Change search
Refine search result
2345678 201 - 250 of 862
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 201.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Experiences from working with in-company quality awards: a case study2003In: TQM Magazine, ISSN 0954-478X, E-ISSN 1758-6887, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 397-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One way to stimulate total quality management (TQM) efforts in an organisation is to work with a quality award. This paper presents a case study, based on both interviews and document studies, of a unit within the Swedish National Road Administration that has worked with an in-company quality award. The purpose of the case study was to study how a unit experiences and is affected by the work connected with an in-company quality award. Some positive experiences and effects were recognised, such as a perceived improved customer orientation, a comprehensive view of the business, a degree of participation by everyone, systematic improvement work and an increase in the average score from the examiners. The perceived main disadvantage is the amount of work that the in-company quality award requires, especially in the phase of description of activities.

  • 202.
    Eriksson, Victoria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Interlinked Roundwood Markets in Sweden, Norway and Finland: An econometric study of roundwood assortment prices2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Market integration is a frequently discussed topic. This study presents an econometric analysis of the interlinkages between the Swedish, Norwegian, and Finnish coniferous roundwood assortment markets by conducting the Johansen’s co-integration test. It also investigates the directional causality between markets concluded integrated. The data utilised consists of quarterly, nominal prices for pine, and spruce saw logs and pulpwood for each country. Because of issues regarding stationary price series, the co-integration test could only be tested on five markets; Swedish and Norwegian pine saw logs and Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish spruce pulpwood. Swedish and Norwegian pine saw log prices were found integrated according to the Johansen’s test, but no relationship was found when performing the Granger causality test, implying that the underlying assumption of non-stationary prices may not have been fulfilled. No linkages were found concerning the spruce pulpwood markets; neither for all three countries nor bi-variate. 

  • 203.
    Ezatinia, Emil
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Japans demografiska utmaning: Den åldrande befolkningens påverkan på den ekonomiska tillväxten.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Japan will face a major challenge with regard to its rapidly growing aging population combined with a reduction in its working population. This paper aims to explain the impact of Japan's aging population and the country's economic growth, and the factors that may mitigate these effects. The analysis is done using a modified Solow growth model as a theoretical base. This is done to get a more in-depth understanding of the factors that affect a country's economic growth. By using this model, that includes population age structure as a parameter, we have the basis for the empirical analysis of how Japan's growth may be affected as a result of the aging population. The results show that Japan will suffer from declining growth due to its aging population. However, there are possible solutions to mitigate the negative effects, such as increasing employment rates among women, increased human capital, increased immigration and a cost effective technology development.

  • 204. Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    Bisaillon, Mattias
    Henriksson, Greger
    Östling, Ulrika Gunnarsson
    Ljungrren-Söderman, Maria
    Sahlin, Jenny
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    Sundberg, Johan
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Björklund, Anna
    Eriksson, Ola
    Forsfält, Tomas
    Guath, Mona
    Policy instruments towards a sustainable waste management2013In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 841-881Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to suggest and discuss policy instruments that could lead towards a more sustainable waste management. The paper is based on evaluations from a large scale multi-disciplinary Swedish research program. The evaluations focus on environmental and economic impacts as well as social acceptance. The focus is on the Swedish waste management system but the results should be relevant also for other countries. Through the assessments and lessons learned during the research program we conclude that several policy instruments can be effective and possible to implement. Particularly, we put forward the following policy instruments: “Information”; “Compulsory recycling of recyclable materials”; “Weight-based waste fee in combination with information and developed recycling systems”; “Mandatory labeling of products containing hazardous chemicals”, “Advertisements on request only and other waste minimization measures”; and “Differentiated VAT and subsidies for some services”. Compulsory recycling of recyclable materials is the policy instrument that has the largest potential for decreasing the environmental impacts with the configurations studied here. The effects of the other policy instruments studied may be more limited and they typically need to be implemented in combination in order to have more significant impacts. Furthermore, policy makers need to take into account market and international aspects when implementing new instruments. In the more long term perspective, the above set of policy instruments may also need to be complemented with more transformational policy instruments that can significantly decrease the generation of waste.

  • 205.
    Fischer, Carolyn
    et al.
    Resources for the Future (RFF), 1616 P Street, NW, Washington, DC.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Sterner, Thomas
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    A bio-economic model of community incentives for wildlife management under CAMPFIRE2011In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 303-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper formulates a bio-economic model to analyze community incentives for wildlife management under benefit-sharing programs like the Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE) in Zimbabwe. Three agents influence the wildlife stock: a parks agency determines hunting quotas, outside poachers hunt illegally, and a local community may choose to protect wildlife by discouraging poaching. Wildlife generates revenues from hunting licenses and tourism; it also intrudes on local agriculture. We consider two benefit-sharing regimes: shares of wildlife tourism rents and shares of hunting licenses. Resource sharing does not necessarily improve community welfare or incentives for wildlife conservation. Results depend on the exact design of the benefit shares, the size of the benefits compared with agricultural losses, and the way in which the parks agency manages hunting quotas

  • 206.
    Florén, Henrik
    et al.
    Center for Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Learning Research (CIEL), Halmstad University .
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Löf, Anton
    Raw Materials Group, Stockholm.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Raw materials management in iron and steelmaking firms2019In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 39-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper adds new knowledge on how raw materials should be managed in iron and steelmaking firms. While previous research has contributed significantly to how firms should deal with functional challenges related to raw materials, the understanding of Raw Materials Management from a holistic perspective is largely lacking, and extant research does not provide qualified advice to firms on this matter. This study provides such knowledge by drawing on insights from Höganäs AB, a world leader in ferrous powder metallurgy, and their efforts to identify key aspects and principles of raw materials management. Our elaboration of a more holistic view on raw materials management builds on two elements. First, we depict five external uncertainties and three internal conditions that impact firm-level raw materials management. Second, we present six critical capabilities that underpin proficient firm-level raw materials management. The paper concludes with a discussion of implications for both firms aiming to increase their raw materials proficiency and to future investigations into this important area.

  • 207.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bäckström, Kristoffer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Hellsmark, Hans
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    The Role of Pilot and Demonstration Plants in Technological Development: Synthesis and Directions for Future Research2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pilot and demonstration plants (PDPs) play important roles in the process of technological development because they represent the bridge between basic knowledge generation and technological breakthroughs on the one hand, and industrial application and commercial adoption on the other. The objectives of this paper are to synthesize and categorize the existing research on PDPs, as well as to suggest an agenda for future research efforts. We review the PDP phenomena in three literature streams: engineering and natural science research, technology- and innovation management, and innovation systems. The analysis highlights clear differences in e.g. conceptions of system boundaries and in what the literature streams seeks to accomplish, but also similarities such as the key ideas of using PDPs for technology scale-up and uncertainty reduction. These results are discussed and a future research agenda is provided.

  • 208.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bäckström, Kristoffer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Hellsmark, Hans
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    The Role of Pilot and Demonstration Plants in Technological Development: Synthesis and Directions for Future Research2015In: Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, ISSN 0953-7325, E-ISSN 1465-3990, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pilot and demonstration plants (PDPs) play important roles in technological development. They represent bridges between basic knowledge generation and technological breakthroughs on the one hand, and industrial application and commercial adoption on the other. The objectives of this article are to synthesise and categorise existing research on PDPs, as well as to suggest an agenda for future research. We review the PDP phenomena in three literature streams: engineering and natural science research, technology and innovation management, and innovation systems. The analysis highlights clear differences in e.g. conceptions of system boundaries and what the literature streams seeks to accomplish, but also similarities such as the key ideas of using PDPs for technology scale-up and uncertainty reduction.

  • 209.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Hellsmark, Hans
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mossberg, Johanna
    Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE), Division of Bioeconomy, Sweden.
    A Knowledge-based Perspective on System Weaknesses in Technological Innovation Systems2019In: Science and Public Policy, ISSN 0302-3427, E-ISSN 1471-5430, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 55-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature on technological innovation systems (TIS) provides policymakers and other actors with a scheme of analysis to identify system weaknesses. In doing so, TIS analysis centres on which system weaknesses policy interventions should target to promote further development of a particular system. However, prior TIS literature has not sufficiently elaborated on what may constitute the conceptual roots of a ‘weakness’. We apply a knowledge-based perspective and propose that many—albeit not all—system weaknesses may root in four types of knowledge problems: uncertainty, complexity, equivocality, and ambiguity. Employing these as sensitizing concepts, we study system weaknesses by analysing data from a biorefinery TIS in Sweden. This analysis results in novel implications for the TIS literature and for achieving a better match between system weaknesses and the design of innovation policies.

  • 210.
    Garcia, Nicolas Pardo
    et al.
    Joint Research Centre - Institute for Energy and Transport.
    Vatopoulos, Konstaninos
    Joint Research Centre - Institute for Energy and Transport.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lopez, Alicia Perez
    Joint Research Centre - Institute for Energy and Transport.
    Olsen, Lars
    Danish Technological Institute.
    Best available technologies for the heat and cooling market in the European Union2012Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Every year, over 40% of the total energy consumed in Europe is used for the generation of heat for either domestic or industrial purposes whereas the cooling demand is growing exponentially. The importance of the heat and cooling sector is underlined in the EU energy policy initiatives. This emphasize the role of technologies based on renewable energy sources combined with highefficiency energy technologies, to meet the heat and cooling demand in Europe more sustainably in the future. In this context, the JRC led study, which was undertaken with two partners1, to identify the current best available technologies (BATs) which can contribute to improve the energy efficiency and reduce the CO2 emission in the heat and cooling market in the EU

  • 211.
    Garcia, Nicolas Pardo
    et al.
    Joint Research Centre - Institute for Energy and Transport.
    Vatopoulos, Konstaninos
    Joint Research Centre - Institute for Energy and Transport.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Rivera, Jose Antonio Moya
    Joint Research Centre - Institute for Energy and Transport.
    Lopez, Alicia Perez
    Joint Research Centre - Institute for Energy and Transport.
    Heat and cooling demand and market perspective2012Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to fully understand the national potentials for cogeneration, it is essential to identify the existing and prospective demand of heat and cooling by sector. A study will be performed on a MS level to describe the demand of heat and cooling by different sectors (i.e. industrial, residential), demand types (different temperatures) and supply technologies. This work aims to analyze the current situation and future trends of heat and cooling demand in the EU, as well as, the use and availability of industrial. Within each sector the demand will be presented for different segments. The focus is to map the demand of heat and cooling on temperature intervals possible to be supplied by district heating, district cooling or CHP. In order to capture the characteristics of heat, heat is split into different types; space heating, warm water, cooking, and industrial heat. For cooling, space cooling is the main type applicable to district cooling

  • 212.
    Gawel, Erik
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Helmholtz Centre für Environmental Research – UFZ.
    Lehmann, Paul
    Department Ökonomie, Helmholtz- Zentrum für Umweltforschung − UFZ, Leipzig.
    Purkus, Alexandra
    UFZ-Department Ökonomie.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Strunz, Sebastian
    Department of Economics, Helmholtz Centre für Environmental Research – UFZ.
    Political Economy of Safe-guarding Security of Supply with High Shares of Renewables: Review of Existing Research and Lessons from Germany2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing shares of wind power and solar PV in the European electricity markets have raised concerns about security of supply being jeopardized. The objective of this report is to synthesize the economic research on the nature and extent of intermittency problems in electricity markets, and not least discuss how to deal with these in the electricity market design. Particular attention is devoted to German experiences, and on identifying key lessons for Swedish market design.

    Specifically, we first discuss how security of supply can be defined, and why real-world so-called energy-only markets, i.e., markets without any pricing of capacity

    per se, may not provide an efficient level of security of supply. The latter includes a broad set of various market and policy failures. Furthermore, the report identifies and evaluates different regulatory options for addressing security of supply issues in the electricity system. These include three categories of options: measures to strengthen the energy-only market (e.g., removing price caps, strengthening the balancing market, etc.); the introduction of various forms of capacity mechanisms (i.e., focused, comprehensive, and decentralized capacity markets and strategic reserves); and various energy policy reforms (e.g., flexible renewable energy feed-in, improving demand-side management, adjusting network regulation, etc.).

    Unlike many previous economic studies, we also analyze the drivers of the policy debate on security of supply in Germany, and not least the extent to which the knowledge gained through previous research has penetrated this debate. This political economy perspective permits better understanding of the rationale behind the actual outcomes of the policy processes, i.e., in Germany’s case a strengthening of the energy-only market and the installation of a strategic reserve.

    A number of generic lessons from the German policy debate are highlighted: (a) all actors in the electricity supply system can in various ways contribute to security of supply; (b) underinvestment in security of supply most often have multiple causes, and should preferably be addressed through a portfolio of context-specific measures rather than through the use of single capacity mechanisms; (c) the energy transition taking place in, e.g., Germany, does not fundamentally question security of supply; (d) the measures implemented to safeguard security of supply should include an international perspective as well as consider the risks of potential institutional lock-in; and (e) the policy decision-making process needs to build on credible long-term commitments and transparent consultations with stakeholders.

    In terms of lessons for the Swedish market design, our conclusions are in line with earlier studies arguing for a wait, see and evaluate strategy. We contend, though, that policy should abstain from making early, future commitments regarding the introduction of quantitative measures and more extended capacity mechanisms. Quantitative measures of security of supply are far from straightforward to define, monitor and evaluate; there is a risk that such measures become too constraining and leads to an exaggerated focus on security-of-supply. A portfolio of measures that strengthen the existing Swedish market design (e.g., removing price caps, reduced trading intervals etc.) should help address the causes of security of supply concerns in a more targeted and cost-effective manner.

  • 213.
    Gawel, Erik
    et al.
    Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig.
    Lehmann, Paul
    Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig.
    Purkus, Alexandra
    Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Witte, Katherina
    Leipzig University, Institute for Infrastructure and Resources Management.
    Rationales for technology-specific RES support and their relevance for German policy2017In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 102, p. 22p. 16-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to achieve cost-effective RES-E deployment it is often argued that technology-neutral support schemes for renewables are indispensable. Against this background, RES-E support policies making widely use of technology differentiation in remuneration settings, e.g. across the EU, are frequently criticized from a theoretical point of view. However, in this paper we provide a systematic critique of the technology neutrality concept as a foundation for designing policy support schemes in the RES-E technology field. Specifically, the main objective of the paper is to scrutinize the arguments for technology-neutrality, and discuss three conceptual arguments for why technology-specific support schemes could in fact help minimize the societal costs of reaching future RES-E targets. We also briefly address different political economy concerns, which could constrain the choice of cost-effective policy support schemes, and that have to be taken into account for economic policy advice. For empirical illustration of the key arguments we refer to the case of German RES-E policy-making. The central conclusion from this paper is that technology-specific RES-E support schemes may generate significant economic benefits, particularly if technology markets work imperfectly and in second-best policy settings with additional non-internalized market failures.

  • 214.
    Gawel, Erik
    et al.
    Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig.
    Lehmann, Paul
    Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig.
    Purkus, Alexandra
    Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Witte, Katherina
    Leipzig University, Institute for Infrastructure and Resources Management.
    The Rationales for Technology-Specific Renewable Energy Support: Conceptual Arguments and their Relevance for Germany2016Report (Refereed)
  • 215.
    Gebreegziabher, Zenebe
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Mekelle University, Adi-Haqui Campus.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Mekonnen, Alemu
    Department of Economics, Addis Ababa University.
    Alemu, Atlaw
    Department of Economics, Addis Ababa University.
    Climate change and the Ethiopian economy: A CGE analysis2016In: Environment and Development Economics, ISSN 1355-770X, E-ISSN 1469-4395, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 205-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyzes the economic impacts of climate change-induced fluctuations on the performance of Ethiopia’s agriculture, using a countrywide computable general equilibrium (CGE) model.We model the impacts on agriculture using a Ricardian model, where current agricultural production is modelled as a function of temperature and precipitation, among other things, and where future agriculture is assumed to follow the same climate function. The effect of overall climate change is projected to be relatively benign until approximately 2030, but will become considerably worse thereafter. Our simulation results indicate that, over a 50-year period, the projected reduction in agricultural productivity may lead to reductions in average income of some 20 per cent compared with the outcome that would have prevailed in the absence of climate change. This indicates that adaptation policies – both government planned and those that ease autonomous adaptation by farmers – will be crucial for Ethiopia’s future development.

  • 216.
    Gelo, Dambala
    et al.
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Koch, Steven F.
    Department of Economics, University of Pretoria.
    Decentralization, market integration and efficiency-equity trade-offs: Evidence from Joint Forest Management in Ethiopian villages2016In: Journal of Forest Economics, ISSN 1104-6899, E-ISSN 1618-1530, Vol. 22, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extant literature on Joint Forest Management (JFM) impact evaluation has concluded that it generally does not provide sufficient incentives to justify the costs that forest use restrictions impose on local people. However, there is a dearth of evidence concerning whether alternative JFM intervention with improved market linkages for non-timber forest products has similar implications. In this study, we evaluated the income and distributive effects of a JFM program in Ethiopia in which additional support was provided for improved market linkages for non-timber forest products (NTFPs). Exploiting exogenous variation in customary rights across eligible groups of communities that participate in JFM programs, as well as using heteroskedasticity-based instrumentations, we identified the income and distributive effects of the program. Our analysis shows that the program has raised the income of the households who chose to participate by approximately 400 Ethiopian Birr or 26% of per capita expenditure; that result was robust to various specifications. We also found that this effect is largely driven by marketing incentives to use non-timber forest products. However, we found that the program's benefit is biased toward the upper end of the income distribution, a result that points to the inequality-reinforcing effects of the program.

  • 217.
    Goussakov, Roma
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Stjernström, Valde
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Estimating Okun’s law in Sweden: Effects of gender and age2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate whether Okun’s law is valid within Sweden. Furthermore, we are also interested in studying how it varies with different genders and age groups. Quarterly data on GDP and unemployment between the years 1980 to 2015 is used. Three different models have been tested on their ability to estimate Okun’s law and the model with the highest explanatory power was chosen. The results show that unemployment among men are more affected by changes in GDP growth than women, which likely is because more men tend to work in the private sector and women in the public sector. Young workers are also affected to a greater degree than older workers, due to how the employment protection act (LAS) works in Sweden.

  • 218.
    Grafström, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Ratio.
    Crowding Out or Knowledge Spillovers from the Wind Power Industry: The Effect on Related Energy Machinery2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a risk that if a government adopts a R&D spending policy directed towards wind power technology crowding out of other technologies might occur due to fiscal constraints and changes in relative prices. The purpose of this paper is to provide a backward-looking analysis of how the accumulation of wind energy patents and public R&D spending affected the domestic and neighboring country output of granted patents in the “related energy machinery field”. The econometric analysis, a Poisson fixed-effects estimator based on the Hausman, Hall and Griliches (1984) method, relies on a data set consisting of eight countries in Western Europe with the highest rates of patent production in the field of wind power between 1978 and 2008. The results show that an accumulation of a national wind power stock is a statistically significant negative determinant of a country’s related energy machinery patenting outcomes. However, no crowding out effects of public R&D spending were found

  • 219.
    Grafström, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Divergence of Renewable Energy Invention Efforts in Europe: an econometric analysis based on patent counts2018In: Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, ISSN 1432-847X, E-ISSN 1867-383X, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 829-859Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the presence of convergence (or divergence) of invention efforts per capita in the renewable energy field across European Union (EU) countries. Divergence may imply a risk of a lower level of goal fulfilment regarding the share of renewable energy in the EU energy mix. This is due to free-rider issues and sub-optimal investment levels, in turn making it more expensive and cumbersome to expand renewable energy production. Convergence suggests a faster renewable energy goal achievement. The econometric analysis is based on patent application counts per capita for 13 EU Member States over the time period 1990–2012. The methods used draw on the economic convergence literature. First, we rely on a panel data set to test for conditional β-convergence. Moreover, a distributional dynamics approach is employed to test for σ- and γ-convergence, and analyse the intra-distributional dynamics. The results indicate conditional β- and σ-divergence in renewable energy invention capabilities across the 13 countries, thus suggesting that some EU countries tend to free-ride on the development efforts of other Member States.

  • 220.
    Grafström, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    International knowledge spillovers in the wind power industry: Evidence from Europe2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last 30 years, there has been a remarkable change in the wind power industry with declining costs and increasing electricity output. A factor that might speed up the innovative process and development of wind power is knowledge spillover, something that has been found and is considered important for other industries. However, when it comes to wind power, there is a shortage of comprehensive studies and previous research has found only limited evidence of knowledge spillovers in the industry. The paper studies the patents granted during the time period 1978-2008 as an innovative measure and focuses on core wind power countries in Western Europe in order to examine those countries that as a matter of fact invest and are engaged in the wind power industry. Domestic knowledge spillovers are found to have a positive effect on patent production while the results of international more are more ambiguous.

  • 221.
    Grafström, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    International Knowledge Spillovers in the Wind Power Industry: evidence from the European Union2018In: Economics of Innovation and New Technology, ISSN 1043-8599, E-ISSN 1476-8364, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 205-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the presence of international knowledge spillovers in the wind power sector. Specifically, the paper investigates whether successful invention efforts in one country, measured by way of granted wind power patent counts, have had positive effects on the neighboring countries’ abilities to generate patents of the same category. Data on the number of patents granted at the European Patent Office during the period 1978-2008 are used for the eight national technological leaders in the western European wind power sector. The few comprehensive wind power studies that exist have only found limited evidence of international knowledge spillovers. However, in this paper we find that international spillovers are statistically significant determinants of a country’s wind power patenting outcomes. Geographical distance is also taken into consideration, and the knowledge spillover effects are shown to become stronger with decreases in this distance. The results should have important policy implications, e.g., for a national government when it comes to applying an investment strategy in wind power or, alternatively, free-riding on other countries’ invention efforts.

  • 222.
    Grafström, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Modern era Knowledge Spillovers in the Solar energy sectorManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an updated analysis of international knowledge spillovers in the solar energy sector. Specifically, the paper investigates how the accumulation of solar energy patents and public R&D spending affected the output of domestic granted solar energy patents. The econometric analysis relies on a data set consisting of most of the OECD countries plus China and analyzes two time periods; from 1990 to 2014 and the years 2000 to 2014. To analyze the data material, a Poisson fixed-effects estimator based on the Hausman, Hall and Griliches (1984) method was used. The empirical findings suggest that the domestic accumulation of patents and R&D is important for the potential development of new ones. Indeed, early investment in specific technology can be an indicator of future leadership in that field. It also seems to be the case that long run investment works better for a country that wants to be a part of the development of a particular technology.

  • 223.
    Grafström, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. The Ratio Institute.
    Technological Change and Wage Polarization: The IlliberalPopulist Response2017Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is discuss how technological change affect the labor marketand what populist actions that are expected follow. The causes and consequences of possibletechnological unemployment will be addressed and to what extent it could be expected thatthe rapid technological change leads to unemployment (or that the labor market adapts in asimilar way to previous technological changes as has been seen in history so far). A changinglabor market will constitute challenges for the future of liberalism - possible wage polarizationand heterogeneous distribution of unemployment in the labor force might create a demand forpolicy solutions that have an illiberal direction. In the paper it will be argued that the threatof populism will come from a disgruntled middle class rather than as commonly believed thepoorer stratas of the wage distribution.

  • 224.
    Grafström, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Technological Change in the Renewable Energy Sector: Essays on Knowledge Spillovers and Convergence2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this thesis is to investigate the determinants of technological change in the renewable energy sector, with a special emphasis on the role of knowledge spillovers and convergence across countries. The thesis consists of a preface and five self-contained papers. In Paper I technological change is broken down into the three major development stages laid out by Joseph Schumpeter: invention, innovation and diffusion. Econometric models of each of these stages are specified in the empirical context of wind power. The models are estimated employing a panel dataset consisting of eight western European countries over the time period 1991-2008. The results display evidence of national and international knowledge spillovers in the invention (i.e., patenting) model. The results from the technology learning models indicate evidence of global learning-by-doing, and that the prices of input factors have been important determinants of wind power costs. In line with previous research, the diffusion model results show that investment costs have influenced the development of installed wind power capacity. Paper II investigates how wind power inventions in European countries have affected the technological development achievements in neighboring countries. Data on the number of patents granted at the European Patent Office (EPO) during the period 1978-2008 in the eight technologically leading wind power countries in Europe are employed in a patent production function framework. The presence of international knowledge spillovers is found to constitute a statistically significant determinant of a country’s patent production. Geographical distance is also taken into consideration, and the results suggest that knowledge spillovers are subject to spatial transaction costs: with longer distances the role of international spillovers becomes weaker. Paper III investigates the convergence of inventive capabilities in the EU. Data on total patents per capita in 13 EU countries over the period 1990-2011 are analyzed using both parametric and non-parametric techniques. Converging inventive abilities may be important for the future of the EU given that rapid technological change has resulted in major structural changes in the Member States’ economies during the last decades. The β-convergence and σ-convergence tests suggest convergence in inventive capabilities, and this finding gains some support when analyzing the intra-distributional dynamics of the invention capabilities. Paper IV specifically investigates whether the generation of renewable energy patents per capita has converged or diverged across 13 EU countries over the period 1990-2012. The results indicate the presence of conditional β- and σ-divergence in renewable energy invention abilities. This could be critical for assessing the future prospects of EU policy in the renewable energy field; divergence in terms of invention outcomes could imply a less rapid and yet more expensive goal fulfillment due to free-rider behavior and sub-optimal investment levels. Finally, Paper V tests for convergence/divergence based on countries’ public spending to renewable energy R&D. The empirical analysis focuses on the presence of conditional β-convergence across 13 EU countries over the period 1990-2012. The results suggest divergence in public R&D-based knowledge accumulation, and this is consistent with free-riding behavior on the part of some EU Member States. Energy import dependence and electricity deregulation also affect this divergence pattern. For instance, the higher the energy import dependence, the lower is the speed of divergence across the EU countries in terms of public R&D support. Overall, the diverging pathways in terms of both public R&D and private patenting efforts may raise concerns about an unfair burden-sharing in terms of renewable energy development efforts.

  • 225.
    Grafström, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The creation of renewable energy technology in Europe: are patents per capita converging?2016In: Energy: Expectationsand Uncertainty: Challenges for Analysis, Decisions and Policy, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates whether a convergence or divergence of national innovation capabilities regarding renewable energy patents of the 13 EU countries occurs in the course of the time period 1990-2010. An answer to the research question permits immediate conclusions with regard to the success prospects of the EU's Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC), which sets climate and energy targets for both 2020. The empirical analysis is focused on whether renewable energy patents have converged or diverged between the countries. The data is based on patents granted at the European patent office. The methodologies applied draws from the economic convergence literature. The initial results have showed signs of conditional beta and sigma divergence in renewable energy invention abilities.

  • 226.
    Grafström, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The strengths and weaknesses in the Swedish renewable energy sector: an assessment report2016In: Meeting Sweden's current and future energy challenges, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are both weaknesses and opportunities of the Swedish renewable energy sector. This papers aim at increasing the awareness of how the state of the sector is right now, if there are any obvious difficulties facing firms in Sweden and provide knowledge about what issues that has to be addressed in order for firms to be able to succeed. The aim is addressed by looking at data and connecting the data to growth theory. Three issues stand out. Business angels do not understand the industry: As angel investors not only contribute capital to the company, but also its expertise, commitment and contacts, it is important for most business angels that they understand the industry to invest in. Lack of capital -access to capital is insufficient. Small critical mass-absorbing technology: In order to absorb technology human capital is needed, not only in general but specific technology.

  • 227.
    Grafström, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lindman, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Invention, innovation and diffusion in the European wind power sector2016In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 114, p. 179-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an economic analysis of the technology development patterns in the European wind power sector. The three classic Schumpeterian steps of technological development, invention, innovation and diffusion, are brought together to assess the relationship between these. Three econometric approaches are used, a negative binomial regression model for inventions approximated by patent counts, different learning curve model specifications that have been derived from a Cobb-Douglas cost function to address innovation, and a panel data fixed effect regression for the diffusion model. We suggest an integrated perspective of the technological development process where possible interaction effects between the different models are tested. The dataset covers the time period 1991–2008 in the eight core wind power countries in Western Europe. We find evidence of national and international knowledge spillovers in the invention model. The technology learning model results indicate that there exists global learning but also that the world market price of steel has been an important determinant of the development of wind power costs. In line with previous research, the diffusion model results indicate that investment costs have been an important determinant of the development of installed wind power capacity. The results also point towards the importance of natural gas prices and feed-in tariffs as vital factors for wind power diffusion.

  • 228.
    Grafström, Jonas
    et al.
    Ratio Institute.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Gawel, Erik
    Department of Economics, Helmholtz Centre für Environmental Research – UFZ.
    Lehmann, Paul
    Department Ökonomie, Helmholtz- Zentrum für Umweltforschung − UFZ, Leipzig.
    Strunz, Sebastian
    Department of Economics, Helmholtz Centre für Environmental Research – UFZ.
    Knowledge Accumulation fromPublic Renewable Energy R&D in the European Union: Converging or Diverging Trends?2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bottom-up processes of policy convergence are increasingly discussed as a substitute for the absence of supranational energy policy coordination and harmonization in the EU. The overall objective of this paper is to analyse the development of government support to renewable energy R&D across EU countries over time: does the empirical evidence suggest bottom-up convergence? In order to answer this question, we first construct country-specific R&D-based knowledge stocks, and then investigate whether the developments of these stocks tend to converge or diverge across EU countries. A data set covering 12 EU Member States over the time period 1990-2012 is employed to test for the presence of conditional β-convergence using a bias-corrected dynamic panel data estimator. The empirical results are overall robust and suggest divergence in terms of public R&D-based knowledge build-up in renewable energy technology. This finding is consistent with free-riding behavior on the part of some Member States, and the presence of industrial policy motives in other States in combination with agglomeration effects in the renewable energy sector. Energy import dependence and electricity regulation are found to influence the growth of the R&D-based knowledge stock, and the deregulation of the EU electricity markets has tended to contribute to a lower speed of divergence.

  • 229.
    Gralepois, Mathilde
    et al.
    University François-Rabelais of Tours, France.
    Larrue, Corinne
    Paris School of Planning, Lab'Urba, Paris Est University, France.
    Wiering, Mark
    Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Crabbé, Ann
    University of Antwerp (Belgium).
    Tapsell, Sue
    Middlesex University, London, UK.
    Mees, Hannelore
    University of Antwerp (Belgium).
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Szwed, Malgorzata
    Institute for Agricultural and Forest Environment of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan, Poland.
    Is flood defense changing in nature?: Shifts in the flood defense strategy in six European countries2016In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 21, no 4, article id 37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many countries, flood defense has historically formed the core of flood risk management but this strategy is now evolving with the changing approach to risk management. This paper focuses on the neglected analysis of institutional changes within the flood defense strategies formulated and implemented in six European countries (Belgium, England, France, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden). The evolutions within the defense strategy over the last 30 years have been analyzed with the help of three mainstream institutional theories: a policy dynamics-oriented framework, a structure-oriented institutional theory on path dependency, and a policy actors-oriented analysis called the advocacy coalitions framework. We characterize the stability and evolution of the trends that affect the defense strategy in the six countries through four dimensions of a policy arrangement approach: actors, rules, resources, and discourses. We ask whether the strategy itself is changing radically, i.e., toward a discontinuous situation, and whether the processes of change are more incremental or radical. Our findings indicate that in the European countries studied, the position of defense strategy is continuous, as the classical role of flood defense remains dominant. With changing approaches to risk, integrated risk management, climate change, urban growth, participation in governance, and socioeconomic challenges, the flood defense strategy is increasingly under pressure to change. However, these changes can be defined as part of an adaptation of the defense strategy rather than as a real change in the nature of flood risk management.

  • 230.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Alriksson, Stina
    University of Kalmar.
    Possibilities for combined evaluation of social, economic energy/environmental values2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Northern Scandinavia is an area, which is rich in natural resources and energy-intensive base industries covering several branches, e.g., Mining, Iron and Steel, Metal production, Pulp and Paper. They are often part of a community network where a change in one node affects the behavior and efficiency of its neighbors.  Improvements in environmental load, energy efficiency etc. cannot simply be achieved by improving the individual units. A system approach is needed. Such methods (Process Integration) have been developed within the Nordic Countries for more than twenty years, e.g. within the Swedish national program that was launched 1989. They are been practically applied e.g. at SSAB in Luleå An excellence center for Process Integration in Steelmaking (PRISMA), with industrial partners from Sweden and Finland, has recently been founded at MEFOS in Luleå. The process integration methods have been developed to handle multi-objective problems. This is because the industry has to answer to a combined demand on energy consumption, emission limits for several substances, climate effects as well as costs.  For regional evaluation an economic model has been developed which explicitly returns changing input and output prices due to changes in e.g., production technology, derived input demand or the introduction of market instruments. Especially on smaller regional markets, changes in input demand of fibrous raw material might significantly affect its price. This price effect must be considered whenever extensive changes in the production process are considered so that the project is not, ex post, rendered unprofitable. Another factor of great influence is local and national attitudes. These can influence both market value and political decisions.  These effects can be evaluated in stakeholder studies. Co-evaluation with the technical parameters mentioned above is interesting, but an obstacle is the difference in result format.  A method (CONJOINT) has been developed, by which these results can be converted into numerical parameters. For the Swedish Steel industry it has been tested within the ECO-Cycle program. An attempt to merge these methods into a combined study is presently carried an ongoing PROCESS INTEGRATION study for a Pulp and paper mill in northern Sweden. The possibility to merge into a combined tool or methodology is discussed.

  • 231. Gåhlin, Emil
    et al.
    Nilsson, Isabelle
    Pettersson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Tillståndprocesser för kärnkraft: internationella lärdomar2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande syftet med denna rapport är att analysera och jämföra den lagstiftning som kringgärdar tillståndsgivningen för (i första hand) nya kärnkraftverk i ett antal utvalda länder. Rapporten kan på så sätt bidra med ett viktigt kunskapsunderlag för att diskutera ändamålsenligheten i olika nationella processer (inklusive den svenska). Analysen i rapporten bygger till stora delar på rättsvetenskapliga undersökningar, och behandlar såväl de formella kraven på tillstånd och fysisk planering samt former för medborgar-samverkan i respektive fall. Studien fokuserar i första hand på lagstiftningens utformning i de utvalda länderna, och i begränsad omfattning på praxis. Denna juridiska ansats kompletteras dock också med ett investerarperspektiv på lagstiftningen, dvs. en analys av hur de relevant rättsreglerna kan påverka investeringsbeslut i praktiken. Arbetet bygger till stora delar på synteser av tidigare studier samt intervjuer med forskare, elbolag och myndighetsrepresentanter i Sverige och utomlands. De länder som ingår i jämförelsen är Sverige, Finland, Frankrike, Schweiz, Storbritannien, USA, Sydkorea och Kanada. Dessa länder inkluderar de som nu investerar i kärnkraft samt de som nyligen reformerat sina tillståndsprocesser under de senaste åren. Viktiga skillnader länderna emellan belyses, t.ex. frågor som det politiska inflytandet i prövningen, förhållandet mellan den nationella och lokala makten, former för medborgarsamverkan, samt den övergripande transparensen och förutsägbarheten i lagstiftningen. Ambitionen är också att studera de praktiska konsekvenserna av den rådande lagstiftningen; empiriska erfarenheter finns i en del relevanta fall.

  • 232.
    Hage, Olle
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Evaluating the Swedish producer responsibility for packaging materials: policy design and outcome2004Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades the promotion of recycling of used packaging materials has become an integral part of environmental policy. In 1994, a producer responsibility ordinance was introduced for different packaging materials in Sweden. The overall purposes of this thesis are to: (a) evaluate the design - and primarily the cost-effectiveness - of this waste management regime, and (b) attempt to explain differences in collection rate outcomes across Swedish municipalities. The thesis consists of an introductory part and two self-contained papers. Paper [1] outlines a theoretical model that is designed to link the necessary conditions for a cost effective waste management policy to specific policy designs. The main purpose of the paper is to make use of this model and analyze the incentive structure and the effectiveness of the Swedish producer responsibility ordinance in the empirical context of paper packaging. A secondary purpose is to discuss if the empirical evidence suggests that an alternative waste management regime, i.e., the so-called UCTS-system, could be more effective. According to the results, both the Swedish producer responsibility scheme and the UCTS system fulfill two important cost effectiveness conditions. The packaging fee in the present Swedish system and the packaging tax in the UCTS system provide similar incentives to an output effect. Furthermore, both systems also give rise to input substitution effects, e.g., they encourage the use of secondary materials at the expense of virgin materials by subsidizing collection and recycling activities. However, in the Swedish producer responsibility system, waste collection entrepreneurs in areas with high marginal costs of collection often obtain high refunds, a situation that is in violation with the cost effectiveness criterion. Neither of the systems tends to encourage enough of design for recyclability, although the Swedish producer responsibility seems to perform somewhat better here. Our analysis of the transformation and transaction costs involved in the two waste management systems suggests that it is hard to a priori determine which system will minimize these costs. It will depend on, for instance, households' valuation of sorting efforts, and the presence of economies of scale in the waste collection system. This implies that different systems in different parts of the country can be preferred. Paper [2] focuses on the actual outcome of the producer responsibility in the case of household plastic packaging collection. The paper investigates the main determinants of collection rates of household plastic packaging waste in Swedish municipalities. This is done by employing regression analysis based on cross-section data for 252 Swedish municipalities. The results suggest that pure cost, economic-demographic, and socio-demographic factors as well as environmental preferences all help explain inter-municipality collection rates. For instance, the collection rate appears to be positively affected by increases in the unemployment rate, the share of private houses, and the presence of immigrants (unless newly arrived) in the municipality. The impacts of distance to recycling industry, urbanization rate and population density on collection outcomes turn out, though, both statistically and economically insignificant. A reasonable explanation for this is that the compensation from the material companies varies depending on region and is likely to be higher in high-cost regions. However, if true, this also suggests that the plastic packaging collection is cost ineffective. Finally, the analysis also shows that municipalities that employ weight-based waste management fees have on average a higher collection rate than municipalities in which flat and/or volume-based fees are used. A major conclusion of the thesis is that public policy in the waste management field ought to focus more on regional cost differences in the collection and recycling of packaging materials.

  • 233.
    Hage, Olle
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Kursdesign för lärande: Hur vi motiverar studenter att arbeta hårt med rätt saker under hela kursen, individuellt och i grupp2014In: NU 2014: Umeå 8-10 oktober : abstracts, Umeå: Umeå universitet. Pedagogiska institutionen , 2014, p. 210-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 234.
    Hage, Olle
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Producentansvar för pappersförpackningar: ett effektivt politiskt styrmedel för rationella materialflöden?2003In: Produktionslogistik 2003: effektivt flöde från leverantör till kund / [ed] Anders Segerstedt; Torbjörn Wiberg, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2003, p. 95-112Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 235.
    Hage, Olle
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The economics of household packaging waste: norms, effectiveness and policy design2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of an introduction and four self-contained papers, which all deal with the economic effectiveness of the Swedish producer responsibility for packaging materials. Paper I analyzes the determinants of household packaging recycling efforts in Sweden by employing data on households' self-reported behavior. This is analyzed in an ordered probit regression framework. Theoretically the paper draws heavily on recent developments in the literature on integrating norm-motivated behavior into neoclassical consumer theory. The results show that both economic and moral motivations are important in explaining household recycling outcomes. This indicates that recycling campaigns could be effective in increasing recycling efforts, not the least by influencing individuals' perceptions about others' (positive) contributions in the recycling field. The results also indicate that the importance of moral motivation partly diminishes if improved collection infrastructure makes it easier for house-holds to recycle. Paper II investigates the main determinants of collection rates of household plastic packaging waste across Swedish municipalities. This is done by the use of a regression analysis based on cross-sectional data for 252 Swedish municipalities. The results suggest that local policy measures, geographic/demographic variables, socio-economic factors as well as environmental preferences all help explain inter-municipality collection rates. For instance, the collection rate appears to be positively affected by increases in the unemployment rate, the share of private houses, and the presence of immigrants (unless newly arrived) in the municipality. The impacts on collection outcomes of differences in distance to recycling industry, urbanization rate and population density turn out, though, both statistically and economically insignificant. This implies that the plastic packaging collection in Sweden may be performed cost-ineffectively. Finally, the analysis also shows that municipalities that employ weight- based waste collection fees overall experience higher collection rates than those municipalities in which flat and/or volume-based fees are used. Paper III extends the analysis in Paper II primarily by: (a) adding 30 more municipalities; (b) including additional data on local policy variables; and (c) adopting spatial econometric methods. The empirical results suggest that the collection of plastic packaging is positively related to collection in neighboring municipalities. The analysis also shows that municipalities that employ weight-based waste fees generally experience higher collection rates than those municipalities in which volume-based fees are used. The presence of curbside recycling and a high intensity of recycling drop-off stations also provide important explanations for why some municipalities perform better than others. Paper III also confirm the finding from paper II that the plastic packing collection in Sweden seems to be conducted in a cost-ineffective manner. Finally, Paper IV analyzes the incentive structure and the cost-effectiveness of the Swedish producer responsibility ordinance. A secondary purpose is to discuss if the empirical evidence in any way suggests that an alternative supply chain management regime, i.e., the UCTS system, could be more effective. According to the results, both the Swedish producer responsibility scheme and the UCTS system give rise to output and input substitution effects. However, none of the systems tends to encourage enough of design for recyclability. The analysis of the transformation and transaction costs involved in the two waste management systems suggests that it is hard to a priori determine which system will minimize waste management costs. This will depend on, for instance, households' valuation of sorting efforts and the presence of economies of scale in the waste collection system. The above also suggests that different systems can be preferred in different parts of the country, and that the cost-effectiveness of the Swedish packaging collection scheme could be improved.

  • 236.
    Hage, Olle
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The Swedish producer responsibility for paper packaging: an effective waste management policy?2007In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 314-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze the incentive structure and the effectiveness of the Swedish producer responsibility ordinance, i.e., the ability of the system to induce producers to economize with cardboard packaging and to fulfill the related environmental goals cost effectively. A secondary purpose is to discuss if the empirical evidence in any way suggests that an alternative supply chain management regime, i.e., the UCTS-system, could be more effective. According to the results, both the Swedish producer responsibility scheme and the UCTS system fulfill two important cost effectiveness criteria. The packaging fee in the present Swedish system and the packaging tax in the UCTS system provide similar incentives to an output effect. Furthermore, both systems also give rise to input substitution effects. For instance, both systems encourage the use of secondary materials at the expense of virgin materials by subsidizing collection and recycling activities. However, in the Swedish producer responsibility system, waste collection entrepreneurs in areas with high marginal costs of collection also often obtain high refunds. This implies a violation of the cost effectiveness principle. Neither of the systems tends to encourage enough of design for recyclability, but here the Swedish producer responsibility seems to be somewhat more effective than the UCTS system. Our analysis of the transformation and transaction costs involved in the two waste management systems suggests that it is hard to a priori determine which system will minimize waste management costs. It will depend on, for instance, households’ valuation of sorting efforts, and the presence of economies of scale in the waste collection system. This implies that different systems can be preferred in different parts of the country.

  • 237.
    Hage, Olle
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Viktbaserad renhållningstaxa som styrmedel2009Report (Other academic)
  • 238. Hage, Olle
    et al.
    Sandberg, Krister
    SIKA.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Berglund, Christer
    Household plastic waste collection in Swedish municipalities: a spatial-econometric approach2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the main determinants of collection rates of household plastic packaging waste in Swedish municipalities. This is done by the use of spatial econometric methods based on cross-sectional data for 282 Swedish municipalities in 2005. The empirical results suggest that the collection of plastic packaging is positively related to collection in neighboring municipalities. The analysis also shows that municipalities that employ weight-based waste management fees generally experience higher collection rates than those municipalities in which volume-based fees are used. The presence of curbside recycling and a high intensity of recycling drop-off stations, both measures that facilitate recycling efforts by creating the infrastructural and logistic mechanisms that enable people to translate their motivation into recycling action, provide important explanations for why some municipalities perform better than others. Overall the impacts on collection outcomes of a number of important regional cost variables, such as distance to recycling industry, urbanization rate and population density, turn out, though, both statistically and economically insignificant. An important explanation for this is that the (fixed) monetary compensations from the material companies to the collection entrepreneurs in Sweden vary depending on region and is typically higher in high-cost regions. This implies that the plastic packaging collection in Sweden may be performed in a cost ineffective manner.

  • 239.
    Hage, Olle
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sandberg, Krister
    Transport Analysis, Stockholm.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Berglund, Christer
    Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Luleå.
    The regional heterogeneity of household recycling: a spatial-econometric analysis of Swedish plastic packing waste2018In: Letters in spatial and resource sciences, ISSN 1864-4031, E-ISSN 1864-404X, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 245-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental policy is often formulated at the national level, but the primary responsibilities for policy implementation, monitoring and compliance are often assigned to local actors (e.g., municipalities). This paper investigates the regional heterogeneity of household plastic waste collection among Swedish municipalities, and how collection rates have been influenced by local waste management policies, geographical conditions and socio-economic characteristics. This is achieved by employing spatial econometric methods and cross-sectional data for 282 Swedish municipalities. The results confirm the presence of spatial correlation. Furthermore, municipalities that employ weight-based waste management fees generally experience higher collection rates. The presence of curbside recycling and a high intensity of recycling drop-off stations, i.e., policy measures that help improve the infrastructural conditions for household recycling, also help explain why some municipalities perform better than others. However, the correlations between packaging waste collection and a number of important regional cost variables, such as the distance to the recycling industry, urbanization rate and population density, turn out both statistically and economically insignificant. An important explanation for this could be that the Swedish producer responsibility scheme has offered regionally differentiated (and fixed) monetary compensations to local collection entrepreneurs, and these have typically been higher in high-cost regions. This implies that plastic packaging waste collection in Sweden has been performed in a spatially cost-ineffective manner.

  • 240. Hage, Olle
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    An econometric analysis of regional differences in household waste collection: the case of plastic packaging waste in Sweden2008In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 28, no 10, p. 1720-1731Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish producer responsibility ordinance mandates producers to collect and recycle packaging materials. This paper investigates the main determinants of collection rates of household plastic packaging waste in Swedish municipalities. This is done by the use of a regression analysis based on cross-sectional data for 252 Swedish municipalities. The results suggest that local policies, geographic/demographic variables, socio-economic factors and environmental preferences all help explain inter-municipality collection rates. For instance, the collection rate appears to be positively affected by increases in the unemployment rate, the share of private houses, and the presence of immigrants (unless newly arrived) in the municipality. The impacts of distance to recycling industry, urbanization rate and population density on collection outcomes turn out, though, to be both statistically and economically insignificant. A reasonable explanation for this is that the monetary compensation from the material companies to the collection entrepreneurs vary depending on region and is typically higher in high-cost regions. This implies that the plastic packaging collection in Sweden may be cost ineffective. Finally, the analysis also shows that municipalities that employ weight-based waste management fees generally experience higher collection rates than those municipalities in which flat and/or volume-based fees are used.

  • 241. Hage, Olle
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Berglund, Christer
    Norms and economic motivation in household recycling: empirical evidence from Sweden2009In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 155-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the determinants of recycling efforts in Swedish households, and focuses on the case of packaging waste (i.e., paper, glass, plastic, and metal). The analysis builds on a theoretical framework that integrates norm-motivated behavior into a simple economic model of household choice by assuming that the individuals have preferences for maintaining a self-image as morally responsible, and thus norm-compliant, persons. A postal survey was sent out randomly to 2800 households in four different Swedish municipalities, and in the paper self-reported information on recycling rates at the household level is analyzed in an ordered probit regression framework. The results indicate that both economic and moral motives influence inter-household recycling rates. Specifically, convenience matters in the sense that property-close collection in multi-family dwelling houses leads to higher collection rates. The strength of moral (self-enforced) norms explains a large part of the variation across households, but the importance of such norms in driving recycling efforts partly diminishes if improved collection infrastructure makes it easier for households to recycle. Recycling rates at the household level are also positively influenced by the felt ability to favourably affect environmental outcomes as well as by others' recycling efforts. The paper discusses a number of policy implications that follow from the empirical results.

  • 242.
    Hammarlund,, Cecilia
    et al.
    AgriFood Economics Center, Lund University.
    Ericsson, Karin
    Lunds tekniska högskola, LTH.
    Johansson, Helena
    AgriFood Economics Center, Lund University.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Olsson, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pavlovskaia, Evgenia
    Lunds universitet.
    Wilhelmsson, Fredrik
    Food Economics Centre, Lund.
    Bränsle för ett bättre klimat: marknad och politik för biobränslen2010Report (Other academic)
  • 243.
    Hegger, Dries
    et al.
    Environmental Governance, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University.
    Driessen, Peter
    Environmental Governance, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University.
    Wiering, Mark A.
    Institute for Management Research, Radboud University, Nijmegen.
    Van Rijswick, Marleen
    Utrecht Centre for Water, Oceans and Sustainability Law, Utrecht University.
    Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.
    Institute of Agriculture and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Sciences.
    Matczak, Piotr
    Institute for Agricultural and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Crabbé, Ann
    University of Antwerp, Research Group Society & Environment.
    Raadgever, G. Tom Tom
    Sweco Netherlands .
    Bakker, Marloes
    Environmental Governance, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University.
    Priest, Sally J.
    Flood Hazard Research Centre, Middlesex University.
    Larrue, Corinne
    Paris School of Planning, Lab’Urba Paris Est University.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Toward more flood resilience: Is a diversification of flood risk management strategies the way forward?2016In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 21, no 4, article id 52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European countries face increasing flood risks because of urbanization, increase of exposure and damage potential, and the effects of climate change. In literature and in practice, it is argued that a diversification of strategies for flood risk management (FRM), including flood risk prevention (through proactive spatial planning), flood defense, flood risk mitigation, flood preparation, and flood recovery, makes countries more flood resilient. Although this thesis is plausible, it should still be empirically scrutinized. We aim to do this. Drawing on existing literature we operationalize the notion of “flood resilience” into three capacities: capacity to resist; capacity to absorb and recover; and capacity to transform and adapt. Based on findings from the EU FP7 project STAR-FLOOD, we explore the degree of diversification of FRM strategies and related flood risk governance arrangements at the national level in Belgium, England, France, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden, as well as these countries’ achievement in terms of the three capacities. We found that the Netherlands and to a lesser extent Belgium have a strong capacity to resist, France a strong capacity to absorb and recover, and especially England a high capacity to transform and adapt. Having a diverse portfolio of FRM strategies in place may be conducive to high achievements related to the capacities to absorb/recover and to transform and adapt. Hence, we conclude that diversification of FRM strategies contributes to resilience. However, the diversification thesis should be nuanced in the sense that there are different ways to be resilient. First, the three capacities imply different rationales and normative starting points for flood risk governance, the choice between which is inherently political. Second, we found trade-offs between the three capacities, e.g., being resistant seems to lower the possibility to be absorbent. Third, to explain countries’ achievements in terms of resilience, the strategies’ feasibility in specific physical circumstances and their fit in existing institutional contexts (appropriateness), as well as the establishment of links between strategies, through bridging mechanisms, have also been shown to be crucial factors. We provide much needed reflection on the implications of this diagnosis for governments, private parties, and citizens who want to increase flood resilience

  • 244.
    Hellmer, Stefan
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Competitive strength in iron ore production1997Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about competitive strength in the global markets for iron ore. Its focus is on the Swedish iron ore producer, LKAB, and its role in this global market. The finding of new vast deposits of iron ore in Brazil and Australia, together with falling transportation costs, meant that LKAB started to meet fierce competition in the 1970s. The company went into a deep crisis in the late 1970s and early 1980s, but has, in spite of underground mining above the Arctic Circle, survived and is now, in 1996, operating at a profit. The paper shows that a number of factors made this possible. Government grants provided to the company in the early 1980s made it possible for LKAB to reduce its operation, from a capacity around 30 million tons to 15 million tons, to better meet the market’s requirements. Introduction of higher sub-level caving and new, higher capacity machinery, increased the company’s productivity by almost 100% during the 1980s. The most important factor behind the company’s survival and sustained competitiveness is, however, its product development. The former core of LKAB, the high- phosphorus fines, is now replaced by the olivine pellet, developed in early 1980s. It is shown that an important precondition for LKAB’s development of the pellets, is its unique deposit of high grade magnetite ore. LKAB’s mining cost is shown to be relatively high, but the high grade magnetite ore means that LKAB has one of the lowest pelletizing costs in the world, which gives LKAB a favorable position on the supply curve for pellets. One of LKAB competitive advantages is therefore its rich deposit of high grade magnetite, which gives the company a special advantage in the market for pellets. The analysis in the paper also shows that the market for pellets is more price- and business cycle sensitive compared to the market for fines. These sensitivities in the pellet market, have, however, decreased over time and is now only marginally different from the market for fines, at least from a global, world market, point of view. The market for pellets, now LKAB’s major market, has therefore become more mature and pellets have become a more accepted product, used on a regular basis, and not just a product used during peaks. LKAB is shown to have a strong position in both the European pellets market and the markets for Direct Reduction-pellets (DR-pellets) in Asia and the Middle East. It is primarily Brazil and Canada that are the swing producers in Europe, LKAB is more stable, only marginally affected by business cycle swings and price changes. LKAB and companies in Brazil have a very strong position in the market for DR-pellets in Asia and the Middle East, they are basically the sole suppliers to these markets. The potentials for growth for LKAB is within the distant market for DR- pellets, a market i which it already has a strong position. The number of Electric Arc Furnaces using DRI as their primary feed is expected to grow in Asia and the Middle East opening the possibilities for this growth. The major obstacles for this growth are the opening of new DR-pellet plants in Brazil, Venezuela, and India, and of course LKAB’s own capacity limitation.

  • 245.
    Hellmer, Stefan
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    How LKAB gained competitive strength1997In: Raw Materials Report : Journal of Mineral Policy, Business and Environment, ISSN 0349-6287, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 2-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    LKAB (Luossavaara-Kirunavaara AB), the iron ore producer in the north of Sweden, has its comparative advantage in the market for pellets. A large deposit of magnetic ore gives LKAB a competitive cost structrue in this market and a strong market position in this market. Although the market for pellets is more sensitive compared to the market for fines, LKAB seems less sensitive than its major competitors. The rise of new steel making technologies and their impact on iron ore has, in addition, worked in favor of LKAB. The paper focuses on LKAB and identifies and analyzes the internal and external factors that made the successful focusing on the pellet market possible. The paper is based on official statistics, statistics provided by LKAB, and on personal interviews with researchers, managers, and workers within the company

  • 246.
    Hellmer, Stefan
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Iron ore production and trade in Russia1999In: Minerals & Energy - Raw Materials Report, ISSN 1404-1049, E-ISSN 1651-2286, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 21-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main question put forward in the paper is: Will Russia become a major competitor in the European iron ore market? The main purpose is to put the former world's largest producer of iron ore, Russia, back on the "iron ore map." Using production and trade figures for 1990 and 1995 and mine-specific data on capacity, production, products, geographic position and foreign trade for every mine in Russia, it is generally concluded that while some facts favor Russia, others do not. The long distances between the mines and foreign customers, with the accompanying freight costs, certainly do not favor Russia. Among those that do is the fact that ore at the seven exporting mines is of high quality magnetite with an iron content generally well above 60%. As magnetite ore is cheaper to pelletize than hematite ore, Russia might possess a still unexplored competitive advantage.

  • 247.
    Hellmer, Stefan
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    The role of product differentiation in the iron ore industry: the case of LKAB1996In: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 22, no 1-2, p. 49-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The analysis shows how the Swedish iron ore producer, LKAB, in spite of mining its ore underground in an arctic climate at relatively high costs, has remained internationally competitive thanks to its large-scale operation with high grade magnetite ore, pelletization and relatively short distance to both its shipping harbour and its international markets. LKAB starts at a relatively high level on the supply curve with respect to mining costs, but as the analysis continues to describe, LKAB moves gradually downwards on the supply curve on delivered pellet costs. The analysis clearly shows that LKAB has successfully managed to find its comparative advantage and that its competitive strength is sustainable, primarily thanks to its rich deposits of magnetite ore.

  • 248. Hellmer, Stefan
    et al.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Visualization of costs - the case of iron ore in Russia2000In: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, no 3, p. 145-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 1990s prices have come to play an increasingly important role in Russia, and the overall question posed in the paper is in what way this will alter the production decisions in Russia. The focus is especially on the natural resources sector since these industries are located throughout most of Russia. The purpose of the study is to assess the magnitude of the expected changes in the area of iron ore production in Russia. This is an interesting case since iron ore production has increased almost everywhere in the world, but the problems in Russia have led to a decrease in the Russian production of iron ore. To assess the expected changes, the authors used a linear programming model and minimized the total costs of producing iron ore in Russia.

  • 249.
    Hellmer, Stefan
    et al.
    Blekinge tekniska högskola.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    On the evaluation of market power and market dominance: the Nordic electricity market2009In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 37, no 8, p. 3235-3241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies different concentration and dominance measures using structural indexes used to initially screen the competitive situation in a market. The Nordic and Swedish electricity markets are used as the empirical cases. Market concentration issues in the Nordic electricity market in general and in Sweden in particular have been, at least in initial screenings, approached by the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI). This article uses an alternative measure to HHI, which is based on market shares of the two largest firms in the market. The results shows that only the Swedish wholesale market has a firm that can be regarded as dominant, but only during very short periods. The results from a hypothetical merger between the second and third largest company in the Swedish wholesale market shows that when the dominant position of the largest firm is reduced, by increasing the size of the second largest firm, the threshold value indicates that competition actually will increase (contradicting to the HHI).

  • 250.
    Hellsmark, Hans
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Division of Environmental Systems Analysis.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    The Role of Pilot and Demonstration Plants in Technology Development and Innovation Policy2016In: Research Policy, ISSN 0048-7333, E-ISSN 1873-7625, Vol. 45, no 9, p. 1743-1761Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pilot- and demonstration plants (PDPs) represent bridges between generating basic knowledge and technological breakthroughs on the one hand, and industrial applications and commercial adoption on the other. This paper reports on a longitudinal study of how two technological fields that received significant public funding evolved—biochemical conversion of biomass and thermal conversion of black liquor. In doing so, this study makes two contributions. First, it provides a framework for analyzing the roles of various types of PDPs in developing new technology. The framework highlights the learning processes taking place at and around these plants and how they contribute to reducing different types of risks. It also elaborates on the importance of actor networks and institutional preconditions, and how both network performance and institutions can be influenced through various strategies. Second, the article contributes with new insights into the challenges of innovation policy in a PDP context. A policy mix is often required because policy cannot be considered meaningfully at a single level of government and will therefore be influenced heavily by limited foresight and politics (both nationally and locally). Therefore, policy must address both the need for parallel and iterative public funding of R&D and different types of plants, as well as attempts to directly influence collaborative processes in actor networks.

2345678 201 - 250 of 862
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf