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  • 201. Täljsten, Björn
    et al.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Strengthening concrete beams for shear using CFRP-materials: evaluation of different application methods2000In: Composites Part B: Engineering, ISSN 1359-8368, E-ISSN 1879-1069, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 87-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents different methods and tests for the application of carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) fabrics and tapes to concrete beams. The purpose of the tests were twofold; first to study the shear force capacity of the beams both before and after strengthening; and second, to examine three different ways of applying the fabrics. These were: two hand lay-up systems, one vacuum injection system and one pre-preg system. The total number of beams tested was eight. The test results proved that a very good strengthening effect in shear could be achieved by bonding fabrics to the face of concrete beams. However, a lot of energy was released at failure, which led to brittle failures. The tests also showed that the techniques which used hand lay-up were preferable as compared to other systems, even though the fibre weight fraction was considerably less. However, the vacuum injection system was the most environmentally friendly method.

  • 202.
    Täljsten, Björn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Hejll, Arvid
    Structural health monitoring of two railway bridges in Sweden2003In: Structural Health Monitoring and Intelligent Infrastructure: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Structural Health Monitoring and Intelligent Infrastructure / [ed] Z.S. Wu; M. Abe, Lisse: Balkema Publishers, A.A. / Taylor & Francis The Netherlands , 2003, Vol. 2, p. 1047-1055Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Upgrading, assessment and maintenance of our ageing infrastructure like bridges, dams and buildings has grown in importance. Recently the Swedish and Norwegian Railway Association decided to upgrade the iron ore railway transport system going from Luleå to Narvik from 25 to 30 ton of axle load to increase the iron ore transport capacity. This paper describes a part of the upgrade procedure for two concrete bridges. In the first case, the Kallkällan Bridge, the moment capacity in the bridge cross direction was to low and it was decided to strengthen the bridge with CFRP sheets. Since, at that time, the strengthen method never been used on railway bridges in Sweden before it was decided to launch a comprehensive testing program to monitor the performance of the bridge before and after strengthening. In addition a long-term periodic monitoring program was launched. In the second case, the Loussajokk Bridge, calculations showed that the increased axle loads would exceed the yield limit in the top steel reinforcement. However, since field strain measurement indicated much lower levels than expected, refined calculations methods using First Order of Reliability Method, FORM, were conducted. The application of the SHM system to the Luossajokk Bridge, located in the very north of Sweden, was successful, and in spite of minor problems, it was decided to undertake a long term monitoring scheme of the bridge instead of strengthening it. Based on the experience from the two cases a SHM system is suggested where live data from health monitoring can be used with probabilistic methods to evaluate the current state in form of a safety index. This system will include; Prognosis, Sensor system, Acquisition system, Communication system, Storage system and a Diagnostic system. In this paper a brief description of the parts in the SHM system will be given together with real data from field measurements.

  • 203.
    Täljsten, Björn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Hejll, Arvid
    Tvärbanebroarna - Gröndal och Alviksbron: mätning av rörelser med hjälp av fiberoptiska sensorer (FOS)2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under våren 2003 utfördes mätningar på Gröndal- och Alviksbron med en för Sverige relativt okänd mätteknik, åtminstone för bygg- och anläggningskonstruktioner, nämligen genom användandet av fiberoptiska sensorer. Det som föranledde den aktuella mätningen var att båda lådbroarnas liv hade spruckit i flera snitt och sprickorna karaktäriserades som skjuvsprickor. Broarna förstärktes först temporärt med utanpåliggande stålstag och därefter permanent med stag som efterspändes i hål borrade genom flänsarna och livet. Denna teknik användes i tvärsnitt som var mest uppspruckna. I tvärsnitt som hade högre dragpåkänningar än tillåtet, men med fina eller inga sprickor, användes pålimmade kolfiberlaminat för förstärkning. För att kartlägga effekter av kolfiberförstärkningen samt för att undersöka om sprickorna fortsatte att propagera efter förstärkning togs beslut om mätning. Mätning har utförts såväl med traditionell teknik där LVDT (Linear Voltage Displacement Transducers) användes samt med teknik där FOS-givare (Fibre Optic Sensors) användes. I denna rapport redovisas endast från mätningarna med FOS-givare, för de traditionella mätningarna hänvisas till (James, 2004). Den genomförda mätningen med FOS-sensorer måste anses som lyckad. Med en relativt blygsam insats var det möjligt att mäta påkänningen i ett stort antal punkter och totalt har 50 sensorer använts på de båda broarna, dessa täcker då in mätning på betong, i sprickor och på kolfiberlaminat såväl som kompensering av temperatur. Det var tyvärr inte möjligt att genomföra någon mätning innan förstärkning, vilket gör utvärderingen något bristfällig och medför att det endast går att undersöka om de existerande sprickorna propagerar under last samt vilken rörlig last som har störst inverkan på påkänningarna. På grund av en relativt begränsad budget för mätningen har det inte varit möjligt att genomföra en kontinuerlig mätning med FOS tekniken över en längre tid utan mätningen har varit periodisk och hittills endast under ett tillfälle under tre dagar. Den genomförda mätningen visar tydligt att påkänningarna är små, som störst uppmättes en rörelse av 0.0625 mm i en spricka (Gröndalsbron). Mätningen visar att kolfiberlaminaten är verksamma. Därutöver framgår det att temperaturvariationen ger största påkänningen och överstiger påkänningen av spårvagnstrafiken med en faktor 10. Slutligen bör nämnas att tekniken med FOS-sensorer är både smidig ur utförandesynpunkt och ekonomiskt konkurrenskraftig i jämförelse med traditionell mätteknik och därav är en ytterligare utveckling av tekniken önskvärd.

  • 204.
    Täljsten, Björn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Hejll, Arvid
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Strengthening and civil structural health monitoring of the Panken road bridge in Sweden2007In: Recent Developments in Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Computation: SEMC 2007 / [ed] Alphose Zigoni, Rotterdam: Millpress , 2007, Vol. 1, p. 699-700Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 205.
    Täljsten, Björn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Hell, Arvid
    Structural Engineer Research Laboratory, Duebendorf.
    James, Gerard
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer strengthening and monitoring of the Gröndals bridge in Sweden2007In: Journal of composites for construction, ISSN 1090-0268, E-ISSN 1943-5614, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 227-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Gröndal Bridge is a large freivorbau bridge (prestressed concrete box bridge), approximately 400 m in length with a free span of 120 m. It was opened to tram traffic in the year 2000. Just after opening cracks were noticed in the webs, these cracks have then increased, the size of the largest cracks exceeded 0.5 mm, and at the end of 2001 the bridge was temporarily strengthened. This was carried out with externally placed prestressed steel stays. The reason for the cracking is still debated and will be further discussed in this paper. Nevertheless, it was clear that the bridge needed to be strengthened. The strengthening methods used were CFRP plates at the serviceability limit state and prestressed dywidag stays at the ultimate limit state. The strengthening was carried out during 2002. At the same time monitoring of the bridge commenced, using LVDT crack gauges as well as optical fiber sensors.

  • 206.
    Täljsten, Björn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Helmerich, R.
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin.
    Sustainable bridges: A European funded project for higher load and speed on railway bridges - WP6 repair and strengthening2006In: Bridge maintenance, safety, management, life-cycle performance and cost: proceedings of the Third International Conference on Bridge Maintenance, Safety and Management, Porto, Portugal, 16 - 19 July 2006 / [ed] Paulo J.S. Cruz; Dan M. Frangopol, London: Taylor & Francis Group, 2006, p. 339-340Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    European railway bridge stock consist mainly of 4 major bridge types, with age ranging form extremely old masonry arch bridges, middle-age metallic bridges and newly built concrete and composite (steel/concrete) bridges. Small span lengths, less than 10 m, are dominating. Furthermore railways typically assess serviceability as rout bases. Traffic interruptions need to be avoided almost entirely. Many of the existing bridges are in need prolonged life considering the design life when built. In addition it is not uncommon that the owner wishes to increase the speed, weight and traffic volume on the already busy routes. If these situations occur a thoroughly structural investigation is needed. First the remaining capacity is calculated, preferable with methods that consider real material data and loads. If uncertainties regarding for example boundary conditions exist monitoring might be needed. Nevertheless, if calculations and monitoring shows that the load carrying capacity is not enough strengthening can be one alternative to replace the structure. There are numerous different methods to strengthen existing structures of concrete, metal or masonry and the strengthen method chosen is largely dependent on the environment, type of original design, existing object, estimated future use and so on. In a sustainable society, the transportation work carried out by rail ought to be larger than today. In order to enable such an increase, the capacity of existing railway bridges needs to be increased too. This is also the objective of the project "Sustainable Bridges - Assessment for Future Traffic Demands and Longer Lives". There are three specific goals: 1. Increase the transport capacity of existing bridges by allowing higher axle loads (up to 33 tons) for freight traffic with moderate speeds or by allowing higher speeds (up to 350 km/hour) for passenger traffic with low axle loads. 2. Increase the residual service lives of existing bridges with up to 25%. 3. Enhance management, strengthening, and repair systems. A consortium consisting of 32 partners is carrying out fhe project. The gross budget is more than 10 million Euros. The partners represent the whole supply chain from user to producer/designer/ developer. This paper presents mainly the part considering repair and strengthening sys-tems for railway bridges. Many of the railways in use today were once built for completely other conditions than those we are facing today, especially when it comes to train speed, axis loads, and traffic intensity. Authorities, the Industry, and also the EU today require the train speeds and axis loads to be possible to increase. As a direct impact, existing railways must be assessed and possibly strengthened in order to meet the requirements on stability, settlements and induced vibrations. The following criteria's have been set up within WP6 - they follow mainly criteria's that have been set up by the Swedish railway authority Banverket. Strengthening works under traffic conditions must comply with regulations from the rail authority. Design of the strengthening should be carried out with reference to the function of the construction, e.g. to improve stability conditions, to reduce settlements or to reduce induced vibrations. Strengthening works should be possible to carry out under "on-going traffic conditions" with minimal impact on accessibility to the railway tracks and without, or with only marginal, reduction of train speed and axis loads. Strengthening should have minimal impact on the position of the railway tracks. Strengthening methods must be cost effective. Strengthening methods must be as harmless as possible to the environment. Strengthening works shall be carried out without damaging existing constructions, e.g. tracks, ties, ballast material, under ballast material, electric wires, signals, drainage equipments, etc. Each strengthening method must have a control program in which precautions, safety aspects, control measurements during installation, and verification after installation are covered. Strengthening should reduce the necessary amount of maintenance work during the life time of the construction, e.g. due to changes of the position of the railway tracks. If strengthening works should be carried out from the track (work within the track area), the following additional criteria apply: Installation should be carried out on railways closed for traffic and under limited time (may vary from authority to authority). Machines to be used must be adjusted to comply with "Free space along the railway line". Strengthening works must be possible to carry out without removing the existing tracks, ties, ballast material, electric wires, signals, drainage equipment, etc. In WP6 the strengthening methods studied has the above mention criteria's in common, even though in some cases deviations might exists. Work package 6 - "Repair and Strengthening of Railway Bridges", focus on a "toolbox" for Repair and Strengthening methods. WP6 consists of three main deliverables: "D6.1A guide for the use of repair and strengthening methods for railway bridges in Europe". In this deliverable a guide how to repair and strengthen existing railway bridges in Europe will be put together. Existing processes, systems and methods will be included in the guideline. In addition, also new developed method together with best practice methods will be addressed. Furthermore, emphasis is placed on workmanship and quality control during the repair and strengthening process. The second main deliverable is "D6.2 Research report regarding repair and strengthening of railway bridges in Europe". In this deliverable a summary of research and testing together with state of the art reports are conducted. The majority of the research is focused on new and innovative repair and strengthening methods. The last main deliverable is "D6.3 Field testing regarding strengthening of an existing railway bridge". Besides the results from the field tests, also a guides for implementation and assessment will be presented. In WP6 we are 13 partners from all over Europe; From Sweden; Luleå University of Technology, Sto Scandinavia, Chalmers University of Technology, Skanska Teknik AB, Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI) and Banverket. From Norway; Norut Teknologi AS, from United Kingdom; Salford University and City University, from Germany, Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) and Rheinisch Westfälische Tech. Hochschule (RWTH), Switzerland is represented by Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA) and finally from Denmark, COWI AS. All partners have different roles in the project and form sub-groups working together. In the coming sections are the content of the deliverables and consequently, work carried out in WP6 briefly described.

  • 207.
    Täljsten, Björn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Johansson, T.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Mineral based bonding of CFRP to strengthen concrete structures2006In: Concrete repair, rehabilitation and retrofitting: Proceedings of the International Conference on Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting, ICCRRR 2005 / [ed] Mark G. Alexander; Hans-Dieter Beushausen; Frank Dehn; Pilate Moyo, London, 2006, p. 463-464Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The advantages of FRP-strengthening have been shown time and again during the last decade. All over the world several thousand structures retrofitted with FRPs exist. There are various reasons why the retrofit is needed, but since buildings and civil structures usually have a very long life, it is not uncommon that the demands on the structure change with time. The structures may have to carry larger loads at a later date or fulfil new standards. The most common way to adhere the FRP composite to the structure is by the use of epoxy. This paper presents work where the epoxy has been replaced with a mineral based composite (MBC) for retrofitting of concrete structures. Pilot tests show that satisfactory composite action can be achieved

  • 208.
    Täljsten, Björn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Liljenfeldt, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Horrigmoe, Geir
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    INTERREG: Uppgradering och övervakning av bygg- och anläggningskonstruktioner2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande rapport är en sammanställning av ett samnordiskt projekt där de ingående medlemmarna är från Sverige och Norge. Den Norska representanten är Norut teknologi as från Narvik och de Svenska SICOMP AB från Piteå, Luleå Tekniska Universitet, Avdelningen för Konstruktionsteknik samt Skanska AB. Projektet har fokuserat på uppgradering och övervakning av bygg- och anläggningskonstruktioner. Syftet med projektet har varit att närmare studera en förstärkingsmetod där kolfiberväv eller kolfiberlaminat limmas till ytan av en konstruktion för att öka dess bärförmåga och styvhet. Dessutom har ett webb-baserat mät- och registreringssystem utvecklats. Målsättningen har varit att man skall kunna klassificera en konstruktion efter verkligt uppförande. En aktiv övervakning ska kunna ge förslag när en insats behövs. Här kan då förstärkning med kolfiberkomposit var ett alternativ. Rapporten redovisar även kortfattat två fälttillämpningar. En förstärkning med distansmätning på en järnvägsbro i Luleå samt distansmätnng och utvärdering av påkänningar i en siloanläggning belägen i Lidköping. Erfarenheterna från projektet är positiva och såväl en förbättrad förstärkningsmetod som ett system för att mäta på konstruktioner har tagits fram.

  • 209.
    Täljsten, Björn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Flexural-shear failure of a full scale tested RC bridge strengthened with NSM CFRP2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 210.
    Täljsten, Björn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Nordin, Håkan
    Concrete beams strengthened with external prestressing using external tendons and near-surface-mounted reinforcement (NSMR)2007In: Report Number SP-245-9, American Concrete Institute, 2007, p. 143-164Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes how the strengthening of concrete structures with fiber reinforced polymer materials has grown to be a widely used method over most parts of the world. As a way of higher utilization of the Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) prestressing has proved to be beneficial. Most of the research done with prestressing Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) for strengthening has been done with surface bonded plates. However, in this paper a presentation is given where CFRP quadratic rods are bonded in the concrete cover in sawed grooves and then immediately prestressed. Testing has, proven this to be an advantageous way of bonding CFRP to the concrete. There is also a tendency that the shear forces between the CFRP and the concrete are transferred more efficiently compared to surface bonded plates and sheets. In the tests performed, no mechanical device has been used to keep the prestress during testing, which then means that the adhesive has to transfer all shear stresses to the concrete. These tests have then been compared with concrete beams strengthened with prestressed external steel and CFRP tendons and similar load carrying capacity has been obtained.

  • 211.
    Täljsten, Björn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Nordin, Håkan
    Flexural strengthening of concrete beams with prestressed CFRP near surface mounted reinforcement (NSMR)2005In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Composites in Construction: CCC 2005 / [ed] P. Hamelin; D. Bigaud; E Ferrier; E. Jacquelin, Université I, Laboratoire Mécanique Matériaux et Structures , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 212.
    Täljsten, Björn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Orosz, Katalin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Strengthening of concrete beams in shear with mineral based composites: laboratory tests and theory2006In: International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering: CICE 2006, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, there are many different repair and strengthening methods that might be used to upgrade a concrete structure. One such method involves CFRP (Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer) bonding. This method has proven to be usable for many different types of retrofitting applications. Even so, there are some disadvantages while using epoxy resins as a bonding agent, i.e. diffusion closeness, thermal compatibility, working environment and the minimum temperature of assemble. It is therefore of interest to replace the epoxy adhesive with a mineral based bonding agent, e.g. polymer modified mortars with similar properties as the base concrete that also is more working environmental friendly. A combination between the polymer modified mortar and fibre reinforced polymers (FRP) can be used for repair and strengthening of civil structures. This paper presents a pilot study of RC beams strengthened in shear with mineral based bonding agents and CFRP grids. The project is a collaboration project among Luleå University of Technology, Norut Teknologi AS and Denmark Technical University and is also a part of the European funded project "Sustainable Bridges". The results so far show that comparable strengthening results as for epoxy bonded systems can be achieved with MBC strengthening systems. The strengthening effect of the beams was 40 - 100 % compared to the unstrengthened reference beam. The theoretical model describes the load carrying capacity fairly well.

  • 213.
    Täljsten, Björn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering. NORUT, Department of Infrastructure Structures and Materials.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Strengthening of concrete structures with FRP: a guideline2014In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 49, p. 113-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need to retrofit existing concrete structures. There are many different ways to increase the performance of a concrete structure, FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer) strengthening being one. This method is commonly used across the world to improve the load carrying capacity of concrete structures. In this paper, an overview of a Swedish guideline for the FRP strengthening of concrete structures is presented. The guideline covers designing for bending and shear as well as for confinement, and there is also a discussion of the need to proper workmanship and the choice of the right material for strengthening.

  • 214.
    Täljsten, Björn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Strengthening of concrete structures with FRP: a guideline2014In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 50, p. 289-292Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 215. Utsi, Sofia
    et al.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Health monitoring of a CFRP strengthened bridge2001In: Composites in construction: proceedings of the International Conference Composites in Construction - CCC2001 / [ed] J. Figueiras, Lisse: Balkema Publishers, A.A. / Taylor & Francis The Netherlands , 2001, p. 745-749Conference paper (Refereed)
2345 201 - 215 of 215
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