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• 201.
Department of Information Systems, Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences, University of Agder, Kristiansand.
ERP adoption cost factors in SMEs2011Inngår i: Proceedings of the European, Mediterranean and Middle Eastern Conference on Information Systems: Informing Responsible Management: Sustainability in Emerging Economies, EMCIS 2011 / [ed] Ahmad Ghuneim; Marinos Themistocleous; Dimitrios N. Koufopoulos; Muhammad Kamal, Information Systems Evaluation and Integration Group, 2011, s. 130-141Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)

Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) have limited budgets, resources, and great sensitivity to costs. When SMEs take the first step into implementing an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system, they need to think about many things, foremost the cost of adoption. Most ERP implementations fail due to inaccurate and optimistic budget and schedule estimations, as well as, anticipating indirect costs beforehand is problematic. With the deficiency of a clear model of cost factors for ERP adoptions, ERP adoptions face a high risk of failure Failures could be caused by several factors, but the scope of this research is focused on studying the factors that escalate costs. This could aid SMEs in visualizing the different expected costs, and would consequently assist in better future cost management and estimations. There has been plenty of research in ERP; however, a clear gap in ERP cost management and estimation exists. This paper focuses on identifying direct and indirect cost factors that influence total costs in the ERP adoption process. The paper presents a cost list that has been developed through literature and an ERP expert panel. Furthermore, this study validated the costs list through interviews with different stakeholders within ERP adoption projects in Egypt.

• 202.
Department of Information Systems, University of Agder.
ERP Cost Factors in SMEs2011Inngår i: Proceedings of the European, Mediterranean and Middle Eastern Conference on Information Systems 2011: (EMCIS2011), Divani Apollon Palace & Spa, Athens, Greece: Accepted Refereed / [ed] Ahmad Ghoneim ; Marinos Themistocleous ; Maged Ali ; Sarmad Alshawi, Brunel University Business School , 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
• 203.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
ERP Selection: A Case of a Multinational Enterprise2016Inngår i: Information Resources Management Journal, ISSN 1040-1628, E-ISSN 1533-7979Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

"The system and vendor selection are early phases in the Enterprise resource planning (ERP)""implementation process. When organizations embark on selecting an ERP system, they develop their own selection criteria that usually involve various factors like number of modules, required budget, licensing model, etc. One of the paramount factors is the system’s fit with the organizational requirements and needs. Thus, the selection phase is a crucial endeavour, because if an organization chooses an inadequate ERP that doesn’t accommodate their needs, the whole adoption project will most likely predestine to fail. This research provides an overview of an ERP selection process at a subsidiary of a multinational company. The paper provides details about the selection process, criteria, and the evaluation process made by an ERP selection consultant that has been hired by the company to assist them during this phase. The selection process employed a simple multi-attribute rating technique (SMART) ERP selection method. In addition, this research presents other issues that influenced the selection process, which are related to cross-border data protection laws between the holding company and its subsidiary. As the ERP has been implemented successfully, the method and the selection factors have been proven adequate for the selection process.

• 204.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
ERP Selection: The SMART Way2014Inngår i: Procedia Technology - Elsevier, ISSN 2212-0173, E-ISSN 2212-0173, Vol. 16, s. 394-403Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems implementation projects are challenging and resource consuming. There are several phases in the ERP implementation process. One of the earliest and most critical phases is the ERP selection phase. If an organization selects an inadequate ERP to fit their needs, the project will most likely destine to fail. Research and practice have provided several cases of ERP project failures because of a faulty selection process. No matter what amendments the adopting company undertakes in the later phases, if there is no fit, there is no success. This research, presents an explanatory case study, which employed a simple multi-attribute rating technique (SMART)-based ERP selection method. The selection method was mainly based on developing process maps for all the critical business processes inside the organization, and then checking the degree of compliance of the potential ERP packages with those developed process maps. In addition, other factors were also included in the ERP evaluation and selection process. As the ERP was assured to be matching the business requirements, the method and the selection factors have been proven adequate for the selection process. In addition, this minimizes the risk of a non-fitting ERP system and consequent project failures.

• 205.
Department of Information Systems, University of Agder.
German University in Cairo (GUC).
Cost Estimation for ERP Adoption in SMEs: A Conceptual Framework2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
• 206.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
German University in Cairo (GUC).
ERP adoption cost factors identification and classification: a study in SMEs2013Inngår i: International journal of information systems and project management, ISSN 2182-7796, E-ISSN 2182-7788, Vol. 1, nr 2, s. 5-21Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems adoptions require substantial resources and investments. The majority of businesses around the globe can be considered to be small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Thus, SMEs are seen to be typical companies that are the cornerstone of most economies. Compared with large enterprises, an SME-context contains several characteristics, and scarcity of resources is among the top of them. For SMEs, unplanned costs escalation could pose a serious threat to their stability and survival in the market. Frequently, ERP projects have crossed their estimated budgets and schedules. Researchers and practitioners state that a prevailing number of ERP adoption projects fail due to inaccurate or to too optimistic budgets/schedules. In addition, many organizations face difficulties in identifying the potential cost factors that could occur during their ERP adoption lifecycle. While focusing on the SME-context, this research attempts to identify potential costs that could occur in ERP adoptions. The research method employed in this study targeted diverse stakeholders and experts involved in ERP projects in Egypt. This research provides a list of cost factors and their classifications that could aid adopting organizations to better estimate their needed ERP project budgets. In particular, this research explores the direct and indirect cost factors that occur in ERP adoptions in Egyptian SMEs. Also, this study investigates the influence of some SME-specific contextual factors on costs. Moreover, the paper provides a ranking of cost factors according to their impact on total adoption costs.

• 207.
Department of Information Systems, University of Agder.
Department of Information Systems, German University in Cairo (GUC).
ERP lifecycle: A retirement case study2013Inngår i: Information Resources Management Journal, ISSN 1040-1628, E-ISSN 1533-7979, Vol. 26, nr 1, s. 1-11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

A lot of research has been undertaken focusing on ERP systems lifecycles, but very little paid attention to retirement. ERP retirement means the replacement of an ERP with another. The aim of this research paper is to investigate why and when should organizations retire their ERP systems. A convenience case study of a SME has been selected from Egypt. The case study under investigation has retired their local ERP system and replaced it with SAP ERP. Results of the analysis indicate that reasons of retirement were: wrong selection, users were not involved in the selection process, and lack of an official implementation methodology. This is considered a new finding since main stream literature was mainly focused on retirement after maturity. Copyright © 2013, IGI Global.

• 208.
University of Agder.
German University in Cairo (GUC).
ERP lifecycle: When to retire your ERP system?2011Inngår i: ENTERprise Information Systems: International Conference, CENTERIS 2011, Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal, October 5-7, 2011, Proceedings / [ed] Maria Manuela Cruz-Cunha ; João Varajão ; Philip Powell; Ricardo Martinho, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2011, s. 168-177Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)

A lot of research has been undertaken focusing on ERP systems lifecycles, but very little paid attention to retirement. ERP retirement means the replacement of an ERP with another. The aim of this research paper is to investigate why and when should organizations retire their ERP systems. A convenience case study of an SME has been selected from Egypt. The case study under investigation has retired their local ERP system and replaced it with SAP ERP. Results of our analysis indicated that reasons of retirement were: wrong selection, users were not involved in the selection process, and lack of an official implementation methodology. This is considered a new finding since main stream literature was mainly focused on retirement after maturity

• 209.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
The Readiness of ERP Systems for the Factory of the Future2015Inngår i: Procedia Computer Science, ISSN 1877-0509, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 64, s. 721-728Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

In 2011, at the Hanover Fair, the term Industry 4.0 was first coined. In October 2012, the Working Group on Industry 4.0, presented a set of implementation recommendations to the German government. The term Industry 4.0 initiates from a project in the high-tech strategy of the German government. Such project advocates the computerization of the manufacturing industry. It is also known as the 4th industrial revolution. Precisely speaking, industry 4.0 is based on the technological concepts of cyber-physical systems, Internet of Things (IoT), which enables the Factory of the Future (FoF). Within the modular structured smart factories of Industry 4.0, cyber-physical systems monitor physical processes, create a virtual copy of the physical world and make decentralized decisions. Over the IoT, Cyber-physical systems communicate and cooperate with each other and with humans in real time. Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems are considered the backbone for the Industry 4.0. Thus, this paper attempts to answer the research question: “Are today’s ERP systems ready for the FoF?”. We have conducted interviews with manufacturers, ERP vendors, and partners in order to check on the readiness of ERP systems for the FoF. Our results show that ERP systems are ready for the FoF.

• 210.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
Westerdals- Oslo School of Arts, Communication, and Technology. Department of Technology Westerdals Oslo School of Arts, Communication and Technology, Oslo.
Cloud ERP Systems: Anatomy of Adoption Factors & Attitudes2015Inngår i: Journal of Enterprise Resource Planning Studies, ISSN 2155-4781, E-ISSN 2155-4781, Vol. 2015, artikkel-id 521212Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems have always been of interest to researchers across various research disciplines. Recently, the cloud computing paradigm has emerged to become one of most prominent technologies in business and academia alike. These new cloud accessibility and software delivery models have radically revolutionized the software market, especially ERP systems. However, while many vendors and software providers have adopted software-as-a-service (SaaS) models, few studies have explored the domain of cloud-based ERP systems – particularly information technology (IT) officers’ attitudes toward these technologies. Based on our review of literature and the relevant theories, we created a questionnaire and sent it to IT executives in Norwegian companies. The questionnaire captured the respondents’ perceptions of the benefits and disadvantages of cloud ERP. In general, the results confirm what has been reported in the literature. There were, however, some notable exceptions. One of the significant exceptions was the evident lack of data security concerns among the respondents, who ranked it as the least of their concerns. In addition, the promise of lowered total cost of ownership was not perceived as an appealing benefit, unlike what has been widely discussed in literature. Our findings show that respondents deemed vendor dependency and lock-in to be the paramount concerns of such cloud technologies, and system accessibility to be the significantly most advantageous. Finally, descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were conducted in this paper, and a regression analysis of the results was performed to identify the level at which the various benefits and advantages most affected our respondents’ attitudes.

• 211.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
XLedger. Westerdals- Oslo School of Arts, Communication, and Technology.
Perception of SaaS Adaption in Norwegian Enterprises: focus on ERP2014Inngår i: NOKOBIT - Norsk konferanse for organisasjoners bruk av informasjonsteknologi, ISSN 1892-0748, E-ISSN 1894-7719, Vol. 22, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

Despite the vast amount of research that has been conducted on enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems and Cloud/ software-as-a-service (SaaS) in isolation, few studies have explored the topic of Cloud/SaaS ERP – particularly attitudes held towards these systems. Based on an assessment of literature and the Theory of Planned Behavior, a questionnaire focusing on benefits and disadvantages of SaaS-based ERP systems was sent to IT officers in 839 Norwegian companies. Responses from 180 companies helped to shed light on attitudes towards SaaS ERP adoptions. To a certain extent, the results come inline with existing research. There were, however, a couple of noteworthy exceptions. One such was the rather surprising lack of data security concerns amongst the respondents, who ranked it to be the least of their concerns. Another surprise was that despite strong indications found in literature, the promise of lowered Total Cost of Ownership was not perceived to be ensnaring benefit. Instead, respondents viewed vendor dependency to be the least favorable trait of such systems, and accessibility to be the significantly most advantageous. A regression analysis of the results was performed to identify the level of which the various benefits and advantages affected respondents’ attitudes.

• 212.
Department of Information Systems, University of Agder.
Department of Information Systems, University of Agder.
Why benefits realization from ERP in SMEs doesn't seem to matter?2011Inngår i: 2011 44th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences: (HICSS 2011); Kauai, Hawaii, USA, 4 - 7 January 2011 / [ed] Ralph H. Sprague, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2011, artikkel-id 5718960Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)

It is often argued that IT investments require active management practices for benefits realization. This applies also to enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. As well, benefits realization efforts are assumed to create more value than they cost. Hence, the maturity of organizations should be increased and their cultures cultivated towards more rational benefits realization practices. Our study on ERP implementations in Egyptian medium-sized organizations, however, provides aberrant results that challenge the fundamental arguments for formal benefits realization practices. While investments in ERP are regarded as significant, and the projects challenging, formal benefits realization and investment evaluation practices are considered largely irrelevant. The reasons include the "self-evident" nature of ERP benefits, perceived difficulty and costliness of method use and suspicions on rationality of methods. A government policy to support ERP investments may also decrease incentives for further benefits optimization. Cost coordination of the implementation efforts, however, continues to be an issue

• 213.
Department of Information Systems, University of Agder.
Department of Information Systems, University of Agder, SAP Consultant, Hewlett Packard, Prague.
ERP Systems in SMEs: An Extended Literature Review2012Inngår i: International Journal of Information Science, ISSN 2163-1921, E-ISSN 2163-193X, Vol. 2, nr 6, s. 106-116Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

This review summarizes research on enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems within the domain of small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs). Due to the close-to-saturation of ERP adoptions in large enterprises (LEs), ERP vendors now focus more on SMEs. Moreover, because of globalization, partnerships, value networks, and the huge information flow across and within SMEs nowadays, more and more SMEs are adopting ERP systems. Risks of adoption rely on the fact that SMEs have limited resources and specific characteristics that make their case different from LEs. The main purpose of this article is to shed the light on the areas that lack sufficient research within the ERP in SMEs domain, suggest future research avenues, as well as, present the current research findings that could aid practitioners, suppliers, and SMEs when embarking on ERP projects. Moreover, this research highlights the theories, frameworks, and research approaches and methods currently adopted in ERP for SMEs literature

• 214.
Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Computers and Information, Luxor University, Luxor, Egypt.
Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Computers and Information, South Valley University, Qena, Egypt. Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Aswan University, Aswan, Egypt. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
An Adaptive Image Steganography Method Based on Histogram of Oriented Gradient and PVD-LSB Techniques2019Inngår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, s. 185189-18204Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

Pixel value differencing (PVD) and least significant bit substitution (LSB) are two widely used schemes in image steganography. These two methods do not consider different content in a cover image for hiding the secret data. The content of most digital images has different edge directions in each pixel, and the local object shape or appearance is mostly characterized by the distribution of its intensity gradients or edge directions. Exploiting these characteristics for embedding various secret information in different edge directions will eliminate sequential embedding and improve robustness. Thus, a histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) algorithm is proposed to find the dominant edge direction for each $2\times 2$ block of cover images. Blocks of interest (BOIs) are determined adaptively based on the gradient magnitude and angle of the cover image. Then, the PVD algorithm is used to hide secret data in the dominant edge direction, while the LSB substitution is utilized in the other two remaining pixels. Extensive experiments using various standard images reveal that the proposed scheme provides high embedding capacity and better visual quality compared with several other PVD- and LSB-based methods. Moreover, it resists various steganalysis techniques, such as pixel difference histogram and RS analysis.

• 215.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
A framework for strategic alignment of business and information technology in small and medium sized firms2004Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)

This work is based on my interest for strategic issues concerning information technology, industrial networks, and small and medium sized firms. My special interest in these areas has led me to study how information technology is utilized and aligned to different network exchanges. Furthermore, the work focuses on strategic alignment of such utilization of information technology towards business activities. The work basically consists of two parts:Part One:I have conducted two case studies in small and medium sized firms in the northern part of Sweden in the autumn of 2003. The case studies were aimed at finding key factors in inter-organizational relationships where information technology is utilized. The key factors are identified as different types of exchanges such as: social, business, and information exchange. Part Two:From studying these exchanges I have identified a set of keywords which comprise the use of information systems in inter-organizational relationships. The keywords are then used to create differentiated linkages between different properties of information systems and inter- organizational relationships. Following that I continue to the devel-opment of a strategic framework of alignment between business and technology. The framework is based on theoretical work in the area of strategic IS/IT management.

• 216.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
Addressing formality: a conceptualization of information exchange in small firm business transactions2006Inngår i: Internet & Information Systems in the Digital Age: Challenges & Solutions: Proceedings of the 7th International Business Information Management Association (IBIMA) Conference / [ed] Khalid S. Soliman, Norristown, PA: International Business Information Management Association (IBIMA), 2006, s. 212-218Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)

Based on a review of two existing frameworks for business transactions, a complementary approach, based on the EDI measurement scheme developed by Massetti et al., (1996), is presented in this paper. Existing frameworks tend to neglect the information exchange aspect of coordination by focusing on phases in business transactions. The complementary approach consider coordination of information exchange from four different aspects: volume, breadth, diversity, and depth of transactions. These four aspects constitute a scheme of the information flow throughout transactions that connect the external information environment with the internal information infrastructure of business partners. The research reported in this paper is beside the review of existing frameworks also empirical. Three case studies of different dyadic relationship settings was conducted in order to test the complemantary approach suggested in this paper.

• 217.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
Aktivitet: Senior Editor, Journal of Information Systems Security2010Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
• 218.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
Collective IT artifacts: toward inclusive crisis infrastructures2013Inngår i: Journal of Information Technology Theory and Application, ISSN 1552-6496, E-ISSN 1532-4516, Vol. 14, nr 4, artikkel-id 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

This paper investigates a previously overlooked phenomenon in crisis response information systems; namely, inclusive crisis infrastructure. By expanding the well-acknowledged infrastructure concept with alternatives to understandthe nature and scope of inclusive crisis infrastructures, this paper contributes to closing the gap between theory and practice by raising some research questions critical to studying inclusive crisis infrastructures. The emerging literature on crisis response information systems suggests that external sourcing of information increasingly influences crisis response operations. To contribute to this discourse, the paper draws on Pipek and Wulf’s (2009) definition of work infrastructures and Palen and Liu’s (2007) conceptualization of peer-to-peer communications to develop a better understanding of the crisis response arena as a whole. In doing so, this paper goes beyond the emphasis on event-based technologies that currently dominate the crisis response information systems literature and instead argues why crisis infrastructures need to be both inward-looking and accommodating to technological and social outcomes parallel to formal response contexts. The novel conceptualization captures the fact that the crisis context contains collections of collective IT artifacts that are not aligned or related but that are, for autonomy reasons, interlinked to crisis organizations’ current IT infrastructure and may be of great value to such organizations if infrastructure capability options are considered.

• 219.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
Convergence of information security in B2B networks2011Inngår i: Electronic Business Interoperability: Concepts, Opportunities, and Challenges, Hershey: Idea Group Publishing, 2011, s. 571-595Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)

Over the past 20 years, researchers have made significant headway into understanding information security, with most studies focusing on internal organizational information security affairs. This study adds to the cumulative tradition by creating a concept for the convergence of information security in B2B network contexts. More specifically, the move from information security safeguards to information security observers is presented in depth. By adopting the Actor Network Theory and the Process Theory, this chapter demonstrates how three conversion, use, and performance sub-processes constitute the devised process of converging information security. Each sub-process directs attention towards definition, integration, the evaluation of security and how the metaphor of the observer may operate in the B2B network context.

• 220.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
Inter-organisational information systems and inter-organisational cooperation2003Inngår i: Proceedings of the 26th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, 2003Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
• 221.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
Project: Nordic safety and security2009Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
• 222.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
Project: Supply Chain Management: Information exchange and management2007Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
• 223.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
Projekt: HAGRID2007Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
• 224.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
Relationship alignment between small firms: an information exchange perspective on dyads2006Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)

The thesis is about conceptualizing relationship alignment in small firm relationships from an information exchange perspective. The thesis has a theoretical focus but is also informed by three case studies. The thesis is based on five papers dealing with information exchange with different focus: inter-organizational information systems, information exchange patterns, social information exchange, coordination of information, concepts for relationship alignment. The context in which information exchange is examined is small firm relationships. While there are research of information technology in such context on strategic issues of IT alignment, there is still a great need to find out how the small firm relationship can be aligned from the perspective of ‘working together' with an information focus rather than technology focus. The thesis examine and criticize three sets of theoretical bodies; Social exchange theory, relational theory, and information systems theory in order to understand how relationship alignment may be articulated in a differentiated style. The main conclusion drawn from this work is that relationship alignment between small firms could be expressed by a relationship alignment conceptualization that consists of three different aspects of information exchange. The three aspects of the concept are: presence which is the social dimension of exchanging information, formality which has a transaction focus, and mediation, an information technology concept for information exchange.

• 225.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
Small Inter-firm Communication: Aligning the Information Environment2006Inngår i: Conference on the 29th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia: Paradigms Politics Paradoxes, 2006, s. 261-267Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)

In addition to research of alignment that seek to explain how information technology can support intra-firm performance by aligning business strategy with IT strategy, so called social alignment is reciveing more and more attention. Cooperation between firms is more than adoption to different technologies and day to day transactions are virtually always a result of social exchanges between different stakeholders, often managers'. Therefore, this research concentrate on the actual content of information and how it is shared in social exchanges between small firms. The case study research conducted in this paper explores differences in information exchange content in three different dyadic small firm relationships. The purpose with the research is to extend the "knowledge base" of alignment by focusing on the social information exchange dimension between small firms

• 226.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
Small inter-firm cooperation: aligning social information exchange2006Inngår i: Managing Information in the Digital Economy: Issues & Solutions: Proceedings of the 6th International Business Information Management Association (IBIMA) Conference / [ed] Khalid S. Soliman, Norristown, PA: International Business Information Management Association (IBIMA), 2006Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)

In addition to research of alignment that seek to explain how information technology can support intra-firm performance by aligning business strategy with IT strategy, so called social alignment is reciveing more and more attention. Cooperation between firms is more than adoption to different technologies and day to day transactions are virtually always a result of social exchanges between different stakeholders, often managers'. Therefore, this research concentrate on the actual content of information and how it is shared in social exchanges between small firms. The research conducted in this paper explores differences in information exchange content in three different dyadic small firm relationships. The purpose with the research is to extend the "knowledge base" of alignment by focusing on the social information exchange dimension between small firms.

• 227.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
Multi-layers of information security in emergency response2011Inngår i: International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISSN 1937-9390, E-ISSN 1937-9420, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 1-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

This paper draws on the socio-technical research tradition in information systems to re-conceptualize the information security in emergency response. A conceptual basis encompassing the three layers—technical, cognitive, and organizational—is developed by synthesizing Actor Network Theory and Theory of Organizational Routines. This paper makes the assumption that the emergency response context is built on the relationship between association and connectivity, which continuously shapes the emergency action network and its routines. Empirically, the analysis is based on a single case study conducted across three emergency departments. The data thus collected on information security, emergency department routines, and emergency actions is used to theorize specifically on the association/connectivity relationship. The resultant findings point to the fact that information security layers have a meaning in emergency response that is different from mainstream definitions of information security.

• 228.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
Exploring socio-technical design of crisis management information systems2011Inngår i: Crisis Response and Management and Emerging Information Systems: Critical Applications, Hershey: Idea Group Publishing, 2011, s. 139-155Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
• 229.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
Information security management: the role of behavior2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
• 230.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
Materializing organizational information security2012Inngår i: Nordic Contributions in IS Research: Third Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems, SCIS 2012, Sigtuna, Sweden, August 17–20, 2012. Proceedings / [ed] Christina Keller; Mikael Wiberg; Pär J. Ågerfalk; Jenny Eriksson Lundström, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2012, Vol. 124, s. 76-94Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)

In the context of situated elderly care this paper discusses the intertwined relationship between organizational security objectives, technology, and employees' security behavior. We use findings from a single case study to aid in our understanding of how managers sought to create a secure work environment by introducing behavioral security technology, and how employees appreciated the new security software in everyday routines. Theoretically the case study is informed by sociomateriality in that it employs the notion of technological affordances of behavioral security technology. Findings show that security technology material is an integral part of security management and security in use, and that both the technical actor and human actors contributed to cultivation of the information security practice in the elderly care center

• 231.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
Shaping security behavior through discipline and agility: Implications for information security management2011Inngår i: Information Management & Computer Security, ISSN 0968-5227, E-ISSN 1758-5805, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 262-276Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to broaden the understanding about security behaviour bydeveloping a security behavior typology based on the concepts of discipline and agility.Design/methodology/approach: A case study was designed to analyze security behaviours in onepublic nursing centre. The inquiry was organized around the themes discipline and agility, culture,and security processes in order to get an in-depth understanding of the complex relationship betweensecurity management, referred to as discipline, and security in use, referred to as agility.Findings: The paper shows that security behaviour can be shaped by discipline and agility and thatboth can exist collectively if organizations consider the constitutional and existential aspects ofinformation security management.Practical implications: This research makes a pivotal stand for the issue how security behavioursnarrate a broad picture to enhance information security management. In particular, this will improvedesign of information security training and awareness programs.Originality/value: This research is relevant to information security management in organizations,particularly as behavioural and cultural aspects are becoming increasingly significant for maintainingand also designing systemic information security management.

• 232.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
Socio-technical design approach for crisis management information systems2009Inngår i: International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISSN 1937-9390, E-ISSN 1937-9420, Vol. 1, nr 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

This article describes research in progress of a design approach for crisis management information systems. A qualitative study was designed to gather data from four municipalities in northern Sweden, which all have responsibility for crisis management in each local environment. The purpose with the article is to discuss broad but strongly related information issues to crisis management and from that suggest a socio-technical oriented approach for crisis management information systems design. The preliminary design approach suggests that a network of knowledge, IT management and information integration is a promising base for design in the area. Considering that responsible actors in crisis environments have great knowledge in crisis planning and operation indicate that such an environment can be understood as a network of knowledge that account for both the social and technical dimension during crises. Theories from IT management and information integration provide input to the technical dimension of the suggested design approach.

• 233.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
Collaboration environments: a single point of access into networks of knowledge2008Inngår i: Collaboration and the knowledge economy: issues, applications, case studies / [ed] Paul Cunningham; Miriam Cunningham, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
• 234.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
Action research supported implementation of a crisis competence centre2009Inngår i: ISCRAM 2009: 6th international conference on information systems for crisis response and management : boundary spanning initiatives and new perspectives : Gothenburg, Sweden 10th - 13th of May / [ed] J. Landgren; U. Nulden; B. Van de Walle, Göteborg, 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)

The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of a regional crisis competence centre in Sweden. The overall research approach utilizes action research methodology to support the development process. The overall development process is divided into three steps; early need finding, the organizational platform, and business development. This paper is devoted to the first phase - early need finding - which deals with the specific needs and demand of four municipality organizations and how these requirements can be converged into a organizational setting that correspond to national crisis management strategies as well as regional responsibilities in crisis management. The research approach is action based and the theoretical considerations to support progress in development activities are from the Actor Network Theory (ANT). The main conclusion from the research is that the formation of a crisis competence centre revolves around sharing competences, and compromising between internal and external objectives in the progress towards a common goal.

• 235.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
A framework for classifying design research methods2013Inngår i: Design Science at the Intersection of Physical and Virtual Design: 8th International Conference, Desrist 2013, Helsinki, Finland, June 11-12,2013, Proceedings. / [ed] Jan vom Brocke; Riita Hekkala; Sudha Ram; Matti Rossi, New York: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2013, s. 479-485Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)

Design Science Research (DSR) methods are much debated by the IS community with regard to outcome and research process. This debate creates ambiguity for the novice researchers in terms of selecting appropriate DSR methods. To address this ambiguity, this essay proposes a framework for classifying the DSR methods by providing conceptual clarity about DSR outcome and DSR research process. The proposed framework creates a taxonomy differentiating between outcomes as a priori formulated or emergent through contextual interaction, likewise, viewing the research process as deductive or abductive. The taxonomy provides guidance to the researchers before embarking any DSR projects. The essay contributes to the on-going discussion on utilization of the DSR methods in DSR projects.

• 236.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
Information security in hierarchical and ad-hoc emergency organizations: differences in communication challenges and training needs2012Inngår i: Norsk konferanse for organisasjoners bruk av informasjonsteknologi: NOKOBIT 2012 / [ed] Terje Fallmyr, Trondheim: Tapir Akademisk Forlag, 2012, s. 105-118Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)

In their work emergency actors need to be able to adapt to two kinds of different organizations: a) hierarchical organizations, where they reside in their own groups doing routine tasks, and b) ad-hoc organizations formed in emergencies where they have to work together with people from other organizations. This paper presents a case study done in the emergency organizations of one municipality in Finland, discussing the information security of both hierarchical and ad-hoc organizations including for example the communication challenges they face and their training level and needs. The main finding of this paper is something that is little, if at all, discussed in emergency response literature, that emergency actors value different aspects of information security depending on the on whether they work in hierarchical or ad-hoc organizations. When working in hierarchy the most important thing is confidentiality; keeping sensitive information safeguarded. But when responding to emergency the most important things are information availability and integrity; the right information must reach the right person at the right time.The findings also show that the current basic training of emergency actors and the training and guidelines of each organization largely concentrate on confidentiality issues. The tools and communications training that would be needed to ensure information availability and integrity in an adhoc organization is not prioritized. This is a problem concerning that most communication challenges present in emergency communications can be seen to arise in situations when emergency actors are working in ad-hoc organizations.To take into account the dual nature of emergency response work and the needs that it poses for training those responsible for information security training in emergency organizations must therefore improve their training to provide both up to date information security training and awareness building, but also tools and communications training that supports inter-organizational communication.

• 237.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
Secure emergency communications of emergency responders: a case study of Kemi municipality in Finland2013Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)

Emergency response is highly time-critical and information dependent: every moment counts and organizations need to access various information that supports their decision making and informs them about the scale and location of the emergency, the damages, and the availability of human and physical resources. This kind information can originate from many different places and the situation can be stressful as there is a need to communicate quickly, reliably and accurately within their own organization, but also inter-organizationally. ICTs make it possible to access and spread information with speed and efficiency, but other factors, such as different professional cultures, can still hinder information sharing. There is a growing need in emergency organizations to develop understanding for how communications between emergency responders can be secured. It seems important to consider how emergency responders respond to security objectives, since the assumptions for secure communications may not only be developed on the premise of ICT, but also how the emergency actors appreciate the emergency environments in terms of secure communications.The aim of this research is to develop understanding of information security and secure communications in a context where it has not been well researched. The research looks at secure emergency communications from a socio-technical viewpoint and concentrates on the communication inside and between the emergency organizations of police, the paramedics, and the rescue department in the municipality of Kemi, and more specifically on the communications of operative emergency actors while they are working in the preparedness and response phases of emergency management. Two persons from each organization were interviewed using semi-structured interviews, and the empirical data was used for writing the appended papers that are the basis of this thesis work.The research started by doing an extensive literature review and analysis on the field of secure emergency communications. The results show that while technical developments on the field aim at effective and secure technologies, organizational aspects of emergency communications seem to involve not only emergency actors, but also how these actors more and more utilize information technology. The landscape for emergency management is becoming very diverse, which challenges the way that secure emergency communications can be understood. The developers of future emergency communications structures not only need to ensure the technical aspects of confidentiality, availability and integrity of information, but they also need to take into account the social rules, norms and structures that guide the emergency communication. Next, this research sought out to re-conceptualize the role of information security in emergency response. A conceptual basis encompassing technical, cognitive and organizational information security layers as a relationship between association and connectivity was developed by synthesizing Actor Network Theory and Theory of Organizational Routines. The approach of combining two theoretical accounts details the enactment of information security in emergency response so as to understand how cognition ties technical security features with organizational security issues. Without the cognitive layer, the technical and organizational aspects of information security remain static or disconnected to the actions performed during emergency response. Theoretically the approach contributes constructively to describe an alternative approach to information security research to address the gap between formal and informal criteria of information security.Lastly, the research sought out to explore the current situation of the case organizations in detail concerning their level of information security, communication challenges faced, and training offered. It was learned that different aspects of information security are valued depending on whether emergency responders work in preparation periods or if they are responding to an emergency: 1) When working in their own respective organizations the most important aspect was information confidentiality 2) When responding to emergency the most important aspects were information availability and integrity. Most communication challenges present in emergency communications can be seen to arise when responding to emergencies. This is not something currently being taken into account in the case organizations. The basic training of emergency actors and the training and guidelines of each organization largely concentrate on confidentiality issues, and tools and communications training that would be needed to ensure information availability and integrity when responding to an emergency is not prioritized. To overcome the communication challenges present in emergency communications and to ensure confidentiality, availability and integrity of emergency information, those responsible for information security in emergency organizations must therefore provide up to date information security training and awareness building, but also tools and communications training that supports inter-organizational communication.

• 238.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
A review of secure emergency communications: technical and organisational aspects2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the 32nd Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, IRIS 32, Inclusive Design / [ed] J. Molka-Danielsen, 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)

In organizations responsible for emergency management there is a growing need to develop deep understanding for how communications between emergency actors can be secured and improved. In this paper we examine the current body of knowledge in the field of secure emergency communications in order understand the role of information security in the emergency context? Our study shows that while technical developments aim at effective and secure technologies, organizational aspects of emergency communications seem to involve not only emergency management actors, but also how these actors more and more utilize information technology for emergency management. Hence, the scene or landscape for emergency management is becoming more complex, which indeed challenge the way that secure emergency communications can be understood. We apply Giddens' structuration theory as a vehicle to understand the technological and organizational dimensions of emergency management. Our main conclusion is that there is a need for better theoretical integration between technology use and organizational systems in emergency management.

• 239.
Image and Video Processing Lab, Faculty, South Valley University.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
Detection and Description of Image Features: An Introduction2016Inngår i: Image Feature Detectors and Descriptors: Foundations and Applications, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2016, s. 1-8Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)

Detection and description of image features play a vital role in various application domains such as image processing, computer vision, pattern recognition, and machine learning. There are two type of features that can be extracted from an image content; namely global and local features. Global features describe the image as a whole and can be interpreted as a particular property of the image involving all pixels; while, the local features aim to detect keypoints within the image and describe regions around these keypoints. After extracting the features and their descriptors from images, matching of common structures between images (i.e., features matching) is the next step for these applications. This chapter presents a general and brief introduction to topics of feature extraction for a variety of application domains. Its main aim is to provide short descriptions of the chapters included in this book volume.

• 240.
Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Al Azhar University .
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Al Azhar University.
Urban Transition in the Era of the Internet of Things: Social Implications and Privacy Challenges2018Inngår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 6, s. 36428-36440Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

The Internet of Things (IoT) could become an important aspect of urban life in the next decade. In the IoT paradigm, various information and communication technologies (ICTs) are used in concert to substantially reduce urban problems. Smart cities and ubiquitous cities will adopt ICTs in the urban development process; however, IoT-based cities will experience considerably stronger effects than those that adopt conventional ICTs. IoT cities allow urban residents and “things”to be connected to the Internet by virtue of the extension of the Internet Protocol from IPv4 to IPv6 and of cutting-edge device and sensor technology. Therefore, the urban transition resulting from the influence of IoT may be a critical issue. The privacy-related vulnerabilities of IoT technologies may negatively affect city residents. Furthermore, disparities in the spread of IoT systems across different countries may allow some countries to subvert the privacy of other countries' citizens. The aim of this paper is to identify the potential prospects and privacy challenges that will emerge from IoT deployment in urban environments. This paper reviews the prospects of and barriers to IoT implementation at the regional, city, and residential scales from the perspectives of security and privacy. The IoT technology will be a continual presence in life in general and in urban life in particular. However, the adoption of the IoT paradigm in cities will be complicated due to the inherent presence of unsecured connections. Moreover, the IoT systems may rob people of some of their humanity, infringing on their privacy, because people are also regarded as “things”in the IoT paradigm. Given the social trepidation surrounding IoT implementation, local and international associations related to IoT privacy, and legislation and international laws, are needed to maintain the personal right to privacy and to satisfy the demands of institutional privacy in urban contexts.

• 241.
German University in Cairo.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
Big Data Visualization Tool: a Best-Practice Selection Model2017Inngår i: IADIS Information Systems Conference (IS 2017) / [ed] Powell P.,Rodrigues L.,Nunes M.B.,Isaias P., Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 59-68Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)

Big data visualization tools are analytical tools used by organizations for the purpose of discovering knowledge. With the support of interactive visual interfaces, methods and techniques for analyzing big data are applied to facilitate the knowledge discovery process and provide domain relevant insights. Many studies, both academic and industrial, have been conducted in order to investigate visualization tools. However, little research has been conducted in order to study how big data visualization tools could be selected. Consequently, this research is setout to fill-in this gap. Accordingly, a three phases (literature review, Delphi method, and exploratory case study) research process is conducted to propose a big data visualization tool best-practice selection model. The use of this model would help organizations in selecting and obtaining the appropriate visualization tool. The results of this research revealed a number of criteria elements, which formulate the best-practice model for big data visualization tool selection. A total number of 36 criteria have been agreed upon by a number of 14 big data experts. Such criteria belong to six main types: technical, visualization, collaboration & mobility, operational, data governance and managerial requirements. An exploratory case study was conducted on a multi-national telecommunication company in order to test the usability of the model, which attained positive feedback results.

• 242.
Faculty of Computers and Information, Cairo University.
Kim, Tai-HoonMultimedia Control and Assurance Laboratory, Hannam University.Kacprzyk, JanuszPolish Academy of Sciences, Systems Research Institute.Awad, Ali IsmailFaculty of Engineering, Al Azhar University, Qena, Egypt.
Bio-inspiring Cyber Security and Cloud Services: Trends and Innovations2014Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
• 243.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Digitala tjänster och system.
Web Scraping Scientific Repositories for Augmented Relevant Literature Search Using CRISP-DM2019Inngår i: Applied System Innovation, ISSN 2571-5577, Vol. 2, nr 4, artikkel-id 37Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

Scientific web repositories are central cyber locations where academic papers are stored and maintained. With the nature of the unstructured and semi-structured information/metadata within these repositories, literature analysis for scholar writing becomes a challenge. Correspondingly, applying CRISP-DM poses a stance to address this challenge through formulating a rather augmented process for a relevant literature search. However, almost all repositories do not have a straight forward method where metadata could be extracted for preliminary data processing being applied as part of the CRISP-DM process. Additionally, most repositories do not follow open access standards. Until the time this paper was published, the topic of the augmented, relevant literature search had seen a methodological progress only, with the inability to apply the underlying methods on a larger scale, given data access constraints to open access repositories. The aim of this paper is to propose CRISP-DM as an augmented research methodology with a focus on web scraping as part of the data processing step. To substantiate the proposed methodology, a play role case study is conducted. This then works on alleviating these restrictions, as well as encouraging the wider adoption of the augmented analysis process for a relevant literature search within the research community.

• 244.
University of Agder.
University of Agder. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
Metoder og teknikker for gevinstrealisering2012Inngår i: Gevinstrealisering og offentlige IKT-investeringer, Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 2012, s. 50-76Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
• 245.
University of Agder.
University of Agder. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
Diverging approaches to benefits realization from public ICT investments: A study of benefits realization methods in Norway2013Inngår i: Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, ISSN 1750-6166, E-ISSN 1750-6174, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 93-108Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore practical methods for benefits realisation, with the intention of investigating if they are variance of a theme or rather can be classified as different approaches.Design/methodology/approach – Based on a document study of Norwegian methods-in-use, this study uses an analytical comparison following an assimilation-accommodation procedure to categorize the chosen methods as instances of approaches to benefits realisation.Findings – This study documents the emergence of several methods from practice in the last half decade. This analysis suggests the existence of three distinct approaches to benefits realisation and defines these according to their central features.Research limitations/implications – This is a document study that could have been enhanced byempirical data on first-hand experiences from the use of these methods. The findings of this study document a critical investigation of methods for benefits realisation, providing an enhanced base framework of three approaches for future research to build on.Originality/value – This study provides fresh perspectives on benefits realisation by suggesting that existing methods differ to an extent that the authors argue they belong to different approaches that are likely to cause quite different results in practical use. This has important implications for bothresearch and practice, as research should analyse benefits realisation efforts according to approach, and practice needs to carefully consider their choice of method based on their actual needs. Further, the paper employs an established analytical framework for a novel definition of approaches to the field of benefits realisation in the public sector.

• 246.
University of Agder.
University of Agder. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
Methods for realizing benefits from ICT in the Norwegian public sector: a comparison2012Inngår i: Proceedings of the Transforming Government Workshop 2012: tGov 2012, London: Brunel University Business School , 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)

Benefits realization from public information and communication technology (ICT) investments is complicated. Research and development has resulted in methods for evaluating alternative business cases – and also more substantial methods to manage effects through an investment’s life cycle. Previous research suggests that use of benefits realization methods can lead to more informed decisions and implementations driven by benefits, this in turn can result in more realized benefits. However, there is a lack of studies of existing benefits realization methods-in-use. The objective of this article is to give an overview of the state-of-the-art of benefits realization method use in the Norwegian public sector, to highlight the variety of methods-in-use, and to discuss the different methods with reference to the much cited Benefits management model (Ward et al., 2006).

• 247.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
Hur småföretag kan utvärdera sin webbplats med hjälp av webbanalys2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 hpOppgave

I den här uppsatsen kommer jag att presentera hur och varför småföretag bör använda sig av webbanalys för att utvärdera sin webbplats. Webbplatsen är en del av företagens digitalisering och möjliggör en internationell expansion, en viktig satsning för att minska beroendet av den konkurrensutsatta lokala marknaden som många företag i Sverige upplever som hämmande för sin tillväxt idag. För att samla in underlag till uppsatsen har en litteraturstudie genomförts, där fokus har varit att samla in teori från forskare och experter inom webbanalys.

• 248.
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Karunya University.
Editorial: Special Issue on: Advances in Soft Computing Techniques for Image Processing2013Inngår i: International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics, ISSN 1752-9131, Vol. 3, nr 4, s. 249-250Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
• 249.
University of Agder.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
Perceived support in e-collaborative learning: an exploratory study which make use of synchronous and asynchronous online-teaching approaches2012Inngår i: Advances in Web-Based Learning - ICWL2012: 11th International Conference, Sinaia, Romania, September 2-4, 2012. Proceedings E / [ed] Elvira Popescu; Qing Li; Ralf Klamma; Howard Leung; Marcus Specht, Heidelberg: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2012, s. 11-20Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)

This study compares four different learning environments for e-collaborative learning in two European countries related to the dimension of student’s mutual support. The theoretical baseline is Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development (ZOPD) and the socio-genetic approach of Piaget. The analyzed data are based on questionnaires collected over the time period of an entire semester including four different courses at the master’s level. These courses applied different e-collaborative approaches including a variety of tools for supporting communication. It is assumed that these courses including communication tools e.g. virtual face-to-face meetings enhance the chances for better communication, and finally, for mutual support of students themselves. The objective is to investigate how the different environments have affected the students’ perception related to different e-collaborative learning platforms in the dimensions of social support, information exchange, and task support.

• 250.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Digitala tjänster och system.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Digitala tjänster och system.
Informationssäkerhet i kommunala förvaltningar: kultur, medvetenhet och ansvar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave

Information hanteras, lagras och används av alla typer av verksamheter i sambandmed digitaliseringens framfart. Information är en drivande resurs för verksamhetersom en viktig biståndsdel i affärsprocesser och därför finns ett behov att skydda den.Informationssäkerhet är inte bara en teknisk fråga utan påverkas av organisationskultur,anställdas säkerhetsmedvetenhet samt ledning och individ. Studien användersig av en abduktiv forskningsansats med en kvalitativ datainsamling. I studien intervjuadesnio anställda från olika kommunala förvaltningar för att undersöka hurarbetet med informationssäkerhet bedrivs. I analysen undersöker vi hur den nuvarandesituationen ställer sig mot teorier om hur ett effektivt säkerhetsarbete skabedrivas. I diskussionen belyser vi vikten av ledningens delaktighet i verksamhetensinformationssäkerhet och hur det påverkar det systematiska säkerhetsarbetet.Vi diskuterar även hur individens roll påverkar säkerhetsarbetets effektivitet. Studienvisar hur informationssäkerheten i kommunala förvaltningar inte ligger i fas medbehovet och pekar på vikten av individen samt ledningens ansvar i säkerhetsarbetet.

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