Change search
Refine search result
2345678 201 - 250 of 1075
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 201.
    de Groot, Laura
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Studie av omskjutningar i tunneldrivningsprojekt2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional drill and blast tunnelling consists of mainly seven elements which together makes a cycle. This cycle includes drilling and blasting which are crucial factors in tunnelling projects, as these have a major influence on how the project will progress. After blasting there can be occurrences of under-break with so called bootholes in it and a re-blast is needed. This is expensive and time-consuming, and is therefore indefensible due to causing extra costs as well as a delay in the completion of the whole project. A solution for this problem is needed to avoid blasting second times.

    Due to laws regulating the allowed fracture zone in tunnel-blasting, contour blasting is performed. The reason behind why bootlegs emerges after blasting is still unknown and depends on many varied factors, such as geology, blast pattern and the volume of explosives used. Different tests are done while blasting, thereafter the results are evaluated and documented. Each test was tried three times to get as a most reliable result as possible. Among others the amount of explosives ranged, double detonators in poor rock sections and a new drill plan was made.

    The main theory behind this project was that the problem with bootlegs mainly depended om poor geological situations in the rock. None of the test however have been successful enough to solve the problem and after almost every blast there where bootholes in the remaining rock. Recommendations for further testing are using a less amount of explosives as this was a successful method in Björkdalsgruvan in northern Sweden. Another thing worth giving a try is to remove the “helping-row” because it seems like it is breaking the contour-row and not doing any difference.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 202.
    de Oliveira, Roger Alves
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Magnification of Transients at the Voltage Dips Starting and its Impacts on DFIG-based Wind Power Plants2022In: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 211, article id 108244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work shows that transients at voltage dips starting impact fault-ride-through of wind turbines. For fault-ride-through studies and manufacturer tests, it is therefore important to consider these transients and their magnification from the transmission grid through the collection grid to the wind turbines. Fault-ride-through studies in the literature do not consider the transient as a dip characteristic and employ overly-simplified models that do not consider the collection grid. This work studies in detail how the dip-starting transient changes during the propagation from the transmission grid to the wind-turbine terminals. It is also studied how this transient impacts the dynamic behaviour of the wind turbines in terms of the overvoltage on the DC-link of wind turbines based on doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG). The analyses are performed for several realistic configurations of a wind-power plant, all based on an existing installation. The results show that the magnitude of the transient is magnified when the resonant frequency of the collection grid is similar to the oscillation frequency of the transient. Moreover, the higher magnitude of the transient results in a significantly higher overvoltage on the DC-link. This work is the first in power quality literature to cover the collection and internal grid as a factor for the magnification of dip-staring transient. The main finding of this work is that the detailed models of the collection grid and the transients at the voltage dips starting must be not neglected when accessing the LVRT of wind turbines. It is strongly recommended to consider the details of the dip-starting transients and of the collection grid to assess the impact of dips on the wind turbines properly.

  • 203.
    De Souza Salles, Rafael
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah K.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Interharmonic Analysis for Static Frequency Converter Station Supplying a Swedish Catenary System2022In: 2022 20th International Conference on Harmonics & Quality of Power (ICHQP) Proceedings: “Power Quality in the Energy Transition”, IEEE, 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper aims to present a waveform distortion analysis focused on interharmonics in measurements from a 70 kV busbar feeding a traction supply substation with four static frequency converters (SFC). The substation supplies a Swedish catenary system from 50 Hz public grid to 15 kV 16 ⅔ Hz. The paper assesses the interharmonics for different scenarios regarding the point of a connection configuration between the traction substation and the upstream grid, as well as a change in the number of SFCs connected in the substation. The IEC 61000-4-7 grouping method and spectrograms were used to illustrate the issue. The significant presence of interharmonics calls attention to the subject in railway application. The total indexes help to evaluate the broad picture of the phenomena. The work contributes to the waveform distortion and interharmonics in railway systems studies.

  • 204.
    De Windt, L.
    et al.
    Ecole des Mines de Paris.
    Dabo, D.
    Ecole des Mines de Paris.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Badreddine, R.
    INERIS, Wastes and Contaminated Sites Unit.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Reactive transport modeling of leachate evolution of MSWI bottom ash used as road basement: Hérouville (France) and Dåva (Sweden) sites2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The recycling of municipal solid waste of incineration (MSWI) bottom ash as aggregates for road basement requires a better characterization of the evolution of leachate chemistry over a timescale of many decades. In this paper, a common reactive transport model is applied to the Hérouville (France) and Dåva (Sweden) pilot roads whose leachate emissions have been sampled during 10 and 6 years, respectively. The model considers simultaneously the hydrodynamic processes (rain water infiltration, advective and diffusive transport), pH-buffering and solubility-controlled processes by secondary minerals, ageing by atmospheric carbonation, and the leachate chemistry (major elements and trace metals such as Al, Cu, Pb). The evolution of pH is fairly well simulated with the following pH-buffering sequence: portlandite, calcium silicate hydrate (CSH), ettringite and, finally, calcite. The quantity of CO2 dissolved in the percolating rain water is generally not sufficient to explain the pH evolution and carbonation processes, requiring atmospheric gaseous inputs. The relation between pH evolution and element release is discussed for both sites. Calculated Pb release is overestimated when based on solubility-controlled mechanisms only. Edge effects are shown to be important at both sites with an emphasis of carbonation and release of non reactive elements. Temperature has no significant effect on the calculated leachate chemistry in the range of 5 - 30° C, except at high pH.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 205.
    De Windt, Laurent
    et al.
    Ecole des Mines de Paris.
    Dabo, David
    Ecole des Mines de Paris.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Badreddine, Rabia
    INERIS, Wastes and Contaminated Sites Unit.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    MSWI bottom ash used as basement at two pilot-scale roads: comparison of leachate chemistry and reactive transport modeling2011In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 267-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recycling of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash as aggregates for road basement requires assessing the long-term evolution of leachate chemistry. The Dåva (Sweden) and Hérouville (France) pilot-scale roads were monitored during 6 and 10 years, respectively. Calculated saturation indices were combined to batch test modeling to set a simplified geochemical model of the bottom ash materials. A common reactive transport model was then applied to both sites. At Hérouville, pH and the concentration of most elements quickly drop during the first two years to reach a set of minimum values over 10 years. The decrease is less pronounced at Dåva. The evolutions of pH and major element concentrations are fairly well related to the following pH-buffering sequence: portlandite, C-S-H phases or pseudo-wollastonite and, finally, calcite in equilibrium with atmospheric CO2. Al(OH)3, barite, ettringite and monohydrocalcite may also control leachate chemistry. Cu release is correctly modeled by DOM complexation and tenorite equilibrium. Temperature has no significant effect on the modeling of leachate chemistry in the range 5-30 °C, except at high pH. Effects at road edges and roadside slopes are important for the release of the less reactive elements and, possibly, for carbonation processes.

  • 206.
    DEHGHAN, S.
    et al.
    Mining Engineering Department, Mahallat Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran.
    SATTARI, G.
    Mining Engineering Department, Mahallat Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran.
    Chelgani, Saeed Chehreh
    Surface Science Western, University of Western Ontario, Canada.
    ALIABADI, M.A.
    Mining Engineering Department, Mahallat Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran.
    Prediction of uniaxial compressive strength and modulus of elasticity for Travertine samples using regression and artificial neural networks2010In: Mining Science and Technology, ISSN 1674-5264, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 41-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Uniaxial Compressive Strength (UCS) and modulus of elasticity (E) are the most important rock parameters required and determined for rock mechanical studies in most civil and mining projects. In this study, two mathematical methods, regression analysis and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), were used to predict the uniaxial compressive strength and modulus of elasticity. The P-wave velocity, the point load index, the Schmidt hammer rebound number and porosity were used as inputs for both methods. The regression equations show that the relationship between P-wave velocity, point load index, Schmidt hammer rebound number and the porosity input sets with uniaxial compressive strength and modulus of elasticity under conditions of linear relations obtained coefficients of determination of (R2) of 0.64 and 0.56, respectively. ANNs were used to improve the regression results. The generalized regression and feed forward neural networks with two outputs (UCS and E) improved the coefficients of determination to more acceptable levels of 0.86 and 0.92 for UCS and to 0.77 and 0.82 for E. The results show that the proposed ANN methods could be applied as a new acceptable method for the prediction of uniaxial compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of intact rocks.

  • 207.
    Delin, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Villkor för välfärd: om verklighetsuppfattning, miljökris, teknik och samhälle1990Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 208.
    Delin, Staffan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Gundelius, Eva
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Utveckling av riktningsanalys exergiberäkningar i Luleå och Strängnäs kommuner eller Hur kan man veta om man hushållar med resurserna på ett hållbart sätt?1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrunden till projektet är den riktningsanalys som utvecklades av Eva Grundelius år 1991. Riktningsanalysen som är uppbyggd kring sex frågor fungerar som en checklista för hållbar utveckling. Den kan användas i många slag av beslutssituationer. För att göra riktningsanalysen mer operativ och kvantifierbar har den i detta projekt kopplats samman med en exergianalys. Exergi är ett fysiskt mått på resursers värde. Denna analys görs med utgångspunkt från det livsuppehållande systemet, ekosystemet. För att mänskligheten ska överleva på sikt får inte exergikostnaderna överstiga intäkterna i exergiformer. Detta gäller också för ett hållbart projekt och ett hållbart samhälle. I rapporten behandlas olika alternativ för att behandla avlopp från en by i Luleå kommun. I Strängnäs är det olika alternativ för behandling av hushållsavfall som analyseras.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 209.
    Deng, Jifei
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Eklund, Miro
    Department of Information Technology, Abo Akademi University, Turku, Finland; Semantum Ltd, Espoo, Finland.
    Sierla, Seppo
    cal Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Savolainen, Jouni
    Semantum Ltd, Espoo, Finland.
    Niemistö, Hannu
    Semantum Ltd, Espoo, Finland.
    Karhela, Tommi
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland; Semantum Ltd, Espoo, Finland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Application of reinforcement learning for energy consumption optimization of district heating system2023In: 2023 IEEE 32nd International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE), IEEE, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 210. Diaz, Luis F.
    et al.
    Eggerth, Linda L.Lagerkvist, AndersLuleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Proceedings of the 3rd Swedish Landfill Research Symposium: Luleå University of Technology, 6th-8th October 19981999Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 211.
    Dibs, Hayder
    et al.
    Department of Water Resources Management Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Qasim Green University, Babylon, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Integrating Highly Spatial Satellite Image for 3D Buildings Modelling Using Geospatial Algorithms and Architecture Environment2023In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 220-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing demand for current and precise geographic information that pertains to urban areas has given rise to a significant interest in digital surface models that exhibit a high level of detail. Traditional methods for creating digital surface models are insufficient to reflect the details of earth’s features. These models only represent three-dimensional objects in a single texture and fail to offer a realistic depiction of the real world. Furthermore, the need for current and precise geographic information regarding urban areas has been increasing significantly. This study proposes a new technique to address this problem, which involves integrating remote sensing, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and Architecture Environment software environments to generate a detailed three-dimensional model. The processing of this study starts with: 1) Downloading high-resolution satellite imagery; 2) Collecting ground truth datasets from fieldwork; 3) Imaging nose removing; 4) Generating a Two-dimensional Model to create a digital surface model in GIS using the extracted building outlines; 5) Converting the model into multi-patch layers to construct a 3D model for each object separately. The results show that the 3D model obtained through this method is highly detailed and effective for various applications, including environmental studies, urban development, expansion planning, and shape understanding tasks.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 212.
    Dibs, Hayder
    et al.
    Water Resources Management Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Qasim Green University, Babylon, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Analysis of Remotely Sensed Imagery and Architecture Environment for Modelling 3D Detailed Buildings Using Geospatial Techniques2023In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 15, no 05, p. 328-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of three-dimensional maps is more effective than two-dimensional maps in representing the Earth’s surface. However, the traditional methods used to create digital surface models are not efficient for capturing the details of Earth’s features. This is because they represent only three-dimensional objects in a single texture and do not provide a realistic representation of the real world. Additionally, there is a growing demand for up-to-date and accurate geo-information, particularly in urban areas. To address this challenge, a new technique is proposed in this study that involves integrating remote sensing, Geographic Information System, and Architecture Environment software to generate a highly-detailed three-dimensional model. The method described in this study includes several steps such as acquiring high-resolution satellite imagery, gathering ground truth data, performing radiometric and geometric corrections during image preprocessing, producing a 2D map of the region of interest, constructing a digital surface model by extending the building outlines, and transforming the model into multi-patch layers to create a 3D model for each object individually. The research findings indicate that the digital surface model obtained with comprehensive information is suitable for different purposes, such as environmental research, urban development and expansion planning, and shape recognition tasks.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 213.
    Dibs, Hayder
    et al.
    Water Resources Management Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Qasim Green University, Babylon, Iraq.
    Ali, Alaa Hussein
    Building and Construction Techniques Engineering Department, Al-Mustaqbal University College, 51001 Hillah, Babylon, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Abed, Salwan Ali
    College of Science, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Diwaniyah, 58001, Iraq.
    Fusion Landsat-8 Thermal TIRS and OLI Datasets for Superior Monitoring and Change Detection using Remote Sensing2023In: Emerging Science Journal, E-ISSN 2610-9182, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 428-444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, updating the change detection (CD) of land use/land cover (LU/LC) geospatial information with high accuracy outcomes is important and very confusing with the different classification methods, datasets, satellite images, and ancillary dataset types available. However, using just the low spatial resolution visible bands of the remotely sensed images will not provide good information with high accuracy. Remotely sensed thermal data contains very valuable information to monitor and investigate the CD of the LU/LC. So, it needs to involve the thermal datasets for better outcomes. Fusion plays a big role to map the CD. Therefore, this study aims to find out a refining method for estimating the accurate CD method of the LU/LC patterns by investigating the integration of the effectiveness of the thermal satellite data with visible datasets by (a) adopting a noise removal model, (b) satellite images resampling, (c) image fusion, combining and integrating between the visible and thermal images using the Grim Schmidt spectral (GS) method, (d) applying image classification using Mahalanobis distances (MH), Maximum likelihood (ML) and artificial neural network (ANN) classifiers on datasets captured from the Landsat-8 TIRS and OLI satellite system, these images were captured from operational land imager (OLI) and the thermal infrared (TIRS) sensors of 2015 and 2020 to generate about of twelve LC maps. (e) The comparison was made among all the twelve classifiers' results. The results reveal that adopting the ANN technique on the integrated images of the combined TIRS and OLI datasets has the highest accuracy compared to the rest of the applied image classification approaches. The obtained overall accuracy was 96.31% and 98.40%, and the kappa coefficients were (0.94) and (0.97) for the years 2015 and 2020, respectively. However, the ML classifier obtains better results compared to the MH approach. The image fusion and integration of the thermal images improve the accuracy results by 5%–6% from the proposed method better than using low spatial-resolution visible datasets alone.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 214.
    Dibs, Hayder
    et al.
    Water Resources Engineering Faculty, Hydraulic Structures Engineering Department, Al-Qasim Green University, Babel, Iraq; Iraqi Environment Upgrading and Development Organization, Karbala, Iraq.
    Hasab, Hashim Ali
    Architectural Design and Decoration Department, Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University, Technical Institute of Najaf, Najaf, Iraq.
    Mahmoud, Ammar Shaker
    Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Fusion Methods and Multi-classifiers to Improve Land Cover Estimation Using Remote Sensing Analysis2021In: Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, ISSN 0960-3182, E-ISSN 1573-1529, Vol. 39, no 8, p. 5825-5842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adopting a low spatial resolution remote sensing imagery to get an accurate estimation of Land Use Land Cover is a difficult task to perform. Image fusion plays a big role to map the Land Use Land Cover. Therefore, This study aims to find out a refining method for the Land Use Land Cover estimating using these steps; (1) applying a three pan-sharpening fusion approaches to combine panchromatic imagery that has high spatial resolution with multispectral imagery that has low spatial resolution, (2) employing five pixel-based classifier approaches on multispectral imagery and fused images; artificial neural net, support vector machine, parallelepiped, Mahalanobis distance and spectral angle mapper, (3) make a statistical comparison between image classification results. The Landsat-8 image was adopted for this research. There are twenty Land Use Land Cover thematic maps were generated in this study. A suitable and reliable Land Use Land Cover method was presented based on the most accurate results. The results validation was performed by adopting a confusion matrix method. A comparison made between the images classification results of multispectral imagery and all fused images levels. It proved the Land Use Land Cover map produced by Gram–Schmidt Pan-sharpening and classified by support vector machine method has the most accurate result among all other multispectral imagery and fused images that classified by the other classifiers, it has an overall accuracy about (99.85%) and a kappa coefficient of about (0.98). However, the spectral angle mapper algorithm has the lowest accuracy compared to all other adopted methods, with overall accuracy of 53.41% and the kappa coefficient of about 0.48. The proposed procedure is useful in the industry and academic side for estimating purposes. In addition, it is also a good tool for analysts and researchers, who could interest to extend the technique to employ different datasets and regions.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 215.
    Dibs, Hayder
    et al.
    Water Resources Management Engineering Department, Al-Qasim Green University, Babylon, 51001, Iraq.
    Jaber, Hussein Sabah
    Department of Surveying, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Multi-Fusion algorithms for Detecting Land Surface Pattern Changes Using Multi-High Spatial Resolution Images and Remote Sensing Analysis2023In: Emerging Science Journal, E-ISSN 2610-9182, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 1215-1231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Producing accurate Land-Use and Land-Cover (LU/LC) maps using low-spatial-resolution images is a difficult task. Pan-sharpening is crucial for estimating LU/LC patterns. This study aimed to identify the most precise procedure for estimating LU/LC by adopting two fusion approaches, namely Color Normalized Brovey (BM) and Gram-Schmidt Spectral Sharpening (GS), on high spatial-resolution Multi-sensor and Multi-spectral images, such as (1) the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system, (2) the WorldView-2 satellite system, and (3) low-spatial-resolution images like the Sentinel-2 satellite, to generate six levels of fused images with the three original multi-spectral images. The Maximum Likelihood method (ML) was used for classifying all nine images. A confusion matrix was used to evaluate the accuracy of each single classified image. The obtained results were statistically compared to determine the most reliable, accurate, and appropriate LU/LC map and procedure. It was found that applying GS to the fused image, which integrated WorldView 2 and Sentinel-2 satellite images and was classified by the ML method, produced the most accurate results. This procedure has an overall accuracy of 88.47% and a kappa coefficient of 0.85. However, the overall accuracies of the three classified multispectral images range between 86.84% to 76.49%. Furthermore, the accuracy assessment of the fused images by the Brovey method and the rest of the GS method and classified by the ML method ranges between 85.75% to 76.68%. This proposed procedure shows a lot of promise in the academic sphere for mapping LU/LC. Previous researchers have mostly used satellite images or datasets with similar spatial and spectral resolution, at least for tropical areas like the study area of this research, to detect land surface patterns. However, no one has previously investigated and examined the use and application of different datasets that have different spectral and spatial resolutions and their accuracy for mapping LU/LC. This study has successfully adopted different datasets provided by different sensors with varying spectral and spatial levels to investigate this.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 216.
    Diener, Silvia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ageing behaviour of steel slags in landfill liners2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Steel slags are by-products of the steelmaking process. To avoid unnecessary disposal, e.g. into landfill, their chemical and physical properties should be exploited to support alternative uses. Steel slags can be recycled within the steel plant or used as construction material in roads, hydraulic engineering and different types of barriers, including landfill covers. A landfill cover consists of several layers, including a liner with low water and gas permeability in order to reduce methane and leachate emissions. Several studies have demonstrated that steel slags have good potential to fulfil such an application. However, there are questions regarding the stability of the slag minerals over long periods of time. A landfill cover must function well for many decades and centuries. In order to predict the long-term stability of steel slags as a landfill liner, laboratory experiments have been performed to study the effects of accelerated ageing of steel slag under controlled conditions. The factors investigated in the storage atmosphere were carbon dioxide content, relative humidity and temperature. The influence of leachate contact and ageing time were also assessed.This thesis reports the study of electric arc furnace slags and ladle slag from the production of high-alloyed tool steel after accelerated ageing for periods of three months and ten months. Mineralogy and leaching were studied using two different leaching tests, thermal analysis, acid-neutralization capacity assays and X-ray diffraction. For the ageing periods considered, the exposure of the slags to an atmosphere enriched with carbon dioxide had the greatest impact on leaching. In general, calcium, aluminium, sulphur and sodium leached from the slag matrix to the greatest extent while other metals such as chromium, nickel, lead and zinc were found at very low levels in the leachate. The leaching of calcium and aluminium reduced with increasing carbon dioxide level. Thermal analysis revealed the decomposition of carbonates. Weight and enthalpy changes were evaluated between 100 and 1000 °C. The buffer capacity of the steel slags, represented by the acid neutralization capacity (ANC 4.5) was not reduced after 10 months of ageing. However, the division of the titration into two steps revealed a shift of buffering zones for more highly aged samples, probably due to the formation of carbonates. The mineralogy of the investigated steel slags was complex with a large variety of mineral phases, principally calcium silicates, monticellite, periclase and a spinel phase. Other possible phases were gehlenite, merwinite, akermanite and iron. The existence of different solid solution is likely among the slag phases and can cause shifting of peaks in the X-ray diffractogram. Also, calcite was identified. Short-term carbonation has not shown significant impact on mineralogy despite of calcite formation. The results of the study contribute to a better understanding of the chemical and mineral stability of electric arc furnace slag and ladle slag in the environment of a landfill liner. The consequences of slag ageing include reduced leaching rates for certain elements. To predict the long-term behaviour of aged slag, the results of this study should be combined with data from two other sources - an ongoing ageing experiment that includes mechanical tests and a full scale field test at the Hagfors landfill. Additional analytical methods that can better characterise the mineralogy, for example scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energydispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), should also be applied to better quantify the mineralogical phases and to determine which trace elements are most abundant in specific minerals.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 217. Diener, Silvia
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Brännvall, Evelina
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Evaluation and discussion of steel slag mineralogy after ageing under laboratory and field conditions2010In: The 6th Intercontinental Landfill research Symposium, 2010, p. 107-109Conference paper (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 218.
    Diener, Silvia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Herrmann, Inga
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Accelerated carbonation of ashes and steel slags in a landfill cover construction2008In: Proceedings of Second International Conference on Accelerated Carbonation for Environmental and Materials Engineering / [ed] Renato Baciocchi; Giulia Costa; Alessandra Polettini; Raffaella Pomi, University of Rome "La Sapienza" , 2008, p. 389-400Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fly ash from biofuel incineration and slags from steel production were used in two full scale applications of cover constructions on municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The long-term stability of the cover materials is studied in a designed laboratory experiment. The impact of six environmental factors on accelerated carbonation is investigated over a period of three years. Leaching behaviour, acid neutralization capacity, mineral composition (XRD) and thermo gravimetrical behaviour (TG) are tested after different periods of ageing under different conditions. By now samples were taken after three and ten months of ageing. Multivariate data analysis was used for data evaluation. The results indicate the factors material, ageing time and carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere to be most relevant.

  • 219.
    Diener, Silvia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Herrmann, Inga
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Ecke, Holger
    Civil and Materials Engineering, Vattenfall Research and Development AB, SE-814 26 Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Accelerated carbonation of steel slags in a landfill cover construction2010In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 132-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Steel slags from high-alloyed tool steel production were used in a full scale cover construction of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. In order to study the long-term stability of the steel slags within the final cover, a laboratory experiment was performed. The effect on the ageing process, due to i.e. carbonation, exerted by five different factors resembling both the material characteristics and the environmental conditions is investigated. Leaching behaviour, acid neutralization capacity and mineralogy (evaluated by means of X-ray diffraction, XRD, and thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis, TG/DTA) are tested after different periods of ageing under different conditions.Samples aged for 3 and 10 months were evaluated in this paper. Multivariate data analysis was used for data evaluation. The results indicate that among the investigated factors, ageing time and carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere were able to exert the most relevant effect. However, further investigations are required in order to clarify the role of the temperature.

  • 220.
    Diener, Silvia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andreas, Lale
    Herrmann, Inga
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Mineral transformations in steel slag used as landfill cover liner material2007In: SARDINIA 2007: Eleventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; [1 - 5 October 2007, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy] / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2007, Vol. 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Europe, 15.2 million tonnes of steel slags have been generated in 2004 (Euroslag, 2006) out if which almost 6 million tonnes came from electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking and secondary metallurgical processes. In the presented project from Luleå University of Technology, two types of EAF slag and one slag originating from secondary metallurgical processes named ladle slag are investigated. The chemical and physical properties of these slags have been studied in detail (Herrmann, 2006; Andreas et al., 2005). For utilising steel slags in the liner of a landfill cover the long-term stability of the minerals is of great importance. Therefore, the ageing of steel slag minerals is evaluated with the help of a laboratory experiment. Particularly, the research questions, the experimental set-up and the methodology are presented. The present paper is part of a research project of the Division of Waste Science and Technology at Luleå University of Technology, Sweden in cooperation with Uddeholm Tooling AB, Hagfors municipality and MiMeR (Mineral and Metal Recycling Research Centre). It is investigated if steel slags are stable as a landfill cover liner material. The long-term stability is evaluated by determining the factors influencing the mineralogy of the slags and possible mineral transformations through ageing under the environmental conditions in a liner. The experiment includes two similar types of EAF slag and one ladle slag. Each steel slag sample is made by mixing 50% EAF slag and 50% ladle slag, addition of water and compaction. The specimens are stored in boxes under different atmospheric conditions. A reduced multivariate design has been chosen to determine the impact of different factors on the slag mineralogy. The factors that are varied in the experiment are relative humidity, carbon dioxide and temperature of the atmosphere surrounding the slag material as well as ageing time and the quality of the water used for sample making (see table 1). Table 1. Factorial design for ageing experiment of steel slagsLowMiddleHighRelative humidity30% -100%Carbon dioxide content0.036 (air)20 % * 100 %Temperature5 °C30 °C60 °CTime 1 month6 months1 yearWater quality destilled water -LeachateThe ageing of minerals is expected to initiate mineral transformations in steel slags. Primary phases will alter into secondary mineral phases. Changes in mineralogy can influence the stability of the liner. To evaluate mineralogy and properties of the aged steel slag, different analyses will be performed after the storage time of the specimens. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy as well as shear strength, acid neutralisation capacity and cation exchange capacity will be included. A possible mineral transformation for an alkaline material as steel slags can be the reaction of calcium ions from calcium silicates with the carbon dioxide resulting in the precipitation of calcium carbonate. Through this carbonation reaction, the transport of carbon dioxide into the bulk of the specimen could be hindered by the reaction products. Therefore, surface morphology can influence mineral transformations. First results and evaluations will be presented at the conference. REFERENCES Andreas L., Herrmann I., Lidstrom-Larsson M. & Lagerkvist A. (2005) Physical properties of steel slag to be reused in a landfill cover, Sardinia 2005, Tenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy; 3 - 7 October 2005Euroslag (2006) Legal status of Slags. Position Paper. January 2006. The European Slag Association - EUROSLAG. Duisburg, Germany.Herrmann I. (2006). Use of Secondary Construction Material in Landfill Cover Liners. Licentiate Thesis. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.

  • 221. Diener, Silvia
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Herrmann, Inga
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Results from a field study using steel industry slags in a landfill cover construction2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 222.
    Diener, Silvia
    et al.
    Dresden University of Technology.
    Andreas, Lale
    Herrmann, Inga
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lidström-Larsson, Margareta
    Mineral phases in steel industry slags used in a landfill cover constuction2006In: Abstract proceedings of the 4th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium, , [June 14th to 16th 2006, Gällivare, Sweden] / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2006, p. 73-74Conference paper (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 223.
    Diener, Silvia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Leaching properties of steel slags after ageing under laboratory and field conditions2010In: Third International Conference on Accelerated Carbonation for Environmental and Materials Engineering: ACEME10 : November 29 - December 1, 2010, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo/Turku, Finland : proceedings / [ed] Ron Zevenhoven., Åbo: Åbo Akademi University Press, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 224.
    Do, Tan Manh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Mining and Geology, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Mattsson, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Jia, Qi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Tailings fluidization under cyclic triaxial loading – a laboratory study2022In: Geomechanics and Engineering, ISSN 2005-307X, E-ISSN 2092-6219, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 497-508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tailings fluidization (i.e., tailings behave as being fluidized) under cyclic loading is one concern during the construction of tailings dams, especially in the shallow tailings layers. The primary goal of this study is to evaluate the responses of tailings under cyclic loadings and the tailings potential for fluidization. A series of cyclic triaxial undrained and drained tests were performed on medium and dense tailings samples under various cyclic stress ratios (CSR). The results indicated that axial strain and excess pore water pressure accumulated over time due to cyclic loading. However, the accumulations were dependent on CSR values, densities, and drainage conditions. The fluidization potential analysis in this study was then evaluated based on the obtained cyclic axial strain and excess pore water pressure. As a result, tailings samples were stable (unfluidized) under small CSR values, and the critical CSR values, where the tailings fluidized, varied depending on the density of tailings samples. Tailings fluidization is triggered as cyclic stress ratios reach critical values. In this study, the critical CSR values were found to be 0.15 and 0.40 for medium and dense samples, respectively.

  • 225. Domeij, Lisa
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Meijer, J-E
    Vukicevic, S.
    How to describe and compare the effects of MSW source sorting systems2005In: SARDINIA 2005: Tenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; S. Margerita di Pula, Sardinia, Italy, 3 - 7 October 2005 / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 226.
    Domeij, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Vukicevic, Sanita
    NSR.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Meijer, Jan-Erik
    NSR.
    Utvärdering av hushållens källsortering i sex kommuner: Resultat från plockanalyser vid olika insamlings- och sorteringssystem för hushållsavfall2004Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 227.
    Dossow, Marcel
    et al.
    Technical University of Munich, Chair of Energy Systems, Boltzmannstr. 15 85748 Garching b. München Germany.
    Klüh, Daniel
    Technical University of Munich, Campus Straubing for Biotechnology and Sustainability, Professorship of Regenerative Energy Systems, Schulgasse 16 Straubing 93415 Germany.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. Technical University of Munich, Chair of Energy Systems, Boltzmannstr. 15 85748 Garching b. München Germany.
    Gaderer, Matthias
    Technical University of Munich, Campus Straubing for Biotechnology and Sustainability, Professorship of Regenerative Energy Systems, Schulgasse 16 Straubing 93415 Germany.
    Spliethoff, Hartmut
    Technical University of Munich, Chair of Energy Systems, Boltzmannstr. 15 85748 Garching b. München Germany.
    Fendt, Sebastian
    Technical University of Munich, Chair of Energy Systems, Boltzmannstr. 15 85748 Garching b. München Germany.
    Electrification of gasification-based biomass-to-X processes - a critical review and in-depth assessment2024In: Energy & Environmental Science, ISSN 1754-5692, E-ISSN 1754-5706, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 925-973Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To address the impacts of climate change, it is imperative to significantly decrease anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass-based chemicals and fuels will play a crucial role in substituting fossil-based feedstocks and reducing emissions. Gasification-based biomass conversion processes with catalytic synthesis producing chemicals and fuels (Biomass-to-X, BtX) are an innovative and well-proven process route. Since biomass is a scarce resource, its efficient utilization by maximizing product yield is key. In this review, the electrification of BtX processes is presented and discussed as a technological option to enhance chemical and fuel production from biomass. Electrified processes show many advantages compared to BtX and electricity-based processes (Power-to-X, PtX). Electrification options are classified into direct and indirect processes. While indirect electrification comprises mostly the addition of H2 from water electrolysis (Power-and-Biomass-to-X, PBtX), direct electrification refers to power integration into specific processing steps by converting electricity into the required form of energy such as heat, electrochemical energy or plasma used (eBtX). After the in-depth review of state-of-the-art technologies, all technologies are discussed in terms of process performance, maturity, feasibility, plant location, land requirement, and dynamic operation. H2 addition in PBtX processes has been widely investigated in the literature with process simulations showing significantly increased carbon efficiency and product yield. Similar studies on direct electrification (eBtX) are limited in the literature due to low technological maturity. Further research is required on both, equipment level technology development, as well as process and system level, to compare process options and evaluate performance, economics, environmental impact and future legislation.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 228.
    Drielsma, Johannes A.
    et al.
    European Association of Mining Industries, Metal Ores and Industrial Minerals (Euromines), Avenue de Broqueville/Broquevillelaan 12, Brussels, Belgium.
    Allington, Ruth
    Committee for Mineral Reserves International Reporting Standards (CRIRSCO), Pan-European Reserves and Resources Reporting Committee (PERC), EFG Office, Service Géologique de Belgiqu, Rue Jenner 13, Brussels, Belgium.
    Brady, Thomas
    Newmont Mining, 6363 South Fiddler's Green Circle Suite 800, Greenwood Village, United States.
    Guinée, Jeroen
    Institute of Environmental Sciences CML, Leiden University, Einsteinweg 2, Leiden, Netherlands.
    Hammarstrom, Jane
    United States Geological Survey (USGS), 954 National Center, Reston, United States.
    Hummen, Torsten
    Competence Center Sustainability and Infrastructure Systems, Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Breslauer Straße 48, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Russell-Vaccari, Andrea
    Align Consulting, 1134 Cross Creek Ct., Sheridan, United States.
    Schneider, Laura
    Econsense-Forum for Sustainable Development of German Business, Oberwallstraße 24, Berlin, Germany.
    Sonnemann, Guido
    The Life Cycle Group CyVi Institut des Sciences Moléculaires (ISM), Université de Bordeaux 1-UMR 5255 CNRS, 351 Cours de la libération-Bât A12, Talence cedex, France.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Abiotic raw-materials in life cycle impact assessments: An emerging consensus across disciplines2016In: Resources, E-ISSN 2079-9276, Vol. 5, no 1, article id 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper captures some of the emerging consensus points that came out of the workshop "Mineral Resources in Life Cycle Impact Assessment: Mapping the path forward", held at the Natural History Museum London on 14 October 2015: that current practices rely in many instances on obsolete data, often confuse resource depletion with impacts on resource availability, which can therefore provide inconsistent decision support and lead to misguided claims about environmental performance. Participants agreed it would be helpful to clarify which models estimate depletion and which estimate availability, so that results can be correctly reported in the most appropriate framework. Most participants suggested that resource availability will be more meaningfully addressed within a comprehensive Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment framework rather than limited to an environmental Life Cycle Assessment or Footprint. Presentations from each of the authors are available for download [1].

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 229.
    Duarte, Robson A.
    et al.
    Programa de Pós-Graduação em Instrumentação, Controle e Automação de Processos de Mineração, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto e Instituto Tecnológico Vale, Ouro Preto 35400-000, Brazil; Vale S.A., Canaa dos Carajas 68537-000, Brazil.
    Yamashita, Andre S.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    da Silva, Moisés T.
    Instituto Tecnológico Vale (ITV), Ouro Preto 35400-000, Brazil.
    Cota, Luciano P.
    Instituto Tecnológico Vale (ITV), Ouro Preto 35400-000, Brazil.
    Euzébio, Thiago A. M.
    Instituto Tecnológico Vale (ITV), Ouro Preto 35400-000, Brazil.
    Calibration and Validation of a Cone Crusher Model with Industrial Data2021In: Minerals, E-ISSN 2075-163X, Vol. 11, no 11, article id 1256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the calibration and validation of a cone crusher model using industrial data. Usually, there are three calibration parameters in the condensed breakage function; by contrast, in this work, every entry of the lower triangular breakage function matrix is considered a calibration parameter. The calibration problem is cast as an optimization problem based on the least squares method. The results show that the calibrated model is able to fit the validation datasets closely, as seen from the low values of the objective function. Another significant advantage of the proposed approach is that the model can be calibrated on data that are usually available from industrial operation; no additional laboratory tests are required. Calibration and validation tests on datasets collected from two different mines show that the calibrated model is a strong candidate for use in various dynamic simulation applications, such as control system design, equipment sizing, operator training, and optimization of crushing circuits.

  • 230. Ecke, Holger
    Aktivitet: Miljöriktig användning av askor, Värmeforsk2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 231. Ecke, Holger
    Anaerobic processes for control of metal fluxes from solid wastes1997Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 232. Ecke, Holger
    Analys av anaerobt behandlat hushållsavfall genom sekventiell utlakning1993In: Symposium om svensk upplagsforskning / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Malmö: Svenska renhållningsverksföreningen , 1993, p. 45-51Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 233. Ecke, Holger
    Behandling av metaller i förbränningsaskor2002In: Avfallsdagar, Sweco VBB Viak , 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 234. Ecke, Holger
    Carbonation for fixation of metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The waste management is in need of a reliable and economical treatment method for metals in fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). However, no state-of-the-art technique has gained wide acceptance yet. This Doctoral Thesis aimed at assessing the possibilities and limitations of carbonation as a stabilization method. Factors that were studied are the partial pressure of carbon dioxide, the addition of water, the temperature, and the reaction time. Laboratory experiments were performed applying methods such as factorial experimental design, thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and leaching assays including titration at static pH and sequential extraction. Leaching data were verified and complemented using chemical equilibrium calculations. Data evaluation was performed by means of multivariate statistics such as multiple linear regression, principal component analysis (PCA), and partial least squares (PLS) modeling. It was found that carbonation is a good prospect for a stabilization technique especially with respect to the major pollutants lead (Pb) and zink (Zn). However, a mobilization of cadmium (Cd) was observed, which requires further research on possible countermeasures such as e.g. metal demobilization through enhanced silicate formation.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 235.
    Ecke, Holger
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Hydrometallurgical treatment of metal-containing solid waste using anaerobic processes2003In: Minerals & Energy - Raw Materials Report, ISSN 1404-1049, E-ISSN 1651-2286, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 36-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential to damage the environment is the major motive to treat solid wastes. One main group of pollutants comprises metals such as cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, and zinc. This paper is a synthesis of five elsewhere published investigations focusing on the possibilities and limits to control the flux of metals from solid wastes using anaerobic processes. In particular, the treatment of sulfide forming elements and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) were studied at both bench-, pilot-, and full-scale. It was found that two-step processes have the potential to significantly improve the quality of solid wastes. In a first step, metals were leached and transferred to the process water. In a second step, the metal-enriched process water was treated under methanogenic conditions facilitating metal trapping through precipitation as sulfides or hydroxides. Anaerobic hydrometallurgy is judged to be a promising technique that has the potential to gain wide acceptance in the treatment of metal-containing solid wastes from a wide variety of sources.

  • 236. Ecke, Holger
    Karbonatstabilisering av flygaska från avfallsförbränning2002Report (Other academic)
  • 237.
    Ecke, Holger
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Sequestration of metals in carbonated municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash2003In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 631-640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste management is in need of a reliable and economical treatment method for metals in fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). However, no state-of-the-art technique has gained wide acceptance yet. This paper is a synthesis of five elsewhere published investigations covering a project which aimed to assess the possibilities and limitations of adding carbon dioxide (CO2) to fly ash as a stabilization method. Carbonation factors that were studied are the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (CO2), the addition of water, the temperature, and the reaction time. Laboratory experiments were performed applying methods such as factorial experimental design, thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and leaching assays including pHstat titration and sequential extraction. Leaching data were verified and complemented using chemical equilibrium calculations. Data evaluation was performed by means of multivariate statistics such as multiple linear regression, principal component analysis (PCA), and partial least squares (PLS) modeling. It was found that carbonation is a good prospect for a stabilization technique especially with respect to the major pollutants lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). Their mobility decreased with increasing factor levels. Dominating factors were the partial pressure of CO2 and the reaction time, while temperature and the addition of water were of minor influence. However, the treatment caused a mobilization of cadmium (Cd), requiring further research on possible countermeasures such as metal demobilization through enhanced silicate formation.

  • 238. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Bergman, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Multivariat dataanalys (MVDA) inom upplagsforskning1996In: Symposium om svensk upplagsforskning / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Malmö: Svenska renhållningsverks-föreningens Service AB , 1996, p. 1-19Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 239. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Bergman, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Behandling av cyanidhaltigt avfall på upplag: förstudie1993Report (Other academic)
  • 240. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Bergman, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Multivariate data analysis (MVDA) in landfill research1998In: The Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management, ISSN 1088-1697, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 33-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multivariate data analysis (MVDA), a new statistical approach in terms of landfill research, was performed at the evaluation of data sets from three investigations. The interrelationships among variables as well as variation between observations could be examined. Causal relations between experimental factors and response variables have been identified using scatterpott interpretation. The ease of using MVDA at data evaluation is proved. MVDA techniques as follows were applied: principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares modelling (PLS) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA).

  • 241. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Bergman, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Multivariate data analysis (MVDA) in landfill research1996In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, 1996Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multivariate data analysis (MVDA), a new statistical approach in terms of landfill research, was performed on the evaluation of three investigations. It gains advantage over classical statistical methods when multiple variables and their interactions have to be considered. In addition, it is tolerant for incomplete datasets. MVDA techniques as follows were applied: principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares modelling (PLS) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The interrelationships among variables as well as variation between observations could be examined and illustrated by a few plots.

  • 242. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Bergman, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Waste characterisation1999Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 243. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Bjurström, Henrik
    Evaluering av jordmånsbildande askbehandlingsprocess (EJA): förstudie2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Japan, expenses for landfilling yield about 400 US$ per t of ash, which gives an incentive to reduce the amount of landfilled ash. At NIES (National Institute for Environmental Studies) in Tsukuba, Japan, the AMT process (Accelerated Mineralization Technology) was developed aiming at the treatment of ashes and production of soil-like material for reuse. The objective of the project EJA was to evaluate the AMT process on the basis of available information and the possibilities the process could offer with respect to the conditions present in Sweden.With support of researchers at NIES, available literature including unpublished manuscripts on the AMT process was compiled, translated and evaluated. During treatment, the ashes are washed, aged and mixed with up to 5 weight-% of biodegradable organic matter. The material is stabilized at landfill. During up to several decades, metals are demobilized through a combination of three mechanisms, viz. carbonation, clay formation, and humification. Also persistent organic pollutants (POP) are demobilized due to humification products or they are degraded anaerobically. When the treatment is completed, the reuse of the material is envisaged.Due to the long treatment period, the AMT method might not be favored by ash producers in Sweden. In the future, landfill companies could be interested in the technology, since they are experienced to handle waste at long sight. This, however, requires that the legislation does not pose any hindrance for the implementation of the method, e.g. regarding the requirement to add organic matter to the ash. Above all, it remains several years of research on the AMT process to fully understand and evaluate the underlying biological and chemical processes as well as their interaction.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 244. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Hirofumi, Sakanakura
    Akita National College of Technology, Akita.
    Matsuto, Toshihiko
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Tanaka, Nobutoshi
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Effect of electric arc vitrification of bottom ash on the mobility and fate of metals2001In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 35, no 7, p. 1531-1536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing amounts of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues are treated prior to landfilling or reuse. In Japan, electric arc melting is used for bottom ash vitrification that generates a glasslike slag. The objective of this paper was to assess this pretreatment technique with respect to its effect on metal mobility and metal content. Both bottom ash and slag were sampled and analyzed on total solids (TS), fixed solids (FS), particle density (P), specific BET surface area, particle size distribution, and total element content. A six-step wet sequential extraction procedure was used for assessing metal mobility. The results were qualitatively verified by scanning electron microscopy. The major conclusion was that the availability of various metals was affected differently by electric arc vitrification. Metals were solidified, stabilized, and/or separated from the slag. The mobility of Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ca was reduced. In slag, major fractions of these elements were found in moderately reducible phases or in the residual slag lattice. The approximately three-fourths of Pb [174 ± 7 mg (kg of FS)-1] and half of Zn content [676 ± 352 mg (kg of FS)-1] were most likely removed from bottom ash through evaporation. The total content increases of Al, Cr, Ni, and Cd (51 ± 3, 621 ± 27, 138 ± 19, and 99 ± 32%, respectively) were probably caused by the wear of furnace refractories.

  • 245. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Kylefors, K.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Karakterisering och omhändertagande av botten- och flygaska vid Dåvamyrans avfallsanläggning1997Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 246. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Anaerobic treatment of hexavalent chromium- and chlorate-bearing industrial filter sludge1996Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 247. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Anaerobic treatment of hexavalent chromium- and chlorate-bearing leachate1996In: 12th International conference on solid waste technology and management, 1996Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 248. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Anaerobic treatment of putrescible refuse (ATPR): a review1997Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 249. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Analysis of anaerobically treated MSW by sequential leaching1993In: Sardinia '93: barrier systems, environmental aspects, upgrading and remediating, siting, monofills, effects of waste pretreatment, landfilling in developing countries ; 11 - 15 October 1993, S. Margherita di Pula (Cagliari), Sardinia, Italy ; proceedings / [ed] Thomas H. Christensen, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 1993, p. 1779-1785Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 250. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Karbonatstabilisering av flygaska: lovande metod som måste utvecklas vidare2002In: RVF-nytt, ISSN 0284-1827, no 2, p. 12-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
2345678 201 - 250 of 1075
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf