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  • 201.
    Ekelund, Björn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Sociospatial och rumslig integrationav energisystemet i Dalsjöfors: en studie av befi ntlig och framtida plats förproduktions- och distributionsanläggningar2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 202.
    Ekelund, Björn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Sociospatial och rumslig integrationav energisystemet i Ulricehamn: en studie av befi ntlig och framtida plats förproduktions- och distributionsanläggningar2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 203.
    Ekelund, Björn
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Barandka, Saioa Ibarrola
    SWECO.
    Kreativ snöhantering2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 204.
    Elhammeli, Alaaeddin A.
    et al.
    Mechanical Engineering Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Memorial Univ of Newfoundland, St. John's, NF.
    Muntasser, Mohamed A.
    Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Faculty of Engineering, Tripoli University.
    Lindblom, Jenny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Producing water by condensation of humid air in buried pipe2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management: Rabat, Morocco, April 11-13, 2017, IEOM Society , 2017, s. 2270-2281Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the possibility of using warm humid air for irrigation and drinking water production, by flowing air over the water surface in a solar still with saline or polluted water. Vapor will be saturated during mixing with the warm air in buried pipe. Finite difference method is employed to simulate the flow of the air long the pipe. The amount of water produced and buried pipe length depends upon the flow velocity, humid air properties and buried pipe diameter. The amount of water produced is 0.02525kg/s (0.0909m3/h). The length of the buried pipe needed in this study is 77.36m for a selected air flow velocity 5m/s with the properties of 70°C, 100% relative humidity at pipe inlet, 40°C and 100% relative humidity at pipe outlet of 0.2m pipe diameter. The results agree with a previous study (Gustafsson & Lindblom, 2001) with -4.0% deviation in water production and 7% of required pipe length

  • 205.
    Elhammeli, Alaaeddin A.
    et al.
    Mechanical Engineering Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Memorial Univ of Newfoundland, St. John's, NF.
    Muntasser, Mohamed A.
    Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Faculty of Engineering, Tripoli University.
    Lindblom, Jenny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Producing water by condensation of humid air in buried pipe2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, IEOM Society , 2017, s. 2270-2281Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the possibility of using warm humid air for irrigation and drinking water production, by flowing air over the water surface in a solar still with saline or polluted water. Vapor will be saturated during mixing with the warm air in buried pipe. Finite difference method is employed to simulate the flow of the air long the pipe. The amount of water produced and buried pipe length depends upon the flow velocity, humid air properties and buried pipe diameter. The amount of water produced is 0.02525kg/s (0.0909m3/h). The length of the buried pipe needed in this study is 77.36m for a selected air flow velocity 5m/s with the properties of 70°C, 100% relative humidity at pipe inlet, 40°C and 100% relative humidity at pipe outlet of 0.2m pipe diameter. The results agree with a previous study (Gustafsson & Lindblom, 2001) with -4.0% deviation in water production and 7% of required pipe length

  • 206.
    Elmozughi, A.F.
    et al.
    Al-Fateh University, Tripoli.
    Muntasser, M.A.
    Al-Fateh University, Tripoli.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Simulation of vertical U tube heat exchanger2009Inngår i: Effstock 2009, Thermal Energy Storage for Efficiency and Sustainability : / [ed] Signild Gehlin, Stockholm: Energi- och Miljötekniska Föreningen / EMTF Förlag , 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 207. Engman, M.
    et al.
    Sellgren, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Sundqvist, A.
    Goldkuhl, I.
    Wennberg, T.
    Some design considerations of high density base metal tailings handling systems2004Inngår i: Proceedings of the 12th international conference on Transport & sedimentation of solid particles joined with 12th international symposium on Freight pipelines: 20-24 September 2004, Prague, Czech Republic, Prague: Institute of Hydrodynamics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic , 2004, s. 307-318Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 208.
    Engman, M.
    et al.
    LKAB.
    Sellgren, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Sundqvist, Å,
    LKAB.
    Wennberg, Thord
    Goldkuhl, I.
    Multiserv.
    Users perspective on the design of high density base metal tailings systems2004Inngår i: Tailings and mine waste '04: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Tailings and Mine Waste, Rotterdam: Balkema Publishers, A.A. / Taylor & Francis The Netherlands , 2004, s. 45-54Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 209.
    Engström, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Seasonal turnover in groundwater2005Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This Licentiate Thesis presents a new approach of understanding leakage in agricultural land. Former studies concentrate on long term measurement of different pollutants in nearby watercourses and streams. The new approach is so far only numerically performed, but will soon be complemented by laboratory tests and field measurements. Our hypothesis is that nutrient leakage into groundwater is caused by thermally driven groundwater convection. The maximum density of water occurs at a temperature of near 4oC. Thus, a density increase of the groundwater occurs by heating from about 0oC in the north of Sweden (springtime) and by cooling from about 10oC in the south (autumn). The depth of the convection (leakage) depends on the size of the thermal gradient. This hypothesis consequently explains both why the nutrient leakage occurs during different seasons in the north and south of Sweden and also why the leakage reaches greater depths in the south. The numerical results show that convection is induced by a small horizontal groundwater flow. In the south of Sweden the lowest required permeability for convection to occur was K=6.7∙10-10m2. In this soil the convection cells reached to a maximum depth of 6 meters. The Rayleigh number (Ra) could be as low as 19 for convection to occur, the general critical Ra is 40 in porous media. In northern Sweden a permeability of K=6.1∙10-92 was required. In this soil and climate convection occurred to depths from 0.2 to 0.9 meters. Transient solutions showed that the required time for the convection pattern to fully develop was 22 days. The effect of frost lenses on the groundwater convection was also studied. Small lenses changed the convection rolls slightly, while large obstacles forced the convection rolls to change size and shape. The simulations showed that the required grain size for convection to occur was considerably greater than the grain size in typical agricultural soils. Still vertical groundwater movements exist. Other possible explanations to groundwater convection in agricultural soil in northern Sweden are to be investigated. Unstable groundwater convection or oscillating convection cells, infiltration of rain and melt water, pressure induced convection and the possibility that Coriolis force due to Earth´s rotation could cause secondary currents in groundwater flow.

  • 210.
    Engström, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten. ÅF Industry AB.
    Secondary currents in groundwater2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis concerns the small vertical water movements created by thermal convection and the Coriolis force acting on groundwater flows. These small flows are of importance to vertical transports of temperature, nutrients and contaminants that would not be spread in the way they are. The first part analyzes thermally driven, seasonal groundwater convection by numerical simulation. The second part shows that the Coriolis force also induces secondary currents in groundwater flow through different vertical permeability distributions. Density driven convection occurs during the autumn in southern Sweden when the ambient air temperature cools the mean groundwater temperature from about 10ºC. When the shallow groundwater is cooled by the ambient air its increased density makes this water sink, slowly increasing in temperature, while pressing the warmer water upwards creating a convection cell. The process is ongoing as long as there is a thermal gradient between ground surface and the groundwater. Under favorable conditions convection can reach a depth of 6m. Such density-driven water movements occur most easily in more permeable soil. In northern Sweden, the situation is reversed, since the mean groundwater temperature is below 4ºC, at which water is at its density maximum. So, in springtime when the uppermost groundwater is heated to 4ºC by the warmer air the convection process starts. Here, the sinking groundwater does not reach the same depth, less than one meter. The Coriolis force has been considered too small to have any effect on groundwater flow, though its importance in meteorology and oceanography is well established. These theories have been applied using numerical simulations of groundwater flow. The numerical model has been validated by simulating some earlier studies of Coriolis forces in fluids. Furthermore the model has been extended to include porous media. It has been shown that secondary currents occur in nonlinear vertical permeability distributions. For simulations of constant and linear distributions no secondary currents have been seen. The development is more pronounced in confined aquifers. The structure of the bottom of the aquifer  affects  how the secondary currents arise. It was shown that both temperature gradients and the Coriolis force form secondary currents in groundwater and a general conclusion is that groundwater flow is more complex than previously assumed.

  • 211.
    Engström, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Earth’s rotation induces vertical ground water flow2007Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that the Coriolis Force deflects wind and water currents. However, its influence on groundwater flow is neglected. Earth’s rotation causes inertia circles in groundwater that create vortices ending up in different local pressure zones, similar to the high and low pressures in air. High pressure zones in groundwater induce, under certain conditions, a vertical flow up to the surface. This could be the missing link where hydrostatic pressure is not sufficient to explain springs in deserts, mountains and on islands in the sea. Here, simulations on the Coriolis force acting on groundwater flows are presented.

  • 212.
    Engström, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Seasonal groundwater turnover in the north and south of Sweden2007Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrient leakage from agricultural areas in Sweden mainly occurs during the autumn in the south and during the spring in the north. The infiltration of nutrients also reaches greater depths in the south. An occurring “seasonal groundwater turnover” similar to that in lakes is the suggested mechanism. This thermal convection results from changing temperatures (densities). The 10oC groundwater in southern Sweden becomes denser as it is cooled from the surface in the autumn, while the corresponding convection in the North occurs during the spring. Performed simulations show how seasonal temperature variations, under certain conditions, initiate and drive thermal convection.

  • 213.
    Engström, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Temperature-driven groundwater convection in cold climates2016Inngår i: Hydrogeology Journal, ISSN 1431-2174, E-ISSN 1435-0157, Vol. 24, nr 5, s. 1245-1253Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to study density-driven groundwater flow and analyse groundwater mixing because of seasonal changes in groundwater temperature. Here, density-driven convection in groundwater was studied by numerical simulations in a subarctic climate, i.e. where the water temperature was < 4 A degrees C. The effects of soil permeability and groundwater temperature (i.e. viscosity and density) were determined. The influence of impermeable obstacles in otherwise homogeneous ground was also studied. An initial disturbance in the form of a horizontal groundwater flow was necessary to start the convection. Transient solutions describe the development of convective cells in the groundwater and it took 22 days before fully developed convection patterns were formed. The thermal convection reached a maximum depth of 1.0 m in soil of low permeability (2.71 center dot 10(-9) m(2)). At groundwater temperature close to its density maximum (4 A degrees C), the physical size (in m) of the convection cells was reduced. Small stones or frost lenses in the ground slightly affect the convective flow, while larger obstacles change the size and shape of the convection cells. Performed simulations show that "seasonal groundwater turnover" occurs. This knowledge may be useful in the prevention of nutrient leakage to underlying groundwater from soils, especially in agricultural areas where no natural vertical groundwater flow is evident. An application in northern Sweden is discussed.

  • 214. Eriksson, B.
    et al.
    Sellgren, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Development of slurry transportation technology in Sweden1978Inngår i: Pipes and Pipelines International, ISSN 0370-1204, Vol. 23, nr 6, s. 10-13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A system-oriented development project has been started by the LKAB mining company and Chalmers University of Technology (CTH), in co-operation with manufacturers and inventors. The development work has concentrated on improvements of some components and better understanding of specific problems, which, seen together, are believed to be of great interest in slurry transportation applications. So far, a rubber-lined plastic pipe for high-pressure applications has been developed, and a high-pressure pump without large external devices and with a minimum of moving parts is to be patented. Simultaneous laboratory and in-plant tests of the new components have been started, and studies on freezing problems, chemical additives, and secondary flow have also been carried out. A pilot-plant investigation on hydraulic hoisting of heavy ore by centrifugal pumps has been completed at CTH.

  • 215.
    Eswias, Adel A.
    et al.
    Al-Fateh University, Tripoli.
    Muntasser, M.A.
    Al-Fateh University, Tripoli.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    First thermal response test in Libya2009Inngår i: Abstract book and proceedings Effstock 2009: 11th International conference on Thermal Energy Storage for Energy Efficiency and Sustainability / [ed] Signhild Gehlin, Stockholm: Energi- och Miljötekniska Föreningen / EMTF Förlag , 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 216.
    Falk, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Att tävla - är det nödvändigt?2007Inngår i: Husbyggaren : bygg, el, VVS, anläggning, ISSN 0018-7968, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 42-44Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Alla behöver bekräftelse. Vissa mer än andra, men, alla behöver ett erkännande. Människan har alltid strävat efter att utmärka sig; att överskrida gränser, att nyfiket söka högsta punkten, djupaste dalen... Följaktligen återfinns samma tjusning i att få priset för det bästa huset.

  • 217.
    Falk, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Betongen är en trogen och anpassbar tjänare2008Inngår i: Husbyggaren : bygg, el, VVS, anläggning, ISSN 0018-7968, nr 2, s. 104-105Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Betongen är på intet sätt ett nytt material i människans byggande historia. Romarna utnyttjade den för tryckta konstruktioner och utvecklade en skicklighet i att åstadkomma eleganta konstruktiva resultat. Som material har man länge vetat att uppskatta dess egenskaper.

  • 218.
    Falk, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Dilemmat med prefab visar behov av paradigmskifte2007Inngår i: Husbyggaren : bygg, el, VVS, anläggning, ISSN 0018-7968, nr 2, s. 68-69Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggsystem har varit ett hett ämne sedan 1950-talet. Meningarna går isär, omarbetas, omtolkas och återkommer, och frågan om hur ett byggsystem bör utformas kvarstår utan ett enkelt svar. Till detta kommer begreppet det industriella byggandet.

  • 219.
    Falk, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Glasen i förfallna drivhus är en olöst miljöfråga2007Inngår i: Husbyggaren : bygg, el, VVS, anläggning, ISSN 0018-7968, nr 5, s. 58-61Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Drivhus är exempel på energihushållning och tillvaratagande under 1900-talet. Idag innebär växthusen också en miljöfråga - som ännu inte fått sitt svar. Glas kan smältas ner och återanvändas. Rutorna kan också demonteras och användas i nya växthus

  • 220.
    Falk, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Industrilokal kan spegla vision och vilja2006Inngår i: Husbyggaren : bygg, el, VVS, anläggning, ISSN 0018-7968, nr 1, s. 50-51Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Arkitektur kan användas för att skapa något som är mer än summan av delarna. Detta, som kan kallas för mervärde, kan till exempel stärka ett företags budskap. Själva byggnaden kan i sig bli reklam för den produkt som tillverkas.

  • 221.
    Falk, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Ljus är form och känsla - och livsnödvändigt2007Inngår i: Husbyggaren : bygg, el, VVS, anläggning, ISSN 0018-7968, nr 6, s. 52-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    När modernismen kom till byn på 1920- talet inledde förespråkarna omdaningen av samhället till en hälsosam miljö, fylld av framstegsiver och tilltro till teknikens förlösande effekt på människans oktyngda ohälsosamma tillvaro.

  • 222.
    Falk, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Massiivipuuelementtejä suurille jänneväleille2007Inngår i: Puu, ISSN 0357-9484, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 223.
    Falk, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    När miljön ber oss sätta stopp2008Inngår i: Husbyggaren : bygg, el, VVS, anläggning, ISSN 0018-7968, nr 1, s. 52-53Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den globala uppvärmningen har varit ett hett debattämne de senaste åren. Larmrapporter kommer från olika håll. Politiker, näringslivsföreträdare och grupper av forskare väljer att antingen bestrida påståendena eller med varierande kraft instämma i dem.

  • 224.
    Falk, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Olika vägar till betongens form2006Inngår i: Husbyggaren : bygg, el, VVS, anläggning, ISSN 0018-7968, nr 2, s. 56-58Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Betong kan som material ges oräkneliga konstruktiva uttryck, vilket väl inte varit alltför uppenbart i de storskaliga miljöerna från 1970-talet. I det följande görs nedslag i olika konstruktionssammanhang i olika delar av världen.

  • 225.
    Falk, Andreas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Vägen mot high tech genom low tech2006Inngår i: Husbyggaren : bygg, el, VVS, anläggning, ISSN 0018-7968, nr 6, s. 66-67Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens hjälpmedel för design- och konstruktionsberäkningar är synnerligen avancerade. Som exempel kan nämnas de datorverktyg som berördes i Husbyggaren 2006:02, med beteckningen Computational Morphogenesis, datorstödd utveckling av form.

  • 226.
    Falk, Andreas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Samuelsson, Sture
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Form finding and utility-based optimisation2007Inngår i: Proceedings of the IASS Symposium 2007: Structural Architecture - Toward the future looking to the past, International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures , 2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 227.
    Fjellström, Caroline
    et al.
    Vägverket Region Norr.
    Lundborg, Glenn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Lundberg, Stellan
    ÅF Infraplan AB.
    Kommunal utvecklingsplan för lokal kollektivtrafik och bebyggelse1990Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 228.
    Fletcher, Tim D.
    et al.
    Waterway Ecosystem Research Group, Dept. of Resource Mgt. and Geography, The University of Melbourne.
    Shuster, William D.
    United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati.
    Hunt, William F.
    Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh.
    Ashley, Richard M.
    Pennine Water Group and Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, University of Sheffield.
    Butler, David
    Centre for Water Systems, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter.
    Arthur, Scott
    Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh.
    Trowsdale, Sam A.
    School of Environment, The University of Auckland.
    Barraud, S.
    University of Lyon, INSA Lyon.
    Sémadeni-Davies, Annette F.
    NIWA, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Private Bag 99940, Auckland.
    Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean Luc
    University of Lyon, INSA Lyon.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Department of Environmental Engineering (DTU Environment), Technical University of Denmark.
    Rivard, Gilles
    Genivar Inc.
    Uhl, M.
    Muenster University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute for WaterResourcesEnvironment (IWARU).
    Dagenais, Danielle
    School of Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Environmental Design, University of Montreal.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    SUDS, LID, BMPs, WSUD and more: The evolution and application of terminology surrounding urban drainage2015Inngår i: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, Vol. 12, nr 7, s. 525-542Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The management of urban stormwater has become increasingly complex over recent decades. Consequently, terminology describing the principles and practices of urban drainage has become increasingly diverse, increasing the potential for confusion and miscommunication. This paper documents the history, scope, application and underlying principles of terms used in urban drainage and provides recommendations for clear communication of these principles. Terminology evolves locally and thus has an important role in establishing awareness and credibility of new approaches and contains nuanced understandings of the principles that are applied locally to address specific problems. Despite the understandable desire to have a 'uniform set of terminology', such a concept is flawed, ignoring the fact that terms reflect locally shared understanding. The local development of terminology thus has an important role in advancing the profession, but authors should facilitate communication between disciplines and between regions of the world, by being explicit and accurate in their application. © 2014 © The work of Tim D. Fletcher is Crown copyright in the Commonwealth of Australia 2014, University of Melbourne. The work of Danielle Dagenais is Copyright of the Crown in Canada 2014, University of Montreal. The work of William Shuster was authored as part of his official duties as an Employee of the United States Government and is therefore a work of the United States Government. In accordance with 17 USC. 105, no copyright protection is available for such works under US Law. William F. Hunt, Richard Ashley, David Butler, Scott Arthur, Sam Trowsdale, Sylvie Barraud, Annette Semadeni-Davies, Jean-Luc Bertrand-Krajewski, Peter Steen Mikkelsen, Gilles Rivard, Mathias Uhl and Maria Viklander hereby waive their right to assert copyright, but not their right to be named as co-authors in the article.

  • 229.
    Florén, Tina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Integrerad arkitektur: en metodutveckling2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 230.
    Fornander, Alexandra
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Investigating the Potential of Bridging as a Strategy for Handling Barriers: Project site: Bodenvägen, Luleå2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to clarify which potential a bridging structure has for handling the consequences created by a physical barrier.

    The following questions are posed:

    -Is bridging a suitable strategy for handling a physical barrier?

    -In what aspects do barriers counteract the development of a qualitative urban environment?

    -What potential does bridging have as a strategy for addressing these aspects?

    By studying literature, reference projects and the project site, a framework is set up for handling barriers in general and for the requirements of the specific project site.

    A design suggestion is made with the objective to address these needs. It uses a combination of the strategies presented in order to adress the consequences of the barrier: decreased intensity, connectivity and lack of pedestrian invitation.

    The thesis does not recommend bridging as a general solution, as it is complex and requires thorough analyses. However, the thesis argues that the strategy of bridging should not be rejected immidiately, since it has a potential of place-making. The strategy can provide for qualitative public space while offering a direct passage across a barrier.

  • 231.
    Furlan, John M.
    et al.
    GIW Industries Inc..
    Visintainer, Robert J.
    GIW Industries Inc..
    Sellgren, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Centrifugal pump performance when handling highly non-Newtonian clays and tailings slurries2014Inngår i: 19th International Conference on Hydrotransport 2014: Golden, 24 - 26 September 2014, Curran Associates, Inc., 2014, s. 117-130Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent loop testing performed at the GIW Hydraulic Lab (Furlan et al. 2013, 2014) has provided pump performance data for two highly non-Newtonian slurries of significantly different character: a high clay content slurry with minimal coarse solids; and a typical, low clay content, two component tailings slurry. The importance of air removal in the sump and pipe loop was demonstrated using a simple, yet novel de-aeration system. In addition to the measurement of performance losses, determination of the upper limit of "pumpability" for these slurries relative to their concentration and associated yield stress was investigated. However, once the slurry was de-aerated, no limits could be found, other than those dictated by suction side losses (NPSHA) or excessive pipeline friction gradients, indicating that the only true limit in practice is one of system economics, i.e. pump operating and capital cost. Experimentally measured pump head and efficiency were compared against corresponding predictions from two different models: the Walker and Goulas technique (Walker and Goulas, 1983), and the Graham et al. technique (Graham et al., 2009), with special focus given to the dependence of the losses on pump rotary speed.

  • 232.
    Furlan, John M.
    et al.
    GIW Industries Inc., Department of Engineering and R&D.
    Visintainer, Robert J.
    GIW Industries, Department of Engineering and R&D.
    Sellgren, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Centrifugal pump performance when handling highly non-Newtonian clays and tailings slurries2016Inngår i: Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, ISSN 0008-4034, E-ISSN 1939-019X, Vol. 94, nr 6, s. 1108-1115Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent loop testing performed at the GIW Hydraulic Lab (Furlan et al. 2013, 2014) has provided pump performance data for two highly non-Newtonian slurries of significantly different character: a high clay content slurry with minimal coarse solids; and a typical, low clay content, two component tailings slurry. The importance of air removal in the sump and pipe loop was demonstrated using a simple, yet novel de-aeration system. In addition to the measurement of performance losses, determination of the upper limit of "pumpability" for these slurries relative to their concentration and associated yield stress was investigated. However, once the slurry was de-aerated, no limits could be found, other than those dictated by suction side losses (NPSHA) or excessive pipeline friction gradients, indicating that the only true limit in practice is one of system economics, i.e. pump operating and capital cost. Experimentally measured pump head and efficiency were compared against corresponding predictions from two different models: the Walker and Goulas technique (Walker and Goulas, 1983), and the Graham et al. technique (Graham et al., 2009), with special focus given to the dependence of the losses on pump rotary speed.

  • 233.
    Füssl, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Factum Chaloupka and Risser OG, Danhausergasse 6/4, 1040 Wien.
    Oberlader, Manuel
    Factum Chaloupka and Risser OG, Danhausergasse 6/4, 1040 Wien.
    Beanland, Vanessa
    Research School of Psychology, Australian National University.
    Spyropoulou, Ioanna
    National Technical University of Athens.
    Lenné, Michael G.
    Accident Research Centre, Monash University.
    Joshi, Somya
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences (DSV), Stockholm University.
    Rößger, Lars
    Technical University Dresden.
    Leden, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten. VTT.
    Underwood, Geoff
    University of Notttingham.
    Carvalhais, Jose
    Faculty of Human Kinetics, Universidade de Lisboa.
    Methodological development of a specific tool for assessing acceptability of assistive systems of powered two-wheeler-riders2015Inngår i: IET Intelligent Transport Systems, ISSN 1751-956X, E-ISSN 1751-9578, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 12-21Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on the acceptability of assistive systems for improving the safety of powered two-wheelers (PTWs) is a pressing issue. The use of safety-enhancing assistive systems for motorised vehicles, including advanced driver assistance systems and in-vehicle information systems is widespread in many countries. Yet, there is only a limited number of equivalent intelligent transport systems (ITS) for PTWs, namely advanced rider assistance systems and on-bike information systems. This study describes the methodological development of a specific tool for assessing motorcyclists' acceptability of ITS, as part of the motorcyclists' profiling questionnaire (MOPROQ). There were three stages of development. First, a literature review was undertaken to assess the current state of the art regarding ITS for PTWs and to determine the most relevant facets of acceptability that should be measured. Second, a series of focus group interviews were conducted to explore riders' attitudes towards ITS. Finally, the focus group results were used to develop a large-scale survey (MOPROQ), which was administered to an initial sample of over 6000 riders internationally. The designed tool can be used as a basis for the determination of rider acceptability of ITS systems in the future.

  • 234.
    Füssl, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Factum Chaloupka and Risser OG, Danhausergasse 6/4, 1040 Wien.
    Oberlader, Manuel
    Factum Chaloupka and Risser OG, Danhausergasse 6/4, 1040 Wien.
    Lenné, Michael G.
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Beanland, Vanessa
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Pereira, Marta
    Chemnitz University of Technology.
    Simões, Ana V.C.
    Humanist Network.
    Turetschek, Ch.
    Factum Chaloupka and Risser OG, Danhausergasse 6/4, 1040 Wien.
    Kaufmann, C.
    Factum Chaloupka and Risser OG, Danhausergasse 6/4, 1040 Wien.
    Joshi, Somya
    Institute of Communication and Computer Systems, Athens.
    Rößger, Lars
    Technische Universität Dresden.
    Leden, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Spyropoulou, Ioanna
    Ethniko Metsovio Polytechnico, School of Rural and Surveying Engineering, Athens.
    Roebroeck, Hugo
    Federation of European Motorcyclists' Associations (FEMA), Brussels.
    Carvalhais, José
    University of Tecnology Lisboa, Faculdade de Motricidade Humana.
    Underwood, J.
    Nottingham Trent University.
    Riders acceptance of advanced rider assistance systems2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of assistive systems and intelligent transport systems (ITS) plays an important role for improving the safety of powered two-wheelers (PTWs). Assistive systems for cars are well known and increasingly popular but for PTW riders the development of Advanced Rider Assistance Systems (ARAS) and On-Bike Information Systems (OBIS) has not progressed far enough yet. Estimates suggest that population-wide deployment of ARAS could reduce crashes by up to 40% (Lenné et al., 2011). Within the 2BESAFE project the factors that affect the acceptance of ARAS and OBIS of PTW riders and the obstacles that may hold PTW riders off from the use of assistive systems have been identified. A literature review, focus group interviews and an online survey have been conducted. The results show that the acceptability of systems depends on their function. The acceptability is higher for systems that were perceived to be more useful in emergencies. Survey respondents raised several concerns regarding the acceptance of assistive systems for PTWs. Respondents of the on-line survey felt that there was too much focus on assistive systems as a means of improving PTW rider safety, and less on the dangers that motorcyclists face actually from the actions of other road users.

  • 235.
    Galfi, Helen
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Suspended solids and indicator bacteria in stormwater runoff: Sources of bias in field measurements2014Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Stormwater quality monitoring and control is a prerequisite for sustainable water resources management in urban areas. Stormwater monitoring programs are based on general water sampling guidance and, in the absence of standard procedures, employ various sampling and analytical methods. The aim of this thesis is to assess stormwater sampling methods and sample analyses with respect to the bias which may be introduced at different stages of the process of monitoring suspended solids and indicator bacteria.The focus was on the bias introduced by automated sampling methods and by analyses of suspended solids. Towards this end, suspended solids and four indicator bacteria (total coliforms, E. coli, int. enterococci and C. perfringens) concentrations were compared in stormwater samples in two urban catchments, which were collected manually or by automatic samplers. The impact of automatic samplers on E. coli concentrations in stormwater samples was further investigated by conducting a study of sampling line cross-contamination. The representativeness of suspended solids results obtained by the standard Total Suspended Solids (TSS) method was studied in urban bulk snow by assessing the ratio of suspended and settleable solids. TSS concentrations were compared to those obtained by other analytical procedures, including the Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSC) method and a newly introduced Multiple Filter Procedure (MFP). The MFP builds on the existing standard methods involving the filtration of whole water samples, but uses three filters with decreasing pore sizes to reduce filter clogging, and is designed to retain a broad range of solids, which is typical for stormwater. Finally, recognizing the affinity of indicator bacteria to suspended solids, both constituents were manually sampled in stormwater in four urban catchments during fall to assess their natural variation and correlation patterns between these contaminants.The comparison of samples collected manually and by automatic samplers yielded large differences in suspended solids concentrations, especially in the lower concentration range (0-100 mg/L), whereas the agreement between the two types of samples was within the analytical uncertainty (±30%) for all the four indicator bacteria. During the laboratory study, E. coli concentration in the first sample (following sudden bacteria concentration changes) were positively biased in automated samples due to the stormwater residue in the sampling line. When high E. coli concentrations were followed by low concentrations, the low concentrations were overestimated 10-20 times depending on the sampling line length (tested up to 5 m). The study findings should be helpful for improving field protocols for suspended solids and indicator bacteria sampling.The standard TSS analytical method underestimated solids in urban snow packs, because of high amounts of settleable particles remaining in situ, rather than leaving with snowmelt. The comparison between analytical procedures, including TSS, SSC and MFP yielded highly varying results for stormwater samples. The methods using whole water-samples, rather than aliquots withdrawn from such samples, as done in the case of TSS, produced more accurate estimates of solids concentrations, with a fairly good precision. The precision of the newly proposed MFP was generally better than ±10% and its results were comparable to those of standard methods using whole water samples, but the new procedure was less labourious. Consequently, the MFP was recommended for use when the total mass of solids in stormwater runoff is needed.The suspended solids and indicator bacteria concentrations in stormwater runoff varied from catchment to catchment and weak correlations were found between solids and bacteria, partly due to low concentrations of bacteria during the fall period. However, it was shown that the natural variation of the studied concentrations was affected by the sampling and the analytical method. Thus, the bias introduced during the stormwater quality monitoring process is relevant when assessing pollutant concentrations and the compliance of stormwater discharges with prescribed threshold values in the receiving waters.

  • 236.
    Galfi, Helen
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Haapala, Jenny
    Vatten Östersund.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Westerlund, Camilla
    Länsstyrelsen i Norrbotten.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Indicator bacteria variation in separate sewer systems in Östersund, Sweden: Preliminary results2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Faecal bacteria are a major pollution threat of water bodies designated for multipurpose use including drinking water sources or recreational purposes. Even though stormwater discharges may contribute significantly to microbiological pollution, they have not been fully investigated in the European context. We have studied the presence of indicator bacteria and total suspended solids (TSS) in stormwater discharged from four urban catchments, with areas between 5 and 40 ha, in Östersund, Sweden. The aim was to determine local variation of standard bacteria strains and TSS in Swedish urban catchments with specific land uses. Further, intra event variations were investigated. During dry weather, indicator bacteria concentrations in sewers conveying baseflow did not exceed 100 CFU/100 mL. During storm runoff, total coliform and int. enterococci concentrations increased 102 to 103 times, compared to those in baseflow. Compared to these two parameters, considerably lower concentrations were observed for E. coli and C. perfringens. Bacteria concentrations differed significantly among the sampling sites and partly, a first flush phenomenon was observed. Partly, significant correlations between TSS and indicator bacteria were observed. These were catchment specific and need a more detailed assessment. Further research will focus on seasonal variations and influential factors.

  • 237.
    Galfi, Helen
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Haapala, Jenny
    Vatten Östersund, Water Engineering, Water Department Östersund, Östersund Municipality.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Westerlund, Camilla
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Inter-Event and Intra-Event Variations of Indicator Bacteria Concentrations in the Storm Sewer System of the City of Östersund, Sweden2016Inngår i: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 142, nr 7, artikkel-id 6016003Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An episode of microbiological contamination of the drinking water supply of the City of Östersund, Sweden (63°10′45″N; 14°38′09″E) prompted a study of fecal pollution in four storm drainage catchments discharging in the vicinity of the water treatment plant intake, with the overall aim of determining the presence and variation of standard fecal indicator bacteria strains and total suspended solids (TSS) in stormwater from urban catchments with specific land uses and sizes varying from 5 to 40 ha. Four bacteria strains used as indicators of fecal pollution in Sweden were studied: total coliforms, enterococci, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens). In dry weather, indicator bacteria concentrations in storm sewers conveying baseflow did not exceed 100  colony forming units (CFU)/100  mL 100  colony forming units (CFU)/100  mL, but during wet weather, total coliform and enterococci concentrations increased 10 2 102 to 10 3 103 times, compared to those in baseflow, and considerably less in the case of E. coli and C. perfringens. Bacteria concentrations differed significantly among the sampling sites and in the majority of events observed in the four catchments; higher bacteria concentrations were observed during the early phases of runoff. Only in one catchment, positive correlations were observed between TSS and total coliforms, E. coli, and enterococci, suggesting similar sources; in the remaining catchments, no such correlations were observed. The collected indicator bacteria data represent a useful addition to the available data on indicator bacteria in stormwater in cold-climate regions.

  • 238.
    Galfi, Helen
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Influence of sampling methods on the measurements of urban stormwater quality constituents: Preliminary results2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The choice between automatic and manual sampling of urban stormwater quality has been addressed in the past as an issue of economic efficiency, field safety, and practicality. Nevertheless, there is experimental evidence that both types of sampling may yield statistically different stormwater quality data. While the past attention focused on differences in sampled solids, a new issue was addressed in this study, the potential impacts of sampling methods on concentrations of indicator bacteria. Towards this end, four indicator bacteria (coliforms, E. coli, enterococci and C. perfringens) were sampled in storm sewers of two urban catchments in Östersund, Sweden, using both automatic samplers and manual sampling. Such data were further supplemented by measurements of total suspended solids (TSS) and turbidity, recognizing that bacteria are mostly transported in the attachment to solids. Preliminary results indicate that there may be large differences between indicator bacteria in automatic and manual samples, with E. coli measurements yielding the least differences, and turbidity readings were correlated well with all the indicator bacteria and particularly E. coli. These findings will be used in the continuation of this study for refining the existing experimental design and developing practical guidance for surveys of municipal storm sewers for faecal pollution.

  • 239.
    Galfi, Helen
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Sundelin, Monica
    Hjortens Lab, Östersund.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Comparison of indicator bacteria concentrations obtained by automated and manual sampling of urban stormwater runoff2014Inngår i: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 225, nr 9, artikkel-id 2065Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparative study of indicator bacteria concentrations obtained by laboratory analysis of grab samples of storm water, which were collected manually or by automatic samplers, was carried out in two urban catchments. Samples were analyzed for four types of indicator bacteria, total coliforms, Escherichia coli (E. coli), enterococci, and Clostridium perfringens and further documented by measurements of total suspended solids (TSS) and turbidity. Analysis of complete data sets (N=198) indicated no statistically significant differences in the geometric means of all the constituent samples collected automatically or manually, but there were some small differences between the results produced by the two sampling methods applied. Total coliform concentrations were positively biased in samples collected by automatic samplers, but for the three remaining indicator bacteria (E. coli, enterococci, and C. perfringens), the opposite was true. Risk of sample cross-contamination in automatic samplers was assessed in the laboratory by sampling consecutively synthetic storm water with high and low concentrations of E. coli and enterococci. The first low-concentration samples preceded by high-concentration samples were cross-contaminated and the measured concentrations were positively biased. This cross-contamination was explained by storm-water residue in the sampling line. Such a residue remained in place even after line purging by compressed air, and its mass depended on the sampling line length (tested up to 5 m), as verified by measurements in the laboratory. The study findings should be helpful for improving field protocols for indicator bacteria sampling.

  • 240.
    Galfi, Helen
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Indicator bacteria and associated water quality constituents in stormwater and snowmelt from four urban catchments2016Inngår i: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 539, s. 125-140Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    SummaryFour indicator bacteria were measured in association with physico-chemical constituents and selected inorganics during rainfall, baseflow and snowmelt periods in storm sewers of four urban catchments in a northern Swedish city. The variation patterns of coliforms, E. coli, enterococci and C. perfringens concentrations were assessed in manually collected grab samples together with those of phosphorus, nitrogen, solids, and readings of pH, turbidity, water conductivity, temperature and flow rates to examine whether these constituents with variation patterns similar to those of indicator bacteria, and to exclude the constituents with less similarity. In the reduced data set, the similarities were quantified by the clustering correlation analysis. Finally, the positive/negative relationships found between indicator bacteria and the identified associated constituent groups were described by multilinear regressions. In the order of decreasing concentrations, coliforms, E. coli and enterococci were found in the highest mean concentrations during both rainfall and snowmelt generated runoff. Compared to dry weather baseflow, concentrations of these three indicators in stormwater were 10 (snowmelt runoff) to 102 (rain runoff) times higher. C. perfringens mean concentrations were practically constant regardless of the season and catchment. The type and number of variables associated with bacteria depended on the degree of catchment development and the inherent complexity of bacteria sources. The list of variables associated with bacteria included the flow rate, solids with associated inorganics (Fe and Al) and phosphorus, indicating similar sources of constituents regardless of the season. On the other hand, bacteria were associated with water temperature only during rain periods, and somewhat important associations of bacteria with nitrogen and pH were found during the periods of snowmelt. Most of the associated constituents were positively correlated with bacteria responses, but conductivity, with two associated inorganics (Si and Sr), was mostly negatively correlated in all the catchments. Although the study findings do not indicate any distinct surrogates to indicator bacteria, the inclusion of the above identified constituents (flow rate, solids and total phosphorus for all seasons, water temperature for rainfall runoff, and total nitrogen and pH for snowmelt only) in sanitary surveys of northern climate urban catchments would provide additional insight into indicator bacteria sources and their modelling.

  • 241.
    Galfi, Helen
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Mineral and Anthropogenic Indicator Inorganics in Urban Stormwater and Snowmelt Runoff: Sources and Mobility Patterns2017Inngår i: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 228, nr 7, artikkel-id 263Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Inorganic chemicals in urban stormwater and snowmelt runoff originate from catchment geology and anthropogenic activities. The occurrence, partitioning and mobility of six minerals and six trace metal (TM) indicators of anthropogenic activities were studied in stormwater, snowmelt and baseflow in four urban catchments, and the sampling of inorganics was supplemented by measurements of electrical conductivity (EC), pH and total suspended solids (TSSs). Minerals occurred at concentrations several orders of magnitude higher (1–102 mg/L) than those of TMs (10−2–102 μg/L) and reflected the composition of local groundwater seeping into sewers. Concentrations of Ca, K, Mg and Na were enhanced by baseflow contributions and followed closely the electrical conductivity. Al and Fe minerals occurred in insoluble forms, and their pollutographs were similar to those of TMs, whose concentrations mimicked, to some extent, the flux of TSS. The TMs with the highest and lowest particulate fractions were Cr&Pb and Cu&Zn, respectively. The concentrations of total TMs in snowmelt were two to four times higher than those in stormwater, and both sources likely exceeded some of the stormwater effluent limits (for Cd, Cu and Zn) proposed in Sweden. Where such concentrations depended on water hardness, the risk of toxicity might be reduced by elevated hardness of the monitored snowmelt and stormwater. Recognizing the good ecological status of the study area receiving water, Lake Storsjön, some protection against polluted runoff and snowmelt may be needed and could be achieved by implementing stormwater management measures controlling TSS and TMs.

  • 242.
    Gard, Gunvor
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering.
    Berggård, Glenn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Assessment of anti-slip devices from healthy individuals in different ages walking on slippery surfaces2006Inngår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 37, nr 2, s. 177-86Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest for effective preventive strategies for slips and falls is growing. Much remains to be done, however, to prevent slips and falls in the traffic environment. Using an appropriate anti-slip device may reduce the risk of slips and falls on different surfaces outdoors during winter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the best anti-slip devices of different designs in the Swedish market on a larger group of healthy individuals in different ages on five different slippery surfaces as a way to develop a standard method to test anti-slip devices. Three different designs of anti-slip devices: heel device, foot-blade device and whole-foot device were evaluated on ice surfaces uncovered or covered with gravel, sand, salt or snow. The evaluations were done according to subject's perceived walking safety and balance, videorecordings of walking postures and movements, time to take on and off each anti-slip device, advantages/disadvantages with each anti-slip device and a list of priorities for own use according to three criteria: safety, balance and appearance. The heel device was perceived to be the most safe on all five surfaces, followed by the toe device and the whole-foot device. The heel device was also perceived to be the one with the best walking balance on uncovered ice and on snow covered ice. There were some significant differences due to gender and age. Most subjects walked with a normal muscle function in the hip and knee when walking with or without an anti-slip device on all surfaces. The heel device was perceived as the most rapid one to take on and the toe device as the most rapid one to take off. All three devices were perceived as having a good foothold. The heel device was perceived to fit the shoe and to be stable at heel-strike. The toe device was easily portable and stable on uncovered ice. The whole-foot device was comfortable to walk with and safe on snow covered ice. The heel device had the highest priority according to walking safety, walking balance and choice for own use

  • 243.
    Gard, Gunvor
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering.
    Berggård, Glenn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Rosander, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Larsson, Agneta
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering.
    Pedestrians perceptions of community walking with anti-slip devices: an explorative case study2018Inngår i: Journal of Transport and Health, ISSN 2214-1405, E-ISSN 2214-1405, Vol. 11, s. 202-208Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The risk of falls on slippery surfaces during wintertime is a public safety problem in the Nordic region in the Arctic. The aim of this case study was to explore pedestrians perceptions of walking safety, balance, slipping risk, priority for own use and subjective criteria for a well functioning anti-slip device. An experimental set-up was utilised in which nine pedestrians tested 19 anti-slip devices by simulating walking in realistic traffic situations on four different surfaces. The pedestrians favoured devices with a high number of friction points, distributed under the whole sole (in-built) or forefoot (sandpaper). Also, a whole-foot device with a high number of spikes received high ratings in all aspects measured except in balance enabling properties. Identified subjective criteria were safe foothold, comfort, enabling a normal gait, stability, silence, and predictability. The results indicate that both anti-slip properties and balance enabling properties of the device need to be considered for safe community walking

  • 244.
    Gard, Gunvor
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering.
    Lundborg, Glenn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Pedestrians on slippery surfaces during winter: methods to describe the problems and practical tests of anti-skid devices2000Inngår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 32, nr 3, s. 455-60Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Every year there are thousands of pedestrians in Sweden who are injured because of slippery pavements and roadways. Using an appropriate anti-skid device may reduce the risk of slips and falls on ice and snow. Methods to describe functional problems in walking on different slippery surfaces during winter have been developed as rating scales for evaluating walking safety and walking balance and an observation method to observe posture and movements during walking. Practical tests of all 25 anti-skid devices on the market in Sweden were carried out on different slippery surfaces; gravel, sand, salt, snow and ice. The anti-skid devices were described according to the subjects' perception of walking safety, walking balance and priority for own use. The postures and movements during walking were analysed by an expert physical therapist. The wholefoot device 'studs' was perceived as the best according to walking safety and walking balance and had the highest priority for own use.

  • 245.
    Gard, Gunvor
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering.
    Lundborg, Glenn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Test of Swedish anti-skid devices on five different slippery surfaces2001Inngår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 33, nr 1, s. 1-8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AB - The interest for effective preventive strategies for slips and falls is growing. Much remains to be done, however, to prevent slips and falls in the traffic environment. Some pedestrians are injured because of slippery pavements and roadways. Using an appropriate anti-skid device may reduce the risk of slips and falls on different surfaces outdoors during winter. The aim of this study was to evaluate new anti-skid devices on the Swedish market representing three different designs of anti-skid devices; heel device, fore-foot device and whole-foot device on different slippery surfaces, gravel, sand, salt, snow and ice. The evaluations were done according to subject's perceived walking safety and balance, videorecordings of walking postures and movements, time to take on and off each anti-skid device, advantages/disadvantages with each anti-skid device and a list of priority for own use according to three criteria; safety, balance and appearance. Practical tests were carried out on different slippery surfaces, gravel, sand, salt, snow and ice. The subject's were randomly selected from the registered population over 55 years in a city in northern Sweden. The results showed that eight or more of the ten subjects perceived all four anti-skid devices as fairly good or good regarding walking safety and balance when walking on gravel, sand, and salt. Anti-skid device 3, a whole-foot device was perceived as having none or bad walking safety and balance on snow by seven subjects and anti-skid device 4, a heel device, as having none or bad walking balance on ice by all ten subjects. Eight subjects walked with a normal muscle function in the hip and knee with all anti-skid devices on all surfaces. Small deviations in walking posture and movements were noted in one to two subjects when walking on different surfaces, but no systematic difference between the devices. Anti-skid device 1 'Rewa', a fixed heel device, was perceived as the most rapid one to take on. All four devices were perceived as easy to use and as giving good foothold. Anti-skid device 1 'Rewa' and 4 'Thulin-spike', both heel devices, had the highest priority according to walking safety. 'Rewa' also had the highest priority according to walking balance as well as own use. When combining the criterias 'Rewa' had the highest priority according to walking safety and balance, priority for own use, time to take on and easiness to use.

  • 246.
    Gard, Gunvor
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering.
    Lundborg, Glenn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Transport capacity on different slippery surfaces during winter1994Inngår i: Technical report: IXth PIARC International Winter Road Congress : March 21 - 25, 1994, Seefeld, Austria, Wien: Bundesministerium für Wirtschaftl. Angelegenheiten , 1994, Vol. 1, s. 321-327Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 247.
    Garmabaki, Amir Soleimani
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Marklund, Stefan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Thaduri, Adithya
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Underground pipelines and railway infrastructure: failure consequences and restrictions2019Inngår i: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN 1573-2479, E-ISSN 1744-8980Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Underground pipelines are an essential part of the transportation infrastructure. The structural deterioration of pipelines crossing railways and their subsequent failures can entail critical consequences for society and industry, resulting in direct and indirect costs for all the stakeholders involved. Therefore, continuous and accurate condition assessment is critical for the effective management and maintenance of pipeline networks within the transportation infrastructure. The aim of this study has been to identify failure modes and consequences related to pipelines crossing railway corridors. Expert opinions have been collected through interviews and two sets of questionnaires have been distributed to the 291 municipalities in Sweden, with 137 responses in total. The failure analysis has revealed that pipe deformation has the highest impact, followed by pipe rupture at locations where pipelines cross railway infrastructure. For underground pipelines under railway infrastructure, ageing and the external load were awarded a higher ranking than other potential causes of pipeline failure.

    Authors gratefully acknowledge the funding provided by Sweden’sinnovation agency, Vinnova, through the strategic innovation programmeInfraSweden2030. The funding was granted in a competitiveapplication process that assessed replies to an open call for proposalsconcerning “Condition Assessment and Maintenance of TransportInfrastructure (Grant No. 2016-033113)”.

    Authors gratefully acknowledge the technical support and collaboration(In-kind support) of Arrsleff R€orteknik at Sweden, Luleå RailwayResearch Center (JVTC), Stormwater&Sewers and the SwedishTransport Administration (Trafikverket). In addition, the authors arethankful to the anonymous referees for their constructive commentsand Dr Matthias Asplund and Dr Masoud Naseri for their support andsuggestions.

  • 248.
    Garmabaki, Amir Soleimani
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Thaduri, Adithya
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Marklund, Stefan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Odelius, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Bansal, Tarun
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Rantatalo, Matti
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Asplund, Matthias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Indahl, Stefan
    A Survey on Underground Pipelines and Railway Infrastructure at Cross-Sections2019Inngår i: ESREL-2019 / [ed] Michael beer, Enrico Zio, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Underground pipelines are an essential part of the transportation infrastructure. The structural deterioration of pipelines crossing railways and their subsequent failures are critical for society and industry resulting in direct and indirect costs for all the related stakeholders. Pipeline failures are complex processes, which are affected by many factors, both static (e.g., pipe material, size, age, and soil type) and dynamic (e.g., traffic load, pressure zone changes, and environmental impacts). These failures have serious impacts on public due to safety, disruption of traffic, inconvenience to society, environmental impacts and shortage of resources. Therefore, continuous and accurate condition assessment is critical for the effective management and maintenance of pipeline networks within transportation infrastructure. The aim of this study is to identify failure modes and consequences related to the crossing of pipelines in railway corridors. Expert opinion have been collected through two set of questionnaires which have been distributed to the 291 municipalities in the whole Sweden. The failure analysis revealed that pipe deformation has higher impact followed by pipe rupture at cross-section with railway infrastructure. For underground pipeline under railway infrastructure, aging and external load gets higher ranks among different potential failure causes to the pipeline.

  • 249.
    Gavric, Snezana
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Larm, Thomas
    StormTac corporation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Wahlsten, Anna
    StormTac corporation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Measurement and conceptual modelling of retention of metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) in soils of three grass swales2019Inngår i: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 574, s. 1053-1061Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Grass swales are important elements of the urban green infrastructure that convey and attenuate urban runoff and improve its quality mostly through stormwater infiltration into, and retention of conveyed pollutants by, swale soils. The retention of metals by grass swales was addressed in this study investigating the enrichment of swale soils by three common traffic-related metals: Cu, Pb and Zn. Three swales of various characteristics (L1, L2, L3) were selected for study and their soils were sampled by coring the top 30 cm and dividing the cores into 5 cm thick layers. Cumulative metal burdens were compared to those modelled by the proprietary StormTac Web model, which estimates annual loads of specific constituents for the given land uses and stormwater treatment. The comparisons of measured (MBm) and simulated (MBs) metal burdens retained by swales showed that the measured values exceed the simulated ones, as described by average ratios MBs/MBm = 0.64, 0.50 and 0.59, for swales L1, L2 and L3, respectively. The measured burdens were calculated after subtracting the native soil metal concentrations, assumed equal to those found in the deepest sampled layer, 25–30 cm below the surface. The results suggest the feasibility of assessing performance of grass swales by modelling metal (Cu, Pb, Zn) retention by swales, however for older facilities considered for rehabilitation, the simulated results should be supplemented by soil chemistry sampling.

  • 250.
    Gavric, Snezana
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Larm, Thomas
    StormTac AB, Stockholm.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Wahlsten, Anna
    StormTac AB, Stockholm.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Measurement and Planning–Level Modelling of Retention of Trace Metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) in Soils of Three Urban Drainage Grass Swales2019Inngår i: New Trends in Urban Drainage Modelling: UDM 2018 / [ed] Giorgio Mannina, Cham: Springer, 2019, s. 85-90Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Grass swales are important elements of urban green infrastructure that convey, attenuate and improve the quality of urban runoff mostly through stormwater infiltration into and retention of conveyed pollutants by swale soils. Such processes were addressed in this study, investigating the enrichment of swale soils by ubiquitous urban trace metals, Cu, Pb and Zn. Three swales were selected for study in the City of Lulea (Northern Sweden) and their soils were sampled by coring. Sample cores covered soil depths up to 30 cm, but only the results from the top 5 cm layer characterized by 9–15 samples in each swale are discussed here. After estimating metal mass in this layer in individual swales, such burdens were compared to those modelled by the proprietary StormTac Web model, which estimates annual loads of specific constituents for given land uses and is supported by an extensive database referenced to Swedish environmental conditions. The annual loads modelled for individual swales were multiplied by the swale age to obtain long–term inputs of the trace metals. A good agreement between the measured and modelled loads in soils was obtained and characterized by the ratio Lmod/Lmeas, with an average value of 0.96 and standard deviation of 0.55. Such results suggest the feasibility of assessing the long–term performance of grass swales by modelling trace metal (Cu, Pb, Zn) inputs into swales, estimating the metal loads retained in soils by sampling and analyses, and taking the difference (Lin − Lret) as the exported load.

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