Gren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Image analyses of frost heave mechanisms based on freezing tests with free access to water2018In: Cold Regions Science and Technology, ISSN 0165-232X, E-ISSN 1872-7441, Vol. 146, p. 187-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A freezing test apparatus was supplemented with a camera to allow for recording and monitoring one-dimensional freezing tests to analyze the development of ice lenses via particle image velocimetry (PIV) in the laboratory. Two tests on disturbed, partially saturated samples of silt loam were conducted. Image recording and correlation analyses provided detailed information about frost front penetration and ice lens formation(s) under varying temperature boundary conditions. Thawing has also been regarded in further studies.

    Results of the image analyses were compared to readings from conventional displacement measurements during the same test. Significant agreement between the results of image analyses and displacement measurements has been found. Test results were also used to establish a qualitative relationship between heat extraction and heave rates. Advantages and disadvantages of utilizing image analysis methods were discussed. Potential remedies for overcoming the drawbacks of using image analysis are suggested.

    Image analysis is shown to be a viable method in further understanding of frost heave mechanisms.

  • 209.
    Dahl, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Hermansson, Roger
    Gren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Benckert, Lars
    Temperatures and velocities near the gradient zone in a short term water heat storage1991In: Proceedings: Thermastock '91, International Conference on Thermal Energy Storage, Scheveningen, 13 - 16 May 1991, Utrecht: Novem , 1991Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 210.
    Dai, Wenhong
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Nanjing China; College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing, China; National Engineering Research Center of Water Resources Efficient Utilization and Engineering Safety, China. .
    Bilal, Ahmed
    College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing, China.
    Xie, Qiancheng
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Ahmad, Ijaz
    Centre of Excellence in Water Resources Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Joshi, Ishwar
    Hydro Lab, Lalitpur, Nepal.
    Numerical Modeling for Hydrodynamics and Near-Surface Flow Patterns of a Tidal Confluence2020In: Journal of Coastal Research, ISSN 0749-0208, E-ISSN 1551-5036, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 295-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because of the flow influx of tributaries, a confluence forms a unique environment carrying interesting hydrodynamic features and other attributes. The understanding of flow behavior here is important, particularly if it is on a tidally influenced channel in a harbor metropolitan. Because of communal requirements, there is a possibility of building wading structures, which may interplay with the flow in this zone. The knowledge of unidirectional river or flume confluences so far is not readily applicable for similar features in channels near coastal areas that have tidal flow in addition to river runoff. In this study, a tidal confluence that has a highly dynamic bidirectional flow is investigated. Near-surface flow patterns in a tidal cycle are simulated by using a numerical model. A field survey provides the bathymetry, time-series boundary conditions, and corresponding verification data. Good agreement is reached between calculated and measured results. Based on the condition of tidal current, four scenarios are selected for which confluence flow patterns are observed, both spatially and temporally. The results indicate that at least one recirculation is always in the tidal confluence for all flow conditions, which rotates counterclockwise for the ebb flow and clockwise for the flood flow. In addition, there is no absolute slack water condition at the tidal junction in the study area. The study also finds that the flows of all three connected channels at the confluence change in a looped pattern with respect to one another. Furthermore, the study reports unique relationships among the ratios of different flows.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 211.
    Dai, Wenhong
    et al.
    College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China;State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Nanjing 210098, China.
    Ding, Wei
    College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China.
    Lu, Chuanteng
    State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Nanjing 210098, China;Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, Nanjing 210029, China.
    Luo, Xiaofeng
    State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Nanjing 210098, China;Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, Nanjing 210029, China.
    Xie, Qiancheng
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Field investigations of under-water mounds formed by hopper dredge discharges in a coastal environment2020In: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, Vol. 8, no 395Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 212.
    Das, Samir
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Ganesh, S. Jai
    Centre for Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur, Ratanada.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Modelling of a groundwater mound in two-dimensional heterogeneous unconfined aquifer in response to precipitation recharge2015In: Journal of hydrologic engineering, ISSN 1084-0699, E-ISSN 1943-5584, Vol. 20, no 7, article id 4014081Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper deals with the transient semi-analytical solution of linearized Boussinesq equations characterizing the development of groundwater mound in an unconfined two-dimensional heterogeneous aquifer under vertical recharge conditions. The finite aquifer consists of two rectangular basins surrounded by open water bodies and shares a common impermeable or permeable boundary at the mid plane. The governing equations are solved by applying the Laplace transform and finite Fourier sine transform techniques. Accordingly, analytical expressions for water heads for two rectangular basins are obtained for various scenarios. The applicability of the solutions has been illustrated with the help of a case study and numerical examples, considering various cases. The region wise development of the groundwater mound indicates that the effect of heterogeneity becomes significant for small time duration whereas for long time it becomes insignificant. This result can have application in land reclamation problems in the presence of localized recharge where the reclamation displaces the ground water divide and changes the groundwater conditions in the entire region

  • 213.
    Davidsson, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Stability and transition in the suction boundary layer and other shear flows2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bypass transition has been studied by theoretical and numerical procedures, with the asymptotic suction boundary layer (ASBL) in focus. As reference cases the Blasius boundary layer (BBL) and a free shear flow have been studied. In order to reduce energy losses associated with flow systems, it is a wish to avoid turbulence in these flows. It is thus necessary to have a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms behind bypass transition, which typically starts with the formation and growth of structures extended in the streamwise direction, so called streaks. One way of delaying the transition to turbulence is to apply wall suction, which is also known to stabilize streaks. In this work, it is shown that the stabilizing mechanism of wall suction is not unambiguous. A theoretical study on the linear evolution of streaks triggered by a localized disturbance is performed. Releasing the disturbance in the free-stream, it will migrate towards the wall and quickly be subject to shear. Consequently, this disturbance is amplified when applying wall suction, provided that for the suction-free case the growth of the BBL may be considered small. When initiating the disturbance inside the boundary layer, on the other hand, it is found that suction stabilizes the growth of such a streak. Also, the non-linear properties of suction are studied using a model with prescribed wall-normal disturbance velocity identical for the ASBL and the BBL. Despite the similarity, suction is shown to dampen the non-linear forcing of the perturbation. Moreover, the non-linear response is shown to favor the forcing of streamwise longitudinal (3D) structures and 2D waves. For the ASBL, also energy thresholds for transition of periodical disturbances have been determined by direct numerical simulations. The least energy required to reach transition is obtained when the initial flow field consists of two oblique waves, for which the threshold value is found to scale as Re^{-2.6}. For transition starting with streamwise vortices or random noise the threshold scales like Re^{-2.1} (Re being the Reynolds number), and the routes to transition are similar to that of other flows. A theoretical framework for evaluating the non-linear interaction terms of the normal- velocity/vorticity equations is also developed. This formulation allows for study of wave interaction throughout the whole wavenumber plane, i.e. for any given wave number of a disturbance. The framework has been applied to a free shear flow, which shows that primarily streamwise elongated structures and Tollmien-Schlichting waves are forced by the non-linear interactions. Besides that, the geometrical interpretation shows that the non-linear interaction involving normal vorticity is most potent for structures inter-angled by 90 degrees in the wavenumber plane.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 214.
    Davidsson, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Streak growth and breakdown in a boundary layer with steady uniform suction2006In: Abstracts: EFMC6 KTH, Kungl. Tekniska Högskolan , 2006, Vol. Vol. 2, p. 203-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 215. Davidsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Elementary solutions for streaky structures in boundary layers with and without suction2008In: Fluid Dynamics Research, ISSN 0169-5983, E-ISSN 1873-7005, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 212-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The temporal evolutions of small, streamwise elongated disturbances in the asymptotic suction boundary layer (ASBL) and the Blasius boundary layer (BBL) are compared. In particular, initial perturbations localized (δ-functions) in the wall-normal direction are studied, corresponding to an axi-symmetric jet coming out of a plane parallel to the flat plate. Analytical solutions are presented for the wall-normal and streamwise velocities in the ASBL case whereas both analytical and numerical methods are used for the BBL case. The initial position of the perturbation and its spanwise wave number are varied in a parameter study. We present results of maximum amplitudes obtained, the time to reach them, their position and optimal spanwise scales. Free-stream disturbances are shown to migrate towards the wall and reach their (negative) optimum inside the boundary layer. The migration is faster for the ASBL case and a larger amplitude is reached than for the BBL. For perturbations originating inside the boundary layer the amplitudes are overall larger and show the phenomenon of overshoot, i.e. positive amplitudes moving out of the boundary layer. The overall largest amplitudes are obtained for the BBL case, as in other studies, but it is shown that for free-stream disturbances initiated somewhere downstream the leading edge streak growth may be amplified due to suction since in the BBL the disturbance mainly advects above the boundary layer.

  • 216.
    Dehkharqani, Arash Soltani
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Amiri, Kaveh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Steady and transient pressure measurements on the runner blades of a Kaplan turbine model2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of renewable energy sources has increased the need for power regulation. Power system regulation is mainly performed by hydropower plants through load variations. Additional forces are exerted on the runner blades during these load variations. This paper deals with pressure measurement performed on the blades of a Kaplan turbine model under steady state and load variation conditions. Flow behavior and frequency content of the pressure are investigated and compared to find critical condition in terms of pressure fluctuation. The results show that at various operating points and conditions, different regions of the blade are important. During load rejection, a considerable amount of pressure fluctuations are exerted on the runner blades. These results will be used to define experiments to be performed on the corresponding prototype. On the prototype, the loads acting on the runner blades will be investigated at various operation points similar to the model. In addition, the relation between the frequency content on the blades and loads on the main shaft will be investigated. Comparing results from model and prototype eventually would be valuable to explore the flow characteristics in prototype since CFD simulation of prototype is challenging.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 217.
    Dittes, Nicholas J.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Pettersson, Anders (Contributor)
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lang, Defeng (Contributor)
    SKF.
    Corrosion Sensor for Water Contamintated Grease2019In: Tribology Transactions, ISSN 1040-2004, E-ISSN 1547-397XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple and inexpensive corrosion sensor has been manufactured to study the corrosion rate of new and water contaminated grease using a galvanic cell. This paper shows the methodology in using this concept for any application which may require quantifying the corrosivity of a liquid or semisolid which could be applied to the surface of the sensor. Water contamination is a problem in many grease lubricated machine components, so a sensor concept was developed and a correlation between water content and the corrosion rate is shown. This method could be used to precisely study the corrosion rate of aged or contaminated lubricants and could potentially be used as a cheap and simple way to estimate water contamination of grease.

  • 218.
    Dittes, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Pettersson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Casselgren, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Marklund, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lugt, Piet M.
    SKF Engineering and Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Optical Attenuation Characterization of Water Contaminated Lubricating Grease2018In: Tribology Transactions, ISSN 1040-2004, E-ISSN 1547-397X, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 726-732Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water-contaminated grease samples are investigated with attenuation spectra in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) regions in this article. The purpose of this investigation was to identify a model with optical attenuation spectra such that the water content of grease samples could be characterized with a simple measurement setup using common methodology from the field of instrumental chemistry. The ratio between two chosen wavelengths of light appears to approximate the water content of grease samples with an acceptable coefficient of determination using a methodology to show what can potentially be done to develop condition monitoring tools. To illustrate the outlined method, a prestudy of grease aging and oxidation levels is also investigated to show that other variables do not significantly change the measurement.

  • 219.
    Dittes, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Pettersson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lang, Defeng
    SKF Research & Technology Development Nieuwegein, the Netherlands.
    Automated Dielectric Thermoscopy Characterization of Water Contaminated Grease2019In: Tribology Transactions, ISSN 1040-2004, E-ISSN 1547-397X, Vol. 62, no 5, p. 859-867Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Machine maintenance is important for improving machine uptime, reliability, and reducing costs. Grease is used in most rolling element bearings, and one common failure criterion is water contamination, so developing a sensor which can detect water content automatically without human input could be a useful endeavor. The temperature dependence on the dielectric properties of water-contaminated grease is investigated in this paper with computer logged instrumentation. This method has been termed Dielectric Thermoscopy (DT). Several off the shelf (two lithium, one lithium complex, and two calcium sulphonate complex) and one unadditivized lithium grease are tested with varying amounts of water contamination from 0% to approximately 5%. Another grease is tested with small increments of added water from 0% to 0.97% to test the resolution of the measurement. The purpose is to use the capacitance temperature slope (termed dielectric thermoscopy) to show correlations to the water content of the grease sample and investigate if any grease types will pose problems in the measurement. A small, custom made fringe field capacitance sensor with an integrated temperature sensor has been used for this characterization and data is logged automatically with laboratory equipment and a PC. A useable and positive correlation to water content and the DT measurement of roughly 0.5 pF per 10 °C and percentage of water is found, although it was found that some greases have different behavior than others.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 220.
    Duenas Dobrowolski, Jan
    et al.
    Department of Design Fundamentals and Fluid-Flow Machinery, Wrocaw University of Technology, Wrocaw, Poland.
    Gawlinski, Marek
    Department of Design Fundamentals and Fluid-Flow Machinery, Wrocaw University of Technology, Wrocaw, Poland.
    Paszkowski, Maciej
    Department of Fundamentals of Machine Design and Tribology, Wrocaw University of Technology, Wrocaw, Poland.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Experimental Study of Lubricating Grease Flow inside the Gap of a Labyrinth Seal Using Microparticle Image Velocimetry2018In: Tribology Transactions, ISSN 1040-2004, E-ISSN 1547-397X, Vol. 61, no 1, p. 31-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the flow of lubricating greases in a labyrinth seal geometry is studied using microparticle image velocimetry (µPIV). The aim is to evaluate the grease velocity distribution inside the gap of a labyrinth seal and to find a relationship between the grease consistency and the transferred speed from the rotating ring in order to choose the correct grease as a sealing medium. In addition, the grease flow characteristics are important for the understanding of fracture due to grease layer displacement. For these purposes, four greases with different rheological properties were used in µPIV experiments. It was found that the grease consistency plays a crucial role in speed development as well as the grease composition and presence of a slip effect at the grease–rotating wall interface.

  • 221. Dumortier, L.
    et al.
    Dahl, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Benckert, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Kjellström, Björn
    Evaluation of particle tracking velocimetry for studies of the flow in a boiler furnace1999In: Applied Modelling and Simulation, International conference, 1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 222.
    Dunca, Georgiana
    et al.
    Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Romania.
    Bucur, Diana
    Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Romania.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Sensitivity analysis on flow rate estimation using design of experiments: Application to the pressure-time method2017In: 2017 10th International Symposium on Advanced Topics in Electrical Engineering, ATEE 2017, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 533-538, article id 7905035Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work investigates the flow parameters influence over the accuracy of flow rate determination by means of Design of Experiments -a statistical procedure widely used for experiments. The method used for the estimation of the flow rate derives from the standard pressure-time method, modified and improved - the solution is obtained by solving the water hammer equations considering an unsteady friction factor. The influence of the following parameters over the final moment of the flow rate variation regime is determined: the time of valve closure, the Reynolds number of the flow and the type of the closure law. A 23 factorial design is chosen to test the manner the three parameters influence, separately and together, the time value that should be chosen for the end of the flow rate variation regime. The results will help understand the influence of these parameters and the way in which they should be modeled within the flow rate determination method.

  • 223.
    Dunca, Georgiana
    et al.
    POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest.
    Bucur, Diana
    POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Proulx, Gilles
    Hydro-Québec Research’s Institute.
    Dostie, Matheiu Bouchard
    Hydro-Québec Research’s Institute.
    Investigation of the pressure-time method with an unsteady friction2013In: Hydro 2013: International Conference and Exhebition : Promoting the Versalite Role of Hydro, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pressure-time method is used to determine the flow rate in hydraulic turbines. Over the years, developments of the method to improve its accuracy have been proposed, such as a time dependent friction (Jonsson) or a different upper integration limit (Adamkowski). The present work investigates these developments on measurements performed on a full-scale machine for different flow rates. The discharge computed values using pressure measurements are compared to ultrasound transit time measurements performed simultaneously. The results point out the significance of the developments on the final results; variations of 0.5% are obtained when combining Jonsson friction formulation and Adamkowski upper integration limit.

  • 224.
    Dunca, Georgiana
    et al.
    POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest.
    Bucur, Diana Maria
    POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Popa, Radu
    POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest.
    Discharge evaluation from pressure measurements by a genetic algorithm based method2015In: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, ISSN 0955-5986, E-ISSN 1873-6998, Vol. 46, p. 49-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an alternative to the Gibson method, for discharge estimation of a turbine inside a hydropower plant. The method proposes a genetic algorithm which includes an integration procedure for the water hammer equations using the method of characteristics. The decision variables are represented by the steady-state regime discharge before the valve closure and the pipe friction factor. The recordings of pressure/differential pressure in measuring sections are used.

  • 225.
    Dunca, Georgiana
    et al.
    POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest.
    Bucur, Diana Maria
    POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest.
    Iovanel, Raluca Gabriela
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    On The Use of the Water Hammer Equations with Time Dependent Friction During a Valve Closure, for Discharge Estimation2016In: Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1735-3572, E-ISSN 1735-3645, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 2427-2434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a new method for in site discharge estimation in pressured pipes. The method consists in using the water hammer equations solved with the method of characteristics with an unsteady friction factor model. The differential pressure head variation measured during a complete valve closure is used to derive the initial flow rate, similarly to the pressure-time (Gibson) method. The method is validated with a numerical experiment, and tested with experimental laboratory measurements. The results show that the proposed method can reduce the discharge estimation error by 0.6% compared to the standard pressure-time (Gibson) method for the flow rate investigation.

  • 226.
    Dunca, Gerogiana
    et al.
    POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest.
    Bucur, Diana Maria
    POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest.
    Jonsson, Pontus
    Pöyry.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Discharge measurements using the Pressure-Time Method: Different evaluation procedures2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the pressure-time method and its developments. The pressure-time method used to determine the discharge in hydraulic turbines is described and applied in a generic test case in well controlled laboratory conditions. Developments of the method are presented: a time dependent friction factor (proposed by Jonsson) and a different upper integration limit (proposed by Adamkowski). Laboratory experiments are used to compute the discharge using the pressure-time method in the standard and modified versions and the results are compared. The precision of the methods is verified by comparing the computed discharge values to the values measured with a magnetic flowmeter.

  • 227.
    Dunca, Gerogiana
    et al.
    POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest.
    Bucur, Diana Maria
    POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest.
    Jonsson, Pontus
    Pöyry SwedPower AB.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Discharge measurements using the Pressure-Time Method: Different evaluation procedures2014In: Polytechnical University of Bucharest. Scientific Bulletin. Series D: Mechanical Engineering, ISSN 1454-2358, Vol. 76, no 4, p. 195-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the pressure-time method and its developments. The pressure-time method used to determine the discharge in hydraulic turbines is described and applied in a generic test case in well controlled laboratory conditions. Developments of the method are presented: a time dependent friction factor (proposed by Jonsson) and a different upper integration limit (proposed by Adamkowski). Laboratory experiments are used to compute the discharge using the pressure-time method in the standard and modified versions and the results are compared. The precision of the methods is verified by comparing the computed discharge values to the values measured with a magnetic flowmeter.

  • 228. Ebermark, Sofia
    et al.
    Marjavaara, Daniel
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Pressning av SMC: numeriska tryckfältsberäkningar med hjälp av inversmodellering2007In: Svenska Mekanikdagar 2007: Program och abstracts / [ed] Niklas Davidsson; Elianne Wassvik, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2007, p. 74-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 229.
    Edlund, G.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Wikander, G.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Molin, Nils-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    The visualization of modes in a circular cochlear model by hologram interferometry1978In: Journal of Sound and Vibration, ISSN 0022-460X, E-ISSN 1095-8568, Vol. 59, no 22, p. 299-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work has been carried out to study the possibilities of using hologram interferometry to examine the mechanical behavior of the inner ear. The purpose was to make a model of the cochlea with a curved and stiff basilar membrane and to look for both travelling wave and standing wave patterns. The level of excitation is approximately the same as found in actual hearing when scaled to model dimensions and hence much lower than in most previous model studies. Also in contrast to previous studies, curvature effects are investigated

  • 230.
    Ekevad, Mats
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Marklund, Birger
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Gren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Wood-chip formation in circular saw blades studied by high-speed photography2012In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 115-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Films of wood-chip formation were captured with a high-speed camera during rip sawing of wood with a circular saw blade. The saw blade diameter was 400 mm and the rotational speed was 3250 rpm. The saw blade had four teeth with rake angles of 0°, 10°, 20° and 30° to ascertain the influence of different rake angles. Wooden boards were cut along the side so that the camera could record the cutting sequence without any interference from material between the cutting teeth and the camera. Tests were made for green, dry and frozen green pine boards, for both counter-cutting and climb-cutting cases. In addition, some Mozambican wood species were cut. The films, recorded at 40,000 frames s−1, show the cutting sequence along the trajectory of the tooth in question and the creation of the wood chip. Details such as the compression of the wood chip in the gullet, the movement of the wood chip inwards and outwards in the gullet and finally the exit from the gullet are visible. The chip size and chip movement depend strongly on the rake angle and on whether the wood is green, dry, frozen or unfrozen.

  • 231.
    Emami, Nazanin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Söderholm, Karl-Johan M.
    University of Florida.
    How filler properties, filler fraction, sample thickness and light source affect light attenuation in particulate filled resin composites2005In: Dental Materials, ISSN 0109-5641, E-ISSN 1879-0097, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 721-730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The way by which variables such as filler type, filler surface treatment and light source affect light attenuation in particulate filled resin composites was presented. Mixture of 50 wt% bisGMA and 50wt% TEGDMA consisting of a photo-initiatior and a co-initiator was prepared. Three different filler types, HBB, SBB, and KU, which were either silane surface treated or not, were added to that mixture in eight different volume percentage. It was observed that of the two light sources, more light was absorbed by the composite when the laser light was used. It was also observed that the HBB filler absorbed most light and the KU filler the least.

  • 232.
    Emami, Nazanin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Söderholm, Karl-Johan
    Florida University.
    Gren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Quantitative measurements of dental light beam (halogen versus LED)2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 233.
    Engström, T. Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Gustavsson, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Karlsson, Rolf
    Vattenfall Research & Development.
    Proceedings of Turbine-99 - Workshop 2: The second ERCOFTAC Workshop on Draft Tube Flow, Älvkarleby, Sweden, June 18-20 20012002Book (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 234.
    Eppanapelli, Lavan Kumar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Experimental investigation of snow metamorphism at near-surface layers2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Snow metamorphism is a direct objective in many snow research areas, and its charac-terisation is a major challenge in areas including winter road maintenance, detection of icing on wind turbine blades, and snow quality mapping for skiing. A common effect of snow metamorphism is compaction, which can be investigated from the associated vari-ations in physical properties of snow. While the relation between snow metamorphism and physical properties of snow is fairly well-known, a method to quantify this relationis not extensively researched. This experimental based thesis focuses on the relationship between the physical properties of snow and its degree of metamorphism. The link isestablished and investigated by quantifying near-infrared (NIR) reflectance measure-ments and analysing the microtomographic data. Three experimental approaches are developed to record the NIR reflectance measurements and to understand the influence of compaction at near-surface layers of a snowpack. In addition, an X-ray microtomogra-phy (micro-CT) system is used to visualise the behaviour of snow microstructure during compaction. In this thesis, snow experienced compaction via aging, the melting-freezing process, uniaxial loading, settling and infiltration of liquid water.

    A numerical tool based on the well-established Discrete Ordinates Radiative Trans-fer (DISORT) method is used to solve the radiative transfer equation (RTE) for aplane-parallel and semi-infinite snowpack. The numerical solver takes the reflectance measurements as input and returns the coefficients of a first order Legendre phase function of an investigated snowpack at a given wavelength of light. The results from the solver show consistency and strong correlation between the Legendre coefficient sand the physical properties of snow. Furthermore, the physical properties of snow such as specific surface area (SSA) and liquid water content (LWC) were estimated via parameterisation where the reflectance data is used as input. The results suggest that the parameterisation of LWC can provide a qualitative estimate of the LWC in a snowpack, while the parameterisation of SSA provides a quantitative estimate of the snow SSA. As a next step, the influence of compaction on snow microstructure is investigated from three-dimensional (3D) images obtained using the micro-CT system. In this case, compaction is initiated by applying uniaxial load on a snow sample and the effect of compaction is analysed based on digital volume correlation (DVC) and porosity distribution. The micro-CT observations further emphasise that near-surface layers of a snowpack experience a higher degree of impact during compaction.

    In summary, this thesis presents experimental methods to quantify the link between snow compaction at near-surface layers, and the physical properties of snow. The mode observations show that the estimated Legendre coefficients can provide qualitative descriptions of snow grain distribution and surface texture. The parameterisation methods can provide the details about the LWC and the SSA of a snowpack. Further, the observations from the micro-CT study suggest that grains breakage and recrystallisation are the prevailing effects of snow compaction. All observations in this thesis are helpful in understanding the metamorphism in a snowpack for relevant research areas.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 235.
    Eppanapelli, Lavan Kumar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Casselgren, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Wåhlin, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Estimation of specific surface area of snow based on density and multispectral infrared reflectanceIn: Journal of cold regions engineering, ISSN 0887-381X, E-ISSN 1943-5495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a multiple regression method for predicting snow SSA based on multispectral reflectance and snow density. Multispectral near-IR reflectance from snow was measured at wavelengths 980 nm, 1,310 nm and 1,550 nm. In total, 16 different artificially prepared snow samples were investigated using two optical sensors, a spectrometer and a Road eye sensor. Both the sensors measured backscattered radiance from snow and measurements were carried out in a climate chamber.  Snow types with variations in physical properties such as grain distribution, surface texture, SSA, density and depth are considered. Variations in snow density were obtained through compaction and aging process. Correlation between the snow density and reflectance is investigated and influence of snow density and multispectral reflectance on snow SSA is also investigated. A generalized linear model is developed to predict the snow SSA with a coefficient of determination equal to 98\%. The preliminary validation of results show that the SSA can be accurately estimated from the density and multispectral reflectance. The model results indicate that the snow density has minor effect on the variations in snow SSA. Results suggest that snow with varying physical properties can be qualitatively characterized based on the presented approach, which is of interest for applications such as winter roads classification and pistes classification.  

  • 236.
    Eppanapelli, Lavan Kumar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Casselgren, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Wåhlin, Johan
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Investigation of snow single scattering properties of snow based on first order Legendre phase function2017In: Optics and lasers in engineering, ISSN 0143-8166, E-ISSN 1873-0302, Vol. 91, p. 151-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Angularly resolved bidirectional reflectance measurements were modelled by ap- proximating a first order Legendre expanded phase function to retrieve single scattering properties of snow. The measurements from 10 different snow types with known density and specific surface area (SSA) were investigated. A near infrared (NIR) spectrometer was used to measure reflected light above the snow surface over the hemisphere in the wavelength region 900 nm to 1650 nm. A solver based on discrete ordinate radiative transfer (DISORT) model was used to retrieve the estimated Legendre coefficients of the phase function and a cor- relation between the coefficients and physical properties of different snow types is investigated. Results of this study suggest that the first two coefficients of the first order Legendre phase function provide sufficient information about the physical properties of snow where the latter captures the anisotropic behaviour of snow and the former provides a relative estimate of the single scattering albedo of snow. The coefficients of the first order phase function were com- pared with the experimental data and observed that both the coefficients are in good agreement with the experimental data. These findings suggest that our approach can be applied as a qualitative tool to investigate physical properties of snow and also to classify different snow types.

  • 237.
    Eppanapelli, Lavan Kumar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Casselgren, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lycksam, Henrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    3D analysis of deformation and porosity of dry natural snow during compaction2019In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 6, article id 850Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study focuses on three-dimensional (3D) microstructure analysis of dry natural snow during compaction. An X-ray computed microtomography (micro-CT) system was used to record a total of 1601 projections of a snow volume. Experiments were performed in-situ at four load states as 0 MPa, 0.3 MPa, 0.6 MPa and 0.8 MPa, to investigate the effect of compaction on structural features of snow grains. The micro-CT system produces high resolution images (4.3 μm voxel) in 6 hours of scanning time. The micro-CT images of the investigated snow volume illustrate that grain shapes are mostly dominated by needles, capped columns and dendrites. It was found that a significant number of grains appeared to have a deep hollow core irrespective of the grain shape. Digital volume correlation (DVC) was applied to investigate displacement and strain fields in the snow volume due to the compaction. Results from the DVC analysis show that grains close to the moving punch experience most of the displacement. The reconstructed snow volume is segmented into several cylinders via horizontal cross-sectioning, to evaluate the vertical heterogeneity of porosity distribution of the snow volume. It was observed that the porosity (for the whole volume) in principle decreases as the level of compaction increases. A distinct vertical heterogeneity is observed in porosity distribution in response to compaction. The observations from this initial study may be useful to understand the snow microstructure under applied stress.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 238.
    Eppanapelli, Lavan Kumar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Friberg, Benjamin
    Casselgren, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Estimation of a low-order Legendre expanded phase function of snow2016In: Optics and lasers in engineering, ISSN 0143-8166, E-ISSN 1873-0302, Vol. 78, p. 174-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate the scattering phase function of snow from angularly resolved measurements of light intensity in the plane of incidence. A solver is implemented that solves the scattering function for a semi-infinite geometry based on the radiative transfer equation (RTE). Two types of phase functions are considered. The first type is the general phase function based on a low-order series expansion of Legendre polynomials and the other type is the Henyey-Greenstein (HG) phase function. The measurements were performed at a wavelength of 1310 nm and six different snow samples were analysed. It was found that a first order expansion provides sufficient approximation to the measurements. The fit from the first order phase function outperforms that of the HG phase function in terms of accuracy, ease of implementation and computation time. Furthermore, a correlation between the magnitude of the first order component and the age of the snow was found. We believe that these findings may complement present non-contact detection techniques used to determine snow properties.

  • 239.
    Eppanapelli, Lavan Kumar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lintzen, Nina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Casselgren, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Wåhlin, Johan
    Department of Civil and Transport Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    Estimation of Liquid Water Content of Snow Surface by Spectral Reflectance2018In: Journal of cold regions engineering, ISSN 0887-381X, E-ISSN 1943-5495, Vol. 32, no 1, article id 05018001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study measures the spectral reflectance from snow with known liquid water content (LWC) in a climate chamber using two optical sensors, a near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer and a Road eye sensor. The spectrometer measures the backscattered radiation in the wavelength range of 920–1,650 nm. The Road eye sensor was developed to monitor and classify winter roads based on reflected intensity measurements at wavelengths of 980, 1,310, and 1,550 nm. Results of the study suggest that the spectral reflectance from snow is inversely proportional to the LWC in snow. Based on the effect of LWC on the spectral reflectance, three optimum wavelength bands are selected in which snow with different LWCs is clearly distinguishable. A widely used remote sensing index known as the normalized difference water index (NDWI) is used to develop a method to estimate the surface LWC for a given snow pack. The derived NDWI values with respect to the known LWC in snow show that the NDWI is sensitive to the LWC in snow and that the NDWI and LWC are directly proportional. Based on this information, the NDWI is used to estimate the surface LWC in snow from measurements on a ski track using the Road eye sensor. The findings suggest that the presented method can be applied to estimate the surface LWC in order to classify snow conditions potentially for ski track and piste applications.

  • 240.
    Eriksson, Ingemar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Gren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Powell, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    New high-speed photography technique for observation of fluid flow in laser welding2010In: Optical Engineering: The Journal of SPIE, ISSN 0091-3286, E-ISSN 1560-2303, Vol. 49, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments in digital high-speed photography allow us to directly observe the surface topology and flow conditions of the melt surface inside a laser evaporated capillary. Such capillaries (known as keyholes) are a central feature of deep penetration laser welding. For the first time, it can be confirmed that the liquid capillary surface has a rippled, complex topology, indicative of subsurface turbulent flow. Manipulation of the raw data also provides quantitative measurements of the vertical fluid flow from the top to the bottom of the keyhole.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 241.
    Eriksson, Ingemar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Haglund, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Powell, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Holographic measurement of thermal distortion during laser spot welding2012In: Optical Engineering: The Journal of SPIE, ISSN 0091-3286, E-ISSN 1560-2303, Vol. 51, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Welding distortion is an important engineering topic for simulation and modeling, and there is a need for experimental verification of such models by experimental studies. High-speed pulsed digital holography is proposed as a measurement technique for out-of-plane welding distortion. To demonstrate the capability of this technique, measurements from a laser spot weld are presented. A complete twodimensional deformation map with submicrometer accuracy was acquired at a rate of 1000 measurements per second. From this map, particular points of interest can be extracted for analysis of the temporal development of the final distortion geometry.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 242. Eriksson, Martin
    et al.
    Lucchese, Riccardo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Gustafsson, Jonas
    RISE - Swedish Institute of Computer Science.
    Ljung, Anna-Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Mousavi, Arash
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Varagnolo, Damiano
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Monitoring and Modelling Open Compute Servers2017In: Proceedings IECON 2017: 43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 7177-7184Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficient control of server rooms in modern data centers can help reducing the energy usage of this fast growing industry. Efficient control, however, cannot be achieved without: i) continuously monitoring in real-time the behavior of the basic thermal nodes within these infrastructures, i.e., the servers; ii) analyzing the acquired data to model the thermal dynamics within the data center. Accurate data and accurate models are indeed instrumental for implementing efficient data centers cooling strategies. In this paper we focus on a class of Open Compute Servers, designed in an open-source fashion and currently deployed by Facebook. We thus propose a set of methods for collecting real-time data from these platforms and a control-oriented model describing the thermal dynamics of the CPUs and RAMs of these servers as a function of both manipulable and exogenous inputs (e.g., the CPU utilization levels and the air mass flow produced by the server's fans). We identify the parameters of this model from real data and make the results available to other researchers.

  • 243.
    Erjavec, Nika
    et al.
    CBZI, University of Nova Gorica, Vipava.
    Pinato, Giulietta
    CBZI, University of Nova Gorica, Vipava.
    Ramser, Kerstin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Raman spectroscopy as a tool for detecting mitochondrial fitness2016In: Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, ISSN 0377-0486, E-ISSN 1097-4555, Vol. 47, no 8, p. 933-939Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Raman spectroscopy allows the molecular chemical analysis of whole living cells by comparing them to known Raman signatures of specific vibrational bonds. In this work we used Raman spectroscopy to differentiate between wild type yeast cells and mutants characterized by increased or reduced mitochondrial fragmentation. To associate mitochondrial fragmentation with biochemical markers, we performed Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) of whole cell Raman spectra (~50–100 cells/spectrum). We show that the long-lived, less fragmented mutants fall into a significantly distant cluster from the wild type and short-lived, more fragmented mutants. Clustering depends on respiratory growth and coincides with that of membrane phospholipids and some respiratory chain components. Spectral clustering is supported by enzymatic activity measurements of OXPHOS Complexes. In addition, we find that NAD(P)H autofluorescence also correlates with mitochondrial fragmentation, representing another likely aging biomarker, besides phospholipids and OXPHOS components. In summary, we demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy has the potential to become a powerful tool for differentiating healthy from unhealthy aged tissues, as well as for the prognostic evaluation of mitochondrial function and fitness.

  • 244.
    Esmaili, Qadir
    et al.
    Faculty of Engineering, Amol University of Special Modern Technologies, Amol, Iran.
    Nimvari, Majid Eshagh Nimvari
    Faculty of Engineering, Amol University of Special Modern Technologies, Amol, Iran.
    Joybari, Nima Fallah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Chen, Yong-Song
    Advanced Institute of Manufacturing with High-tech Innovations and Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, 168 University Rd., Minhsiung Township, 62102, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC.
    Model based water management diagnosis in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell2020In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water management diagnosis in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell is of great importance. The water produced in the fuel cell affects its performance and lifetime through the current distribution and the two phase flow pattern in the channel. The aim of the present study is to modify a segmented model in order to investigate a model-based water management diagnosis at different operating conditions. Simulations are conducted in three current densities: low (0.2 A/cm2), medium (0.6 A/cm2) and high (1 A/cm2), four temperatures ranged from 40 to 70, two stoichiometries (2 and 3) and four inlet humidities (25%, 50%,75% and 100%). The results show that at fully saturation inlet condition, there is a uniform local current density for all three considered current densities. Also, two-phase pressure drop and output voltage have similar trends. Hence two phase pressure drop can be considered as a suitable criterion for water management diagnosis. At inlet humidities less than 50%, non-uniformity of local current density increases that leads to reduction of output voltage, especially at high current density. Generally, for non-saturated inlet condition, two phase pressure drop and output voltage may show different trends. Therefore, two-phase pressure drop can be used only as a criterion for the formation of water and not for water management diagnosis.

  • 245.
    Fabricius, John
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Hellström, Gunnar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Miroshnikova, Elena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Wall, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Darcy's law for flow in a periodic thin porous medium confined between two parallel plates2016In: Transport in Porous Media, ISSN 0169-3913, E-ISSN 1573-1634, Vol. 115, no 3, p. 473-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study stationary incompressible fluid flow in a thin periodic porous medium. The medium under consideration is a bounded perforated 3D-domain confined between two parallel plates. The distance between the plates is \(\delta \), and the perforation consists of \(\varepsilon \)-periodically distributed solid cylinders which connect the plates in perpendicular direction. Both parameters \(\varepsilon \), \(\delta \) are assumed to be small in comparison with the planar dimensions of the plates. By constructing asymptotic expansions, three cases are analysed: (1) \(\varepsilon \ll \delta \), (2) \(\delta /\varepsilon \sim \text {constant}\) and (3) \(\varepsilon \gg \delta \). For each case, a permeability tensor is obtained by solving local problems. In the intermediate case, the cell problems are 3D, whereas they are 2D in the other cases, which is a considerable simplification. The dimensional reduction can be used for a wide range of \(\varepsilon \) and \(\delta \) with maintained accuracy. This is illustrated by some numerical examples.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 246.
    Fallahjoybari, Nima
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Performance improvement of a solar air heater by covering the absorber plate with a thin porous material2020In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 190, article id 116437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of covering the absorber plate of a solar air heater with a thin porous media is investigated in the present study. Simulations are carried out for turbulent flow and heat transfer in the solar heater and within the porous layer. The effects of different parameters such as Reynolds number, Darcy number and solid to fluid thermal conductivity ratio on the thermal and thermo-hydraulic performances of a solar air heater are studied. It is observed that the implementation of a thin porous layer over the absorber plate significantly increases the thermal and thermo-hydraulic performances of the solar air heater. The maximum increase in the thermal and thermo-hydraulic performances is more than 5 times of those obtained in a solar heater without porous medium. Meanwhile, the maximum increase in the frictions factor of the porous solar heater is 2 times of that in a solar heater without porous media at the maximum Reynolds number studied. The proposed configuration also reduces the risk of hot spots since no entrapped eddies are formed over the absorber plate. It is shown that the turbulence produced at the porous-fluid interface penetrates into the thin porous layer and enhances the heat transfer from the absorber plate. The results also reveal that the conduction heat transfer within the porous layer highly affects the thermal and thermo-hydraulic performances of the solar heater.

  • 247.
    Fallahjoybari, Nima
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Hellström, Gunnar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Maerefat, Mehdi
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University.
    Nimvari, Majid E.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Faculty of Engineering Technologies, Amol University of Special Modern Technologies, Amol.
    Numerical Computation of Macroscopic Turbulent Quantities in a Porous Medium: an Extemsion to a macroscopic Turbulent model2016In: Journal of Porous Media, ISSN 1091-028X, E-ISSN 1934-0508, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 497-513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A numerical study is conducted using a standard numerical model for a porous medium consisting of a staggered arrangement of square cylinders. Fully developed macroscopic turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate are derived and analyzed for different porosities of the medium at different Reynolds numbers. The results obtained are used to extend the applicability range of an existing macroscopic turbulence model in porous media to low-Reynolds-number turbulent flows. It is shown that the levels of normalized macroscopic turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate are not constant over the entire range of Reynolds number. These quantities increase from lower levels at low Reynolds numbers up to an asymptotic value being independent of Reynolds number. The constants in the closure expression of the macroscopic turbulence equations are modified using the present results. Finally, in order to highlight the importance of the present modifications, the results of the macroscopic turbulence model before and after the modifications are compared for two cases.

  • 248.
    Fallahjoybari, Nima
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Hellström, J. Gunnar I.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Investigation of thermal dispersion and intra-pore turbulent heat flux in porous media2020In: International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, ISSN 0142-727X, E-ISSN 1879-2278, Vol. 81, article id 108523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, the importance of the thermal dispersion and the turbulent heat flux in porous media and their effects on the macroscopic distribution of thermal energy are investigated. To this end, turbulent flow and heat transfer within five unit-cells mimicking porous media are solved using large eddy simulation. It is shown that the thermal dispersion and the turbulent heat flux are negligible as compared to the convection term in the macroscopic energy equation. When further scrutinizing this equation, it is revealed that except for the longitudinal components of the thermal dispersion, the other components of thermal dispersion and turbulent heat flux may be neglected away from the boundaries as compared to the interfacial heat transfer. Visualizations of vortices show that the size of the turbulence structures within the cells is of the same order as the size of the pores; therefore, the turbulent heat flux is limited to the intra-pore level. Finally, a discussion is provided on the accuracy of the gradient type diffusion model commonly used for turbulent heat flux in porous media in the absence of macroscopic turbulence. It is shown that the intra-pore turbulence does not affect the macroscopic transport of thermal energy within the porous media studied.

  • 249.
    Fallahjoybari, Nima
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lundström, Staffan T.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    A Subgrid-Scale Model for Turbulent Flow in Porous Media2019In: Transport in Porous Media, ISSN 0169-3913, E-ISSN 1573-1634, Vol. 129, no 3, p. 619-632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the analogy between the filtered equations of large eddy simulation and volume-averaged Navier–Stokes equations in porous media, a subgrid-scale model is presented to account for the residual stresses within the porous medium. The proposed model is based on the kinetic energy balance of the filtered velocity field within a pore; hence, when using the model, numerical simulations of the turbulent flow in the pores are not required. The accuracy of the model is validated with available data in the literature on turbulent flow through packed beds and staggered arrangement of square cylinders. The validation yields that the model successfully captures the effect of the pore-scale turbulent motion. The model is then used to study turbulent flow in a wall-bounded porous media to assess its accuracy.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 250.
    Fallahjoybari, Nima
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Hellström, J. Gunnar I.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Investigation of Hydrodynamic Dispersion and Intra-pore Turbulence Effects in Porous Media2020In: Transport in Porous Media, ISSN 0169-3913, E-ISSN 1573-1634, Vol. 131, no 2, p. 739-765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present paper is to evaluate and compare the pore level hydrodynamic dispersion and effects of turbulence during flow in porous media. In order to compute these quantities, large eddy simulations of turbulent flow in five unit cells comprised of spherical particles are performed and the results are averaged over the cells. Visualizations of vortical structures reveal that the size of the turbulence structures is of the size of the pores. Investigations furthermore yield that volume-averaged values of the hydrodynamic dispersion are of the same order as the Reynolds stress within the pores. It is also shown that the effect of intra-pore turbulence and hydrodynamic dispersion on the redistribution of macroscopic momentum within the porous medium is negligible compared to Forchheimer term. A discussion is provided on the accuracy of the eddy viscosity hypothesis in the modeling of the volume-averaged intra-pore Reynolds stresses. Finally, the effect of variation in the pore-scale geometry on the turbulence structures and averaged values of hydrodynamic dispersion and Reynolds stress is investigated.

2345678 201 - 250 of 1121
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf