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  • 251. Travar, Igor
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Tham, Gustav
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Field test of landfill covers with secondary construction materials2005In: SARDINIA 2005: Tenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; S. Margerita di Pula, Sardinia, Italy, 3 - 7 October 2005 / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 252. Domeij, Lisa
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Meijer, J-E
    Vukicevic, S.
    How to describe and compare the effects of MSW source sorting systems2005In: SARDINIA 2005: Tenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; S. Margerita di Pula, Sardinia, Italy, 3 - 7 October 2005 / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 253.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Cossu, R.
    Leachate recirculation: concepts and applications2005In: SARDINIA 2005: Tenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; S. Margerita di Pula, Sardinia, Italy, 3 - 7 October 2005 / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Återcirkulation av lakvatten kombinerar avfallsbehandling med lakvattenbehandling. Flera olika processer kan påverka lakvattenkvalitén vid återcirkulation såsom biologisk nedbrytning, utfällning, avsättning, adsorption och jonbyte. Samtidigt som vissa ämnen avlägsnas från lakvattnet löses ämnen i avfallet av lakvattnet. Syfte: Att belysa den intensifiering av olika processer som sker vid recirkulation av lakvatten samt diskutera möjliga tillämpningar. Resultat och slutsatser: Tillämpning av återcirkulation kan bl a medföra:Temperaturen i deponin kan sjunka vid kraftig återcirkulation av lakvatten.Förhöjt vatteninnehåll kan sänka nedbrytningshastigheten i deponin.Näringsämnen kan tillföras och fördelas.Mikroorganismer kan tillföras och/eller fördelas. Homogenisering av deponimiljön sker. Nedbrytbart organiskt material i lakvattnet kan brytas ned i deponin. Metanogent avfall i deponin kan kvarhålla metaller, fosfor och svavel från t ex acidogent lakvatten. Denitrifikation kan erhållas vid återcirkulation.

  • 254.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Vukicevic, Sanita
    NSR Research/Nordvästra Skånes Renhållnings AB.
    Meijer, Jan-Erik
    NSR Research/Nordvästra Skånes Renhållnings AB.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Manual för plockanalys av hushållsavfall i kärl och säckar2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten är resultatet av ett samarbete mellan NSR och Luleå Tekniska Universitet. Här föreslås en metod för plockanalys av hushållsavfall avsedd för svenska förhållanden. Den bygger på egna praktiska erfarenheter och litteraturstudier. Stor vikt har lagts vid vilken arbetsinsats som är praktiskt och ekonomiskt rimlig i förhållande till resultatets precision. Första delen av rapporten beskriver bakgrunden och diskuterar varje steg i en plockanalys med referenser till tidigare genomförda analyser i Sverige och utomlands. Kostnader och behov av utrustning och personal diskuteras. Rapportens andra del är skriven som en manual, som steg för steg ger instruktioner för genomförande av plockanalys. Här ingår även skyddsåtgärder med hänsyn till risker i arbetsmiljön. Det finns också detaljerade sorteringsinstruktioner, en mall för sorteringsprotokoll samt en mall för utvärdering av resultaten.

  • 255. Herrmann, Inga
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lidström-Larsson, Margareta
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Physical properties of steel slag to be reused in a landfill cover2005In: SARDINIA 2005: Tenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; S. Margerita di Pula, Sardinia, Italy, 3 - 7 October 2005 / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 256. Mácsik, Josef
    et al.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Mossakowska, Agnes
    Eklund, Caroline
    Pilotförsök med flygaskastabiliserat avloppsslam (FSA) som tätskikt2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns restmaterial som har tekniska och miljömässiga egenskaper som gör dem lämpliga att använda vid sluttäckning av deponier. Genom att stabilisera rötat avloppsslam med flygaska har ett tätskiktsmaterial utvecklats. Avloppslammet är biologiskt nedbrytbart men genom tillsats av flygaska reduceras nedbrytningshastigheten.

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  • 257. Herrmann, Inga
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lidström-Larsson, Margareta
    Gustafsson, G.
    Reuse of steel industry slags in landfill top cover constructions2005In: Securing the future: international conference on mining and the environment, metals and energy recovery : proceedings, Stockholm: SweMin , 2005, p. 409-416Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 258. Svensson, Malin
    et al.
    Herrmann, Inga
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Ecke, Holger
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Selektiv mobilisering av kritiska element hos energiaskor2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    SMAK syftade till att undersöka möjligheterna att selektivt separera element med hög mobilitet i botten- och flygaska. I faktordesignade extraktionsförsök identifierades de faktorer som har en signifikant och avgörande inverkan på elementens mobilitet. Försöken stöddes av kemiska jämviktsberäkningar med PHREEQC-2. Den optimala faktorinställningen användes sedan för att bedöma askans behandling enligt den kommande EU-lagstiftningen samt avfallsförordningen, Naturvårdsverkets generella riktvärden för förorenad mark och kemikalineinspektionens föreskrifter. Målet är att erhålla en produkt som på ett robust och ekonomiskt sätt kan omhändertas och helst återanvändas. Dessa behandlingar visade sig dock inte förändra botten- eller flygaskans klassificering enligt Rådets beslut om acceptanskriterier vid deponering.

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  • 259. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Björn
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Stabilization of CCA-contaminated soil with iron products: a field experiment2005In: Kalmar ECO-TECH '05: conference on waste to energy, bioremediation and leachate treatment : the Second Baltic symposium on environmental chemistry : the First Kalmar nanotechnology workshop / [ed] William Hogland, Högskolan i Kalmar, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical stabilization of metals is lately considered as a possible pretreatment for soil contaminated with average levels of trace elements. The element mobility in soil can be altered by adding soil amendments that can adsorb, complex, or co-precipitate trace elements. As a consequence, pollutant spreading from the contaminated soil and effect on the recipient can be reduced. The different contaminants originating from wood impregnation chemicals, e.g. Cu, Cr, and As limit the choice of amendments because e.g. large pH fluctuations and consequent mobilization of Cu or As should be avoided. The results show that the leaching of arsenic is lowest in the lysimeter with 15% Fe3O4. In both lysimeters with untreated soil and with 1% Fe0, the arsenic leaching seems to decrease with the sampling depth. The leaching of copper is generally low. Further the addition of iron seems to increase the leaching of manganese and nickel but to reduce the leaching of zinc. Results from the laboratory experiment show that the arsenic content in the leachate is lowest with the highest mixture of magnetite. Mixing is one of the key issues when discussing the treatment efficiency and possible use of the treated soil. The results so far indicate that magnetite can be used for treatment of CCA contaminated soil also at a large scale. Reduction of both arsenic and copper using a single amendment is challenging as they behave opposite. Magnetite seems to be a promising amendment even though a high amount of amendment needs to be added. Moreover, the potential establishment of reducing conditions at larger depths in the soil is of concern since this might lead to a rapid increase in arsenic leaching.

  • 260.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    To evaluate source sorting programs in household waste collection systems2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When evaluating and comparing household waste collection systems, various aspects are relevant to consider, e.g. environmental objectives, technical function, operating cost, types of recycling materials collected separately, property-close collection or drop-off system, economic incentives, information strategies, residential structure, social codes, etc. Data describing the actual waste flow is the basic input to evaluating the function of source-sorting programs. The questions raised are: How can household waste quantities and composition be measured? How can waste flow data from different collection systems be interpreted and compared? What factors influence the output of source-sorting programs? The usefulness and weaknesses of solid waste composition studies are discussed. Multivariate data analysis is applied in order to obtain an overview of collection and composition data, and identify influential variables, clusters and trends. In a case study, curbside collection of recyclables and weight-based billing respectively led to increased source-sorting activities. Other influential factors are listed and discussed. Eight indicators are proposed for facilitating comparisons of collection systems in an easily comprehensible way.

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  • 261. Gustavsson, Björn
    et al.
    Luthbom, Karin
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Uncertainty in soil sampling: a case study2005In: Second World Conference on Sampling and Blending: 10-12 May 2005, Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia. / [ed] Ralph J Holmes, Carlton, Vic: The Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy , 2005, article id 504021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, the number of potentially contaminated sites in Sweden is approximately 40 000. The funding for remediation from the Swedish Government alone amounts to $A 60 - 80 M (300 - 400 MSEK) annually for the period 2003 - 2006.Uncertainties will arise when obtaining samples in field, preparing them in laboratories and analysing them. Different procedures give rise to varying errors. Using data for decision-making that does not truly represent the site could be fatal. Misclassification of soil could lead to unnecessary costs or to risks to human health and the environment.The total uncertainty of an environmental sample can be split into analytical uncertainty and sampling uncertainty. The analytical uncertainty is usually known and reported from routine analysis. The size of the sampling uncertainty is less well known. Hence, the question is how big are the sampling uncertainties for contaminated soil and how big is the analytical error compared to the total sampling error?A scrap yard and two landfills within a workshop area were investigated. An excavator dug trial pits and samples were taken with a trowel from the walls of the trial pits. Samples were put into plastic bags and taken off site for preparation and analysis using XRF. Sample preparation included drying and sieving. The samples were homogenised by kneading the sample bags prior to analysis.The sampling and sample handling were performed in an intuitively way without knowledge of sampling theory. However, Pierre Gy's sampling theory was used for subsequent evaluation of the data from the site investigation. The theory defines seven sampling errors, which can be applied to sampling of soil. Some errors have a variance that can be calculated or at least estimated, while other errors can give some idea whether the bias is positive or negative. The total sampling error varied over three orders of magnitudes from sample to sample. The single largest contributor to the large variation in error was the contaminant level. When comparing the analytical error and the total sampling error the ratio varies more than three orders of magnitude.

  • 262. Tham, Gustav
    et al.
    Mellström, A.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andreas, Lale
    Utilization of secondary construction materials in a landfill cover system2005In: SARDINIA 2005: Tenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; S. Margerita di Pula, Sardinia, Italy, 3 - 7 October 2005 / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 263.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Aktivitet: Nätverket Renare mark, höstmöte2004Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 264. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Assessment of methane oxidation capacity of soils2004In: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 42-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methane oxidation capacity of three soil matrices was assessed using a new method based on the pressure fall resulting from methane oxidation. The effects of incubation temperature, moisture and methane content on the oxidation capacity were studied. Parameters observed were non-methanotrophic oxygen consumption, methane assimilation, length of the lag period before steady pressure fall was reached, initial pressure fall and maximum pressure fall. Filling material taken from a biofilter was tested. The length of the lag period was an index of prior exposure of the soil to methane emissions. Incubation temperature of 30°C and soil moisture at the water-holding capacity were chosen to standardize the test. Oxygen depletion by non-methanotrophs varied between 40 and 60% of the total oxygen consumption while methane assimilation was at 40 to 50% of the total methane consumption.

  • 265.
    Andreas, Lale
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Jannes, Sara
    Telge Återvinning AB.
    Mellström, Anna
    Telge Återvinning AB.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge Energi AB.
    Chemical and hydraulic conditions in a landfill/deposit for wood-based ash2004In: The 3rd Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium November 29th - December 2nd, 2004 in Toya, Hokkaido Japan / [ed] Morton Barlaz; Anders Lagerkvist; Toshihiko Matsuto, Hokkaido: Center for Applied Ethics and Philosophy, Hokkaido University, 2004, p. 121-129Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 266. Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Environmental assessment of secondary construction materials: literature review2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Process industry, construction and other comparable activities generate large quantities of wastes, which are potentially suitable for use in geotechnical applications. This review presents the current status of reuse and recycling of secondary construction materials in Sweden. Also, different assessment methods to judge the environmental suitability of different utilisations are overviewed. Several driving forces for reuse and recycling of wastes have been introduced recently. For example, the alternative costs, e.g. for landfilling, have increased due to raised taxes on waste deposited on landfills. However, the amounts of wastes made use of as construction materials are lower than the potential. Uncertainties about potential risks and demanding permit processes are often hindering recycling. Approval practices also vary in different regions, causing confusion for users as well as authorities. Wastes of high utilisation rates are commonly produced in urban areas where the demand for construction materials is high and are released from the permit obligation based on earlier experience. Current environmental assessment practice is unfavourable to the use of secondary materials. The surrounding environment is often not considered which may lead to environmental damage of sensitive recipients. The methods applied vary and the results are rarely related to corresponding investigations of conventional materials, although shown to have a high leachability of certain pollutants. The lack of a general procedure to assess the suitability of an intended use leads to inconsistent assessments. Laboratory leaching tests can be used to assess fundamental leaching properties of materials, but do not necessarily reflect the actual field conditions. Risk assessments can provide a link between the leaching behaviour of a material and the recipient/-s of concern, but requires large amounts of data. Life-cycle assessments can be used for comparative studies of different materials, but are often irrelevant for specific utilisation scenarios. Further work is needed on how to improve the quality and the consistency in environmental assessments. The effect of different factors on the release and transport of contaminants from different materials in different utilisation scenarios need to be evaluated. Also, simplified assessment methods are lacking to account for characteristics in the surrounding environment and to address resource management at the strategic level.

  • 267.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Immobilisation of metals leached from municipal waste incineration bottom ashes2004In: Norsk-svenskt miljökemiskt vintermöte, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 268.
    Barlaz, Morton
    et al.
    North Carolina State University.
    Lagerkvist, AndersLuleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.Matsuto, ToshihikoHokkaido University.
    Proceedings from the 3rd Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium: Toya Lake, Japan, November 29 - December 2, 2004. ICLRS proceedings2004Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 269.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Maurice, Christian
    Stabilization of Pb and CU contaminated soil2004In: The 3rd Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium November 29th - December 2nd, 2004 in Toya, Hokkaido Japan, Hokkaido, 2004, p. 167-169Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 270. Svensson, Malin
    et al.
    Ecke, Holger
    Berg, M.
    ÅF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm.
    Wikman, K.
    ÅF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    The effect of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) on the mobilization of metals in MSWI dry scrubber residue2004In: The 3rd Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium November 29th - December 2nd, 2004 in Toya, Hokkaido Japan / [ed] Morton Barlaz; Anders Lagerkvist; Toshihiko Matsuto, Hokkaido: Center for Applied Ethics and Philosophy, Hokkaido University, 2004, p. 13-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 271.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Vukicevic, Sanita
    Meijer, Jan-Erik
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Trends in municipal solid waste composition2004In: The 3rd Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium November 29th - December 2nd, 2004 in Toya, Hokkaido Japan / [ed] Morton Barlaz; Anders Lagerkvist; Toshihiko Matsuto, Hokkaido: Center for Applied Ethics and Philosophy, Hokkaido University, 2004, p. 157-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 272.
    Tham, Gustav
    et al.
    Telge AB.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Mellström, Anna
    Telge Återvinning AB.
    Utilization of ashes in a landfill cover system2004In: he 3rd Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium November 29th - December 2nd, 2004 in Toya, Hokkaido Japan / [ed] Morton Barlaz; Anders Lagerkvist; Toshihiko Matsuto, Hokkaido: Center for Applied Ethics and Philosophy, Hokkaido University, 2004, p. 135-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 273. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Bergman, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Utilization of ashes in landfill constructions2004In: The 3rd Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium November 29th - December 2nd, 2004 in Toya, Hokkaido Japan / [ed] Morton Barlaz; Anders Lagerkvist; Toshihiko Matsuto, Hokkaido: Center for Applied Ethics and Philosophy, Hokkaido University, 2004, p. 133-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 274.
    Domeij, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Vukicevic, Sanita
    NSR.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Meijer, Jan-Erik
    NSR.
    Utvärdering av hushållens källsortering i sex kommuner: Resultat från plockanalyser vid olika insamlings- och sorteringssystem för hushållsavfall2004Report (Other academic)
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  • 275.
    Kylefors, Katarina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Andreas, Lale
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    A comparison of small scale pilot-scale and large-scale tests for predicting leaching behaviour of landfilled wastes2003In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 45-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfills generate emissions over long periods, often longer than a lifetime. The longest lasting emission is leachate. In order to estimate the future requirements for leachate treatment, different kinds of leaching tests may be applied. In this paper, shaking leaching tests (SLT), landfill-simulator leaching tests and a field-cell leaching test performed with ash, municipal solid waste (MSW) and MSW+ash are evaluated. The tests are compared and the factors influencing leaching are identified and discussed. The factors are: liquid to solid (L/S) ratio, water withdrawal, recirculation rate, presence or absence of biological processes, size of particles, duration of experiment, temperature and pre-treatment of the waste. The presence of biological processes has the greatest impact on leaching and is the main reason why SLT is less useful for long-term predictions. The landfill simulator tests were found to be useful for several different kinds of predictions. However, they are not reliable for predicting the L/S required for reaching a certain concentration. The possibilities for reliable long-term predictions would be facilitated by a better knowledge of the influence of various factors on leaching. Such an increased knowledge would make it possible to enhance waste stabilisation in leaching tests as well as in full-scale landfills.

  • 276.
    Kylefors, Katarina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Accuracy of COD test for lanfill leachates2003In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 146, no 1-4, p. 153-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    COD (chemical oxygen demand) has historically been considered to be an estimate of organic matter, and though this is no longer the case, for most kinds of water it is still a fair approximation. Landfill leachates may, however, be one of the exceptions. Landfill leachate contains many inorganic substances and, in certain circumstances, high concentrations of volatile organic compounds like acetic acid; the COD value may be affected by these conditions. Designed experiments were performed to determine how COD could be affected by the composition of landfill leachates. The factors studied include the content of iron(II), manganese(II), sulphide, ethanol, acetic acid, ammonia, and chloride as well as different aspects of the COD analysis design. The results show that up to about one-third of COD may be due to the inorganic components of leachates. The main conclusion from the experiments is that COD cannot be used solely as a measure of the organic matter of landfill leachate since inorganic substances as well as interactions between substances may interfere with the COD results.

  • 277. Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Larsson, A.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Barriers for the use of secondary construction materials2003In: Sardinia 2003: Ninth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium. CISA. 6 - 10 October 2003, S. Margherita di Pula (Cagliari), Sardinia, Italy, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of secondary materials in geotechnical applications is regarded as favourable but is often hindered by uncertainty about the potential environmental impact of the utilisation. In this paper, the main hurdles restricting the use of waste derived construction materials in Sweden are analysed, and means to overcome these are discussed. Standard test procedures and limit values for the assessment of environmental compliance of waste materials have not yet been established in the legislation. This has lead to confusion both for prospective users and for authorities. Also, a risk assessment system developed for the use of the secondary materials is lacking. Formalising the way data on e.g. material properties is collected and structured facilitates the judgement if and how a waste derived material can be used in a specific project. A web based information system could be used to gather, store and communicate information regarding secondary materials used for construction purposes. The proposed information system may form a basis for a simplified evaluation of risks related to the use.

  • 278. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Menad, Nourreddine
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Carbonation of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash and the impact on metal mobility2003In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 129, no 5, p. 435-440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is considered as hazardous waste that calls for a robust, reliable, and reasonable treatment technique. This investigation aims to assess the impact of CO2 partial pressure, water addition, time, and temperature on the stabilization of MSWI fly ash with particular emphasis on Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr. Carbonation and element mobility were studied by applying thermal analysis and leaching assays on fly ash samples treated according to a 24 factorial design. The relationship between the factors and the response variables was evaluated using partial least squares modeling. Chemical equilibrium calculations were performed so as to complement the experimental findings. Decalcification of carbonated fly ash in a typical Swedish landfill was estimated at 0.13 mm.yr(-1) Treatment through carbonation reduced the availability of Pb and Zn about 100 times and also the carbonate alkalinity of 7.4 eq. (kg.FS)(-1) (FS represents the fixed solids) was remedied successfully. However, shortcomings that need to be resolved are the remobilization of Cr with time and the mobilization of Cd.

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  • 279.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Karlsson, Annelie
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Hjertberg, T.
    Department of Water and Environmental Studies, Linköping University.
    Svensson, B. H.
    Department of Water and Environmental Studies, Linköping University.
    Effects of co-disposal of wastes containing organic pollutants with municipal solid waste: a landfill simulation reactor study2003In: Advances in Environmental Research, ISSN 1093-0191, E-ISSN 1093-7927, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 949-960Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different phases of the life cycle of a landfill receiving municipal solid waste (MSW) were monitored in landfill simulation reactors (LSRs) with the aim of investigating the effects of co-disposal of wastes containing organic pollutants (OPs) with MSW. Two LSRs out of four filled with well-characterised MSW received waste materials containing OPs. These included two types of plasticised PVC flooring materials, freon-blown insulation and phosphorus- and nitrogen-based flame-protected materials. Each of the two LSRs was operated under acid fermentative and neutral methanogenic conditions, respectively as were their corresponding controls, i.e. without extra OP. The methanogenic consortia degrading MSW were hampered by the addition of wastes containing OPs, probably due to the presence of Freon R11 and its degradation product, R21. The concentrations of R11 and R21 ranged between 0.1 and 1800 mg m super(-3) depending on the biogas production rate in the OP-amended LSRs. Losses of butylbenzyl- (26%) and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (15%) from one of two flooring materials was observed, whereas the other remained unaffected. Methanogenic conditions favoured the loss of plasticisers as compared to acidogenic conditions. Total phosphorus was significantly higher in the OP-spiked LSRs, which indicated a transformation of the non-halogenated flame-retardants.

  • 280.
    Sakanakura, Hirofumi
    et al.
    Akita National College of Technology, Akita.
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Matsuto, Toshihiko
    Akita National College of Technology, Akita.
    Tanaka, Nobutoshi
    Akita National College of Technology, Akita.
    Evaluation of acid extraction methods used for the metal content analysis of bottom ash and slag from electric arc vitrification2003In: The Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management, ISSN 1088-1697, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 223-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this investigation was to find the most reliable acid extraction method for the determination of the total metal content in a waste sample. Samples of bottom ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator and slag generated by electric arc vitrification of the bottom ash were investigated. Acid extraction methods were applied using the reagents nitric acid, aqua regia, hydrofluoric acid and a combination of aqua regia and hydrofluoric acid. Another experimental variation was whether the sample was milled prior to extraction or not. Extractants were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The data were evaluated statistically including both Welch's equality test and partial least square analysis. The main conclusion was that bottom ash was most completely decomposed by milling followed by treatment with aqua regia and hydrofluoric acid. For slag, this method was only superior with respect to the extraction of Pb and Cd. Another observation was that electric arc vitrification causes the removal of Zn, Cd and Pb which was probably due to evaporation.

  • 281.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Granström, H.
    Ruth, E.
    Maurice, Christian
    Immobilization of contaminants from bottom ashes: the role of soil organic matter2003In: Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management, ISSN 1648-6897, E-ISSN 1822-4199, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 14-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The utilization of bottom ashes from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) in road constructions might cause environmental problems due to the release of toxic metals. The present work is aimed at studying the suitability of soil as a treatment facility of metals leached out from bottom ashes. A laboratory experiment with three types of soil (forest soil, peat and mould soil), and with sand as a reference substrate, was performed to determine the binding capacity of each substrate towards heavy metals, such as Cu and Cr(VI). The results indicated that all the substrates were capable of removing on average 99,3 % of Cu from the solution, while only peat showed a high retention of Cr(VI) (96,2 %). The retention of Cr(VI) was directly proportional to the soil organic matter (SOM) content, while the retention of Cu had no correlation with the SOM of the substrates. A high retention of Cu shown by sand was due to its high content of pH which could favor the precipitation of Cu(OH)2. A synergetic effect of Cu on the retention of Cr(VI) by sand and mould was detected, i.e. increasing concentrations of Cu in the solution increased the retention of Cr. In all the other cases there was no statistically significant interaction between the retention of Cu and Cr(VI) by the analysed substrates.

  • 282.
    Wikman, Karin
    et al.
    ÅF Energi & Miljö AB.
    Berg, Magnus
    ÅF Energi & Miljö AB.
    Andreas, Lale
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Jannes, Sara
    Telge Återvinning AB.
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge Återvinning AB.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Injektering av flygaska i hushållsavfallsdeponi2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Totalt har cirka 100 ton askslurry injekterats vid pilotförsök på Tveta Återvinningsanläggning, vilket uppskattningsvis motsvarar en utfyllnad av cirka 12-16 % av de tillgängliga hålrummen inom injekteringsområdet på deponin. Slutsatsen när det gäller injekteringen är att aska blandar sig väl med vatten till en pumpbar slurry som kan injekteras utan risk för härdning i injekteringsutrustningen. Varken avfallet eller det injekterade materialet gav under pilotförsöken något mottryck och inget tyder på att avfallet i deponin trycks undan av den injekterade askan utan istället rinner askslurryn genom håligheter i avfallet. I deponin stelnar askan, inom uppskattningsvis några dagar, till hårda men något spröda klumpar som kan bidra till en ökad stabilitet i deponin.Den ekonomiska bedömningen är att kostnaden för injektering med en utrustning med en kapacitet på 10 ton/h i perforerade rör i en hushållsavfallsdeponi blir cirka 800 SEK/ton torr aska. Emellertid kan kostnaden troligtvis komma ner i nivå med dagens skatt för deponering, d.v.s. 370 SEK/ton, genom att borrning och injektering sker i ett steg samt genom införandet av två skift.

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  • 283. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    LFG emission measurements in cold climatic conditions: seasonal variations and methane emissions mitigation2003In: Cold Regions Science and Technology, ISSN 0165-232X, E-ISSN 1872-7441, Vol. 36, no 1-3, p. 37-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill gas (LFG) emissions were measured at three landfills in Northern Sweden and Northern Finland. Several strategies for measuring gas emissions in winter conditions (i.e., a snow-covered surface and frozen ground) were tested. Static chambers appeared to be the most suitable measurement technique. The study results showed that winter measurements should be done directly at the soil surface and that any snow cover should be removed beforehand. A seasonal variation of the emissions was observed. Methane emissions were measured during late winter at the three sites and during late summer at two of the same three sites. Monitoring performed during the different seasons yields a better estimation of the annual LFG emissions. Variations in methane oxidation are likely sources of any differences as low temperature and low soil water content both reduce methane oxidation activity. At low emission rates, the main methane emission may occur during wintertime because of the mitigation effect landfill cover has on methane oxidation during summertime. A reduced methane oxidation activity was observed during the late summer at two of the sites. A combination of summer dryness and heat from methane oxidation is believed to have dried the soil, which then caused a subsequent decrease in methane oxidation. To use landfill covers for the management of methane emissions in cold climates, special consideration must be given to the moisture and extreme low temperature factors.

  • 284.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Maurice, Christian
    Remediation of soil contaminated with inorganic pollutants2003In: Proceedings / Sixth International Symposium & Exhibition on Environmental Contamination in Central & Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States: 1 - 4 September 2003, Prague Mariott Hotel, Prague, Czech Republic, Tallahassee, Fla: Institute for International Cooperative Environmental Research, Florida State University , 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of onsite (in situ) soil treatment methods e.g. stabilization using soil amendments is gaining popularity as techniques less disruptive to the natural ecosystems and less expensive compared with conventional soil remediation methods. The study aimed at estimating the changes in the metal mobility resulting from the addition of the industrial rest products (coal fly ach, blast furnace slag) as amendments to the heavy metal contaminated soil. Soil samples contaminated with Cu, Cr, As, Pb were mixed either with 5% blast furnace slag (HS) + 4.6% peat or 5% coal fly ash (FA) + 4.6% peat. The chemical sequential extraction was applied to determine the redistribution of metal fractions in stabilized soil. The addition of the coal fly ash reduced the mobility of Pb by increasing pH of soil and by reducing the exchangeable fraction. Organic matter (peat) facilitated the stabilisation of Cu through the increase of the metal fraction bound to OM. Blast furnace slag was inefficient to increase the fraction bound to Fe-Mn oxides. On the contrary, the oxide fraction of Cu, Cr, and As decreased significantly after the addition of slag, probably due to the changes in redox conditions during the aging of the samples.

  • 285. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Ecke, Holger
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Todorovic, Jelena
    Road runoff water treatment in road ditches2003In: International conference on urban drainage and highway runoff in cold climate / [ed] Maria Viklander; J. Marsalek; P.-A. Malmqvist; W. E. Watt, IWA Publishing, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 286.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Role of soil organic matter for immobilisation of metals: treatment of leachate from MSWI bottom ashes2003Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, the focus is laid on the ability of natural organic matter (OM) to serve as a metal stabilising agent. The metal contaminants investigated arise from the MSWI bottom ash leachate. Besides the high content of metals, elevated pH and salinity are characteristic for ash leachate that, in turn, can alter the functionality of OM. Batch and column leaching tests were used to study the retention capacity of substrates with different amount of OM. Also, field observations were made of the influence of ash leachate on soil and plants. In this case, ash leachate was generated under field conditions from an experimental road built on municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ashes. It has been shown that copper, chromium, and lead retention is proportional to OM content of the substrates. Zinc retention showed to have the least dependence on OM. The metals were not leached in proportion to dissolved OM. Most probably several mechanisms were responsible for the retention of metals: (i) high concentration of Ca in ash leachate could lead to the formation of Ca-dissolved organic carbon (DOC) complexes that have the ability to precipitate some metals (ionic strength effect) and prevent metal transport; (ii) high solution pH could favour hydroxide formation and counteract the metal complexation with dissolved OM, as well as (iii) surface adsorption could contribute to metal retention. Despite the good metal retention capacity of OM, a continuous metal load will occupy binding sites of OM and therefore reduce its retention capacity. Metal retention capacity of rich in OM substrate could be improved by additional soil amendments and vegetation. Tolerant plant species that are capable to grow at high soil metal concentrations and immobilize pollutants within the root zone have a potential to be used for phytostabilisation of metal contaminated soil. Such plants are also associated with a low risk of the translocation of contaminants from soil through plant roots to shoots, i.e. from one media to another. Immobilization is not a technology for the removal of contaminants from soil but for the stabilization (inactivation) of potentially toxic metals. The aim of soil remediation is to reduce the contaminant exposure and spread. Then the reduced leaching, bioavailability, as well as ecotoxicity of metals as a result of phytostabilisation might be a proper solution. Development of suitable soil and amendment mixtures capable to retain broad range of metals and interaction of plants with stabilised matrix are the questions to be answered in the future research.

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  • 287. Todorovic, Jelena
    et al.
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Solidification with water as a treatment method for air pollution control residues2003In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 621-629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of solidification with water was studied on air pollution control (APC) residues from incineration of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) regarding mechanical strength and leaching behaviour of solidified material. Factorial design in two levels was applied to investigate the impact of water addition, time, and temperature to mechanical strength of solidified material. Factors time and temperature, as well as the interaction between the addition of water and time significantly (α=0.05) influenced the mechanical strength of solidified material. The diffusion-leaching test NEN 7345 was performed to investigate if the leaching behaviour of elements from solidified material was determined by diffusion. Since it was found that leaching is not diffusion controlled, the long-term leaching behaviour was not assessed. However, the investigation showed that some of the studied components (Al, Hg, Mn, Pb, Si, and Zn) could be considerably demobilised by solidification with water. Concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, and Ni were either below or not quite above the detection limits to be included in the analysis of leaching behaviour. The elements least demobilised by solidification were Cl, Cr, K, and Na.

  • 288.
    Luthbom, Karin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Tools for landfill siting2003In: Sardinia 2003: Ninth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium. CISA. 6 - 10 October 2003, S. Margherita di Pula (Cagliari), Sardinia, Italy, Cagliari, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 289. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Karbonatstabilisering av flygaska: lovande metod som måste utvecklas vidare2002In: RVF-nytt, ISSN 0284-1827, no 2, p. 12-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 290. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Menad, Nourreddine
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Treatment-oriented characterization of dry scrubber residue from municipal solid waste incineration2002In: Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, ISSN 1438-4957, E-ISSN 1611-8227, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 117-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dry scrubber residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) was characterized to identify critical inorganic pollutants and to suggest a conceptual treatment method. The key methods used were thermal analysis, including thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), pHstat titration, qualitative X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), chemical equilibrium calculations, and statistics such as error propagation, principal component analysis (PCA), and empirical modeling based on factorial designs. Based on EU directives, the major inorganic pollutants Cd, Cr, Pb, and Zn were found. In addition, the pH was too high. With dry scrubber residue stabilization in mind, the impact of carbonation and hydration was assessed and judged to be encouraging. In particular, chemical equilibrium calculations showed that carbonation has considerable potential to lower the pH and the availability of Pb, Zn, and Cr. The impact of carbonation on the mobility of Cd was found to be small. During carbonation, a metal-trapping calcium aluminosilicate hydrate (C–A–S–H) phase is also formed. Both processes together have the potential to lead to a robust, reliable, and reasonable stabilization method for dry scrubber residue. However, to control these processes, the decisive factors need to be identified and their effects need to be quantified. Ca, Cl, Na, and K might be abundant components which would be mobile even after stabilization.

  • 291.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Bioindication and bioremediation of landfill emissions2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the use of plants, fungi, and microorganisms to assess and treat landfill gas, leachate and contaminated soils. As landfill emissions can occur over extended time periods, it is a practical strategy to develop passive and economical methods for emission control i.e., requiring little human involvement. Organisms can play an important role in such methods if their living requirements can be met, e.g., adequate temperature or moisture content. A broader understanding of how organisms respond to and are affected by pollution may be used to develop landfill design strategies and engineering technologies that favour bioremediation. A secondary benefit is that a greater knowledge of organism response may be used to determine the pollution state of a site. Methanotrophic bacteria in the soil can be used to identify methane emission areas. An assay method was developed, based on the pressure change induced by methane oxidation. The fungus Telephora caryophyllea accumulates arsenic.The method could be sufficient to delimit arsenic contaminated areas. Landfill vegetation is exposed to pollutants and can indicate their presence. Despite high species diversity, no damages to the vegetation, due to the presence of pollutants,could be observed. The oxidation capacity of the studied soil is sufficient to completely oxidise the methane emissions at old and small landfill sites. Even though the oxidising capacity is sufficient, non-optimal conditions result in methane emission peaks. Wetlands can reduce the nitrate concentration in leachates. In the cold climate regions studied at least four years are needed to have a fully established vegetation cover and degraded organic material. A 30% reduction of nitrate was attributed to denitrification. However a precise mass balance is needed to accurately evaluate the treatment capacity. Vegetation at the investigated site may used to immobilise soil contaminants such as Cu, Zn, Pb, and As. However, the application of soil amendments is recommended to reduce foliar accumulation of contaminants.

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  • 292. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Kylefors, Katarina
    LTU.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Denitrification in constructed wetlands in cold climate regions: review2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This literature study focuses on the feasibility of using constructed wetlands (CW) for denitrification of leachate at a local leachate treatment facility, in cold climate. Constructed wetlands have the advantage of requiring less maintenance and control compared with more sophisticated systems. They are also cheaper to run. Finely they are part of the natural nutrient cycle. The environmental factors identified as limiting factors for the constructed wetlands considered in this literature study, e.g. the leachate salinity and the climatic conditions, governed the design of the wetland and the choice of the vegetation. Denitrification is done by heterotrophic microorganisms living in the soil, in anaerobic conditions. They use decaying organic material as carbon source. The role of the plants in the constructed wetlands is to provide substrate to the microorganisms as well as the root system increases the surface available to bacterial colonisation. The cold and long winter sets high requirements on the constructed wetlands. It shortens the period when the bacteria are most efficient i.e. when the water is warm. It will lead to a short period of high activity and the load will have to be reduced during winter and eventually stopped. Subsurface flow systems filled with gravel appeared to be the best alternative. Baffles should be installed to force the water transport around the in constructed wetlands. To reduce the risks for short cuts of the water flow the inlet and outlet of the systems were placed at the bottom to avoid risks for freezing. A design with edges is also recommended to increase snow accumulation on the top of the constructed wetland. Local species were selected for their tolerance to salt and high nutrient content in the water.

  • 293. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Hirofumi, Sakanakura
    Akita National College of Technology, Akita.
    Matsuto, Toshihiko
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Tanaka, Nobutoshi
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Effect of electric arc vitrification of bottom ash on the mobility and fate of metals2001In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 35, no 7, p. 1531-1536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing amounts of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues are treated prior to landfilling or reuse. In Japan, electric arc melting is used for bottom ash vitrification that generates a glasslike slag. The objective of this paper was to assess this pretreatment technique with respect to its effect on metal mobility and metal content. Both bottom ash and slag were sampled and analyzed on total solids (TS), fixed solids (FS), particle density (P), specific BET surface area, particle size distribution, and total element content. A six-step wet sequential extraction procedure was used for assessing metal mobility. The results were qualitatively verified by scanning electron microscopy. The major conclusion was that the availability of various metals was affected differently by electric arc vitrification. Metals were solidified, stabilized, and/or separated from the slag. The mobility of Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ca was reduced. In slag, major fractions of these elements were found in moderately reducible phases or in the residual slag lattice. The approximately three-fourths of Pb [174 ± 7 mg (kg of FS)-1] and half of Zn content [676 ± 352 mg (kg of FS)-1] were most likely removed from bottom ash through evaporation. The total content increases of Al, Cr, Ni, and Cd (51 ± 3, 621 ± 27, 138 ± 19, and 99 ± 32%, respectively) were probably caused by the wear of furnace refractories.

  • 294.
    Kylefors, Katarina
    et al.
    LTU.
    Maurice, Christian
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lokal lakvattenbehandling i Umeå: pilotförsök2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Lakvatten sambehandlas ofta med kommunalt avloppsvatten i avloppsreningsverk. Detta förfarande försöker man i Sverige stegvis frångå och istället etablera lokala behandlingsanläggningar på eller i anslutning till deponierna. De lokala anläggningarna kan därmed bättre anpassas för att behandla lakvattnets föroreningar. Som ett led i att etablera en lokal lakvattenbehandling på avfallsupplaget Dåvamyran i Umeå har en pilotanläggning för lakvattenbehandling etablerats under 1998 och 1999. Den huvudsakliga driftsäsongen har varit sommaren 2000. Denna rapport är en rapportering av i huvudsak säsongen 2000. I en förstudie hade ett behandlingsbehov för några olika vatten inom deponiområdet bestämts. Hypoteserna, som skulle bekräftas eller dementeras med forskningsprojektet, var: det finns olika kvaliteter vatten inom deponiområdet och de skiljer så mycket i sammansättning att det ur behandlingssynpunkt är relevant att hålla isär dessa kvaliteter. Det finns en basbehandling (sekvens av behandlingssteg) bestående av sandfilter, steg för nitrifikation och våtmark med rotzonsflöde till vilken olika vatten kan kopplas på i olika steg och därmed skapa en effektivare behandling än då allt vatten passerar alla behandlingssteg Det går att denitrifiera kväve i en rotzonsvåtmark i kallt klimat Resultaten av analysen av de olika vattenkvaliteterna på deponiområdet visar att koncentrationen av olika ämnen i ytvatten och lakvatten skiljer så mycket att det är relevant att hålla isär dessa. Ytvattnet skulle endast behöva en putsbehandling och därmed kopplas direkt till våtmarken. Även inom kategorin lakvatten finns det skillnader. Exempelvis är halten kväve för lakvatten från blandat industriavfall betydligt högre än i lakvattnet från aska. Metallhalterna å andra sidan är högre i asklakvattnet. Dessa skillnader skulle kunna motivera att hålla isär de olika lakvattenkvaliteterna. I huvudsak föreligger ett behandlingsbehov för järn, kväve och till viss del organiskt material och metaller. En pilotanläggning har etablerats och drivits på lakvatten från industriavfall. Anläggningen omfattar tre olika behandlingssteg i serie: Sandfilter för järnreduktion Biorotor för nitrifikation Våtmark med rotzonsflöde för denitrifikation och putsbehandling av organiskt material och metaller I sandfiltret sker en reduktion på upp till 70% av järn. Dock försämras funktionen med tiden och sandfiltret uppvisar högre halter ut än in under senare delen av säsongen. Andra metallhalter reduceras också över sandfiltret. För dessa återfinns inte någon tydlig tidstrend. I biorotorn sker en nitrifikation, dvs ammoniumkväve omvandlas till nitratkväve. Halten ammoniumkväve i utgående vatten är nära noll och halten nitratkväve är hög. Sammantaget sker dock en kväveförlust över biorotorn. Kväveförlusten i kombination med ett ökande pH tyder på att det sker en viss denitrifikation i biorotorn. Tydligast är detta i början av säsongen, då kväveförlusterna kan vara betydande. Perioder med stora temperaturfall leder till störningar i processen och förhöjda halter av nitritkväve uppmäts då i utloppet. Biorotorn har som mest nitrifierat ca 3,5 gN/m2,d. I de båda våtmarkerna sker sannolikt en viss denitrifikation. Tydligast är detta för våtmark två, vilken innehöll en sektion med matjord. En kvantifiering av kvävereduktionen är inte möjlig att genomföra med existerande data. Våtmarkerna har fungerat väl i det kalla klimatet. Bottenfrysning har undvikits tack vare ett isolerande snötäcke. Flertalet växtarter har överlevt och utvecklats, några har försvunnit. Temperaturmätningar i våtmarken tyder på att temperaturen överskrider 5°C under sex månader och att behandling därmed skulle vara möjlig under denna tid.

  • 295.
    Brundin, Herman
    et al.
    SÖRAB.
    Kihl, Anders
    Rang-Sells Avfallsbehandling AB.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Rihm, Thomas
    RVF service AB.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge Återvinning AB.
    Långtidsegenskaper hos tätskikt innehållande bentonit2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bentonit är en starkt vattenupptagande och svällande naturlig lera med låg vattengenomsläpplighet. Huvudkomponenten är mineralet montmorillonit, som tillhör gruppen smektiter och som ger bentoniten dess unika egenskaper. Syftet med uppdraget är att söka identifiera vilka mekanismer och faktorer som kan vara begränsande för funktionen på kort och lång sikt hos tätskikt innehållande bentonitmattor samt blandningar av bentonit och andra material. I rapporten ges underlag för projektering, utformning och drift av deponier med tätskikt innehållande bentonit. Där redovisas också tre fallstudier från Högbytorp, Löt och Tveta.

  • 296. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Kylefors, Katarina
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Results from a pilot constructed wetland for denitrification2001In: SARDINIA 2001: proceedings ; [1 - 5 October, S. Margerita di Pula - Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy] / [ed] Thomas Christensen; Raffaello Cossu; Rainer Stegmann, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2001, Vol. 2: Leachate and landfill gas, p. 303-309Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 297. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Koldioxid stabiliserar aska i försök2000In: RVF-nytt, ISSN 0284-1827, no 5, p. 23-24Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I förbränningsanläggningarnas flygaska koncentreras föroreningar från det avfall som förbränts. För att förhindra att dessa föroreningar sprids i samband med deponering kan askan stabiliseras. I Luleå utvecklas en ny metod för stabilisering av flygaska där koldioxid används i en process, så kallad karbonatisering, för att förhindra utlakning av bland annat miljöstörande metaller. Metoden utnyttjar den höga pH-halten i askan. Det är en betydligt enklare och billigare metod än de som tidigare prövats.

  • 298. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Pilot scale tests of leachate denitrificatin in constructed wetlands2000In: Modern landfill technology and management: proceedings of the Asian Pacific Landfill Symposium organized by Japan Society of Waste Management Experts and held at Fukuoka, Japan on October 11 - 13, 2000 / [ed] Masataka Hanashima, Tokyo: JSWME , 2000, p. 132-138Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 299. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Sakanakura, H.
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Matsuto, T.
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Tanaka, N.
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    State-of-the-art treatment processes for municipal solid waste incineration residues in Japan2000In: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 41-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) can be categorized as air pollution control residues (AR) and bottom ash (BA). Both categories pose a particular environmental threat on account of the risk of the release of dioxins and metals. In Japan, handling of MSWI residues is of major concern and the treatment of AR prior to landfilling is stipulated. Accepted treatment: techniques are melting, cementitious S/S (stabilization and solidification), stabilization with a chemical agent and acid extraction. These methods are reviewed and evaluated in this paper with respect to: quality; quantity and utilization of end products; treatment costs; energy demand and process reliability. Thermal processes are superior regarding dioxin removal as well as material recovery and reuse, but treatment costs can be as high as 60 000 Y t(-1), i.e. one order of magnitude higher than for other processes. Cementitious SIS and chemical stabilization are characterized by the ease of operation, but the solid waste mass is increased by up to 40 and 10 wt.-%, respectively. Acid extraction is a proven and reliable technique and is inexpensive: nevertheless, it has the smallest share of the market.

  • 300. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Using Betula pendula and Telephora caryophyllea for soil pollution assessment2000In: Journal of soil contamination, ISSN 1058-8337, E-ISSN 1878-5956, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 31-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentrations of available arsenic, copper, lead, and zinc in the soil, and the concentration of these elements in vegetal tissues were measured. The most common species at the sites were studied. All the species that were analyzed took up pollutants and could indicate polluted soil. However, all the studied species did not fit to map pollution. The birch (Betula pendula) and most of the fungi species had still quite low concentrations in their tissues compared with the available concentrations in the sail. No direct correlation between the pollution content in the soil and in the vegetation tissues could be observed. Specimens of Thlaspi caerulescens were accumulating zinc Of the four fungi species collected: only Thelephora caryophyllea seemed to accumulate actively in the studied pollutants. Moreover, it was possible to use an arsenic test with the fungi, which is also interesting from the perspective of preliminary assessment of the degree of pollution. A qualitative judgement of the soil pollution is possible by examining the plant material. To obtain a more quantitative and complete mapping, the method has to be developed further and completed with other investigations when vegetation is missing.

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