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  • 201.
    Drnovsek, Mateja
    et al.
    University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Economics.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Who, what and when to cope with role stress?: coping strategies used by entrepreneurs in new ventures2008Ingår i: Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 2007: Proceedings of the Twenty-seventh Annual Entrepreneurship Research Conference / [ed] Andrew Zacharakis, Babson College Center , 2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a self regulation perspective to argue that entrepreneurial effectiveness is driven by the coping strategies entrepreneurs use to meet expectations of stakeholders involved in the opportunity exploitation processes. As stakeholders advance their expectations and thus impact the roles of entrepreneurs in the process, role related conflicts, ambiguities and overloads, easily emerge. To resolve such conflicts entrepreneurs engage in coping strategies. We posit that four coping strategies are relevant for entrepreneurial effectiveness: structural role redefinition, personal role redefinition, reactive role behavior, and passive role behavior.

  • 202.
    Drnovšek, Mateja
    et al.
    University of Ljubljana.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Cardon, Melissa S.
    Pace University, Pleasantville, New York.
    Entrepreneurial self-efficacy and business start-up: developing a multi-dimensional definition2010Ingår i: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, ISSN 1355-2554, E-ISSN 1758-6534, Vol. 16, nr 4, s. 329-348Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aims of this paper are to: critically review and identify gaps in current literature on entrepreneurial self-efficacy, provide a definition of entrepreneurial self-efficacy that addresses some of those gaps, and explore the role of entrepreneurial self-efficacy during the phases of a business start-up process. The research seeks to define entrepreneurial self-efficacy using three sources of dimensionality. The first includes the particular aspect of entrepreneurship to which self-efficacy is applied, whether to business start-up or business growth activities. The second sources of dimensionality refers to the content of self-efficacy beliefs (task or outcome goal beliefs), and the third source to the valence of entrepreneurial self-efficacy beliefs (positive or negative control beliefs). Design/methodology/approach: The authors build from the origins and mechanisms of the self-efficacy construct in social cognitive theory and a synthesis of that work with prior use of self-efficacy in entrepreneurship to propose a definition of entrepreneurial self-efficacy that is context specific and empirically testable. Findings: Entrepreneurial self-efficacy is best seen as a multidimensional construct made up of goal and control beliefs, and propositions for how these two different dimensions will play a role during phases in the process of starting-up a new business are developed. Research limitations/implications: A well-defined entrepreneurial self-efficacy construct has significant pedagogical payoffs given that entrepreneurship education should also focus on social-cognitive, psycho-cognitive and ethical perspectives of entrepreneurship. Originality/value: The proposed multidimensional nature of self-efficacy is original and unique in its contribution, and provides a conceptual foundation to understand how capabilities along different dimensions of entrepreneurial self-efficacy are created and nurtured. This knowledge is useful for potential entrepreneurs as well as those who support them in the process.

  • 203.
    Drnovšek, Mateja
    et al.
    University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Economics.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    The effectiveness of coping strategies used by entrepreneurs and their impact on personal well-being and venture performance2010Ingår i: Zbornik Radova Ekonomskog Fakulteta u Rijeci : ÄRasopis za Ekonomsku Teoriju i Praksu, ISSN 1331-8004, E-ISSN 1846-7520, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 193-220Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes effectiveness of coping strategies that entrepreneurs use to daily manage work related stress. Coping is the process of expending efforts to solve personal and interpersonal problems and reducing stress induced by unpleasant and stressful situations. Two broad strategies of coping are identified; problem-based coping refers to a cognitively-based response behavior that includes efforts to alleviate stressful circumstances while emotion-based coping involves behavioral responses to regulate the affective consequences of stressful events. The purpose of this research is to analyze relationships among the coping strategies used by entrepreneurs and a set of antecedents influencing the selection of coping strategies. The methodology used is based on structural equation modeling and empirical data of 469 entrepreneurs from two European countries. Our results show that problembased coping facilitates well-being and venture performance. In addition, our findings also support interaction effects of founder centrality and contextual conditions of venturing on the extent entrepreneurs engage in coping. We believe that our insights can help in training entrepreneurs in the development of effective coping strategies that are context dependent. In specific, our results suggest entrepreneurs to engage in problem-focused strategies when they want to effectively address the economic aspects of their lives whereas when they engage in emotionbased strategies they seem to increase the self-knowledge they need to start subsequent ventures and facilitate learning from failure. Future studies on coping strategies could study the interplay of coping strategies used to resolve challenging social situations that various stakeholders of practicing entrepreneurs impose.

  • 204. Drugge, Lars
    et al.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Berghuvud, Ansel
    Stensson, Annika
    The nonlinear behaviour of a pantograph current collector suspension1999Ingår i: Proceedings of the 1999 ASME Design Engineering Technical Conferences, 1999Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The pantograph-catenary system is a critical component for trains required to run at higher speeds. The pantograph often includes nonlinear characteristics and the scope of this work is to investigate if nonlinear dynamic phenomena can occur in an existing design. A model of a pantograph suspension subsystem has been developed according to physical parameter values of the head suspension of the Schunk WBL88/X2 pantograph, providing electric power to the Swedish high-speed train X2. Studies of the system response for different force excitation show both harmonic, subharmonic and chaotic behaviour for the investigated parameter regions.

  • 205.
    Drugge, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Stensson, Annika
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Modelling and simulation of catenary-pantograph interaction2000Ingår i: Vehicle System Dynamics, ISSN 0042-3114, E-ISSN 1744-5159, Vol. 33, nr suppl, s. 490-501Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Modelling and simulation of the dynamic behaviour of catenary-pantograph interaction is an important part when assessing the capability of a current collection system for railway traffic. The large variation in infrastructure characteristics in different countries and railway companies, different types of traffic, designs of pantographs etc. makes it almost impossible to develop a final simulation model of such a system. Instead, it would be favourable to have a tool that has the ability to set up models of such systems, choose relevant detail of the models, run simulations and finally visualize the results. To make the tool useful for engineers, design experts as well as simulation experts, the functionality of the tool must be worked out. Aspects on computer simulation such as developed models, simulation methods and computer tools are presented. The aim is to develop a scenario that considers different designs, models, solution methods and user levels. The scenario focuses on how to structure the use of simulation of dynamics in catenary-pantograph development. A scenario is sketched built on different user levels, a modular structure and a structure for information management

  • 206.
    Dusana, Hullova
    et al.
    University of Portsmouth.
    Pavel, Laczko
    University of Portsmouth.
    Frishammar, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    A Knowledge-flow Framework for Transitioning from a Product-centric Business to Provider of a Customer-centric Solution2017Ingår i: BAM 2017, Warwick, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 207.
    Einola, Suvi
    et al.
    University of Vaasa, Department of Management,.
    Kohtamäki, Marko
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design. University of Vaasa, Department of Management.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design. University of Vaasa, Department of Management.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design. Hanken School of Economics.
    Retrospective relational sensemaking in R&D offshoring2017Ingår i: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 63, s. 205-216Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To address the increasing relational challenges in international R&D collaboration, the present study develops a framework for understanding retrospective relational sensemaking in R&D offshore relationships. Using a comparative case study methodology, this study analyzes relational data from 56 interviews regarding four R&D offshore relationships between two large Swedish multinational companies and four R&D offshore partners. This study contributes to existing sensemaking theory by constructing a framework for retrospective relational sensemaking, including triggers and the phases of enactment, selection, and retention, to improve relational learning in R&D offshore relationships.

  • 208.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Norrbottens roll i samhällsekonomin: En kritisk granskning av indikatorer samt några lärdomar för framtiden2014Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 209.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Framtidens Norrbotten: Fem scenariobeskrivningar över länets utveckling2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande rapport utgör en framåtriktad analys av de regionala förutsättningar som rapporterats inom projektet Regional förnyelse, som finansierats av Länsstyrelsen i Norrbottens län och Luleå tekniska universitet (LTU). Utifrån de studier och rapporter som bidragit till en ökad förståelse kring länets möjligheter och utmaningar resonerar vi i den här studien om möjliga framtidsscenarier för Norrbotten. Vår målsättning är inte att förutspå den regionala utvecklingen utan att i stället lyfta fram ett antal scenarier som det regionala utvecklingsarbetet kan leda till. Syftet blir att skapa ett diskussionsunderlag som kan vara till nytta för framtida utveckling av regionala strategier såsom exempelvis den regionala utvecklingsstrategin och den regionala innovationsstrategin. Regionala strategierDen regionala utvecklingsstrategin ingår i EU:s och Sveriges strategier för hållbar tillväxt och är styrande för de mer operativa programmen i länet. Strategin binder samman planeringsprocesser som har betydelse för en hållbar tillväxt och kan därigenom underlätta samverkan inom och mellan länen. Strategin utgör och ett strategiskt underlag i förhandlingar mellan länet och regeringen och även vid överläggningar på EU-nivå.Den regionala analysen av Norrbottens förutsättningar för utveckling och potential för tillväxt resulterade i fem strategiska områden där ett antal prioriterade åtgärder anges. De största utmaningarna är den demografiska utvecklingen och den framtida kompetensförsörjningen. Avgörande för regionens tillväxt är att det finns arbetskraft och kompetens som matchar arbetslivets behov. Med en allt äldre befolkning ökar försörjningsbördan och det blir allt svårare att upprätthålla välfärden med minskade skatteunderlag.Regionala analyserEtt flertal rapporter och studier har författats inom ramarna för projektet Regional förnyelse. Näringslivsanalyser och analyser av internationell handel stödjer att det finns goda förutsättningar för tillväxt inom länets företag. Företagarna beskriver kompetensförsörjning som en av de största utmaningarna för att uppnå planerad tillväxttakt. Regionala scenarierUtifrån de regionala analyserna har fem scenarier, i form av framtidsbilder, målats upp. Avsikten med scenarierna är att beskriva hur regionala insatser och utveckling kan skapa alternativa framtider för Norrbotten. Avsikten med scenarierna är således inte att förutspå regionens framtida utveckling utan snarare peka på hur olika typer av regional utveckling kan skapa olika förutsättningar. De scenarios som diskuteras i denna rapport är:— Scenario I: Basindustriregionen— Scenario II: Kunskap, kreativitet och kommunikation som regional drivkraft— Scenario III: Förändrat globalt klimat med nya möjligheter— Scenario IV: Smart specialisering baserad på relaterad variation— Scenario V: Diversifiering efter en nationell genomsnittsmodell

  • 210.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Företags behov och erfarenheter av företagsstöd: en litteraturöversikt.2016Ingår i: De regionala företagsstöden: ändamålsenliga eller otidsenliga?, Östersund: Myndigheten för tillväxtpolitiska utvärderingar och analyser , 2016, s. 58-72Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 211.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Ylinenpää, Håkan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Lundgren, Nils-Gustav
    Projekt: Regional förnyelse2015Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 212.
    Ekman, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Antti, Marta-Lena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Emami, Reza
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Törlind, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Kuhn, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Minami, Ichiro
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Gustafsson, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Milz, Mathias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Grahn, Mattias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Behar, Etienne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Wolf, Veronika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Dordlofva, Christo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Mendaza de Cal, Maria Teresa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Jamali, Maryam
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Roos, Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Ottemark, Rikard
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Nieto, Chris
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Soria Salinas, Álvaro Tomás
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Vázquez Martín, Sandra
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Nyberg, Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Neikter, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Lindwall, Angelica
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Fakhardji, Wissam
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Projekt: Rymdforskarskolan2015Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The Graduate School of Space Technology

  • 213.
    Eliasson, Peter
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Jeppsson, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Fernström, Göran
    Volvo, Göteborg.
    An integrated design evaluation system supporting thermal-structural iterations1998Ingår i: Concurrent Engineering - Research and Applications, ISSN 1063-293X, E-ISSN 1531-2003, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 179-187Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the design of high temperature components, design evaluation often requires an iterative procedure between thermal fluid and thermal structural simulations An integrated computer system providing an iterative environment for the multidisciplinary simulations re quired has been developed. The system supports iterations between thermal fluid and thermal structural simulations using two different commercial simulation packages. Traditionally, fluid and structural analysis have been simulated separately and analysis of coupled prob lems has required special, multidisciplinary simulation packages which are seldom used in early stages of design. Improving the infrastruc ture for data exchange between separate computer applications is one way to significantly reduce the lead time for design iterations. This reduction in lead-time allows multidisciplinary effects to be accounted for in early stages of design. The design system is demonstrated on an exhaust manifold, where the thermal interaction between fluid and structure is of significant importance. The commercial simulation tools have been integrated to demonstrate the effect of automised data flow on design methodology, i.e , de sign iterations. This integration method makes use of existing features in the simulation packages and uses an export file format as the neu tral exchange format. In this way, the integrated system is simple and fast to develop which is preferred in small prototype systems and de velopment project Database integration supports a tighter integration, but requires more development effort. For design systems, where several design tools need to communicate, standardised information management procedures are preferable, following the ideas of the STEP framework.

  • 214.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    A need-based approach to product development2007Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In manufacturing industry, a developing view of life-cycle commitments has in turn triggered an interest in development processes for incorporated physical artefacts. In fact, this new scenario is an expansion of the core manufacturing business such that not only the manufactured artefact but also its functionality can be contracted for. Thus, an emphasis on development of goods becomes an emphasis on development of goods and services combined - a functional product. Such development process is not straightforward since goods and services might otherwise be developed in distinct ways. A service, for instance, is performed as an activity and is partly co- produced with the user and/or customer. Based on this it can be argued that a service is also oftentimes partly customized in some sense. A core competence within the strand of service development would therefore have to be an understanding of customers needs. In contrast, within the strand of product development a core competence is to transform a market opportunity into an engineered physical product ready to launch. Each of these strands builds on different logics in the development processes. Within a Functional Product Development process an integration of these two worlds - the understanding of needs and the development of a physical product - is expected to support the design of physical artefacts aimed for life-cycle commitments. Embarking from an assumption that an understanding of customers', users' and/or peoples' needs is likely to provide useful insights into Functional Product Development processes, this thesis aims to shed light on input into early phases of product development. Previous studies, presented in the appended papers, indicate that ‘needs' - which people cannot readily articulate - are not fully recognized in product development literature or explicitly managed in industry. Thus, building on the results from these studies, the work in this thesis elaborates essentially on two theoretical knowledge domains, i.e., product development and Needfinding. In Needfinding, a main principle is to look for needs, not for solutions. To do so, the methods to generate customer information are focused on data related to what people actually are striving to achieve when taking actions. Hence, goals, contexts, actions and behaviours matter and are probed for by the Needfinding team. A common approach is a combination of methods relying on observations and interviews. In practice, the way in which the study is undertaken will be context dependent. The search for data should be performed by a multidisciplinary team, in which the idea is that designers should participate. In view of the identified differences it can be concluded that the input from a needs-based approach differs in terms of the kind of data that would result in a need statement. Such an approach provides rich and contextual information about people's activities and goals, while a typical product development approach provides rich and detailed information about the products that customers use. Thus, a need-based approach supports innovative and new products and traditional product development seems to support improvement of existing products. Yet both are important to develop functional products. The challenge of integrating the two stances is identified as related to cultural and historical formative issues. Designers are well acquainted with product improvement from a technical point of view, but needs identification is likely to require a non-trivial shift in perspective and in particular will rely on a broadly sociological ability - the ability to observe human beings.

  • 215.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Functional product development: an explorative view2006Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Embodied in the concept of functional products is a shift in view for manufacturing companies as providers of physical artefacts to service providers. Furthermore, differentiation by offering added value, increased commitment towards customers, life-cycle commitment for the physical artefact and close collaboration between manufacturing companies are characteristics of the concept of functional products. On a business level, the concept of functional products are expressed as total offers, integrated solutions and/or functional sales. On a product development level, the integration of hardware, software and service aspects is identified. Accordingly, from one viewpoint the concept of functional products leads to a transition view and from another viewpoint the concept of functional products leads to an integration view. A shift in view and integration seem to be in opposition to each other. The purpose of this thesis is to explore what new approaches in product development are motivated by the concept of functional products. To understand the concept of functional products, the differences between hardware and service aspects have to be understood. A knowledge perspective frames the study. The focus is upon hardware and service knowledge. The work in this thesis approaches the concept of functional products from a product development perspective i.e. a development of physical artefacts viewpoint, bringing in service management literature. The studies are delimited to manufacturing companies acting in a business-to-business environment. The research strategy used encompasses an interpretive approach and qualitative material is generated in both interviews and meetings with industry people. Two perspectives emerge in the theoretical framework, a hardware perspective and a service perspective. A transition or a shift in view from a hardware perspective to a service perspective can take place on a business level, whereas on a product development level an integration view is necessary. The ability to alternate between a service perspective including needs analysis and a hardware perspective including solutions has been presented. Thus, the importance of understanding needs is recognised for functional product development. New approaches for product development are found concerning integration of knowledge, collaboration and reflective approach to services. An open-minded approach to products where new products and offerings can emerge has also been discussed.

  • 216.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Product-Service Systems: en teoretisk referensram för produktutveckling2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 217.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Bergström, Mattias
    Johansson, Christian
    Larsson, Tobias
    On the way to knowledge awareness in early design2007Ingår i: The future of product development: proceeding of the 17th CIRP design conference / [ed] Frank-Lothar Krause, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2007, s. 607-616Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This work is part of a study where a descriptive and a prescriptive approach have been used. This paper deals with the descriptive part and discusses views on decision support in product development to identify factors of relevance to con-sider when designing computer-based decision support for total offers. Providing services in form of physical artefacts offered as ‘functions per unit’ is at the heart of total offers. The intention is to provide customers with functions in time and place ‘as-needed’, based on a life-cycle commitment. This new scenario is found in manufacturing industry in addition to a traditional view on selling hardware and providing aftermarket activities. Total offers gain access to possibilities to ‘design in’ value added characteristics into the physical artefact, e.g., maintenance, moni-toring, training and abilities to upgrade and/or remanufacture. Computer tools is commonly used to supply design teams with information which is relevant, correct and in time to support resolutions, yet to support a GO/NO GO decision for total offers contemporary tools seems to be insufficient. Relevant factors to take into consideration are to support learning and provide the decision makers with insights in a number of plausible ‘what-if’ scenarios to im-prove the solution space.

  • 218.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Bergström, Mattias
    Larsson, Andreas
    Törlind, Peter
    Design thinking challenges in education2009Ingår i: Design has never been this cool: ICED 09, the 17th International Conference on Engineering Design ; 24 - 27 August 2009, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA ; proceedings volume / [ed] Margareta Norell Bergendahl, Glasgow: Design Research Society, 2009, s. 89-100Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Product development processes are commonly represented in sequential models covering the necessary stages from planning to product rollout, while processes to take needs into the development activities show other aspects, namely that understanding needs requires, for a product developer, additional skills. In our curricula for engineering design education we apply some aspects of design thinking to bring together (a) business savvy, in terms of understanding people’s needs as market opportunities, and (b) product development process, in terms of team-based creativity and collaborative skills, with (c) the basic engineering knowledge. This is a demanding aim, much because the approaches, methods and mindsets differ widely from what the students are used to. Hence, in this paper we elaborate on our efforts to educate engineers in design thinking to provide insights into some challenges for engineering design.  Three key challenges are identified, (1) integrative approaches are not straightforwardly implemented, (2) training of ‘soft’ capabilities to provide a change in thinking, and (3) social competence to make use of design thinking.

  • 219. Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Bergström, Mattias
    Nergård, Henrik
    Larsson, Andreas
    Törlind, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Prompting innovation: dedicated places2008Ingår i: Proceedings: 2nd Conference on Nordic Innovation Research, December 3-4 2007; Luleå University of Technology / [ed] Håkan Ylinenpää, Luleå tekniska universitet, 2008, s. 161-173Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In our view, close collaboration in joint work meetings has gained limited attention from universities. Our vision for promoting innovative forms of academia-industry collaboration is to bridging meeting content, goal and physical domains to facilitate the meetings and everyday interactions of creative and innovative teams. This paper provides an outline of how an emerging approach for team innovation encourages a reorganization of research and development work, as well as provides a new rational for the design and use of collaborative work spaces. The opportunity to dedicate a room, i.e., a boiler room, for creative collaborative meetings occurred when our offices was going to be refurbished. The space, i.e., the physical constraints of the room, was given. Structurally, it is a typical squared room, nothing remarkable about that. However, by observing and talking about our own collaboration and meetings a set of needs was identified. For the boiler room these needs was captured in the words static and flexible. On the foundation of these words the boiler room has been furnish. A furniture FocIn-FocOut was designed to guide people into different modes. The rationale for the boiler room has been made visible and thereby, also the notion of place as a cultural phenomena.

  • 220.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Holmqvist, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Advanced engineering: How to sustain the ability for innovation operations2016Ingår i: Advanced Manufacturing and Automation V / [ed] Y. Wang; T. Yu; J.O. Strandhagen; K. Wang, Southhampton: WIT Press, 2016, s. 304-311Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 221.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Holmqvist, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Developing innovation for change: Enablers for sustainability2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 222.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Holmqvist, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Meeting sustainability challenges: soft systems thinking as an enabler for change2015Ingår i: The 20th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED15): 27th-30th July 2015, Politecnico di Milano, Italy : proceedings of ICED15 / [ed] Christian Weber; Stephan Husung; Gaetano Gascini; Marco Cantamessa ; D. Marjanović, Glasgow: Design Research Society, 2015, Vol. 1 : Design for life, s. 209-216Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There are three dimensions of sustainability: environmental, economic, and social. One important task is to integrate them so as to identify how more sustainable paths can be identified, assessed, and decided upon. Previous research has identified systems thinking as a key to achieving this. The purpose of the paper is to build on these ideas and to propose an initial framework that demonstrates the potential of incorporating soft systems methodology and a theory of modalities, introducing aspects in addition to environmental, economic, and social ones. Moreover, theoretical exploration shows that understanding different predispositions, or worldviews, are vital to creating shared and purposeful actions. This paper expresses the intentions of a pre-study, and the ideas are far from mature; however, the importance of collaboration in shared and more sustainable actions is the basis for an industry-wide initiative called the Construction Climate Challenge (CCC).

  • 223.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Holmqvist, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Johansson, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wenngren, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    A quest for knowledge?2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, a new knowledge economy and more service-based offerings are commonly mentioned as a challenge for manufacturing companies. This challenge addresses the companies’ knowledge base and the traditional engineering expertise areas. The report starts from an assumption that there are differences in how knowledge is managed, as well as differences in the intentions to why it is managed. Based on this assumption, the purpose in the report is two-folded. First, the purpose is to conceptualize different facets of knowledge within a framework of technical product development. Second, the purpose is that the report serves as a trigger for discussions and reflections on existing practices in industrial workshops. So, despite that the report does not provide the “right” answers to these questions; they still guide the work in our research:• What is actually managed in every-day engineering project work?• And, for what purposes?The work accounted for in the report comes from a literature review and our jointefforts in understanding the research area from a theoretical perspective. First general views on knowledge is presented, including its classification in different ways, compared to information and data, as well as its division into tacit and explicit knowledge, or practical skills and theoretical knowledge. Human factors, including how people search for information, is also presented. Then a more explicit focus on technical knowledge is presented, showing the shift from knowledge as an artefact to a social and personal perspective in recent years. This also encompasses discussing the capabilities and knowledge of an engineer. A contribution of this report is the conceptualization of different facets of engineering knowledge; especially the more social aspects of engineering knowledge have been highlighted.

  • 224.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Holmqvist, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wenngren, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Place innovation: using design thinking in live cases2016Ingår i: Proceedings of NordDesign 2016 / [ed] Boks, C; Sigurjonsson, J; Steinert, M; Vis, C; Wulvik, A, 2016, Vol. 2, s. 398-317Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a study based on two views, i.e. innovation in teams of non-designers and live case interactions. This means that a diverse set of roles are involved in the innovation activities that originate from real regional situations. The application area relates to design and development of destinations, e.g. regions, tourism and attractive places. This study focuses on two main issues, namely (a) is it possible to make non-designers momentarily become design thinkers, and (b) is it possible to produce ideas and 'out-of-the-box' views in groups consisting of non-designers within a short timeframe? The purpose of this paper is thus to illustrate and explain these issues in order to contribute to a live case platform for collaborative innovation among society, trade and industry, and universities. The empirical data from four workshops, in total engaging 179 participants, shows that there are several challenges related to the efforts to transfer techniques and methods for design thinking and innovation into the heads and hands of non-designers. For example, trade and business can rarely allocate regular working hours for participatory design thinking, so they act based on traditional professional roles. Also, sessions turn into (unproductive) discussions if the participants are not firmly facilitated and encouraged. Bringing in live cases through the participation of mixed teams places additional requirements on innovation research in respect of implementation and packaging for practical uses.

  • 225.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Holmqvist, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wenngren, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Kaartinen, Heidi
    Centria Research & Development, Ylivieska.
    Solvang, Wei Deng
    Narvik University College, Industrial Engineering.
    SMEs’ challenges and needs in relation to innovation agendas and strategies2016Ingår i: 1st International Symposium on Small-scale Intelligent Manufacturing Systems (SIMS 2016: 21 – 24 June 2016, UiT – The Arctic University of Norway, Narvik, Norway, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, s. 13-7Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Regional research project are, as is also regional industry, highly need-based. That is, understanding the stakeholders' (or customers') real challenges and related needs is important. This study is based on interviews with SMEs in the Northern parts of Finland, Norway and Sweden, but also on available innovation agendas and strategies for each country. The differences among the companies in those regions bring forward distinct needs, while many experience similar challenges, for example low population density, long distances and a high dependency on basic industries. Innovation is identified as a key driver of regional growth and competitiveness. SMEs rarely employ the term innovation to describe their activities, but rather stress 'knowing the customer' as important. This indicates one of the challenges to implement innovation strategy as a driver for growth and competitiveness

  • 226.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Håkansson, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Öhrling, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Revisiting prototyping: learning in early design2012Ingår i: Proceedings of the the 12th International Design Conference, DESIGN 2012: May 21-24 2012, Dubrovnik, Croatia / [ed] Dorian Marjanovic; Mario Storga; Neven Pavkovic; Nevad Bojcetic, Design Research Society, 2012, s. 2045-2052Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The vision for manufacturing firms to provide more services certainly include more intangible and tacit parameters for engineers to handle. Hence, the early development stages describe a learning process where knowledge and solution progress in parallel.

  • 227.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Johansson, Christian
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Nergård, Henrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Manufacturing knowledge: going from production of things to designing value in use2015Ingår i: International Journal of Intelligent Decision Technologies, ISSN 1872-4981, E-ISSN 1875-8843, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 79-89Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A new vision in manufacturing is to develop product-service integrated value solutions. Today, few firms have fully realized this vision because they are not able to support the reasoning in the early stages of design. The purpose of this paper is to discuss engineers' cognitive challenge when replacing the core product rationale with value logic. The paper problematizes engineering design by dividing knowledge into the categories technically constructed (explicit) and socially constructed (tacit). In doing so, this study contributes the assumed effects of a perspective shift that could guide the development of computational tools.

  • 228. Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Wenngren, Johan
    Törlind, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Where do innovations come from?2010Ingår i: Design 2010: 11th International Design Conference, Dubrovnik - Croatia, May 17 - 20, 2010 / [ed] D. Marjanovic; M. Storga; N. Pavkovic; N. Bojcetic, Zagreb: Design Research Society, 2010, s. 545-554Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on a descriptive study of two types of innovation awards within a manufacturing company. The purpose is to identify sources and understand the background of these awarded innovations. An industrial view of the concept innovation is of importance in order to support future product development processes. Based on the interviews of several team members in awarded innovation projects, some aspects can be emphasized: the importance of the exploration and knowledge acquisition phase, importance of external triggers and that innovation is not a linear process.

  • 229.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Kastensson, Åsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Exploit and explore: two ways of categorizing innovation projects2011Ingår i: Impacting society through engineering design: ICED 11 København, the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design ; 15th - 18th August 2011, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Copenhagen, Denmark ; proceedings volumes / [ed] Steve Culley; Ben Hicks; Tim McAloone; T.J. Howard, Glasgow: Design Research Society, 2011, Vol. 3 : Design organisation and management, s. 284-293Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation is vital to companies, but also difficult to perform since there are many ways to approach the subject. Typically, a balance between all issues related to innovation is suggested in literature. The empirical study presented in this paper elaborates on two strategies for innovation projects, namely to exploit existing solutions and to explore a market to develop breakthrough solutions. This is done for the purpose to discuss management implications, and thereby also make those transparent for innovation projects. The result indicates that managerial implications for radical innovation projects are to provide internal legitimacy for the projects intentions, to provide for a clear view of balancing aspects by using concepts that fit into opposite ends on a continuum, and to preserve a rich information base about users.

  • 230.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Department of Design Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Lund University.
    Learning for product innovation engineering2014Ingår i: Proceedings of the 13th International Design Conference, DESIGN 2014: May 19-22 2014, Dubrovnik, Croatia / [ed] Dorian Marjanović; Mario Štorga; Neven Pavković; Nenad Bojčetić, Zagreb: Design Research Society, 2014, s. 1371-1380Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 231. Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    A service perspective on product development: towards functional products2005Ingår i: Proceedings of 12th International Product Development Conference: IPDM, 2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional products are understood as a combination of hardware, software and services. Based on interviews with employees in manufacturing firms the notion of functional product development is described. The purpose has been to explore the differences between a service perspective and a core product perspective and highlight changes in the management of product development processes that are motivated by the notion of functional products. Exploring the differences between the two perspectives has identified a gap of how the product is viewed at the business level and technical development levels. The integration of services into the hardware development process in the form of a customised product or product life cycle has been highlighted. Internal and external communication about needs has been identified as useful.

  • 232.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Larsson, Tobias
    People, product and process perspectives on product/service-system development2009Ingår i: Introduction to Product/Service-System Design, London: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2009, s. 219-236Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The adaptation of Product/Service-System calls for new development models. On one side this businesses give the manufacturing firm possibilities to redesign, upgrade and replace the discrete device that provides the performance their customers are asking for. On the other side, this new situation has to address aspects that are normally not addressed in early product development, i.e., services. In this chapter, we will elaborate on product and service development processes models, as well as system models to propose a frame of reference for multiple perspectives on PSS development. These perspectives are people, product and process. Also, this chapter puts forward implications for the development of PSS models.

  • 233.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Larsson, Tobias C.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Lund University.
    Revisiting the research field of product-service systems development2012Ingår i: Proceedings of the ASME 2012 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference: IDETC/CI, New York: American Society of Mechanical Engineers , 2012, Vol. 3, s. 1043-1049Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Product-Service Systems (PSS) has now for more than a decade been a research interest in Europe and Japan. The research aims to support manufacturing industries’ ability to provide value in terms of a service offer to its customers, simultaneously taking a more holistic approach to eco-sustainability. The idea of providing customer benefits in parallel with robust products is not new, yet equipping engineers to integrate a radical innovation and service perspective in the early design stages is received as fairly radical. Prevailing methods, tools and design thinking are barriers that prevents approaching PSS by the necessary integration of several, but distinct, logics.Due to the inclusion of both product development and service development in development of PSS, at least, two schools of thoughts exist within the research field of PSS development. Namely, one based on product development rationality and one based on service provision reasoning. In general, such a situation would be a base for a conflict where the debate focuses, which strand that should be more valid than the other. However, if so, this would certainly not benefit the need for cross-disciplinarily research of PSS. The purpose in this paper is two-fold; first, to describe PSS research efforts by acknowledging both the product and the service perspective, second to explore and discuss future directions and by that identify “white spots” on the map which may be seen as relevant to bridge the integration gap.

  • 234.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Department of Design Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Lund University.
    Expanding the social dimension: Towards a knowledge base for radical product innovation2011Ingår i: Impacting society through engineering design: ICED 11 København, the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design ; 15th - 18th August 2011, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Copenhagen, Denmark ; proceedings volumes / [ed] Steve J. Culley; Ben Hicks; Tim McAloone; T.J. Howard, Glasgow: Design Research Society, 2011, Vol. 3 : Design organisation and management, s. 143-152Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The extension of businesses to incorporate the provision of function as a service in supplement to standalone products is an ongoing movement in manufacturing industry. In short, this means that the development intent should be guided by the need of ‘performance in use’ that the customer wants, e.g. thrust rather than an engine. By this, the established knowledge base challenges the development team.This paper embarks from the assumption that there are three main challenges, i.e. (1) innovation activities, (2) customer data acquisition and (3) the transformation of data into design information. The purpose is to discuss knowledge sharing activities to contribute to product-service innovation. In this study it has been found that contemporary data acquisition activities filter out important dimensions of knowledge. Thus, does not provide a sound base for service provisions.

  • 235. Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Larsson, Andreas
    In search of what is missing: needfinding the SIRIUS way2007Ingår i: Proceedings of the Fourth IASTED International Conference on Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Engineering: November 29 - December 1, 2006, St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands / [ed] M. Boumedine; C. Touzet, Anaheim: ACTA Press, 2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    “Listen closely to your customers, and you are more likely to design products that actually meet or even exceed their needs.”: Such statements have come to dominate company innovation strategies in the last decade, but in reality involving customers in product development is not as straightforward as it sounds. Customers, it is becoming clear, cannot always express their needs adequately. Especially, in the case of innovative products where the starting position by definition includes no existing solution, applying a user-orientated approach is paramount. We argue that techniques for ‘needfinding’ must be the point of departure. This has importance both in terms of methodological issues – how to find customer needs? – and for organizational work – who should be engaged in finding customer needs? In our view, engineers must be involved in identifying and understanding those needs. We have learnt through a series of studies, that structured needfinding by engineers during the earliest phases of product development could better support the process of identifying needs and thereby guide design projects. In this way, two basic problems are overcome. Firstly, identifying needs which are otherwise difficult to articulate becomes possible. Secondly, translation difficulties between customers and engineers are eradicated

  • 236.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Larsson, Andreas
    Larsson, Madelene
    Need driven product development in team-based projects2007Ingår i: Design for society: knowledge, innovation and sustainability ; ICED '07 - Paris, 16th International Conference on Engineering Design ; 28 - 30 August 2007, Paris, France ; conference proceedings, Paris, 2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, practical activities of needfinding - an intertwined approach to identifying needs and to visualizing idea concepts in early design - are described and discussed. This is done primarily to gain an increased understanding of the various representations of user needs that are fed into the fuzzy front-end activities of team-based product innovation projects. The empirical basis comes from a study of an eight-month collaborative product development project, performed under realistic conditions by MSc students in close collaboration with their client.Focusing closely on customers and their needs is encouraged within the conceptual framework of Integrated Product Development and is increasingly highlighted as a key enabler in the design of truly innovative products. Despite the fact that identified customer needs are considered as the initial and primary input into such an innovation process, it can be argued that the design teams do not commonly have a sufficient understanding of customer needs and they do not normally interact with customers in their environment. Besides focusing on measurable aspects of user behaviour and requirements, a traditional approach to identifying and managing customer needs usually includes several interpretive stages before being handed over to the design team. In the context of innovative products, the identification and definition of customers and their needs is a non-trivial and difficult exercise. It involves, we suggest, not only needfinding but also the definition of ‘those who might need the product’, users and customers to co-evolve iteratively in the early phases of design.

  • 237.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Åström, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Functional product innovation: reaping the benefits of simulation driven design2007Ingår i: Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Engineering: Proceedings of Fourth IASTED International Conference on Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Engineering, KSCE 2006 / [ed] M. Boumedine; C. Touzet, ACTA Press, 2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a tradition in selling and developing physical artefacts while viewing services as add-ons, the view on products in Swedish industry extends to include total offers, i.e., service provision. The service providing companies take extended long-term responsibilities regarding the physical artefact and the agreed upon functions. The changed business scenario affects product development, in particular the early phases. A life-cycle perspective, cross-company collaboration and customer needs are issues to take into consideration early on in product development. An extended enterprise business model is presented in this paper to give a notion of the changed input for product development. This is done for the purpose of discussing a simulation driven design approach in relation to a vision for functional product innovation. In an engineering design environment, computational support is commonly used to provide a basis for decisions in product development. In this paper we suggest a new, and additional, way to think about design and to use simulations. We suggest that simulations should be used to drive, and not only verify, the design of a product, and thereby also nurture innovations.

  • 238.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Lugnet, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wenngren, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Puig Cortegoso, Mayte
    Spanien.
    Project: Developing Innovation for Change – Enablers for Sustainability2015Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    De tre delarna i hållbarhetsperspektivet, dvs. ekologiska, ekonomiska och sociala, bör ses som en integrerad helhet, men det är också det som är utmaningen. Projektet söker undersöka och exemplifiera olika intressenters perspektiv och därmed den kunskapsbas de tar med sig in i en produktutvecklingsprocess. Projektet syftar till att demonstrera hur olika intressenters värden stödjer eller inte stödjer en hållbar utveckling.

  • 239. Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Müller, Patrick
    Technische Universität Berlin.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Rainer, Stark
    Technische Universität Berlin.
    Product-service systems: from customer needs to requirements in early development phases2009Ingår i: Industrial product-service systems (IPS2): proceedings of the 1st CIRP IPS2 Conference ; [01 - 02 April 2009, Cranfield University, UK] / [ed] Rajkumar Roy, Cranfield: Cranfield University Press , 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 240. Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Nergård, Henrik
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Knowledge exchange challenges within the extended enterprise2005Ingår i: 15th International Conference on Engineering Design - ICED 05: 15 - 28 August 2005 / [ed] Andrew Samuel; William Lewis, barton: Institution of Engineers, Australia , 2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of functional products changes the existing relationship between manufacturing companies. The integration of hardware, software and services in functional products calls for close collaboration with companies having complementary skills. When employees from different companies are involved, strategic resources such as knowledge are shared. From an engineering design perspective, knowledge sharing supported by software systems are useful, though it seems like functional product development insists on integrating multifunctional skills and this is likely to affect the design of software systems. The objective in this paper is to explore knowledge sharing challenges between manufacturing companies, striving to create close functional product collaboration, and hence understand aspects in the design of software systems. In this paper the focus is on Knowledge Based Engineering (KBE) systems, these are considered to be internal engineering specific tools, while collaboration and need for knowledge sharing calls for coupled KBE systems between partners. In this context, knowledge sharing challenges within the extended enterprise are recognised to issues about who to trust and what and how to share. This affects how tightly coupled KBE systems can be. In general, this paper contributes to the ongoing discussion concerning collaboration issues in concurrent engineering design, but especially to the overall understanding of what new demands on KBE systems that are motivated by functional product collaboration.

  • 241.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    In search of innovation: grasping the concept of needs2006Ingår i: International Journal of Technology, Knowledge and Society, ISSN 1832-3669, Vol. 2, nr 4, s. 35-44Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The starting position for this paper is experiences in identifying needs. The paper discusses the concept of needs and seeks to explore whether needs, as a concept, can be identified and understood in the relevant literature. The discussion is inspired by both an engineering design perspective and an interaction design perspective of needs. The discussion highlights a duality of needs, needs are partly easy to express and partly difficult, even impossible, to express. Thus, to grasp the concept as a whole, it is necessary to adapt different approaches. Needs that are difficult to express are situated in the user's context and are experienced by the user as a perceived lack of satisfying solutions. The solution is not understood or known by the user. Therefore, needs cannot be easily expressed by the user; such needs have to be found. An interpretive approach adapted by the design team and/or the needfinder to understand the user's situation and to identify such needs is suggested.

  • 242.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Törlind, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    A deep dive into creative thinking: the now-wow-how framework2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED13), Design for Harmonies: Human Behaviour in Design / [ed] U. Linderman; S Venkataraman; YS Kim; SW Lee; P. Badke-Schaub; K. Sato, Design Research Society, 2013, Vol. 7, s. 337-346Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation strategies are becoming even more vital for manufacturers that wish to turn their business into a service based one. Integration of product and service aspects in early design stages insists on approaches where all competences are used for to provide the foundation for new solutions. Often such creative work is expected to randomly come from ordinary work tasks or from passionate geniuses. Few companies apply an intentional and coherent process for bringing together mixed teams to create ideas for radically new product and services.Besides describing the background for the development of a radical innovation workshop format, this article presents a three-step framework for a collaborative process in which the participants diverse competences and skills are seen as the source of creativity. The framework, called now-wow-how, allows a workshop to be planned, designed and conducted in order to analyze an existing situation (now), a preferred alternative future (wow) and elaborate on how these two can be bridged (how). The paper provides examples of creative methods that can be used to conduct each stage, and also a guide for how to facilitate a creative workshop.

  • 243.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Törlind, Peter
    Bergström, Mattias
    Future ideation: creating ideas despite distance2010Ingår i: International Reports on Socio-Informatics (IRSI), ISSN 1861-4280, E-ISSN 1861-4280, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 264-271Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Team-based innovation, which builds on the true collaboration and thinking together strategy are at the heart for most manufacturing companies today. This strategy builds on a multifunctional team to increase the innovation potential. Diversity builds up the multifunctionality within the team and is a prerequisite for coming up with new innovations. Efficient idea generation demands facilitation, one example is brainstorming, which is easily performed. However, brainstorming is often misused, as it is not applied properly. A successful brainstorm seems chaotic, team members use Post-It notes and/or a whiteboard to write and sketch down ideas. In engineering design, computer tools support many of the development team's tasks, but an interactive computer support for idea generation is not commonly used. Also, existing tools do not support the "physical" activities found in classical brainstorming, they are commonly based on the logics of documentation than actual facilitation of a creative process. The study in this paper is based on observations of design teams and the purpose is to set up and present a specification for an idea generation tool that is both facilitated and mimics the best aspects of physical brainstorming.

  • 244.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wenngren, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    A change in design knowledge: from stand-alone products to service offerings2012Ingår i: International Journal of Technology, Knowledge and Society, ISSN 1832-3669, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 51-64Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the manufacturing industry, offering services as the value carrier of the product is becoming a key interest. In short, the product concept changes from something engineered to providing “performance in use” in order to fulfill customer needs. This change of paradigm, from an established view of products as nothing else than physical artefacts to the idea of products as service offerings, is commonly described in the research field called Product ServiceSystems (PSS). Examples of expected benefits of PSS for manufacturing companies are that they can: (1) meet the sustainability challenges, (2) manage competition, and (3) provide added value to their customers. The knowledge base in manufacturing companies is firmly based in engineering activities and computer support for the design of artefacts is well developed (e.g., Computer Aided Design). However, it can be argued that the guiding principles, or the technological support, for PSS cannot be built upon the idea of products as engineered. A central message of this conceptual paper is that the introduction of PSS may challenge not only companies, but also design engineer education. The paper investigates the challenges and proposes activities that could bridge the gap between developing stand-alone products and service offerings.

  • 245.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Wenngren, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Holmqvist, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Hammarberg, Kristin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Extern, LTU Business AB. Swedish ICT Interactive Institute, Piteå.
    The case of an innovation contest: Participatory design in a social context2016Ingår i: Proceedings of International Design Conference - Design 2016 / [ed] N. Bojcetic; D. Marjanovic; N. Pavkovic; M. Storga; S. Skec, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture , 2016, s. 967-974Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents measures for collaborative design in a social context. A number of challenges and implications are identified, and changes done to increase the innovativeness in the outcome are discussed and exemplified. The context is an innovation contest in which students, inhabitants, people in common and so on, freely signs up for participation. The competition's theme comes from a client, e.g. a company, organization or municipality. Besides a research approach originating from 2002, fourteen innovation competitions during 2014-2015 are the specific basis for the empirical data.

  • 246.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Wenngren, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Lugnet, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Project: Innovations & Industrial Internet2015Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Interreg Nord

  • 247.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Wenngren, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Lugnet, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Project: Making Regional Manufacturing Globally Competitive and Innovative2015Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    NPA – Target (Making Regional Manufacturing Globally Competitive and Innovative)This project will develop tools to enhance capacity of manufacturing companies in the NPA region to adapt and embrace new technologies and innovation. The toolbox developed will consist of subsets such as Digital manufacturing (robotics and simulation), New ideas and thinking (human centred and environmental thinking, competitiveness), Business models and modern Product innovation.

  • 248.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wenngren, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Nilsdotter, Karin
    Spaceport Sweden.
    Commercial space tourism: a case of applied product-service systems networks2013Ingår i: Product-Service Integration for Sustainable Solutions: Proceedings of the 5th CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems, Bochum, Germany, March 14th - 15th, 2013 / [ed] Horst Meier, Berlin: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2013, s. 85-94Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the vision of Product-Service Systems (PSS) there is anticipation on stakeholders to develop sound networks to enable and support innovative product and service solutions. As such PSS business relationships could be viewed as innovation systems. The challenge to find appropriate and relevant stakeholders is commonly mentioned in manufacturing industry as a difficult task. This paper elaborates on such a challenge, but has put an emerging industry as a frame of interest in order to discuss the progress of a innovation system which has the purpose to inspire product and service development based on commercial human space flights. Some managerial implications for PSS innovation system development are made, for example it is suggested to implement a learning environment as a “demonstrator” from which an innovation system can evolve.

  • 249.
    Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Wenngren, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Innovation systems in non-metropolitan regions: A live case journey2013Ingår i: Uddevalla Symposium 2013. Innovation, High-Growth Entrepreneurship and Regional Development: Revised papers presented at the 16th Uddevalla Symposium 13-15 June, 2013, Kansa City, MO, USA / [ed] Irene Bernhard, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2013, s. 285-301Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 250.
    Erikshammar, Jarkko
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Lassinantti, Josefin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    The business model effect on collaborative product development in SME construction companies2010Ingår i: Ph.D. Research Workshop on Technology and Innovation in Construction: Held at Department of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Porsön, Luleå, 29 September 2010 / [ed] Paul Chan; Ylva Sardén, 2010, s. 32-39Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The housing construction industry in Sweden is fragmented with few major actors dominating the housing market and several local or regional small and medium (SME) sized construction companies. This combined with the SME's lack of resources for knowledge consuming activities such as product development and innovations, creates a super competitive situation for the SME companies. Studies show that innovation and business model are tightly linked to each other. A business model that is robust can be used as foundation for innovation. The business model needs to define the market, partnerships, product attributes meeting market requirements and production parameters such as cost, time and quality, which are all necessary input for achieving product innovation.This paper investigates a SME construction company and its suppliers, initially linked by traditional working agreements, when developing a product collaboratively in order to gain increased market shares, This paper elaborates on whether developing the business model might be a possible key success area for SME construction companies, which might enhance their possibilities in offering a more competitive product to the market. The objective is to find a methodology that is applicable and workable for the SME´s in construction industry and to develop a framework for analysis. The work described in this paper aims at improving our understanding of the SME product development process.The result of the product development project has been a new design process with a business model that has longer contractual agreements rather than short term project procurement.

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