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  • 251.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Siviour, Clive R
    University of Oxford.
    3D deformation and strain analysis in compacted sugar using x-ray microtomography and digital volume correlation2009In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 20, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the displacement of granular beds under compaction is important for a range of industrial, geological and civil engineering applications. Such materials exhibit inhomogeneous internal displacements including strain localization, which mean that a method for the in situ evaluation of internal 3D displacement fields at high spatial resolutions would be a major development. This paper presents results from the compaction of a cylindrical bed of sugar, with diameter 7.0 mm and height 8.2 mm, using x-ray microtomography to evaluate the internal structure and digital volume correlation to calculate 3D displacement information from these data. In contrast to previous studies, which generally track a small number of marker particles, the research here uses the natural structure of the sugar to provide a random pattern for 3D image correlation, allowing full-field information to be captured. The results show good agreement when compared with a well-established 2D image correlation technique; moreover, they indicate structural features associated with deformation of granular materials that would not necessarily be observed in a 2D slice.

  • 252. Forsberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Calibrating the tomographic 3D-DSP system2006In: Photomechanics 2006: The International Conference 'Photomechanics 2006' was held from 10 to 12 July 2006 in Clermont-Ferrnad, France ... The resulting special issue contains 12 papers] / [ed] Michel Grédiac, Oxford: Blackwell Munksgaard, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 253. Forsberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Tomographic 3D-DSP: Measurement of internal deformations2004In: Proceedings of ICEM 12, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 254. Forsberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Mooser, René
    Electronics/Metrology Laboratory, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA).
    Hack, Erwin
    Electronics/Metrology Laboratory, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA).
    Wyss, Peter
    Electronics/Metrology Laboratory, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA).
    Full three-dimensional strain measurements on wood exposed to three-point-bending: analysis by use of digital volume correlation applied to synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography image data2010In: Strain, ISSN 0039-2103, E-ISSN 1475-1305, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 47-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A microscale three-point bend experiment on wood has been carried out. The full 3D strain field of the microscale wood structure has been determined by use of digital volume correlation, based on reconstructed 3D image data acquired with synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography. The wood specimen, which measures 1.57 × 3.42 × 0.75 mm3, was scanned in different load states along the three-point bend load cycle, from unloaded state to failure. The correlation algorithm is based on a Chebyshev polynomial description of the displacements, which allows a continuous representation of the 3D deformation fields. The methodology of the correlation algorithm is described thoroughly and its performance is tested for a 3D structure that is exposed to a virtual pre-defined deformation. The performance is tested both for noise free volume data as well as for structures with additive noise content. The performance test shows that the correlation algorithm resolves the applied deformation satisfyingly well. In the real experiment, on wood microstructure, the displacement fields show a structural behaviour that is consistent with what is expected for a specimen exposed to three-point bend. However, there are also anomalous effects present in the displacement fields that can be coupled to characteristic features in the cellular structure of the wood. Furthermore, 3D strain calculations based on the obtained displacement data shows a concentration of tensile strain in the region where the specimen eventually collapses. The experimental results show that the use of X-ray-based tomography with high spatial resolution in combination with digital volume correlation can successfully be used to perform 3D strain measurements on wood, at the microscale

  • 255.
    Forsberg, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Benckert, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Particle image velocimetry with a ruby laser to measure velocity fields in water1991Report (Other academic)
  • 256. Frishfelds, Vilnis
    et al.
    Hellström, J. Gunnar I.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Flow-induced deformation of non-crimp fabrics during composites manufacturing2009In: Proceedings of ITP2009: Interdisciplinary Transport Phenomena VI: Fluid, Thermal, Biological, Materials and Space Sciences, October 4-9, 2009, Volterra, Italy, 2009, article id ITP-09-52Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flow induced alteration in permeability of deformable systems of fibres is studied. Low Reynolds number transversal flow through random arrays of aligned cylinders is considered by using a combined methodology of directly solving the twodimensional Navier-Stokes equations for the flow in the vicinity of a single fibre and minimisation of the dissipation rate in a system of fibres. The permeability of large random arrays increases always which is most apparent for compact systems with equal sized fibres. The permeability can also decrease but then for structured or small systems. The elastic deformations of fibre bundles are calculated basing microscopic fibre structure.

  • 257. Frishfelds, Vilnis
    et al.
    Hellström, J. Gunnar I.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Mattsson, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Fluid flow induced deformation of porous medium: modeling of the no erosion filter test experiment2010In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Porous Media and its Applications in Science and Engineering: ICPM3, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To study internal erosion in depth it is necessary to know either the detailed flow or how it varies in a statistical manner. It is also important to know how the internal erosion process initiates and progresses due to the fluid flow-induced forces. The underlying reason for this is that internal erosion will initiate exactly where the forces from the fluid are higher than the retaining forces that keep the particles together. Hence, a new model is here developed where fluid flow induced deformations of a large number of particles is studied. The model is applied to the No Erosion Filter test and simulated results resemble experimental results from the literature. The NEF test is used to investigate parameters such as the hydraulic conductivity and also in detail the process of internal erosion. The simulations are performed on different set-ups to exemplify successful and unsuccessful sealing. In the model, minimization of the dissipation rate of energy is accompanied with discretization of the system with modified Voronoi diagrams. Then Computational Fluid Dynamics is applied to solve the flow within each part of the Voronoi diagrams. Different parameters, such as the vorticity, calculated with the CFD-software are then used as input to the Monte Carlo-simulations. An overall good conformity between simulated results and experimental results from the literature is obtained.

  • 258.
    Frishfelds, Vilnis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Hellström, J. Gunnar I.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Alteration of permeability caused by transversal flow-induced deformation of fibres during composites manufacturing2010In: Proceedings of The 10th International Conference on Flow Processes in Composite Materials (FPCM10): Monte Verità, Ascona, CH – July 11-15, 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 259.
    Frishfelds, Vilnis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Hellström, J. Gunnar I.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Flow-induced deformations within random packed beds of spheres2014In: Transport in Porous Media, ISSN 0169-3913, E-ISSN 1573-1634, Vol. 104, no 1, p. 43-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low Reynolds number flow-induced alterations of permeability of random packing of mono-sized spheres is studied. The number of spheres is several thousands and the porosities ranges between 0.4 and 0.6. The change of permeability is obtained for elastic deformations of the positions of the spheres using either of two methods. Each sphere is elastically attached to single points or the spheres that are connected via an elastic porous network. The system of spheres is divided into smaller volumes with Voronoi diagrams and the flow is derived by usage of a dual stream function. The local saturated flow fields are approximated as for close packed spheres and the overall flow pattern is obtained by minimising the dissipation rate of energy. The results show that the permeability for large random systems increases as a function of velocity and thus the deformation. The alteration is, however, much less than for two-dimensional cases like parallel cylinders. The relative increase in permeability becomes larger as the porosity increases from 0.4 to 0.6.

  • 260.
    Frishfelds, Vilnis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Hellström, J. Gunnar I.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Mattsson, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Fluid flow induced internal erosion within porous media: modelling of the no erosion filter test experiment2011In: Transport in Porous Media, ISSN 0169-3913, E-ISSN 1573-1634, Vol. 89, no 3, p. 441-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An investigation of the potential to numerically model the no erosion filter test is performed here, where the flow through a large ensemble of particles is considered by applying minimisation of dissipation rate of energy on the ensemble that is discretised with modified Voronoi diagrams and Delaunay triangulation. Low-Reynolds number simulations are applied to each part of the Voronoi diagram using computational fluid dynamics. The mechanical friction between particles is modelled by increasing the effective viscosity for closely spaced particles. Microscopic mechanisms for successful and unsuccessful sealing of filters are obtained. The numerical results agree with previously presented experimental observations by Sherard and Dunnigan. A conformity is that the sealing starts from the end of the channel and continues outwards in the radial direction. The sealing implies that the permeability can be reduced several orders of magnitude during a test.

  • 261.
    Frishfelds, Vilnis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Jakovics, Andris
    Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, University of Latvia.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Automatic recognition and analysis of scanned non-crimp fabrics for calculation of their fluid flow permeability2007In: Journal of reinforced plastics and composites (Print), ISSN 0731-6844, E-ISSN 1530-7964, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 285-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automatic recognition of scanned images of distorted bi-axial fiber bundle arrangements is considered in order to obtain the overall permeability of the formed fiber network. Scanned images are pre-processed with color normalization followed by usage of a threshold to find the pixels belonging to the bundles, the threads keeping the bundles together, and the distinct gaps formed between the bundles. Since the scanned images virtually have a perfect grayscale, the intensity can be treated as a corresponding signal of the image. Next the regular character of the fiber network is investigated using Fourier analysis on the fiber bundles as well as on the threads. The direction, position, and spatial separation of the fiber bundle and the threads are obtained in this way. In order to recognize the bottom fiber bundle layer a fine structure technique is used. Small clusters falsely identified as belonging to the bottom bundle layer are removed by application of a threshold to the perimeter of the cluster. The gaps in the top bundle layer are identified more clearly in this way. Next, a local Fourier analysis is applied to obtain the local distortion of the bundle and the thread structure yielding the characteristic distribution of the gaps between the bundles. Finally the distribution of the width of the threads is obtained by simply identifying the minimal distance between the sides of the threads.

  • 262. Frishfelds, Vilnis
    et al.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Formering av bubblor vid vätning av textil bestående av lager av raka fiberbuntar2009In: Svenska mekanikdagarna: Södertälje 2009, Stockholm: Svenska nationalkommittén för mekanik , 2009, p. 90-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 263. Frishfelds, Vilnis
    et al.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Influence of flow-induced deformations of fabrics on the formation and transport of bubbles during liquid moulding processes2011In: Mechanics of composite materials, ISSN 0191-5665, E-ISSN 1573-8922, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 221-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The viscous flow-induced deformation of non-crimp fabrics during liquid moulding processes, such as resin transfer moulding, and its influence on the creation of bubbles behind the liquid front are studied. A transverse flow with a low Reynolds number through random arrays of aligned cylinders is considered with account of changes in the transverse permeability of fibre bundles. A combined methodology of directly solving the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for the flow in the vicinity of a single fibre and minimization of the dissipation rate in a system of fibres is employed. Sethian's level set method is used for transient calculations of the motion of the liquid-gas front, at which the capillary pressure is accounted for. The continuity is maintained, and local correlations between the dimensions of neighbouring gaps formed between bundles are used. The elastic deformations of the fibre bundles are calculated based on micromechanical analyses. The void fractions of inter-and intrabundle bubbles obtained differ for deformable and non-deformable fabrics, but both the cases compare well with those from real mouldings

  • 264.
    Frishfelds, Vilnis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Influence of flow-induced forces on creation of bubbles during resin transfer moulding in non-crimp fabrics2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 265. Frishfelds, Vilnis
    et al.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Modelling of particle deposition during impregnation of dual-scale fabrics2011In: Plastics, rubber and composites, ISSN 1465-8011, E-ISSN 1743-2898, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 65-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The motion of particles through a system of permeable fibre bundles is considered. The system is discretisised with Voronoi diagrams and the dissipation rate of energy is minimised with respect to the stream function in a system with periodic boundary conditions. The flow of the particles is in the transversal direction to the fibre bundles and the particles are hindered to move out of the plane allowing for two-dimensional calculations. The motion of particles is assumed to be slow with respect to the flowrate so that particles are driven by the Stokesian force for stationary particles. In this case, the flow distribution is essentially dependent on the particle configuration and strictly follows the motion of particles. When testing different sizes of the particles, it is shown that there is a qualitative agreement between model and experiments previously performed. In particular, stationary flow leads to particle depositions in front of the fibre bundles and small particles move into the fibre bundles while large ones are stuck at the border

  • 266. Frishfelds, Vilnis
    et al.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Jacovics, Andris
    University of Latvia.
    Lattice gas analysis of liquid front in non-crimp fabrics2010In: Transport in Porous Media, ISSN 0169-3913, E-ISSN 1573-1634, Vol. 84, no 1, p. 75-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The liquid flow front during impregnation of non-crimp fabrics is considered. Irregularities in fibre bundle architecture lead to generation of bubbles at this front. The velocity of this interface is highly influenced by capillary forces mainly caused by the small fibres inside the bundles. In order to better understand which shapes the liquid front takes up at different conditions, a lattice gas model has been applied. First, the macroscopic properties of the solved gas in the liquid are discussed. Next, bubble inclusions are analyzed as to liquid-gas interface position and concentrations of minor component in each phase. The capillary effects at the fluid front are studied for systems both with and without gaps between the bundles. The flow in the interior of the fibre bundles is scrutinized, as well, by also considering the viscous stresses. The flow through unidirectional fabrics is considered by a one-dimensional model, which suggests that the liquid front inside bundles and gaps moves with the same speed when the liquid front inside the bundle has to catch up with the liquid front in the gap

  • 267. Frishfelds, Vilnis
    et al.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Jakovics, A.
    University of Latvia.
    Bubble motion through non-crimp fabrics during composites manufacturing2008In: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 243-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bubbles motion through inter bundle channels in bi-axial non crimp fabrics is modelled. The scenario is that formed bubbles move with the resin through these channels and are trapped if the channels become too narrow. By usage of a permeability network model, existing criteria on bubble deformation and a variety of analytical and probabilistic methods it is found that the paths of the bubbles depend significantly on the position of the threads keeping the fabric together and the number of fibres crossing the interbundle channels. Another result is that the pressure difference over a trapped bubble increases with 50 % in a 3D geometry possible helping the bubble to escape. A third result is that, on average, the bubbles move biased to the direction of the tows. Finally it is found that the predicted void distribution of bubbles after a major part of bubbles have moved through the system are in qualitative agreement with experimental data.

  • 268. Frishfelds, Vilnis
    et al.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Jakovics, A.
    Recognition technique for analysis of permeability of clustered fibre network2006In: Book of abstracts: Fourteenth International Conference Mechanics of Composite Materials, May 29 - June 2, 2006, Riga, Latvia / [ed] V. Tamuzs, Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia , 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 269. Frishfelds, Vilnis
    et al.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Jakovics, Andris
    Lattice-gas analysis of fluid front in non-crimp fabrics2008In: Proceedings of the 19th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena (ISTP-19): Reykjavik, Iceland, August 17-21, 2008 / [ed] Sigurdur Brynjolfsson; Olafur Petur Palsson; Jong H. Kim, University of Iceland, Faculty of Industrial Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fluid flow front during impregnation of non-crimp fabrics is considered. Irregularities in fiber bundle architecture lead to generation of bubbles at the fluid front. The velocity of this interface is highly influenced by capillary forces mainly caused by the small fibers inside the bundles. In order to derive the shapes of the fluid front, a lattice-gas model has been applied. First, the macroscopic properties of the solved gas in the fluid are discussed. Next, the bubble inclusions are analyzed as to fluid-liquid interface position and concentrations of minor component in each phase. Finally, the flow in the interior of the fiber bundles is scrutinized, where the viscous stresses are considered, as well.

  • 270. Frishfelds, Vilnis
    et al.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Jakovics, Andris
    University of Latvia.
    Permeability of clustered fibre networks: modelling of unit cell2003In: Mechanics of composite materials, ISSN 0191-5665, E-ISSN 1573-8922, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 265-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper is focused on estimating the permeability of a clustered fiber network by variational methods. First, a laminar flow in ducts is considered by using polynomial trial functions. Then, a longitudinal flow through a square array is described by expanding the flow-rate field in trigonometric and Laurent series. Finally, a formal scheme for estimating the longitudinal permeability in a cluster with an irregular distribution of fibers is given. The irregular distribution is modeled by setting an individual effective radius for each fiber and then letting this fiber reach its minimum gravitational energy. The results obtained here form a basis for future predictions of the permeability of fibrous reinforcements.

  • 271.
    Frishfelds, Vilnis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Modelling particulate flow during impregnation of dual-scale fabrics2011In: 18th International Conference on Composites Materials, ICCM 2011: Jeju; South Korea; 21 August 2011 through 26 August 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Filtration of particles during impregnation of dual-scale fabrics is studied numerically for a number of configurations with a previously derived model. The initial position and size of the particles are varied. The main result is that structural composites can be tailor-made as to additional properties by such an approach.

  • 272. Fällström, Karl-Evert
    et al.
    Gren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Mattsson, Roger
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Determination of paper stiffness and anisotropy from recorded bending waves in paper subjected to tensile forces2002In: NDT & E international, ISSN 0963-8695, E-ISSN 1879-1174, Vol. 35, no 7, p. 465-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiments and theory for bending wave propagation of paper sheets in tension are presented. An all-electronic pulsed TV holography technique is used to record the bending wave field initiated by a laser pulse. A theory for bending wave propagation in tensile-loaded paper is developed. The bending waves are influenced by mechanical properties such as density, thickness, bending stiffness, anisotropy and also by tensile forces in the paper. The paper stiffnesses are determined by matching the measured deformation field with the calculated theoretical field. The results show that the bending wave pattern is strongly influenced by the tensile force. For a non-destructive on-line measurement of, e.g. stiffnesses and anisotropy in the paper machine the tensile force must be considered

  • 273. Fällström, Karl-Evert
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Molin, Nils-Erik
    Wåhlin, Anders
    Transient bending waves in plates studied by hologram interferometry1989In: Experimental mechanics, ISSN 0014-4851, E-ISSN 1741-2765, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 378-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Propagating bending waves are studied in plates made of aluminum and wood. The waves are generated by the impact of a ballistic pendulum. Hologram interferometry, with a double pulsed ruby laser as the light source, is used to record the out of plane motion of the waves. Elliptic-like fringes visualize differences in wave speed for different directions in the anisotropic plate and circular ones are obtained for the isotropic plate. The experimental data for the isotropic plate compare favorably with analytical results derived from the Kirchhoff-plate equation with a point impact of finite duration. A similarity variable is found when starting conditions are modeled as a Dirac pulse in space and time, that brings new understanding to the importance of specific parameters for wave propagation in plates. A formal solution is obtained for a point force with an arbitrary time dependence. For times much larger than the contact time, the plate deflection is shown to be identical to that from a Dirac pulse applied at the mean contact time. A method for determining material parameters, and the mean contact time, from the interferograms is hence developed.

  • 274. Fällström, Karl-Evert
    et al.
    Lindgren, Lars-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Molin, Nils-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Transient bending waves in anisotropic plates studied by hologram interferometry1989In: Experimental mechanics, ISSN 0014-4851, E-ISSN 1741-2765, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 409-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Propagating bending waves are studied in plates made of glass-fiber reinforced polyester. The waves are generated by the impact of a ballistic pendulum. Hologram interferometry, with a double pulsed ruby laser as light source, is used to record the out of plane motion of the waves. The interferograms have an elliptic-like symmetry for an orthotropic plate, while the wave pattern for a symmetric angle-ply reinforced plate has a symmetry about the axes of reinforcements. Experimental data are compared on one hand to analytical results obtained by assuming that the orthotropic plate can be described as if isotropic along the main axes, and on the other hand to numerical results from calculations using the finite-element method. The effective Young's modulus raised to power 1/4 is shown to be an important parameter for the description of the dispersive wave pattern. A defect in the plate alters the wave pattern in the interferograms significantly. This may have technical use.

  • 275. Fällström, Karl-Evert
    et al.
    Molin, Nils-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Nondestructive method to determine material properties in orthotropic plates1987In: Polymer Composites, ISSN 0272-8397, E-ISSN 1548-0569, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 103-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An electronic speckle pattern interferometer (ESPI) is used to determine modes of vibration in rectangular, orthotropic, free-free-plates; that is using a noncontact, nondestructive, optical method. It is shown, using the finite element method (FEM), that each of the first three modes of vibration in rectangular orthotropic plates has a strong dependence upon only one of the main material parameters, namely the in-plane shear modulus and the two Young's moduli, respectively. With this one-variable dependence it is a simple task to determine the effective material parameters. This method has several obvious advantages compared to the use of test bars and it can be extended to give a measure of the damping parameters and probably also be used for production control. Preliminary results are presented and discussed

  • 276. Fällström, Karl-Evert
    et al.
    Molin, Nils-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Olofsson, Kenneth
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Schedin, Staffan
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Wåhlin, Anders
    Mechanical and thermal effects in a steel plate impacted by a focused laser pulse1997In: Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation, ISSN 1058-9759, E-ISSN 1477-2671, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 293-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A short laser pulse from a 1 J ruby laser is focused at a steel plate. The effect will be that the material surface at the impact point becomes very rapidly heated. Metal vapour leaves the surface at a very high velocity. That is, both a mechanical impulse and local thermal energy are transferred to the plate. The mechanical impulse creates propagating bending waves in the plate, which in turn creates transient sound waves in the surrounding air. The heated spot at the plate surface creates thermal stresses in the plate which give rise to an out-of-plane deformation of the plate. This deformation is added up to the propagating bending waves. These effects are studied in experiments using pulsed holographic interferometry.

  • 277.
    Gantasala, Sudhakar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Luneno, Jean-Claude
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Aeroelastic simulations of wind turbine using 13 DOF rigid beam model2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vibration behavior of wind turbine substructures is mainly dominated by their first few vibration modes because wind turbines operate at low rotational speeds. In this study, 13 degrees of freedom (DOF) model of a wind turbine is derived considering fundamental vibration modes of the tower and blades which are modelled as rigid beams with torsional springs attached at their root. Linear equations of motion (EOM) governing the structural behavior of wind turbines are derived by assuming small amplitude vibrations. This model is used to study the coupling between the structural and aerodynamic behavior of NREL 5 MWmodel wind turbine. Aeroelastic natural frequencies of the current model are compared with the results obtained from the finite element model of this wind turbine. Quasi-steady aerodynamic loads are calculated considering wind velocity changes due to height and tower shadow effects. In this study, vibration responses are simulated at various wind velocities. The derived 13 DOF simplified model of the wind turbine enables to simulate the influence ofchange in parameters and operating conditions on vibration behavior with less computational effort. Besides that, the results of the simplified models can be interpreted with much ease.

  • 278.
    Gantasala, Sudhakar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Tabatabaei, Narges
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Numerical Investigation of the Aeroelastic Behavior of a Wind Turbine with Iced Blades2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 12, article id 2422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind turbines installed in cold-climate regions are prone to the risks of ice accumulation which affects their aeroelastic behavior. The studies carried out on this topic so far considered icing in a few sections of the blade, mostly located in the outer part of the blade, and their influence on the loads and power production of the turbine are only analyzed. The knowledge about the influence of icing in different locations of the blade and asymmetrical icing of the blades on loads, power, and vibration behavior of the turbine is still not matured. To improve this knowledge, multiple simulation cases are needed to run with different ice accumulations on the blade considering structural and aerodynamic property changes due to ice. Such simulations can be easily run by automating the ice shape creation on aerofoil sections and two-dimensional (2-D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of those sections. The current work proposes such methodology and it is illustrated on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 5 MW baseline wind turbine model. The influence of symmetrical icing in different locations of the blade and asymmetrical icing of the blade assembly is analyzed on the turbine’s dynamic behavior using the aeroelastic computer-aided engineering tool FAST. The outer third of the blade produces about 50% of the turbine’s total power and severe icing in this part of the blade reduces power output and aeroelastic damping of the blade’s flapwise vibration modes. The increase in blade mass due to ice reduces its natural frequencies which can be extracted from the vibration responses of the turbine operating under turbulent wind conditions. Symmetrical icing of the blades reduces loads acting on the turbine components, whereas asymmetrical icing of the blades induces loads and vibrations in the tower, hub, and nacelle assembly at a frequency synchronous to rotational speed of the turbine.

  • 279.
    Gebart, Rikard
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Gustavsson, HåkanLuleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.Karlsson, Rolf
    Proceedings of Turbine-99: workshop on draft tube flow2000Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Turbine 99 workshop, held in Porjus, Sweden, 20-23 June 1999, was organized to determine the state-of-the-art of CFD simulations of draft tube flows. A total of 16 groups accepted the invitation to compute the draft tube flow. The following experimental data was available before the workshop: the axial and swirl velocity components at the inlet (with rms-values and one Reynolds' stress component) and the pressure distribution around the outlet cross section. Before the workshop, the groups submitted simulation results (using 12 different CFD codes) which were compiled by the organizers to an extensive set of data available at the workshop. The experimental data for the pressure recovery factor, pressure distributions along the draft tube walls and the detailed velocity field in one downstream cross section was presented during the workshop. In this report a summary of the main results and conclusions of the workshop is given, together with the written reports from the experiments and the simulations. In addition, the report contains all relevant background information for the workshop such as the draft tube geometry, provided data, requested information etc. and is thus the main document from the workshop. As the simulations provided more data than was available for comparison with the experiments, the simulation results will be available in a separate document provided by the organizers. One major conclusion of the workshop is that much attention must (still) be payed to the grid quality and the boundary conditions, factors that need to be strictly specified before a fully relevant comparison can be made between different flow models.

  • 280.
    Gebart, Rikard
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Sandlund, Erik
    In-plane permeability measurements on fiber reinforcements by the multi-cavity parallel flow technique1999In: Polymer Composites, ISSN 0272-8397, E-ISSN 1548-0569, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 146-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report discusses the advantages and drawbacks of the multi-cavity parallel flow technique for permeability measurements. An experimental series with repeated measurements on material from the same roll shows that the repeatability of the technique is very good considering the manufacturing variability of the fabric. The measured standard deviation in the repeatability study is about 10%. It is, however, shown that the permeability can vary considerably- between reinforcements of similar geometry. Furthermore, computer simulations were used to estimate the errors when highly anisotropic materials are oriented at an angle to the material principal direction in the parallel flow technique. The conclusion based on the simulations is that the length to width ratio of the cavity should be larger than the anisotropy of the reinforcement for an acceptable error.

  • 281. Gererkiden, Berhanu Mulu
    et al.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    LDA measurements in a Kaplan spiral casing model2010In: 13th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery 2010 (ISROMAC-13): Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 4 - 7 April 2010, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2010, p. 85-92Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of a Kaplan spiral casing turbine model. A two-component laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) apparatus was used to measure the velocity profiles at different locations in the turbine. To improve the signal quality and measurement accuracy, a refractive index matching optical box was mounted on the circular pipe of the spiral casing inlet. The investigations were carried out with a constant runner- blade angle and at three different loads: the best operating point of the turbine and two off-design operating points (left and right side of the propeller curve) with the presence of a vortex breakdown. The mean velocity profiles and corresponding RMS at the spiral casing before the guide vanes and at inlet of the spiral casing are presented for the different loads investigated.

  • 282.
    Girlanda, Orlando
    et al.
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Sahlen, Fredrik
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Joffre, Thomas
    Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Gamstedt, E. Kristofer
    Department of Fiber and Polymer Technology, Royal Institute of Technology - KTH, Luleå tekniska universitet, Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde, STFI-Packforsk AB, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division of Applied Mechanics, Uppsala University.
    Schmidt, Lars E.
    ABB Figeholm.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Analysis of the Micromechanical Deformation in Pressboard performed by X-ray Microtomography2015In: IEEE Electrical Insulation Conference (EIC): Seattle, Jun 07-10, 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, p. 89-92Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of electrical insulation components are produced in paper-based materials. Paper combines good insulating properties with the necessary mechanical and chemical stability. Paper consists of a system of fibers binding to each other creating a strong network. The presence of large open pores allows for impregnability of the material but also causes mechanical weakness in particular in the out-of-plane direction of the material. This aspect is important for pressboard components, where the resistance to compression stress is relevant for e.g. transformer windings. It is therefore relevant to understand the mechanisms that underlay the out-of-plane deformation of pressboard. In order to get a clear picture of the deformation patterns within the material, X-ray micro-computed tomography was used. Pressboard test pieces were subjected to in-situ out-of-plane compressive loading. 3D images of the sample could be captured before, during and after the loading sequence. Image analysis allowed for the definition of strain fields. The results revealed a strong correlation between the density variation within the sample and the strain calculated from the 3D images.

  • 283.
    Gonzalez, Sergio Galvan
    et al.
    Mechanical Engineering Department, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo.
    Ibarra-Bracamontes, Laura
    Mechanical Engineering Department, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo.
    Diaz, Gildardo Solorio
    Mechanical Engineering Department, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Assement study of the RNG turbulence model for steady state swirling flow analysis in a draft tube2012In: Avances en Simulacion Computacional y Modelado Numerico: memorias del XI congreso internacional de métodos numéricos en ingeniería y ciencias aplicadas CIMENICS'2012, Isla de Margarita, Venezuela, 26 al 28 de marzo de 2012 / [ed] E. Dávila; G. Uzcátegui; M. Cerrolaza, Facultad de Ingeniería , Universidad Central de Venezuela , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow in a hydraulic turbine draft tube is a challenging industrial application for CFD because is characterized by a turbulent flow with different flow phenomena, e.g. unsteadiness, flow separation, swirling flow and strong adverse pressure gradient. Thus, its simulation is complex and time-consuming high computational capacities are required Additionally, adequate turbulence modeling is needed to predict such flows accurately. The objective of the present work is to investigate the accuracy of the Renormalization Group Theory (RNG) k-c turbulence model on the draft tube flow close to the best efficiency of the turbine. The effect of the discerization schemes on these models has been studied As the flow is significantlyaffected by the walls, two different grid concentrations near to the wall (y + I and y + 50) were evaluated The numerical results are compared to detailed experimental results at different section and discussed.

  • 284.
    Goyal, Rahul
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    FLOW FIELD IN A HIGH HEAD FRANCIS TURBINE DRAFT TUBE DURING TRANSIENT OPERATIONS2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydroelectricity plays an important role to balance the stability of grid network.  In order to improve the stability of presently high loaded grids, hydropower plants are being operated over a wide range of operations and experiencing frequent start-stop, load rejection, and load acceptance. The turbines need to sustain sudden change in their operating condition to balance the grid frequency. Francis turbines have been widely used because of their wider operating range and higher stability in operation during rapid load variation. This has resulted in severe damage to the turbines as they are not normally designed to operate under such transient conditions.

    Several low and high frequency pressure fluctuations prevail during transients operating conditions. Generally, wall pressure measurements are performed which may not provide sufficient information to investigate the flow instabilities related to these fluctuations. Thus, the main objective of the present work is to simplify and perform optical measurements in a turbine during transient operating conditions to investigate the flow field. The measurements have been performed at the Water Power Laboratory using a high head model Francis turbine. The turbine is a 1:5.1 scale down model of a prototype operating at the Tokke Power Plant, Norway. The model runner diameter, net head, and discharge at the best efficiency point (BEP) were 0.349 m, 12 m, and 0.2 m3 s-1, respectively. A total ten pressure sensors were mounted at different locations namely, turbine inlet, vaneless space, and draft tube. The data were acquired at a sampling rate of 5 kHz. The instruments and sensors have been calibrated according to guidelines available in IEC standards. The determined total uncertainty in the measurement of hydraulic efficiency was ±0.15% at BEP condition. The velocity measurements in the draft tube cone were performed using a 2D PIV system and the images were sampled at a rate of 40 Hz.

         Steady state measurements were carried out considering the realistic design and off-design operating conditions of the prototype turbine. Therefore, the angular speed of the runner was maintained constant for all steady state conditions during the measurements. The maximum hydraulic efficiency (92.4%) was observed at nED = 0.18, QED = 0.15, and a = 9.8º, which is named BEP. It is observed that the turbine experiences significant pressure fluctuations at the vaneless space, runner, and the draft tube. The fluctuations due to rotor-stator interaction (RSI) were observed to be most dominating at high load condition, however, fluctuations due to the rotating vortex rope (RVR) at part load (PL) condition. Two different modes (synchronous and asynchronous) modes of vortex rope are observed at PL condition of the turbine. An asymmetry in the flow leaving the runner was detected at both design and off-design conditions, with a stronger effect during off-design operating condition. Numerical simulations of the model turbine were carried out at PL operating condition. The simulations were performed using two turbulence models, standard k-ε and SST k-ω, with high-resolution advection scheme. The numerical pressure values obtained with both standard k-ε model and SST k-ω showed a small difference with the experimental values. The amplitudes of numerical pressure values were higher (~2.8%) in the vaneless space and lower (~5.0%) in the draft tube than the experimental values. The frequencies of the RSI and RVR were well captured in the turbine but the amplitudes were overestimated.  

    During load rejection from BEP to PL, the plunging mode of the vortex rope was observed to appear first in the system than that of the rotating mode. Whereas during the load acceptance from PL to BEP, both the modes were observed to disappear simultaneously from the system. In the velocity data, the axial velocity only contributed to the development of the plunging mode and radial velocity to the rotating mode. The region of low velocity, stagnation point, flow separation, recirculation, oscillating flow and high axial velocity gradients were well captured in the system during the transients. The induced high-velocity gradients during the load acceptance from BEP to HL was observed to develop a vortex core in the draft tube.

    During startup and shutdown, the guide vanes angular position was moved from one to another steady state condition to achieve the minimum load condition of the turbine. At this condition, the generator of the turbine was magnetized at the synchronous speed during startup and shutdown, respectively. The frequency of wave propagation was observed to vary with the runner angular speed during startup and complete shutdown of the turbine. Comparatively high-pressure fluctuations in the draft tube were observed during the guide vane movement from the high discharge conditions. Some unsteady phenomena such as the formation of dead velocity zone, backward flow, and flow oscillations were observed during startup and shutdown of the turbine.  

    The current work has been also used to continue a series of workshops, i.e., Francis-99. The first workshop was held on December 2014 with the cooperation of LTU and NTNU. The measurements performed in this work were used for the second workshop which was held on December 2016. The investigations presented in this thesis will be further explored in the third workshop scheduled for December 2018. 

  • 285.
    Goyal, Rahul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics. Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee.
    Bergan, Carl
    Waterpower Laboratory, Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Gandhi, Bhupendra K.
    Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee.
    Dalhaug, Ole Gunnar
    Waterpower Laboratory, Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    Experimental investigation on a high head model Francis turbine during load rejection2016In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environment, ISSN 1755-1307, E-ISSN 1755-1315, Vol. 49, no 8, article id 082004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Francis-99 is a set of workshop aiming to determine the state of the art of high head model Francis turbine simulations (flow and structure) under steady and transient operating conditions as well as to promote their development and knowledge dissemination openly. The first workshop (Trondheim, 2014) was concerned with steady state operation. The second workshop will focus on transient operations such as load variation and start-stop. In the present work, 2-D particle image velocimetry (PIV) with synchronized pressure measurements performed in the draft tube cone of the Francis-99 test case during load rejection is presented. Pressure sensors were mounted in the vaneless space and draft tube cone to estimate the instantaneous pressure fluctuations while operating the turbine from the best efficiency point (9.8°) to part load (6.7°) with the presence of a rotating vortex rope (RVR). The time-resolved velocity and pressure data are presented in this paper showing the transition in the turbine from one state to another

  • 286.
    Goyal, Rahul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics. Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics. Water Power Laboratory, Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim.
    Gandhi, Bhupendra K.
    Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee.
    Vortex Rope Formation in a High Head Model Francis Turbine2017In: Journal of Fluids Engineering - Trancactions of The ASME, ISSN 0098-2202, E-ISSN 1528-901X, Vol. 139, no 4, article id 041102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Francis turbine working at off-design operating condition experiences high swirling flow at the runner outlet. In the present study, a high head model Francis turbine was experimentally investigated during load rejection, i.e., best efficiency point (BEP) to part load (PL), to detect the physical mechanism that lies in the formation of vortex rope. For that, a complete measurement system of dynamic pressure, head, flow, guide vanes (GVs) angular position, and runner shaft torque was setup with corresponding sensors at selected locations of the turbine. The measurements were synchronized with the twodimensional (2D) particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements of the draft tube. The study comprised an efficiency measurement and maximum hydraulic efficiency of 92.4±0.15% was observed at BEP condition of turbine. The severe pressure fluctuations corresponding to rotor-stator interaction (RSI), standing waves, and rotating vortex rope (RVR) have been observed in the draft tube and vaneless space of the turbine. Moreover, RVR in the draft tube has been decomposed into two different modes; rotating and plunging modes. The time of occurrence of both modes was investigated in pressure and velocity data and results showed that the plunging mode appears 0.8 s before the rotating mode. In the vaneless space, the plunging mode was captured before it appears in the draft tube. The physical mechanism behind the vortex rope formation was analyzed from the instantaneous PIV velocity vector field. The development of stagnation region at the draft tube center and high axial velocity gradients along the draft tube centerline could possibly cause the formation of vortex rope

  • 287.
    Goyal, Rahul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics. Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics. Water Power Laboratory, Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Gandhi, B.K
    Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India.
    Synchronized PIV and pressure measurements on a model Francis turbine during start-up2019In: Journal of Hydraulic Research, ISSN 0022-1686, E-ISSN 1814-2079Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the experiments performed on a high head model Francis turbine during start-up. Synchronized time dependent pressure and velocity measurements were performed to investigate the instabilities in the turbine. A total of four steady state operating points, namely synchronous load, part load, best efficiency point, and high load are considered to perform the turbine start-up. The runner angular speed was observed to increase almost exponentially during the guide vane positions from completely closed to no load condition. The frequency of wave propagation due to the interaction between runner blades and guide vanes was observed to follow the trend of increase of runner angular speed. A vortex rope frequency was captured in the draft tube during synchronous load to part load of the start-up. Two different mechanisms, namely, the development of stagnation point and the available recirculation regions were observed to cause the formation of vortex rope in the draft tube.

  • 288.
    Goyal, Rahul
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology.
    Cervantes, Michel J.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics. Water Power Laboratory, Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    Gandhi, Bhupendra K.
    Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology.
    Characteristics of Synchronous and Asynchronous modes of fluctuations in Francis turbine draft tube during load variation2017In: International Journal of Fluid Machinery and Systems, ISSN 1882-9554, E-ISSN 1882-9554, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 164-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Francis turbines are often operated over a wide load range due to high flexibility in electricity demand and penetration of other renewable energies. This has raised significant concerns about the existing designing criteria. Hydraulic turbines are not designed to withstand large dynamic pressure loadings on the stationary and rotating parts during such conditions. Previous investigations on transient operating conditions of turbine were mainly focused on the pressure fluctuations due to the rotor-stator interaction. This study characterizes the synchronous and asynchronous pressure and velocity fluctuations due to rotor-stator interaction and rotating vortex rope during load variation, i.e. best efficiency point to part load and vice versa. The measurements were performed on the Francis-99 test case. The repeatability of the measurements was estimated by providing similar movement to guide vanes twenty times for both load rejection and load acceptance operations. Synchronized two dimensional particle image velocimetry and pressure measurements were performed to investigate the dominant frequencies of fluctuations, vortex rope formation, and modes (rotating and plunging) of the rotating vortex rope. The time of appearance and disappearance of rotating and plunging modes of vortex rope was investigated simultaneously in the pressure and velocity data. The asynchronous mode was observed to dominate over the synchronous mode in both velocity and pressure measurements.

  • 289.
    Goyal, Rahul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics. Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee.
    Gandhi, Bhupendra K.
    Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics. Water Power Laboratory, Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    Experimental study of mitigation of a spiral vortex breakdown at high Reynolds number under an adverse pressure gradient2017In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 9, article id 104104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow in the off-design operation of a Francis turbine may lead to the formation of spiral vortex breakdowns in the draft tube, a diffuser installed after the runner. The spiral vortex breakdown, also named a vortex rope, may induce several low-frequency fluctuations leading to structural vibrations and a reduction in the overall efficiency of the turbine. In the present study, synchronized particle image velocimetry, pressure, and turbine flow parameter (Q, H, α, and T) measurements have been carried out in the draft tube cone of a high head model Francis turbine. The transient operating condition from the part load to the best efficiency point was selected to investigate the mitigation of the vortex rope in the draft tube cone. The experiments were performed 20 times to assess the significance of the results. A precession frequency of 1.61 Hz [i.e., 0.29 times the runner rotational frequency (Rheingans frequency)] is observed in the draft tube cone. The frequency is captured in both pressure and velocity data with its harmonics. The accelerating flow condition at the center of the cone with a guide vane opening is observed to diminish the spiral form of the vortex breakdown in the quasi-stagnant region. This further mitigates the stagnant part of the cone with a highly dominated axial flow condition of the turbine at the best efficiency point. The disappearance of the stagnant region is the most important state in the present case, which mitigates the spiral vortex breakdown of the cone at high Reynolds numbers. In contrast to a typical transition, a new type of transition from wake to jet is observed during the mitigation of the breakdown. The obtained 2D instantaneous velocity fields demonstrate the disappearance region of shear layers and stagnation in the cone. The results also demonstrate the existence of high axial velocity gradients in an elbow draft tube cone.

  • 290.
    Goyal, Rahul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics. Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanics & Industrial Engineering, Roorkee .
    Gandhi, Bhupendra K.
    Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee .
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    PIV measurements in Francis turbine: A review and application to transient operations2018In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 81, no 2, p. 2976-2991Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Penetration of solar and wind energy into the grid network has raised the concern for grid stability which is generally balanced by operating the hydropower plants over a wide range. This results in several issues, such as rotor-stator interaction (RSI), vortex breakdown, rotating vortex rope (RVR), pressure shocks, vibration, and noise which may lead to failure. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) has been used to understand several physical mechanisms in the flow at various operating conditions. A non-negligible uncertainty may arise in the measurements due to calibration, abbreviation, and distortion of the light. Various parameters such as laser sheet thickness, particle type, particle size, particle density, camera resolution, image size and number of images may affect the quality of the measurements. In the present work, a review of PIV measurements performed in hydraulic turbines, mainly Francis, has been carried out. The objective is to develop an experimental set up to perform steady and transient measurements on a model Francis turbine. A maximum deviation of 1.8% in absolute velocity is estimated in the present study as compared to 2–3% reported in the previously performed measurements on Francis turbines. The repeatability of transient measurements is also investigated by extracting two velocity points on a PIV plane

  • 291.
    Goyal, Rahul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics. Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee.
    Gandhi, Bhupendra K.
    Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Transient Pressure Measurements in the Vaneless Space of a Francis Turbine during Load Acceptances from Minimum Load2018In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 1042, article id 012009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased penetration of solar and the wind impels the designers of the hydroelectric power generation unit to provide more flexibility in operation for the stability of the grid. The power generating unit includes turbine which needs to sustain sudden change in its operating conditions. Thus, the hydraulic turbine experiences more transients per day which result in chronic problems such as fatigue to the runner, instrument malfunctioning, vibrations, wear and tear etc. This paper describes experiments performed on a high model (1.5:1) Francis turbine for load acceptances from the minimum load. The experiments presented in the paper are the part of Francis-99 workshop which aims to determine the performance of numerical models in simulations of model Francis turbine under steady and transient operating conditions. The aim of the paper is to present the transient pressure variation in the vaneless space of a Francis turbine where high-frequency pulsations are normally expected. For this, two pressure sensors, VL1 and VL2, are mounted at the vaneless space, one near the beginning of the spiral casing and the other before the end of the spiral casing. Both are used to capture the unsteady pressure field developed in the space between guide vanes and runner inlet. The time-resolved pressure signals are analyzed and presented during the transient to observe the pressure variation and dominant frequencies of pulsations.

  • 292.
    Goyal, Rahul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics. Grenoble-INP/CNRS/UJF-Grenoble 1, Grenoble, France.
    Gandhi, BK
    Indian institute of Technology, Roorkee, India.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Experimental Investigation of a High Head Francis Turbine Model During Shutdown Operation2019In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environment, Institute of Physics (IOP), 2019, Vol. 240, article id 022028Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased penetration of intermittent energy resources disturbs the power grid network. The frequency band of the power grid is normally controlled by automatic opening and closing of the guide vanes of hydraulic turbines. This has increased the number of shutdown cycles as compared to the defined ones for the normal operation of turbines. Turbine shutdown induced a significantly higher level of pressure fluctuations and unsteadiness in the flow field, decreasing its expected life. This paper presents experiments performed on a high head model Francis turbine during shutdown. The pressure and 2D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements were performed to investigate the pressure fluctuations and flow instabilities in the turbine. The pressure sensors were mounted in the draft tube cone and vaneless space to measure the instantaneous pressure fluctuations. In the present study, the initial high load operating condition was considered to perform the turbine shutdown. The data were logged at the sampling frequency of 40 Hz and 5 kHz for PIV and pressure measurements, respectively. Time-resolved velocity and pressure data are presented in this paper to show the pressure fluctuations and causes of generation of unsteady flow in the draft tube.  

  • 293.
    Goyal, Rahul
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee.
    Trivedi, Chirag
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, .
    Gandhi, Bhupendra K.
    Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Numerical Simulation and Validation of a High Head Model Francis Turbine at Part Load Operating Condition2018In: Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India): Series C, ISSN 2250-0545, Vol. 99, no 5, p. 557-570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydraulic turbines are operated over an extended operating range to meet the real time electricity demand. Turbines operated at part load have flow parameters not matching the designed ones. This results in unstable flow conditions in the runner and draft tube developing low frequency and high amplitude pressure pulsations. The unsteady pressure pulsations affect the dynamic stability of the turbine and cause additional fatigue. The work presented in this paper discusses the flow field investigation of a high head model Francis turbine at part load: 50% of the rated load. Numerical simulation of the complete turbine has been performed. Unsteady pressure pulsations in the vaneless space, runner, and draft tube are investigated and validated with available experimental data. Detailed analysis of the rotor stator interaction and draft tube flow field are performed and discussed. The analysis shows the presence of a rotating vortex rope in the draft tube at the frequency of 0.3 times of the runner rotational frequency. The frequency of the vortex rope precession, which causes severe fluctuations and vibrations in the draft tube, is predicted within 3.9% of the experimental measured value. The vortex rope results pressure pulsations propagating in the system whose frequency is also perceive in the runner and upstream the runner.

  • 294.
    Goyal, Rahul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics. Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee.
    Trivedi, Chirag
    Norvegian University of Science and Technology.
    Gandhi, Bhupendra K.
    Indian institute of Technology, Roorkee, India.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Dahlhaug, Ole-Gunnar
    Norvegian University of Science and Technology.
    Transient pressure measurements at part load operating condition of a high head model Francis turbine2016In: Sadhana (Bangalore), ISSN 0256-2499, E-ISSN 0973-7677, Vol. 41, no 11, p. 1311-1320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydraulic turbines are operating at part load conditions depending on availability of hydraulic energy or to meet the grid requirements. The turbine experiences more fatigue during the part load operating conditions due to flow phenomena such as vortex breakdown in the draft tube and flow instability in the runner. The present paper focuses on the investigation of a high head model Francis turbine operating at 50% load. Pressure measurements have been carried out experimentally on a model Francis turbine. Total six pressure sensors were mounted inside the turbine and other two pressure sensors were mounted at the turbine inlet pipe. It is observed that the turbine experiences significant pressure fluctuations at the vaneless space and the runner. Moreover, a standing wave is observed between the pressure tank outlet and the turbine inlet. Analysis of the data acquired by the pressure sensors mounted in the draft tube showed the presence of vortex breakdown co-rotating with the runner. The detailed analysis showed the rotating and plunging components of the vortex breakdown. The influence of the rotating component was observed in the entire hydraulic circuit including distributor and turbine inlet but not the plunging one

  • 295. Granqvist, S.
    et al.
    Molin, Nils-Erik
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Hertegård, S.
    Speckle photography applied to detect structure displacement in high-speed laryngoscopic recordings2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 296.
    Granström, Reine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Modelling the aerodynamics of iron ore pelletizing kilns2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In an iron ore pelletizing plant, crude ore is upgraded to pellets to be used as feedstock in steel-making plants. As part of a grate-kiln pelletizing plant, the rotary kiln is an indurating furnace in which the pellets are sintered. The rotary kiln involves complex flow of large amounts of gas and the process is strongly coupled to the fluid dynamics, which is not well understood. The present work focuses on increasing the understanding of the aerodynamics of the rotary kiln.Though the kiln geometry is relatively simple a rather complex flow arises, which is known to occur for turbulent flows in similar geometries. In order to isolate the underlying flow mechanisms, simplified models of the kiln are studied both numerically using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and experimentally using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The understanding of the flow phenomena that arises for the simplified models is essential for maintaining a solid comprehension of the fluid dynamics when increasing the complexity of the models. Computations are validated against available experimental data to evaluate the capability of the numerical procedure in capturing the underlying physics of the flow. In this way, the reliability of the predictions is improved when increasing the complexity of the model.In Paper A the unsteady non-reacting flow is computed and a preliminary coal combustion model is proposed, which is in need of further development to yield reliable predictions of the reacting flow. Paper B is an experimental investigation of a down-scaled model of the kiln and also an extension to previous experimental work by introducing an inclination of the upper inlet duct to the kiln and carrying out a more thorough analysis of the fluid dynamics. In Paper C, the periodic flow observed in Paper A is investigated further using a more sophisticated turbulence closure and carefully validating the predictions against available experimental data.For the simplified models under investigation, it is concluded that the flow is dominated by the periodic shedding and downstream convection of von-Karman-like vortices originating in the free shear layers enclosing the recirculation zone formed in the inlet end of the kiln. Both numerical and experimental investigations show a strong dependence of momentum flux ratio between the two inlet ducts on the flow field. The large-scale periodic fluctuations, which are resolved in an unsteady computation but completely neglected in a steady computation, are seen to contribute significantly to the turbulent transport in the recirculation zone. This indicates the need for unsteady computations to accurately predict the transport processes. The recirculation zone is important for flame stabilization as it feeds back hot gas to the near-burner region. Hence, a challenging requirement of the numerical model is to accurately capture the physics of the recirculating flow. The use of a second-moment turbulence closure is shown to significantly improve the predictions over the use of an eddyviscosity turbulence model and give promising results for further work on more complex models of the kiln.

  • 297. Granström, Reine
    et al.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Marjavaara, Daniel
    LKAB.
    Töyrä, Simon
    LKAB.
    CFD modelling of the flow through a grate-kiln2009In: Proceedings from Seventh International Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics in Minerals and Process Industries: CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of an investigation regarding secondary reduction of NOx emissions in a grate-kiln iron ore pelletizing plant, the aim of this specific research is to develop a CFD model that enhances the understanding of the aerodynamics and mixing of species inside the rotary kiln. At first, a parametric study of the pure airflow through the kiln is carried out and for certain conditions, a transient behaviour similar to that of vortex shedding was observed, with a dependence on momentum flux ratio between the secondary air jets. Further, the development of a preliminary coal combustion model is set out, which is in need of continued work in order to produce reliable predictions of various parameters relevant to the reduction process. However, the effect of the combustion on the flow field is limited, indicating that the pure airflow model can be used to broadly investigate the influence of the secondary air flow.

  • 298.
    Grecu, Ionuț Stelian
    et al.
    Department of Hydraulics, Hydraulic Machinery and Environmental Engineering, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest.
    Bucur, Diana Maria
    Department of Hydraulics, Hydraulic Machinery and Environmental Engineering, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest.
    Dunca, Georgiana
    Department of Hydraulics, Hydraulic Machinery and Environmental Engineering, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest.
    Panaitescu, Valeriu Nicolae
    Department of Hydraulics, Hydraulic Machinery and Environmental Engineering, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest.
    Cervantes, Michel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics. Norwegian University of Science and Technology Trondheim.
    Implementation of the standard wall function in numerical computation software2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents the validation of the implementation made by the user of the standard wall function for the standard k-ε turbulence model against the built-in standard wall function for the standard k-ε turbulence mode, in numerical computation software (ANSYS Fluent). A comparison was made between the results of two flow simulations: the first case consisted in using the built-in standard wall function and in the second case the implemented standard wall function was considered. The numerical simulations were made for the water flow inside a 3D diffuser. The results showed that both the wall functions used had a similar influence on the simulated flow.

  • 299.
    Green, Torbjörn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Particle image velocimetry in practice2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental fluid mechanics has for a long time been used to visualize flow phenomenon. An early pioneer was Ludwig Prandtl who used aluminum particles in water flumes to describe the flow in a qualitative manner. In line with the rapid development of Computational Fluid Dynamics, CFD, the need for new validation tools has increased. By combining Prandtls attempt to trace particles and contemporary tools in laser and computer technologies a quantitative non intruisiv whole field technique, so called Particle Image Velocity (PIV) has been developed. The PIV technique has been improved and grown in popularity through recent decades with the increase in computer capacity. This thesis describes three rather different areas of application of PIV measurements. In the first case PIV is used as pure measurement technology tool to describe the flow field inside an attraction channel in connection to fish migration. In the second case, PIV is applied as a validation tool for CFD calculations with Large Eddy Simulation (LES) including an extensive analysis of the results. Finally, a description of how PIV technique can be adopted to study the flow of complex fluids in small geometries by means of microscopy is given.The attraction channel is a U-shaped channel designed to facilitate salmonoid like fihes to migrate upstream to their spawning grounds. The attraction channel has a restriction in the downstream outlet that provides an acceleration of the attraction water up to 38% of the sourunding water velocity according to the PIV measurements. With PIV measurements it is also shown that the depth of displacement over the restriction is significant for how far downstream the acceleration is perceptible. CFD technology is constantly evolving and new methods will become the future standard in the industry. In the current situation Reynolds Avereaged Numerical Simulations (RANS) is the most used method in CFD. But development is approaching LES technology. This is, for instance, motivated by energy production units which has many applications with high turbulence and temperature fluctuations. In the current situation it is required to extend the service life of existing power plants. Therefore it is desirable to be able to estimate these fluctuations impact on thermal loads on the materials inside the plant, for example pipe walls. An LES approach is superior to applying to RANS since the large eddies are resolved. However, LES is still not mature enough to be used without validation in critical applications. Therefore, PIV has been used to create a validation database for a generic T-junction.Double Restriction Sealings (DRS) have been used in bearings and other lubricated applications since the 1940's. A DRS is intended to prevent contamination from entering and is therefore used to increase the life span of lubricated parts, i.e. hinder polutants to reach the rolling elements in bearings for example. Although it is widly applied little is known about the actual function and mechanism of the DRS. To learn more about the flow and particle tracks within a DRS, a new method to visualize and quantify grease flow within a DRS has been developed based upon micro PIV. The main result from this study is that it is possible to make quantititative measurement of the flow within a DRS.

  • 300.
    Green, Torbjörn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    PIV in Practice2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental fluid mechanics has for a long time been used to visualize flow phenomenonqualitatively. Traditionally, visualization has been done with dye or tracer particle dueto their ability to follow the flow pattern well. One of the early pioneers in experimentalfluid mechanics was Ludwig Prandtl who used mica particles in water flumes to accuratelydescribe the flow around wing profiles. Due to Prandtl’s results in the early 20thcentury, some of the most important theories in aviation were founded. By combiningPrandtl’s attempt to trace particles, and contemporary laser and computer technologiesa quantitative non-intrusive whole field technique, so called Particle Image Velocimetry(PIV), has been developed. The PIV technique has through the advances in computerscience the recent decades, been improved significantly and has also grown in popularityamong the scientific- and technological community.This thesis describes implementation of PIV in several diverse research areas frommacro- to micro scale. First, it is described how PIV is used as a pure measurementtechnique to understand complex flow phenomena. The technique is demonstrated on asmall U-shaped channel designed to facilitate salmonoid like fishes upstream migrationto their spawning grounds. Second, PIV is used as a validation tool for ComputationalFluid Dynamics, CFD. In the current situation, CFD is undergoing a generation shiftfrom Reynolds Averaged Numerical Simulation, RANS, to Large Eddy Simulations, LES.This is for instance motivated by energy production units which has many applicationswith high turbulence and temperature fluctuations. Hence it is desirable to be able toestimate the impact on thermal loads on the materials inside the plant (e.g. the pipewalls). An LES approach is superior to applying to RANS since the large eddies areresolved. However, LES is still not mature enough to be used without validation incritical applications. Therefore, PIV has been used to create a validation database fora generic T-junction. Finally, a description of how PIV technique can be adopted tostudy the flow of complex fluids in small geometries by means of microscopy, is given andapplied on lubrication grease flow in labyrinth seals which have been used in bearingsand other lubricated applications since the 1940’s. The intention with labyrinth seals isto lubricate the bearing and prevent contamination from entering the rolling elements.Although it is widely applied, little is known about the actual function and mechanismof labyrinth seals. To learn more about the flow and particle migration within a sealgeometry, a new method to visualize and quantify grease flow within a labyrinth seal hasbeen developed based upon micro-PIV.

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