Change search
Refine search result
3456789 251 - 300 of 1075
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 251. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Koldioxid stabiliserar aska i försök2000In: RVF-nytt, ISSN 0284-1827, no 5, p. 23-24Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I förbränningsanläggningarnas flygaska koncentreras föroreningar från det avfall som förbränts. För att förhindra att dessa föroreningar sprids i samband med deponering kan askan stabiliseras. I Luleå utvecklas en ny metod för stabilisering av flygaska där koldioxid används i en process, så kallad karbonatisering, för att förhindra utlakning av bland annat miljöstörande metaller. Metoden utnyttjar den höga pH-halten i askan. Det är en betydligt enklare och billigare metod än de som tidigare prövats.

  • 252. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Landfill systems for waste conversion1997In: Sardinia 97: proceedings ; [13 - 17 October 1997, S. Margherita di Pula - Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy] / [ed] Thomas H. Christensen, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 1997, p. 281-292Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 253. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Swedish city uses anaerobic technology1999In: Biocycle, ISSN 0276-5055, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 55-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Discusses the two-step anaerobic degradation (TSAAD) system of the Boras plant in Sweden. Reasons for the decision of the municipality of Boras to choose the source separation refuse system; Anaerobic digestion technology used by the Boras plant; How the TSAAD works; Results of the evaluation of the operation.

  • 254. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lundeberg, S.
    Assarsson, A.
    Full-scale anaerobic digestion and composting of source-separated organic municipal solid waste in a novel process1997In: ORBIT 97: Organic recovery & biological treatment / [ed] E.I. Stentiford, NCDA , 1997Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 255. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Matsuto, T.
    Sakanakura, H.
    Tanaka, N.
    Pretreatment and sanitary landfilling of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Japan1999In: Copenhagen Waste and Water '99 including EcoProcura Copenhagen '99: conference proceedings, 1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 256. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Maurice, Christian
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Anaerobic digestion plants for the treatment of organic MSW1996Report (Other academic)
  • 257. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Menad, Nourreddine
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Carbonation of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash and the impact on metal mobility2003In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 129, no 5, p. 435-440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is considered as hazardous waste that calls for a robust, reliable, and reasonable treatment technique. This investigation aims to assess the impact of CO2 partial pressure, water addition, time, and temperature on the stabilization of MSWI fly ash with particular emphasis on Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr. Carbonation and element mobility were studied by applying thermal analysis and leaching assays on fly ash samples treated according to a 24 factorial design. The relationship between the factors and the response variables was evaluated using partial least squares modeling. Chemical equilibrium calculations were performed so as to complement the experimental findings. Decalcification of carbonated fly ash in a typical Swedish landfill was estimated at 0.13 mm.yr(-1) Treatment through carbonation reduced the availability of Pb and Zn about 100 times and also the carbonate alkalinity of 7.4 eq. (kg.FS)(-1) (FS represents the fixed solids) was remedied successfully. However, shortcomings that need to be resolved are the remobilization of Cr with time and the mobilization of Cd.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 258. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Menad, Nourreddine
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Treatment-oriented characterization of dry scrubber residue from municipal solid waste incineration2002In: Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, ISSN 1438-4957, E-ISSN 1611-8227, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 117-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dry scrubber residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) was characterized to identify critical inorganic pollutants and to suggest a conceptual treatment method. The key methods used were thermal analysis, including thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), pHstat titration, qualitative X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), chemical equilibrium calculations, and statistics such as error propagation, principal component analysis (PCA), and empirical modeling based on factorial designs. Based on EU directives, the major inorganic pollutants Cd, Cr, Pb, and Zn were found. In addition, the pH was too high. With dry scrubber residue stabilization in mind, the impact of carbonation and hydration was assessed and judged to be encouraging. In particular, chemical equilibrium calculations showed that carbonation has considerable potential to lower the pH and the availability of Pb, Zn, and Cr. The impact of carbonation on the mobility of Cd was found to be small. During carbonation, a metal-trapping calcium aluminosilicate hydrate (C–A–S–H) phase is also formed. Both processes together have the potential to lead to a robust, reliable, and reasonable stabilization method for dry scrubber residue. However, to control these processes, the decisive factors need to be identified and their effects need to be quantified. Ca, Cl, Na, and K might be abundant components which would be mobile even after stabilization.

  • 259. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Sakanakura, H.
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Matsuto, T.
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Tanaka, N.
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    State-of-the-art treatment processes for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues in Japan1989In: Svenskt symposium om upplagsforskning 1998: Third Swedish landfill research symposia 1998, 1989, p. 23-24Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 260. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Sakanakura, H.
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Matsuto, T.
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Tanaka, N.
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    State-of-the-art treatment processes for municipal solid waste incineration residues in Japan2000In: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 41-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) can be categorized as air pollution control residues (AR) and bottom ash (BA). Both categories pose a particular environmental threat on account of the risk of the release of dioxins and metals. In Japan, handling of MSWI residues is of major concern and the treatment of AR prior to landfilling is stipulated. Accepted treatment: techniques are melting, cementitious S/S (stabilization and solidification), stabilization with a chemical agent and acid extraction. These methods are reviewed and evaluated in this paper with respect to: quality; quantity and utilization of end products; treatment costs; energy demand and process reliability. Thermal processes are superior regarding dioxin removal as well as material recovery and reuse, but treatment costs can be as high as 60 000 Y t(-1), i.e. one order of magnitude higher than for other processes. Cementitious SIS and chemical stabilization are characterized by the ease of operation, but the solid waste mass is increased by up to 40 and 10 wt.-%, respectively. Acid extraction is a proven and reliable technique and is inexpensive: nevertheless, it has the smallest share of the market.

  • 261. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Sakanakura, H.
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Matsuto, T.
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Tanaka, N.
    Hokkaido University, Department of Environmental and Sanitary Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    The effect of electric arc vitrification on the chemical stability ot bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI)1998In: Svenskt symposium om upplagsforskning 1998: Third Swedish landfill research symposia 1998, 1998, p. 135-136Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 262. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Sakanakura, Hirofumi
    Matsuto, Toshihiko
    Tanaka, Nobutoshi
    State-of-the-art treatment processes for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues in Japan1999In: Svenskt symposium om upplagsforskning 1998: Third Swedish landfill research symposia 1998, 1999, p. 23-24Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 263. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Sakanakura, Hirofumi
    Matsuto, Toshihiko
    Tanaka, Nobutoshi
    The effect of electric arc vitrification on the chemical stability of bottom ash from municipal waste incineration (MSWI)1999In: Svenskt symposium om upplagsforskning 1998: Third Swedish landfill research symposia 1998, 1999, p. 135-136Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 264.
    Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Svensson, Malin
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Mobility of organic carbon from incineration residues2008In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 28, no 8, p. 1301-1309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may affect the transport of pollutants from incineration residues when landfilled or used in geotechnical construction. The leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and air pollution control residue (APC) from the incineration of waste wood was investigated. Factors affecting the mobility of DOC were studied in a reduced 26-1 experimental design. Controlled factors were treatment with ultrasonic radiation, full carbonation (addition of CO2 until the pH was stable for 2.5 h), liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, pH, leaching temperature and time. Full carbonation, pH and the L/S ratio were the main factors controlling the mobility of DOC in the bottom ash. Approximately 60 weight-% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the bottom ash was available for leaching in aqueous solutions. The L/S ratio and pH mainly controlled the mobilization of DOC from the APC residue. About 93 weight-% of TOC in the APC residue was, however, not mobilized at all, which might be due to a high content of elemental carbon. Using the European standard EN 13 137 for determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in MSWI residues is inappropriate. The results might be biased due to elemental carbon. It is recommended to develop a TOC method distinguishing between organic and elemental carbon.

  • 265. Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Svensson, Malin
    Todorovic, Jelena
    Herrmann, Inga
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Artificial carbonation for controlling the mobility of critical elements in incineration residues2005In: Waste Management in the Focus of Controversial Interests: 1st BOKU Waste Conference 2005 / [ed] Peter Lechner, Facultas Universitätsverlag , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 266.
    Ecke, Holger
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Åberg, Annika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Quantification of the effects of environmental leaching factors on emissions from bottom ash in road construction2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 362, no 1-3, p. 42-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The re-use of bottom ash in road construction necessitates a tool to predict the impact of trace metals on the surroundings over the lifetime of the road. The aim of this work was to quantify the effect of environmental factors that are supposed to influence leaching, so as to suggest guidelines in developing a leaching procedure for the testing of incineration residues re-used in road constructions. The effects of pH, L / S (liquid-to-solid ratio), leaching time, and leaching atmosphere on the leachate concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were studied using a two-level full factorial design. The most significant factor for all responses was the pH, followed by L / S, though the importance of pH and L / S is often ignored in leaching tests. Multiple linear regression models describing the variation in leaching data had R2 values ranging from 61-97%. A two-step pH-stat leaching procedure that considers pH as well as L / S and leaching time was suggested.

  • 267.
    Efkarpidis, Nikolaos
    et al.
    Institute of Electric Power Systems, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Windisch, Switzerland.
    Geidl, Martin
    Institute of Electric Power Systems, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Windisch, Switzerland.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Goranović, Andrija
    TU Wien, Institute of Computer Technology.
    Wilker, Stefan
    TU Wien, Institute of Computer Technology.
    Sauter, Thilo
    TU Wien, Institute of Computer Technology.
    Herbst, Ingo
    Department of Smart Infrastructure, Siemens Switzerland.
    A Robust KPI Framework for Smart Energy Systems of Different Scales2022In: 2022 IEEE 31st International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE), IEEE, 2022, p. 454-461Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, an increasing focus is placed on the development of smart energy systems (SESs) that combine a variety of heterogeneous sub-systems with largely varying applications. Due to their multidisciplinary nature, there are no universally accepted standards assessing their performance. Previous efforts typically define Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) only for specific SES types and application areas. This paper presents a robust KPI framework that can be applied to any SES type regardless of the application area. The proposed framework consists of four layers following the top-down approach. The layers define the application area, SES requirements, main stakeholders involved specifying their objectives and finally, the KPIs for each of the stakeholders' objectives. The proposed KPI framework is applied on the use cases of a European research project with different application areas showing its features.

  • 268.
    Efkarpidis, Nikolaos
    et al.
    Institute of Electric Power Systems, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, (FHNW), Klosterzelgstrasse 2, CH-5210 Windisch, Switzerland.
    Goranovic, Andrija
    Institute of Computer Technology, TU Wien, Gusshaus Str. 27-29/e384, AT-1040 Vienna, Austria.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Geidl, Martin
    Institute of Electric Power Systems, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, (FHNW), Klosterzelgstrasse 2, CH-5210 Windisch, Switzerland.
    Herbst, Ingo
    Siemens Schweiz AG Smart Infrastructure, Freilagerstrasse 40, CH-8047 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Wilker, Stefan
    Institute of Computer Technology, TU Wien, Gusshaus Str. 27-29/e384, AT-1040 Vienna, Austria.
    Sauter, Thilo
    Institute of Computer Technology, TU Wien, Gusshaus Str. 27-29/e384, AT-1040 Vienna, Austria.
    A Generic Framework for the Definition of Key Performance Indicators for Smart Energy Systems at Different Scales2022In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 15, no 4, article id 1289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing integration of intermittent renewable energy sources (RESs) and the increasing trend of shutting down fossil-fuel-based power plants has brought about the need for additional flexibility in energy systems. This flexibility can be provided in various forms, including controllable generation and consumption, storage, conversions, and exchanges with interconnected systems. In this context, an increasing focus is placed on the development of smart energy systems (SESs) that combine different types of distributed energy resources (DERs), information and communication technologies (ICTs), demand side management (DSM), and energy conversion technologies. The utilization of SESs can lead to multiple benefits for the stakeholders involved; therefore, the assessment of their performance is a primary concern. Due to their multidisciplinary nature, there are no known or universally accepted standards for assessing the performance of SESs. Previous efforts only define key performance indicators (KPIs) for individual homogeneous subsystems, focusing on a specific SES type and application area. This paper focuses on the development of a novel comprehensive KPI framework that can be applied to any type of SES, regardless of the application area. The proposed framework consists of four layers that specify the application area, the main SES requirements, and the involved stakeholders’ objectives. Next, the KPIs are identified for each of the stakeholders’ objectives. The proposed KPI framework is applied to the use case of a European research project with different application areas, to demonstrate its features. Finally, a repository of KPIs is identified for each use case with respect to the aforementioned SES requirements.

  • 269.
    Efkarpidis, Nikolaos
    et al.
    Institute of Electric Power Systems, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland (FHNW IEE), Windisch, Switzerland.
    Imoscopi, Stefano
    Dalle Molle Institute for Artificial Intelligence (IDSIA), Universita della Svizzera italiana (USI), Lugano, Switzerland.
    Bratukhin, Aleksey
    Center for Distributed Systems and Sensor Networks, Department for Integrated Sensor Systems, University for Continuing Education Krems, Wiener Neustadt, Austria.
    Brännvall, Rickard
    Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE), Luleå, Sweden.
    Franzl, Gerald
    Center for Distributed Systems and Sensor Networks, Department for Integrated Sensor Systems, University for Continuing Education Krems, Wiener Neustadt, Austria.
    Leopold, Thomas
    Energy&IT Group, Institute of Computer Technology, TU, Wien, Austria.
    Bauer, Valentin
    Energy&IT Group, Institute of Computer Technology, TU, Wien, Austria.
    Goranovic, Andrija
    Energy&IT Group, Institute of Computer Technology, TU, Wien, Austria.
    Wilker, Stefan
    Energy&IT Group, Institute of Computer Technology, TU, Wien, Austria.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Gustafsson, Jonas
    Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE), Luleå, Sweden.
    Geidl, Martin
    Institute of Electric Power Systems, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland (FHNW IEE), Windisch, Switzerland.
    Sauter, Thilo
    Energy&IT Group, Institute of Computer Technology, TU, Wien, Austria; Center for Distributed Systems and Sensor Networks, Department for Integrated Sensor Systems, University for Continuing Education Krems, Wiener Neustadt, Austria.
    Proactive Scheduling of Mixed Energy Resources at Different Grid Levels2024In: IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, ISSN 1949-3029, E-ISSN 1949-3037, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 952-963Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 270.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Karlsson, Annelie
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Hjertberg, T.
    Department of Water and Environmental Studies, Linköping University.
    Svensson, B. H.
    Department of Water and Environmental Studies, Linköping University.
    Effects of co-disposal of wastes containing organic pollutants with municipal solid waste: a landfill simulation reactor study2003In: Advances in Environmental Research, ISSN 1093-0191, E-ISSN 1093-7927, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 949-960Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different phases of the life cycle of a landfill receiving municipal solid waste (MSW) were monitored in landfill simulation reactors (LSRs) with the aim of investigating the effects of co-disposal of wastes containing organic pollutants (OPs) with MSW. Two LSRs out of four filled with well-characterised MSW received waste materials containing OPs. These included two types of plasticised PVC flooring materials, freon-blown insulation and phosphorus- and nitrogen-based flame-protected materials. Each of the two LSRs was operated under acid fermentative and neutral methanogenic conditions, respectively as were their corresponding controls, i.e. without extra OP. The methanogenic consortia degrading MSW were hampered by the addition of wastes containing OPs, probably due to the presence of Freon R11 and its degradation product, R21. The concentrations of R11 and R21 ranged between 0.1 and 1800 mg m super(-3) depending on the biogas production rate in the OP-amended LSRs. Losses of butylbenzyl- (26%) and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (15%) from one of two flooring materials was observed, whereas the other remained unaffected. Methanogenic conditions favoured the loss of plasticisers as compared to acidogenic conditions. Total phosphorus was significantly higher in the OP-spiked LSRs, which indicated a transformation of the non-halogenated flame-retardants.

  • 271.
    Ekholm, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Mineralogical characterization of oresamples of different pH in the Björkdal golddeposit, northern Sweden – implications formineral processing2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Björkdal gold deposit is situated in the Skellefte mining district, northern Sweden. The ore is mined from a complex system of quartz veins ranging from a few cm to a meter in width. The mineral processing steps at Björkdal comprises a flotation circuit, which performance is dependent on the pH of the ore feed. A total of ten samples from five different ore zones from the underground development was investigated with the purpose of improving the understanding of factors that causes the pH value of rock samples to vary which is deleterious to the metal recovery.

    The samples were investigated with optical microscopy together with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and automated mineralogy (QEMSCAN) to carry out the modal mineralogy. The analyses identified a total of 37 different minerals in the samples. Chlorite was identified with significantly higher values in parts of the investigated ore zones and especially in the sample with the highest pH value, suggesting chlorite-hosting shear zones that crosscut the sampled ore zones to be a contributing factor that could be affecting the elevated pH values, resulting in a decreased recovery of gold. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 272.
    Eklund, Sara
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    An evaluation of the treatment performance of a ten year old stormwater biofilter in Sweden2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Urban runoff may be contaminated with, for example, metals, nutrients and sediment. Generally, such runoff enters waterways and oceans without any type of treatment. Bioretention systems can be used to protect the aquatic environment since one of their main objectives is to remove pollutants from stormwater. This study presents data on one of Sweden´s first biofilters, constructed 10 years ago in the municipality of Tyresö. The main aim of this thesis is to evaluate the treatment performance of an operational biofilter through a comparison of inlet and outlet stormwater quality. The objectives include:

    • Determine the concentrations of selected heavy metals and nutrients in stormwater at the inlet and outlet of the biofilter
    • Identify if, and if so how, heavy metal concentrations and nutrient concentrations change after treatment
    • Assess the condition of the biofilter in relation to particle size distribution and constitution of the filter media compared to data generated in an earlier study

     

    Ten sampling campaigns were conducted in 2015 involving the collection of stormwater at the inlet and outlet. Rainfall data was also collected for each event. Samples were analysed for selected metals (lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, nickel and chromium) and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous). At the end of the sampling campaign, samples of the biofilter’s filter media were analysed for particle size distribution. Data from a previous study conducted in 2013 was also used in this thesis to provide a baseline data set for comparison. The event mean concentrations of most monitored substances were lower in the outflow than inflow, except for chromium which typically showed an increase. Calculated removal efficiencies show considerable variation, with low removal efficiencies in comparison to previous studies reported in the literature. The low removal performance may be explained by the relatively low pollutant concentrations in both inflowing and outflowing stormwater. If the inflow concentrations are close to the “irreducible concentrations” (Cirr) of a stormwater facility, no further reductions are likely. There could even be negative removal as even small variations in concentration can generate (translate into) substantial negative increases. Comparison of the current data set with the results of the study conducted in 2013 indicate that the treatment performance of the biofilter has not changed suggesting that, despite the colder climate, biofilters can continue to remove pollutants from stormwater after a ten year period of operation. Analyses showed that the filter media has the same particle size distribution as when the biofilter was constructed. Deeper samples of the filter media have lower metal concentrations than those reported in samples collected at the surface of the biofilter.  

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 273.
    Elnourani, Mohamed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    School of Engineering, Jönköping University, 551 11 Jönköping, Sweden.
    Rönnbäck, Anna Öhrwall
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology.
    Enabling Factors for Circularity in the Metal Cutting Industry - With Focus on High-Value Circular Tools2024In: Sustainable Production through Advanced Manufacturing, Intelligent Automation and Work Integrated Learning: Proceedings of the 11th Swedish Production Symposium (SPS2024) / [ed] Joel Andersson; Shrikant Joshi; Lennart Malmskold; Fabian Hanning, IOS Press, 2024, p. 502-519Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal cutting industry, a key sector in manufacturing, is grappling with the transition to a "net-zero industry" to mitigate climate change and reach sustainable practices. Rare and exclusive materials make recycling and reusing cutting tools more pressing and necessitate efficient circular material flows. The purpose of this research is to explore how collaboration can facilitate circularity in the cutting tool industry. It examines the involvement of stakeholders and their roles in achieving a circular lifecycle for cutting tools. To investigate the interaction between metal cutting tools suppliers and Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs), this study used a mixed-methods approach that includes data from literature, interviews, and document study. Empirical data is gathered to investigate the factors driving circularity and to identify important participants in the lifecycle of cutting tools. The study revealed challenges to the current situation including underutilization of tools due to the absence of a standardization process and subjective operator judgment, as well as lack of traceability of the tools both internally at SMEs and between the stakeholders. Moreover, by mapping the current actors, the study found cutting tool traceability, undirected decision-making throughout tool lifecycles, and limited awareness of circularity dimensions are key challenges. To handle these challenges. 9Rs circular economy framework used to investigate the possible role of collaboration emerges as a vital enabler for circularity, with SMEs playing a significant role. Moreover, the involvement of machine operators, often overlooked actors, is found to be crucial in influencing circular outcomes. Digital solutions and collaborative strategies that involve CNC machine suppliers and intermittent refurbishing business are pivotal in overcoming the challenges identified, namely, traceability and human subjectivity in tool condition assessment. The study demonstrates that technology providers, intermediary refurbishing businesses, SMEs and other stakeholders operating in the metal cutting tools sector must be involved throughout their lifetime to avoid suboptimal results, exchange information, and inspire industrial actors to support the circular economy.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 274.
    Elphick, Kelvin
    et al.
    Department of Electronic Engineering, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, UK.
    Yamaguchi, Akinobu
    Laboratory of Advance Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo, Hyogo 678-1205, Japan.
    Otsuki, Akira
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Géologie, GeoRessources UMR 7359 CNRS, University of Lorraine, 2 Rue du Doyen Marcel Roubault, BP 10162, 54505 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France; Neutron Science Laboratory, The Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8581, Japan.
    Lonio Hayagan, Neil
    Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Géologie, GeoRessources UMR 7359 CNRS, University of Lorraine, 2 Rue du Doyen Marcel Roubault, BP 10162, 54505 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France.
    Hirohata, Atsufumi
    Department of Electronic Engineering, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, UK.
    Non-Destructive Imaging on Synthesised Nanoparticles2021In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 14, no 3, article id 613Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our recently developed non-destructive imaging technique was applied for the characterisation of nanoparticles synthesised by X-ray radiolysis and the sol-gel method. The interfacial conditions between the nanoparticles and the substrates were observed by subtracting images taken by scanning electron microscopy at controlled electron acceleration voltages to allow backscattered electrons to be generated predominantly below and above the interfaces. The interfacial adhesion was found to be dependent on the solution pH used for the particle synthesis or particle suspension preparation, proving the change in the particle formation/deposition processes with pH as anticipated and agreed with the prediction based on the Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (DLVO) theory. We found that our imaging technique was useful for the characterisation of interfaces hidden by nanoparticles to reveal the formation/deposition mechanism and can be extended to the other types of interfaces.

  • 275.
    Engström, Kajsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Stabilisation of arsenic in contaminated soil using iron distributed by electricity2021Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Boden, northern part of Sweden, there is a site called Solgårdarna which has been used for wood impregnation. The activities on the site have led to soil contamination with chrome (Cr), copper (Cu) and arsenic (As), where the arsenic contamination is the most problematic.

    This master’s thesis has studied the possibility to stabilise As in-situ with iron (Fe). The aim of the thesis was to investigate how well the distribution of Fe in the soil with the help of electrokinetics occurs. The work was divided into 3 parts, where part 1 and part 2 were performed in the laboratory and part 3 was performed in field. Part 1 investigated how Fe can distribute depending on how the electrodes were connected. This was done using quartz sand so visual assessment of the distribution could be done. Part 2 used the results from part 1 for a similar experiment performed on soil from Solgårdarna to see how stabilisation of As in the soil will work. Part 3 was a field test at Solgårdarna where it was tested on a pilot scale.

    Part 1 of was performed in two sets, 7 days each. It showed that it is possible to spread iron in the sand with the help of this method. The sand experiments achieved a covering area of 27 % respectively 28 % of rust over the entire profile during one week. Measurement with the XRF showed that where the electrode had been located the concentration of Fe increased up to 0.21-0.29 % and the concentration of Fe between the electrodes were 0.04-0.06 %.

    Part 2 of the experiment was performed in one setup over a 51-day period, after day 35 the experimental setup was changed due to highly fluctuating pH. The results from the experiment with soil showed that the pH is highly affected by how long the electrodes close to the sampling points were anodes or cathodes. During the experiment, a general trend for increasing As concentration in the different locations in the cell were seen. After the experiment the leachable amounts of As decreased down to 0.8-1.7 mg/kg TS compared to the untreated soil, 2.9 mg/kg TS.

    Part 3 of the experiment represent a 2-month field pilot test period during the autumn. Towards the end of the sampling period there was a general decrease in dissolved As and Fe in the groundwater, during the same time the groundwater level decreased, the redox potential increased and the electrical conductivity decreased.

    The laboratory experiments with the sand showed a removal rate around 90 % or higher, which is a good result. Those experiments were however performed using a clean inert material which is not comparable with real conditions.

    The field experiment was done over a short period of time due to time limitations of this thesis, while follow up of the pilot test was done within the scope of a continued research project at LTU. The given results showed a decrease in dissolved arsenic in groundwater which is a positive result. To determine whether the decrease is due to the natural adsorption of As to soil or due to the impact of provided Fe oxides requires longer monitoring of the experiment.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 276.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Editorial2012In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 25, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 277.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Löf, Anton
    RMG Consulting, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Löf, Olof
    RMG Consulting, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Обзор мирового рынка железной руды за 2019–2020 годы: [Iron ore market report 2019–2020]2021In: Gornaya Promyshlennost (Russian Mining Industry), ISSN 1609-9192, no 1, p. 74-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preliminary figures of global iron ore and steel production in 2020 show a slight decline. The article reviews iron ore production by global companies (Vale, Rio Tinto, BHP, FMG, Anglo American, etc.) in 2019 and 2020, as well as production figures by the leading steel producing countries (China, India, Japan, Russia, USA, South Korea) in 2020. Iron ore imports and exports are also analyzed. It is noted that the global iron ore exports had increased by around 43% over the previous decade, however, they went down by 1.7% in 2019, and this decline in exports continued in 2020. Australia is the largest iron ore exporter with a market share of 55%; this share increased by one percentage point in 2020 compared to the previous year. Green-field projects by global producing companies are presented in Brazil, Australia and other countries. A conclusion is made that despite a 3.5% decline in the global economy forecast by the International Monetary Fund in 2020, it is possible to acknowledge that the iron ore market is well balanced. However, if steel demand and steel production volumes increase unexpectedly and some of the planned new mines are not commissioned, the surplus can quite promptly turn into a deficit. In the long term, the plans to produce steel without using fossil fuels, without coke and therefore without CO2 emissions, could revolutionize the iron ore market and increase the demand for products with a high iron content.

  • 278.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Assessment of static performance of LKAB´s welded mesh: Laboratory testing and analysis2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Surface support is an areal support, which is installed on rock excavation surface to prevent bulking of rock mass and retain loose rock fragments. Welded wire mesh is one type of surface support. Literature study indicates that there is a wide range of testing methods on mesh. Different setups regarding mesh configuration, installation, and load applying system are used to evaluate its load-bearing, deformation, and energy absorption capacities. Loads are applied in different ways to simulate both static and dynamic loading conditions. However, there is not any standardized testing method.

     

    Common configuration of a welded mesh sheet in LKAB´s underground mines has the dimension of 2.3 m × 2.5 m and is made of 5.5 mm (in diameter) wires welded with a square grid pattern of 75 mm × 75 mm spacing. It is installed with a square bolt pattern with a bolt spacing of 1.0 m × 1.0 m particularly in seismically active areas. Comprehensive field damage investigations at LKAB’s Kiirunavaara mine have shown localized failure of mesh, i.e., the mesh was cut or torn by rock blocks as a result of a seismic event. This is especially common along the mesh overlap where mesh sheets are joined together. However, the performance of welded mesh used at the LKAB’s mines and its performance along mesh overlap is not well understood.

     

    Laboratory tests of LKAB´s welded wire mesh were conducted at the Mining and Civil Engineering Lab at Luleå University of Technology. A test frame was built to test the mesh under static conditions after literature review. Mesh sheets with reduced dimension of 1.2 m x 1.2 m were mounted at the corner by four bolts on the frame and tested with different loading conditions in test series AA. In test series AB/AD, two mesh sheets with overlap were tested and the load was applied at the overlap between two bolts. For the base case in series AA, a rupture load of 41.4 kN was registered at a displacement of 0.44 m using the loading plate with the size of 0.07 m2 when the load was applied at the center of the whole mesh sheet. The highest rupture load, 60.7 kN at 0.26 m displacement, was reached when the size of the loading plate was increased from 0.07 m2 to 0.5 m2. Load-carrying capacity (by using rupture load) obtained for test series AA was in the range of 32.4 - 60.7 kN with a displacement range of 0.26 - 0.44 m, considering varied loading plate material and size of the loading plate. In test series AB/AD where focus was placed on the overlap, the load-carrying capacity was in the range of 28.9 – 47.5 kN at a displacement range of 0.19 – 0.22 m. A single mesh tested with this loading configuration gave the lowest rupture load, 28.9 kN at a displacement of 0.19 m. The load-carrying capacity of two mesh sheets with three grids overlap was increased to 47.5 kN at a displacement of 0.22 m. Stiffness of the tested mesh also increased with an overlap. There is nearly no difference in load-carrying capacity when the loading mode has changed from pulling to pushing. Reducing the number of grids at the overlap to one grid decreased the load-carrying capacity of the mesh significantly, and the overlap seemed to become open quickly as the load was applied on it.

     

    Two failure modes were observed for the mesh tests: tensile failure of the wires and failure at the heat affected zone (HAZ). Failure at HAZ is caused by weakening of the wires at the welding points. In test series AA, failure at the HAZ was observed in all tests near a faceplate. In test series AB/AD, both tensile failure and failure at HAZ were observed. They were observed close to either a faceplate or the loading plate.

     

    To conclude test series AA, there is a problem with the redistribution of load and failure always occurs at the welding points close to faceplates. Roof mesh with wider wires at the face plates and high energy absorbent mesh have shown good results regarding handling these described problems, therefore these could be tested with LKAB´s bolting pattern and mesh configurations. In test series AB/AD, the observed problem is that the load concentrates on the closest bolts, therefore the load should be redistributed to bolts next to the loaded area. Seismic mesh, straps and improved bolting pattern can help with that, and they could be tested to evaluate them further.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 279.
    Eriksson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Tiberg, Nils
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Delin, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Fysisk redovisning för Norrbottens län och två perspektiv på bärkraftig utveckling1996Report (Other academic)
  • 280.
    Eriksson, Johanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Sensitivity analysis of pluvial flood modelling tools for dense urban areas: A case study in Lundby-Lindholmen, Gothenburg2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of the global climate change, extreme precipitation is occurring more frequently which increases the risk of flooding, especially in urban areas. Urbanisation is widely discussed regarding urban flooding where an increase of impervious surfaces limits the infiltration and increases the surface runoff. Flooding events in urban areas are increasing around the world and can cause large damages on infrastructure and buildings, which makes the cities vulnerable. Urban flood models are an important tool for analysing the capacity of the drainage systems, to predict the extent of the events and to find optimal locations to implement measures to prevent damages from flooding.

    In this project, a sensitivity analysis in MIKE FLOOD, a coupled 1D-2D flood model developed by DHI is presented, where sewer- and surface systems are integrated. The aim with this project is to investigate how the result of a coupled flood model vary in relation to changes in input parameters. The sensitivity analysis is performed to evaluate how different parameters impact the model output in terms of water depth and variations in cost of flooded buildings, roads, rail- and tramways. The analysis is applied in a case study in Lundby-Lindholmen, Gothenburg city, Sweden.

    The results show that modelling without infiltration influenced the model output the most, with the largest increase both in terms of cost and water depth over the investigated area. Here the correlation between the initial water saturation and location of the applied pre-rain was highlighted. The model outputs were less sensitive to changes in surface roughness (expressed as Manning value) than without infiltration but did lead to measurable changes in surface water depth and distribution while the flood damage cost didn’t show any major changes.

    Additionally, the coupled flood model was evaluated in terms of handling changes in magnitudes of rain-events. Data indicates the shorter the return period, the smaller the flood propagation, as well as the flood damage cost decreases with shorter return periods. The data evaluated supports the use of this coupled model approach for shorter return periods in terms of flood propagation.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 281.
    Eriksson, Mattis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Remediation of oil-contaminated artic wetland using electrooxidation combined with permeable reactive barrier2024Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Oil spills can cause significant damage to living organisms and the environment. Oil spills have historically had devastating consequences for the environment and wildlife. Both the oil itself and its by-products such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are harmful for living organisms and wildlife. This work investigated the possibility of cleaning oil pollution in an arctic wetland using electrokinetic remediation in combination with a permeable reactive barrier.

     

    Three experimental setups were compared to evaluate the degree of remediation. One cell contained only oil-contaminated soil and was used a control, one cell contained contaminated soil and a reactive barrier filled with thermally treated peat granulate (FloatAbsorb) and the third cell was filled the contaminated soil, the barrier and was complemented with electrodes inserted directly into the soil and the barrier for electrooxidation. Deionized water was pumped through the cells to simulate the natural groundwater flow. The percolated water was collected over nine weeks and analyzed every two weeks for aliphatic and aromatic compounds, PAH and oil index. The soil was analyzed before the experiment started and in all three cells after the experiment for aliphatic and aromatic compounds, PAH and oil index. 

     

    The water analysis showed that most analytes were below detectable levels throughout the entire study period. pyrene and some aliphatic compounds could be detected. 

    The soil analysis after the experiment showed that none of the analyzed aromatic compounds could have been detected in any of the three cells. For both aliphatic fraction >C12-16 and >C16-35, the highest concentration was found in cell with soil and reactive barrier and the lowest concentration in cell with electrooxidation treatment. The concentration in fraction >C12-C16 varied between 494 mg/kg and 578 mg/kg, and in fraction >C16-C35 between 3890 mg/kg to 4620 mg/kg.

    Concerning the total concentration of oil in the fraction >C10-C40, the highest concentrations were in the control cell without treatment with a concentration of 18900 mg/kg. The cell with permeable reactive barrier had a concentration of 10800 mg/kg and the cell with permeable reactive barrier and electrokinetic treatment 6530 mg/kg. The total oil concentration was reduced by 65.4% in the cell with permeable reactive barrier and electrokinetic treatment compared to the control cell.

    The results showed a higher degree of remediation compared to the expected the results. The method needs to be tested in situ but are promising for remediation of oil contaminated artic wetlands.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 282.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Managing complex projects in the infrastructure sector: A structural equation model for flexibility-focused project management2017In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 1512-1523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex construction projects in the infrastructure sector are often beset with delays, which cause benefit shortfalls and increased costs. Prior project management literature and practice have mostly adopted a traditional control-focused approach, but recent research suggests that complex projects need more flexible practices to manage inevitable project change. Thus, the objectives of this study were to develop and empirically test a model for flexibility-focused project management practices to improve time performance in complex projects in the infrastructure sector. Based on empirical data from 138 construction projects procured and managed by the Swedish Transport Administration, the structural equation model shows that complexity and collaboration drive explorative learning, which improves adaptation and thereby improves time performance. Hence, the empirical test verifies that flexibility-focused project management practices based on collaboration, explorative learning, and adaptation enhance time performance in complex projects in the infrastructure sector.

  • 283.
    Eriksson Solander, Viktor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Vattengeokemi och syre-väteisotoper som verktyg för spårning av vattenkällor vid vattentäkter: En fältstudie vid Gäddviksområdet i Luleå2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater is an important source of drinking water where advanced knowledge in the area is of great importance in order to ensure the drinking water quality for future generations. Groundwater is chemically complex because it is formed from a large variety of water sources where the water comes from and passes through different geological and hydrological environments. Environmental forensics is an important area in environmental studies where a wide variety of analytical techniques are integrated to be able to trace and identify sources of pollution. In the Gäddvik project, environmental forensics is applied as a method for tracking pollution in naturally occurring waters. Concentrations of selected elements, oxygen- and hydrogenisotopes and cerium-anomalies have been used to show chemical differences between different water sources in groundwater reservoirs in the Gäddvik area. A sub-study at Kvarnträsket (a lake located in the Gäddvik area) has been carried out to track surface water intrusion in nearby groundwater used for drinking water. Different types of graphs and charts have been created from data on the area, where these have been used to give a simplified visualization of different geochemical trends for selected elements/isotopes. Quality differences between two nearby groundwater reservoirs have been studied and discovered, where one is Luleå’s main groundwater reservoir and the other is a backup groundwater reservoir. Surface water from the Luleå River has been detected in the main groundwater reservoir to a greater extent than in the backup groundwater reservoir. This may be since the main reservoir is under higher exposure and uses river water for artificial infiltration to the groundwater. Oxygen- and hydrogenisotopes have been shown to be useful for tracking and locating surface water infiltration in groundwater intended for drinking water.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 284.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Vattenfall R&D, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Aboukrat, Maxime
    Vattenfall R&D, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cebollada, Virginia
    Vattenfall R&D, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lingfors, David
    Uppsala University, Dep. Eng. Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Björn O.
    Dep. Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Shading losses for different types of residential PV systems and its city-wide impact on PV potential2019In: 9th Solar and Storage Integration Workshop: International Workshop on Integration of Solar Power and storage into Power Systems, Energianautics GmbH , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 285.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. Vattenfall R&D, 169 92 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Alhamwi, Mouaz
    Vattenfall R&D, 169 92 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Using Online Solar Photovoltaics Inverter Measurements to Determine the Hosting Capacity of Distribution Grids2023In: Solar RRL, E-ISSN 2367-198X, Vol. 7, no 22, article id 2300509Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 286.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Vattenfall R&D, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nestorovic, Benjamin
    Vattenfall Eldistribution AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Isendahl, Christoffer
    E.ON Energidistribution AB, Malmö, Sweden.
    Ruwaida, Yvonne
    Vattenfall Eldistribution AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Unlocking the potential of flexibility2021In: CIRED 2021 - The 26th International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution, Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2021, article id 0718Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The CoordiNet project within Horizon 2020 programme aims to demonstrate how Distribution System Operators (DSO) and Transmission System Operators (TSO) can act in a coordinated manner to procure and activate grid services in the most cost effective and reliable way. With 4 GWh of traded flexibility during winter of 2019/2020, the Swedish demo sites constitutes one of Europe's largest local flexibility markets for congestion management. The paper presents the experience from interviews with fifteen flexibility providers participating in the markets. Together they provide flexibility from a wide mix of different technologies including district heating, generation from waste disposal, aggregated consumer load, industrial heat pumps, gensets and residential housing blocks. Fifteen resource owners have made the journey to become flexibility providers. Understanding their experience and needs will help DSO develop products and business models for flexibility services as well as getting insight in the practical hurdles that hinder network customers to become a flexibility provider (FSP). The results from implementation of the platform, user interface, learnings on stakeholder interaction and initial evaluation of first two years operation of the market is also addressed.

  • 287.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. Vattenfall R&D, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Tavares de Oliveira, Tais
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    First Steps Towards a Standardised Hosting Capacity Method2021In: CIRED 2021 - The 26th International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution, Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2021, p. 931-934, article id 0727Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the requirements for a standardised hosting capacity method. It outlines the needs and requirements for a standardised methodology as well as ongoing and upcoming standardisation activities in IEEE and IEC. The paper outlines the criteria for consensus, transparency, interoperability and stability required from a standardised hosting capacity method. The use of IEC 61968/61970 Common Grid Model Exchange Specification is proposed as a basis for reproducibility and benchmarking of results across network operators, countries, regions and network design methods.

  • 288. Evertsson, U.
    et al.
    Höbeda, P.
    Tiberg, Nils
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Utnyttjning av slagg från avfallsförbränning: och miljömässiga undersökningar och praktiska erfarenheter1986Report (Other academic)
  • 289.
    Fahlbeck Carlsson, Sofia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Evaluation of a gross pollutant trap-biofilter stormwater treatment train: The Role Of Calcium Carbonate, Vegetation And Pre-Treatment Facility2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Development of cities, new buildings and other impervious surfaces entails increased stormwater flows, volumes and pollutant loads. Heavy metals, nutrients, sediments and salt are common pollutants in stormwater. The conventional way to manage stormwater, which is by discharge to the receiving water body via a sewage network, will not be sufficient for mitigating high flows, flood risks and pollution export. Thus, Low Impact Development (LID) stormwater facilities, such as stormwater biofilters, are built in an increasing rate in Sweden and worldwide. The main function of a stormwater biofilter is water quality treatment, which is achieved when stormwater percolates through a vegetated filter media. Sometimes a pre-treatment facility is installed before the biofilter to reduce the sediment load on the biofilter and extend its life-length. However, there are knowledge gaps regarding pollutant removal in biofilters and the role of associated pre-treatment facilities.

    In this study the impact of a pre-treatment facility, calcium carbonate as amendment in the filter media and vegetation was investigated regarding treatment of heavy metals (Cd (cadmium), Cu (copper), Pb (lead) and Zn (zinc)), phosphorus and total suspended solids. To do this, influent and effluent stormwater samples from an existing biofilter in Sundsvall were analysed and evaluated regarding removal performance of the above-mentioned pollutants. 

    In general, the stormwater biofilter facility (including pre-treatment) removed total metals well while the removal of the dissolved fraction showed higher variations. Influent concentrations of TP were always higher than effluent concentrations. Leaching of phosphate repeatedly occurred from the filter sections. The mean removal of TSS was high (96.9%).

    CaCO3 as amendment in the filter material had a beneficial effect on the overall metal removal of the stormwater facility. Although leaching of phosphate occurred from all filter sections, the leaching was lowest from the section with CaCO3,indicating possible benefits of CaCO3 as amendment. CaCO3 did not seem to affect the mean total phosphorus removal significantly.

    Removal of total metals seemed to be improved by vegetation, but the removal of dissolved metals, total phosphorus and phosphate did not seem to be enhanced by vegetation. The filter section with vegetation and without CaCO3 amendment contributed with the highest effluent concentrations of total phosphorus and phosphate (leaching), considering that vegetation released more phosphate that it captured.

    The main treatment of the stormwater pollutants occurred within the biofilter and both positive and negative removal of all pollutants was observed by the pre-treatment facility. The result showed that the pre-treatment facility was most beneficial for removal of dissolved metals.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 290.
    Faraj, Dana Muhammad
    et al.
    Department of Water Resources Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Sulaimani, Sulaymaniyah 46002, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
    Abdulrahman, Kawa Z.
    Department of Water Resources Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Sulaimani, Sulaymaniyah 46002, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir A.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    The impact of the tropical water project on darbandikhan dam operation2022In: Journal of King Saud University - Engineering Sciences, ISSN 1018-3639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Besides global warming and population growth, the Turkish and the Iranian water projects have negatively affected the water resources in Iraq. Recently, Iran has implemented its largest water project (The Tropical Water Project - TWP). This project aims to store the flowing water in the Sirwan and Zmkan rivers (i.e., tributaries of the Diyala River) to provide irrigation, domestic, and industrial water for areas inside and outside the Diyala River Basin. The Darbandikhan dam and Halabja water supply project are located on the Diyala River. In this study, the impact of the TWP on the operation of the Darbandikhan dam and Halabja water supply project was investigated. The monthly inflow data of the Darbandikhan dam from September 1991 to December 2017 were used to simulate the operation of the dam using the HEC-ResSim 3.1 package. Two scenarios have been adopted for the operation of the Darbandikhan dam. In the first scenario, the Darbandikhan dam operation was simulated without considering the effects of the TWP project.

    In contrast, in the second scenario, the full operation of the TWP project was considered. The results revealed that about 48.4% of the power generation capacity would be lost, and the water surface elevation in the reservoir would be affected significantly due to the TWP project. The water surface elevation would be at or below 443 m for long periods, which will affect the operation of the Halabja water supply project.

  • 291.
    Fatahi, R.
    et al.
    School of Mining Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, 16846-13114, Iran.
    Khosravi, R.
    Department of mining, Faculty of Engineering, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, 68151-44316, Iran.
    Siavoshi, H.
    Department of Mining and Geological Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, 85721, AZ, United States.
    Yazdani, S.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, 1651153311, Iran.
    Hadavandi, E.
    Department of Industrial Engineering, Birjand University of Technology, Birjand, 66981, Iran.
    Chelgani, Saeed Chehreh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Ventilation Prediction for an Industrial Cement Raw Ball Mill by BNN—A “Conscious Lab” Approach2021In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 14, no 12, article id 3220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In cement mills, ventilation is a critical key for maintaining temperature and material transportation. However, relationships between operational variables and ventilation factors for an industrial cement ball mill were not addressed until today. This investigation is going to fill this gap based on a newly developed concept named “conscious laboratory (CL)”. For constructing the CL, a boosted neural network (BNN), as a recently developed comprehensive artificial intelligence model, was applied through over 35 different variables, with more than 2000 records monitored for an industrial cement ball mill. BNN could assess multivariable nonlinear relationships among this vast dataset, and indicated mill outlet pressure and the ampere of the separator fan had the highest rank for the ventilation prediction. BNN could accurately model ventilation factors based on the operational variables with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.6. BNN showed a lower error than other traditional machine learning models (RMSE: random forest 0.71, support vector regression: 0.76). Since improving the milling efficiency has an essential role in machine development and energy utilization, these results can open a new window to the optimal designing of comminution units for the material technologies.

  • 292.
    Fatahi, Rasoul
    et al.
    School of Mining Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, 16846-13114, Iran.
    Nasiri, Hamid
    Department of Computer Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran.
    Dadfar, Ehsan
    Production Department of Ilam Cement Plant, Ilam, Iran.
    Chelgani, Saeed Chehreh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Modeling of energy consumption factors for an industrial cement vertical roller mill by SHAP-XGBoost: a "conscious lab" approach2022In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 7543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cement production is one of the most energy-intensive manufacturing industries, and the milling circuit of cement plants consumes around 4% of a year's global electrical energy production. It is well understood that modeling and digitalizing industrial-scale processes would help control production circuits better, improve efficiency, enhance personal training systems, and decrease plants' energy consumption. This tactical approach could be integrated using conscious lab (CL) as an innovative concept in the internet age. Surprisingly, no CL has been reported for the milling circuit of a cement plant. A robust CL interconnect datasets originated from monitoring operational variables in the plants and translating them to human basis information using explainable artificial intelligence (EAI) models. By initiating a CL for an industrial cement vertical roller mill (VRM), this study conducted a novel strategy to explore relationships between VRM monitored operational variables and their representative energy consumption factors (output temperature and motor power). Using SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) as one of the most recent EAI models accurately helped fill the lack of information about correlations within VRM variables. SHAP analyses highlighted that working pressure and input gas rate with positive relationships are the key factors influencing energy consumption. eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) as a powerful predictive tool could accurately model energy representative factors by R-square ever 0.80 in the testing phase. Comparison assessments indicated that SHAP-XGBoost could provide higher accuracy for VRM-CL structure than conventional modeling tools (Pearson correlation, Random Forest, and Support vector regression.

  • 293.
    Fernö, Elina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Electrolytic Reduction of Iron Oxides in Molten Salt with a Mineralogical Investigation of Magnetite Ore of Tapuli2023Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master's thesis covers an investigation of the reduction behavior of different iron oxides when electrolytically reduced with molten salt electrolysis (MSE). The tested iron oxides were wüstite (FeO), hematite (Fe2O3), magnetite (Fe3O4) and magnetite ore concentrate from the Tapuli deposit in Pajala, Norrbotten, Sweden. The properties of the Tapuli magnetite ore and magnetite ore concentrate were analysed from a mineralogical perspective to evaluate how the raw ore material influences the concentrate and its reduction by the MSE technology.

    The electrolytic experiments were performed in an Inconel 625 cell body within a pit-furnace. The different iron oxides were tested separately. The reduction samples were constructed of one or three iron oxide briquettes of 20 g each within a molybdenum mesh attached on a molybdenum tray with molybdenum wires. The molten electrolyte was kept at 500°C with an applied voltage of 1.7 or 2.1 V. The used electrolyte was sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The mineralogical examination shows that the Tapuli ore varies in composition between different locations of the deposit with respect to magnetite grain size and skarn composition and grain size. Point analyses with Laser Ablation Single Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-SC-ICP-MS) on magnetite grains in thin sections from five drill cores fromdifferent parts of the deposit show that the element composition in the magnetite grains vary between the samples. Core-to-rim analyses for Fe, Mg, Mn and Al reveal relatively homogenous grades throughout the grains, with a few exceptions. Phase analysis with XRD shows that reduction has occurred in all tested iron oxides. Without prevention, the reduction products from trials on Fe2O3, Fe3O4 and magnetite ore concentrate show distinct XRD peaks of the by-product NaFeO2. According to XRD, the addition of Na2O seems to have reduced the NaFeO2 formation. Interestingly, no NaFeO2 was formed in the FeO trials. This might be explained by the absence of Fe3+ in FeO. The variation of the current-time curves of the trials is interpreted to depend on the voltage applied, the number of briquettes, briquette decomposition and Na2O addition.

    Electrolysis in molten NaOH can be used to reduce iron oxides. Despite this, NaOH might not be a suitable electrolyte for this process due to its interaction with Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 resulting information of NaFeO2. Na2O can be used as an additive to prevent formation of NaFeO2 but sharply decreases the current response, thus having an apparent negative effect on the process efficiency. Another preventive measure that can be tested is to calibrate the process voltage to decompose the NaFeO2 but not NaOH. Due to the shown interaction tendency of NaOH, other electrolytes should however be considered for this process. Regarding the Tapuli ore concentrate, more tests are needed to draw conclusions about how the trace elements effects its electrolytic behavior.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 294.
    Firsching, Markus
    et al.
    Fraunhofer EZRT, Fürth, Germany.
    Bauer, Christine
    Fraunhofer EZRT, Fürth, Germany.
    Wagner, Rebecca
    Fraunhofer EZRT, Fürth, Germany.
    Ennen, Alexander
    Fraunhofer EZRT, Fürth, Germany.
    Ahsan, Amit
    SECOPTA analytics GmbH, Teltow bei Berlin, Germany.
    Kampmann, Tobias Christoph
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Tiu, Glacialle
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Valencia, Alvaro
    University of Chile, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Santiago, Chile.
    Casali, Aldo
    University of Chile, Department of Mining Engineering, Santiago, Chile.
    Montes Atenas, Gonzalo
    University of Chile, Department of Mining Engineering, Santiago, Chile.
    REWO-SORT Sensor Fusion for Enhanced Ore Sorting: a Project Overview2019In: Procemin GEOMET 2019, GECAMIN , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among the numerous challenges recently confronting the mining industry is the need to process ore with successively lower grades due to the continuous depletion of high-grade deposits. This increases the consumption of energy and water and, thus, the operational costs at a mine site. Multimodal sorting represents a promising technique to achieve pre-concentration of valuable minerals already at an early stage in the metallurgical process.In the ERA-MIN2 project “Reduction of Energy and Water Consumption of Mining Operations by Fusion of Sorting Technologies LIBS and ME-XRT” (REWO-SORT), a fusion technology including laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and multi energy X-ray transmission (ME-XRT) is being developed by a multidisciplinary expert consortium. The project aims at classifying crushed mineral particles on a conveyor belt with the aid of deep learning technologies. In addition, the operating conditions to work with high throughput while keeping a particle monolayer on the conveyor belt have been identified. The latter objective is addressed using discrete element method (DEM) simulations. Parameter calibrations were experimentally obtained using a copper sulfide ore from the Rafaela mining company (Chile). The combination of LIBS and ME-XRT is promising, as they complement each other regarding analytical and particle selection capabilities: LIBS can provide an elemental analysis of the sample surface, while ME-XRT produces volumetric data with lower accuracy. Both sensors will be combined to extrapolate accurate and representative volumetric data, thereby securing an optimal particle selection at high throughputs. First measurements and analyses of ore samples using LIBS and ME-XRT, as well as their correlation with the Cu concentration obtained by reference lab analysis will be presented and discussed. Preliminary DEM studies indicate the existence of a threshold of conveyor belt surface area covered with particles of around 85%. Above this value the particle monolayer cannot be maintained, imposing another restriction for the speed of sensor analysis.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 295. Fischer, Christine
    et al.
    Maurice, Christian
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Gas emission from landfills: an overview of issues and research needs : survey1999Report (Other academic)
  • 296.
    Fischer, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Investigation into sustainable energy systems in Nordic municipalities2020Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipal energy systems in Nordic environments face multiple challenges: the cold climate, large-scale industries, a high share of electric heating and long distances drive energy consumption. While actions on the demand side minimize energy use, decarbonization efforts in mining, industries, the heating and the transport sector can increase the consumption of electricity and biofuels. Continued growth of intermittent wind and solar power increases supply, but the planned phase out of Swedish nuclear power will pose challenges to the reliability of the electricity system in the Nordic countries. Bottlenecks in the transmission and distribution grids may restrict a potential growth of electricity use in urban areas, limit new intermittent supply, peak electricity import and export. Environmental concerns may limit growth of biomass use. Local authorities are committed in contributing to national goals on mitigating climate change, while considering their own objectives for economic development, increased energy self-sufficiency and affordable energy costs.

    Given these circumstances, this thesis investigates existing technical and economic potentials of renewable energy (RE) resources in the Nordic countries with a focus on the northern counties of Finland, Norway and Sweden. The research further aims to provide sets of optimal solutions for sustainable Nordic municipal energy systems, where the interaction between major energy sectors are studied, considering multiple objectives of minimizing annual energy system costs and reducing carbon emissions as well as analyzing impacts on peak electricity import and export.

    This research formulates an integrated municipal energy system as a multi-objective optimization problem (MOOP), which is solved by interfacing the energy system simulation tool EnergyPLAN with a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) implemented in Matlab. In a first step, the integration or coupling of electricity and heating sectors is studied, and in a second step, the study inquires the impacts of an increasingly decarbonized transport sector on the energy system. Sensitivity analysis on key economic parameters and on different grid emission factors is performed. Piteå (Norrbotten County, Sweden) is a typical Nordic municipality, which serves as a case study for this research.

    The research concludes that significant techno-economic potentials exist for the investigated resources. Optimization results show that CO2 emissions of a Nordic municipal energy system can be reduced by about 60% without a considerable increase in total energy system costs and that peak electricity import can be reduced by up to 38%. The outlook onto 2030 shows that the transport sector could be composed of high electrification shares and biofuels. Technology choices for optimal solutions are highly sensitive to electricity prices, discount rates and grid emission factors.

    The inquiries of this research provide important insights about carbon mitigation strategies for integrated energy sectors within a perspective on Nordic municipalities. Future work will refine the transport model, develop and apply a framework for multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) enabling local decision makers to determine a technically and economically sound pathway based on the optimal alternatives provided, and analyze the existing policy framework affecting energy planning of local authorities.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 297.
    Fischer, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Toffolo, Andrea
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Game theory-based analysis of policy instrument consequences on energy system actors in a Nordic municipality2024In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 10, no 4, article id e25822Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition of energy systems requires policy frameworks and instruments to make both energy suppliers and consumers contribute to the common goal of emission reductions and to fairly allocate costs and benefits among market actors and the government. Assuming that market actors – suppliers and consumers adhering to their economic interests – would benefit from cooperating to mitigate emissions, this study applies a game theory-based approach to investigate the interaction between a local electricity supplier and a group of heating consumers not connected to district heating. Selected policy instruments are tested, and their consequences are analyzed in the context of a representative Nordic municipality. The results show that the auction-based Contract for Difference policy instrument is the most suitable one in the studied Nordic context to achieve significant levels of CO2 emissions reduction. It creates a higher level of strategic interaction between the actors, that would be lacking otherwise, under the form of transfer payments from consumers to supplier, and avoids costs to the general taxpayer. While this is sufficient to promote the investments in renewables by the supplier, additional subsidy policies are required to enable the heating consumers to invest in more capital-intensive energy efficiency measures or biomass heating.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 298.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    et al.
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée CEDEX 2, France.
    Branchu, Philippe
    CEREMA, 12 Rue Léon Teisserenc de Bort, 78190 Trappes, France.
    Boudahmane, Lila
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée CEDEX 2, France.
    Caupos, Emilie
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée CEDEX 2, France.
    Demare, Dominique
    IFSTTAR, Laboratoire Eau et Environnement- route de Bouaye CS4, 44344 Bouguenais CEDEX, France.
    Deshayes, Steven
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée CEDEX 2, France.
    Dubois, Philippe
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée CEDEX 2, France.
    Kajeiou, Meriem
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée CEDEX 2, France.
    Meffray, Laurent
    CEREMA, 12 Rue Léon Teisserenc de Bort, 78190 Trappes, France.
    Partibane, Chandirane
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée CEDEX 2, France.
    Saad, Mohamed
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée CEDEX 2, France.
    Vitart de Abreu Lima, Maria
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée CEDEX 2, France.
    Gromaire, Marie-Christine
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée CEDEX 2, France.
    Stochastic Method for Evaluating Removal, Fate and Associated Uncertainties of Micropollutants in a Stormwater Biofilter at an Annual Scale2019In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A stochastic method for evaluating the in situ mass balance of micropollutants in a stormwater biofilter, accounting for inlet and outlet loads and the evolution of pollutant mass in the filter media (ΔMsoil) at an annual scale, is proposed. In the field context, this type of calculation presents a number of methodological challenges, associated with estimating water quality for unsampled rain events, reconstituting missing or invalidated flow data and accounting for significant uncertainties associated with these estimations and experimental measurements. The method is applied to a biofiltration swale treating road runoff for two trace metals, Cu and Zn and six organic micropollutants: pyrene (Pyr), phenanthrene (Phen), bisphenol-A (BPA), octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol (NP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Pollutant loads were reduced by 27–72%. While organic micropollutants are likely to be lost to degradation or volatilization processes in such systems, dissipation could not be demonstrated for any of the organic micropollutants studied due to emissions from construction materials (case of BPA, OP, NP and DEHP) or high uncertainties in ΔMsoil (case of Pyr and Phen). The necessary conditions for establishing an in situ mass balance demonstrating dissipation, which include acquisition of data associated with all terms over a period long enough that uncertainty propagation is limited and the absence of additional sources of pollutants in the field, are discussed.

  • 299.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    et al.
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 Avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455, Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Branchu, Philippe
    CEREMA, 12 Rue Léon Teisserenc de Bort, 78190, Trappes, France.
    Boudahmane, Lila
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 Avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455, Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Caupos, Emilie
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 Avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455, Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Demare, Dominique
    IFSTTAR, Laboratoire Eau et Environnement, Route de Bouaye CS4, 44344, Bouguenais Cedex, France.
    Deshayes, Steven
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 Avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455, Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Dubois, Philippe
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 Avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455, Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Meffray, Laurent
    CEREMA, 12 Rue Léon Teisserenc de Bort, 78190, Trappes, France.
    Partibane, Chandirane
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 Avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455, Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Saad, Mohamed
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 Avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455, Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Gromaire, Marie-Christine
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 Avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455, Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Field performance of two biofiltration systems treating micropollutants from road runoff2018In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 145, p. 562-578, article id S0043-1354(18)30694-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The treatment efficiency of a vegetative filter strip and a biofiltration swale treating heavily loaded road runoff are evaluated. Concentrations measured in water drained from the two systems are compared to those in untreated road runoff collected from a reference catchment for a wide range of contaminants including organic carbon, nutrients (N and P), trace metals, and organic micropollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), alkylphenols, bisphenol-A, phthalates), in both total and dissolved phases. Predominantly particulate pollutants, including Pb, Zn and PAH, were very efficiently removed (around 90%) for most events. However, poor particulate removal was observed during a winter period. Relatively few pollutants were significantly removed in the dissolved phase and observed concentration reductions tended to be lower than those of suspended solids and associated pollutants; as such, lower removals were observed for total concentrations of moderately particulate micropollutants, including bisphenol-A, alkylphenols and phthalates. In addition, some pollutants appear to be emitted from various biofilter components (filter media, drainage and lining materials), as low or negative concentration removals were observed during the first months of operation of the biofiltration swale.

  • 300.
    Flanagan, Kelsey
    et al.
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Branchu, Philippe
    Cerema, 12 Rue Léon Teisserenc de Bort, 78190 Trappes, France.
    Boudahmane, Lila
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Caupos, Emilie
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Demare, Dominique
    IFSTTAR, Laboratoire Eau et Environnement, route de Bouaye CS4, 44344 Bouguenais Cedex, France.
    Deshayes, Steven
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Dubois, Philippe
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Meffray, Laurent
    Cerema, 12 Rue Léon Teisserenc de Bort, 78190 Trappes, France.
    Partibane, Chandirane
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Saad, Mohamed
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Gromaire, Marie-Christine
    LEESU, UMR MA 102, École des Ponts, AgroParisTech, UPEC, UPE, Champs-sur-Marne, 6-8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée Cedex 2, France.
    Retention and transport processes of particulate and dissolved micropollutants in stormwater biofilters treating road runoff.2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 656, p. 1178-1190, article id S0048-9697(18)34660-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road runoff is contaminated by various micropollutants and may be treated using low impact development techniques, such as stormwater biofilters. Better understanding the processes, such as filtration, sorption and leaching, which affect pollutants in these systems is essential to reliably predicting treatment performance and optimizing system design. Field data from an in situ monitoring campaign, wherein dissolved and particulate concentrations of a wide range of micropollutants (trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, bisphenol-A, alkylphenols and phthalates) were characterized in untreated road runoff and biofilter outlets for 19 rain events, are used to explore transport and retention processes. Although retention of the particulate phase of pollutants was generally quite effective, unusually high particle concentrations were observed at biofilter outlets for three winter events. Particle characterization in road runoff and outlet waters revealed that this degraded performance was due to poor filtration rather than particle erosion, which was attributed to the relative abundance of small (<10 μm) particles during this period, along with possible preferential flows. Dissolved pollutants were less effectively removed in general. To better understand this behavior, field results were combined with laboratory sorption and leaching tests. Dissolved concentrations of trace metals were shown to be influenced by organic carbon; leaching from road-originated particles may also influence their transport. Removal of the dissolved phase of organic micropollutants was limited by the contamination of the filter media, either before installation or during the first period of operation, due to emissions from construction materials.

3456789 251 - 300 of 1075
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf