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  • 251.
    Brundin, Herman
    et al.
    SÖRAB.
    Kihl, Anders
    Rang-Sells Avfallsbehandling AB.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Rihm, Thomas
    RVF service AB.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge Återvinning AB.
    Långtidsegenskaper hos tätskikt innehållande bentonit2001Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bentonit är en starkt vattenupptagande och svällande naturlig lera med låg vattengenomsläpplighet. Huvudkomponenten är mineralet montmorillonit, som tillhör gruppen smektiter och som ger bentoniten dess unika egenskaper. Syftet med uppdraget är att söka identifiera vilka mekanismer och faktorer som kan vara begränsande för funktionen på kort och lång sikt hos tätskikt innehållande bentonitmattor samt blandningar av bentonit och andra material. I rapporten ges underlag för projektering, utformning och drift av deponier med tätskikt innehållande bentonit. Där redovisas också tre fallstudier från Högbytorp, Löt och Tveta.

  • 252.
    Buchheister, J.
    et al.
    ETH Zurich.
    Bayraktarli, Y.
    Laue, Jan
    ETH Zurich.
    Faber, M.
    Uncertainities in a detrministic and probabilistic approach on liquefaction susceptibility2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 253.
    Buchheister, J.
    et al.
    ETH Zurich.
    Laue, Jan
    ETH Zurich.
    Frist results of cyclic experiments using a hollow cylinder apparaturs2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 254.
    Buchheister, Justine
    et al.
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, ETH Zurich.
    Laue, Jan
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, ETH Zurich.
    The influence of different stress states on soil liquefaction under a building2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Liquefaction of soil depends on the state and type of soil, loading function and the initial stress state ofa soil element prior to a dynamic event. Most studies focus on an initial stress state from the free fieldwhile assuming σ2 = σ3. Therefore, this stress state can be studied in a triaxial apparatus. With ahollow cylinder apparatus, it is possible to apply any possible combination of σ1, σ2 and σ3 in the soilprior to testing and thus enables the reproduction of boundary conditions e.g. as given for different soilelements under a building.Underneath a building different initial stress states need to be taken into account to judge the safetyand the behavior of the building during and after an earthquake. The focus in this contribution is tostudy the influence of these stress states. For a typical building the initial stress states were chosen atthree locations in a depth of 5 m. Experiments with fine sand are carried out under these initial stressstates with combined cyclic shear and axial loading. The results are presented and discussed in termsof the influence of stress state on liquefaction susceptibility and potential failures modes of a buildingtype to be considered in soil structure interaction.

  • 255.
    Buchli, Thomas
    et al.
    Institute of Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Hönggerberg, Zürich.
    Laue, Jan
    Institute of Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Hönggerberg, Zürich.
    Springman, Sarah M
    Institute of Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Hönggerberg, Zürich.
    Amendments to Interpretations of SAAF Inclinometer Data from the Furggwanghorn Rock Glacier, Turtmann Valley, Switzerland: Results from 2010 to 20122016Inngår i: Vadose Zone Journal, ISSN 1539-1663, E-ISSN 1539-1663, Vol. 15, nr 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Raw data processing from a ShapeAccelArray field (SAAF) inclinometerwere made using proprietary software from Measurand, the manufacturerof the SAAF inclinometer. When the inclinometer data obtained from thesame borehole were reprocessed with an updated software version, theresults were found to differ significantly from the values derived using theprevious version of software. Neither the absolute displacements nor thecurve representing displacements with depth agreed with the previous values,despite our best attempts to compare data with alternative sparse fieldmeasurements of surface displacements. There was a change in inclinationof the segments above the shear zone, and the strain rates in the shear zonewere reduced significantly during the winter months. In contrast, there wasno change in the depth of the shear zone. Therefore, the ground modelpresented in the original study is still considered to be the optimal groundmodel of the Furggwanghorn rock glacier. Finally, a simple trigonometricalapproach was conducted to investigate the validity of both software versions.The simplified recalculations could confirm mostly the results of theupdated software version.

  • 256.
    Burjánek, J.
    et al.
    Swiss Seismological Service, ETH Zürich.
    Fäh, D.
    Swiss Seismological Service, ETH Zürich.
    Michel, C.
    Swiss Seismological Service, ETH Zürich.
    Dalgauer, L.
    Swiss Seismological Service, ETH Zürich.
    Baumann, C.
    Swiss Seismological Service, ETH Zürich.
    Gassner-Stamm, G.
    Swiss Seismological Service, ETH Zürich.
    Poggi, V.
    Swiss Seismological Service, ETH Zürich.
    Roten, D.
    Swiss Seismological Service, ETH Zürich.
    Laue, Jan
    Institute of Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Zürich.
    Marin, A.
    Institute of Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Zürich.
    Lestuzzi, P.
    Applied computing and Mechanics Laboratory, EPF Lausanne.
    Karbassi, A.
    Applied computing and Mechanics Laboratory, EPF Lausanne.
    Earthquake Damage Scenario in Visp (Switzerland): From Active Fault to Building Damage2012Inngår i: Proceedings of the 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering 2012 (15WCEE), ETH Zürich , 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a damage scenario based on multidisciplinary study which covers the key elements of the earthquakerisk chain in Visp. Full dynamic rupture simulations are performed using heterogeneous initial distributions,statistically compatible to the database of kinematic inversion results of past earthquakes. The fault is embeddedin the 3D velocity model of the area, which is based on an extensive ambient noise measurement campaign. Inorder to assess the risk in the city of Visp, the buildings were classified based on the screening survey of thebuilding stock. The seismic behavior of each class is described by the mean of fragility curves, partly developedby analytical, numerical and experimental investigations and partly based on existing methods

  • 257. Bylund, Anders
    et al.
    Lindmark, Martin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Kommunal och enskild väghållning: kostnader, utförande, standard - etapp 11988Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport behandlar metoder för uppföljning av kostnader och standard för vinterväghållning.

  • 258.
    Börgesson, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Comparison of hydraulic backfill measurements with results from FEM calculations1981Inngår i: Application of rock mechanics to cut and fill mining: proceedings of the Conference on the application of rock mechanics to cut and fill mining, organized by the Departments of rock mechanics and soil mechanics, University of Luleå ... held at the University of Luleå, Sweden, from 1 to 3 June, 1980 / [ed] Ove Stephansson; Michael J. Jones, London: The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy , 1981, s. 269-271Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 259.
    Börgesson, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Influence of testing method and testing technique on the measured properties of silty soils1982Inngår i: Quality of mechanical observations on particulate media: Lyngby, Denmark, Aug. 18-20, 1982 / [ed] V. Askegaard, Lyngby: Technical University of Denmark , 1982, s. U.1-U.5Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 260.
    Börgesson, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Mechanical properties of hydraulic backfill1981Inngår i: Application of rock mechanics to cut and fill mining: proceedings of the Conference on the application of rock mechanics to cut and fill mining, organized by the Departments of rock mechanics and soil mechanics, University of Luleå ... held at the University of Luleå, Sweden, from 1 to 3 June, 1980 / [ed] Ove Stephansson; Michael J. Jones, London: The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy , 1981, s. 193-203Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 261.
    Börgesson, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Mechanical properties of inorganic silt1981Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for increased knowledge of the properties and behaviour of silty soils has been urgent for many years. This report is an attempt to fulfil this need to same degree. The properties of inorganic silt have been investigated by means of laboratory tests, field tests and load tests. The investigations have primarily concerned drained and undrained shear strength parameters and their use for real cases of load. The mechanisms of failure and the components of friction and shear strength are discussed. The influence of failure criteria, testing method, and rate of shear on the shear strength parameters have been studied as well as the influence of clay content, plasticity index, deformation to failure, and stress history. The testing methods and parameters have been checked with some load tests in the field and in the loading basin.

  • 262.
    Börgesson, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Shear strength of inorganic silty soils1981Inngår i: Soil mechanics and foundation engineering: proceedings of the Tenth international conference on soil mechanics and foundation engineering, Stockholm 15-19 June 1981., Rotterdam: Balkema Publishers, A.A. / Taylor & Francis The Netherlands , 1981, Vol. 1, s. 567-572Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Deals with the shear strength of silt measured in the laboratory with special reference to the influence of the testing technique. Drained and undrained shear conditions have been considered and much attention has been paid to the angle of friction and its relation to the strain at failure. The influence of time and stress history has also been investigated

  • 263.
    Börgesson, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Stability of partially drained excavated slopes in silty soils1984Inngår i: Canadian case histories: landslides: Preprint volume for the 37. Canadian Geotechnical Conference organized jointly with the 4. International Symposium on Landslides, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1984, s. 241-245Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 264.
    Börgesson, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Stress-strain relationships for silty soils1979Inngår i: Mechanisms of deformation and fracture: proceedings of the interdisciplinary conference held at the University of Luleå, Luleå, Sweden, September 20-22, 1978 / [ed] Kenneth E. Easterling, Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1979, s. 343-350Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 265.
    Börgesson, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Stress-strain relationships for silty soils1978Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 266.
    Börgesson, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Water flow and swelling pressure in non-saturated bentonite-based clay barriers1985Inngår i: Engineering Geology, ISSN 0013-7952, E-ISSN 1872-6917, Vol. 21, nr 3-4, s. 229-237Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The water uptake of 10 and 20% bentonite-sand mixtures and of 100% pure bentonite was studied experimentally. The results were compared with calculated water content distributions to study the usefulness of the diffusion equation. The relation between the swelling pressure and the degree of saturation of a bentonite was also studied.

  • 267.
    Börgesson, Lennart
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Axelsson, Kennet
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Stress-strain-strength behaviour and its modelling for silty soils1980Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 268.
    Caprez, M.
    et al.
    ETH, Zürich.
    Springman, Sarah M.
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich.
    Laue, Jan
    ETH, Zürich.
    Steiger, F.
    ETH, Zürich.
    Testing of TBM excavation material in sandstone and marl for reuse in embankments or as fill2001Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several tunnels in geological formations of molasse, marl or sandstone are planned or are presently under construction in Switzerland. The excavation of these tunnels is very often carried out by tunnel boring machines (TBM). This kind of excavation tends to produce lamellar excavation materials (chips). For the reuse of these materials in road embankments etc., there are certain disadvantages concerning the compression properties. Limiting deformation will be the main restriction on design in the reuse of this material and this is manifested also in terms of the possible changes of volume as a function of time. On the one hand, volume may increase due to instability in relation to water and possibly frost, whereby swelling occurs. On the other hand, volume may decrease due to repeated dynamic loading. Inevitably these volume changes will not occur to the same degree and within the same timeframe. The material can be stabilised by using a variety of cementing agents to improve the key properties. A range of laboratory experiments were performed to find the optimal mixture to be used as a base to the reinforced concrete slabs, which formed the railbed to the major railway line passing through this tunnel. An experimental field test was carried out using this specific mixture to confirm the suitability in relation to the construction method proposed and the properties measured at full scale.

  • 269.
    Carlsson, Torbjörn
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Interactions in MX-80 bentonite/water/electrolyte systems1986Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this work was to study the influence of temperature, water ratio and electrolyte content on the molecular water mobility in water saturated MX-80 bentonite. T a minor extent the influence of pressure, time, and specific surface area on the molecular water mobility was studied. The investigation was carried out by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance technique, NMR. The proton T2 relaxation time was chosen as a measure of the molecular water mobility. The investigated samples consisted of MX-80 bentonite to which water solutions of either NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, or SrCl2 were added. The electrolyte concentration varied between 0 and 0.35 mol.dm-3. The water ratio varied between 23 and 2000 per cent. The electrolyte content and water ratio were kept within limits corresponding to non-flocculated MX-80 bentonite. The sample temperature varied between +15 and +80°C. The structure of montmorillonite, the main component in MX-80 bentonite, and the structure of liquid water as well as the main physico-chemical interactions taking place in the investigated MX-80 bentonite samples are discussed.

  • 270.
    Carlsson, Torbjörn
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    NMR-studies of pore water in bentonite/water/electrolyte1986Inngår i: Scientific basis for nuclear waste management IX: symposium held September 9-11, 1985, Stockholm, Sweden / [ed] Lars O. Werme, Pittsburgh, Pa: Materials Research Society, 1986, s. 609-615Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The properties of water saturated bentonite systems are highly dependent on the pore water chemistry, water content and temperature. In this study relative changes in the physical state of pore water are studied by means of the nuclear magnetic resonance technique (NMR). It is found that the relative water mobility increases with increasing water content and/or increasing temperature, while an increase in the electrolyte content lowers the water mobility

  • 271.
    Carlsson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Jacobsson, Arvid
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ofruset vatten i frusen jord: exempel på praktikansluten grundforskning vid avdelningen för geoteknik vid högskolan i Luleå.1982Inngår i: Väg- och Vattenbyggaren, ISSN 0042-2177, nr 1, s. 33-35Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 272.
    Chabuk, Ali
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Solid Waste Landfills in an Arid Environment : Site Selection and Design2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting landfill sites is considered a complicated task because its whole process is based upon several factors and restrictions. This study shows the present status of solid waste management, sources, collection personnel, machinery and equipment that are involved in the waste collection process, financing and financial management for the major cities of the Babylon Governorate in Iraq (Al-Hillah, Al-Qasim, Al-Mahawil, Al-Hashimiyah and Al-Musayiab). The management of waste collection and disposal in the Babylon Governorate and its districts is through open waste dumps, so the quality of the collection and disposal process is poor, and these sites do not conform to the scientific and environmental criteria usually applied in the selection of landfill sites.

    In the first part of the current study, three methods were used to calculate the solid waste quantity for each specific year up to the year 2030 as well as the cumulative quantity of solid waste for the period (2020-2030) for Babylon Governorate. The results show the cumulative quantity of solid waste resulting from (method 3) receives a high value compared to other methods, and so it is used as a maximum value to estimate the required area for candidate sites for landfills in each district. The generation rate in 2030 will be (0.97, 0.69, 0.48, 0.62 and 0.91) (kg/capita/day) in (Al-Hillah, Al-Qasim, Al-Mahawil, Al-Hashimiyah and Al-Musayiab), respectively, based on method 3, where the estimated annual incremental generation rate is 1 %. 

    The second part of this study aims to find the best sites for landfills in the arid areas that are distinguished by a shallow depth of groundwater. The Babylon Governorate was selected as a case study because it is located in an arid area, and the depths beneath the ground surface to the groundwater level are shallow.  

    For this purpose, 15 important criteria were adopted as follows: groundwater depth, rivers, soil types, agricultural land use, land use, elevation, slope, gas pipelines, oil pipelines, power lines, roads, railways, urban centers, villages and archaeological sites. These criteria were then entered into the geographic information system (GIS). The GIS software has a large capacity to manage and analyze various input data using special analysis tools. In addition, Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods were used to derive the relative weightings for each criterion in different styles. These methods are (Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Simple Additive Weighting (SAW), Ratio Scale Weighting (RSW) and Straight Rank Sum (SRS)).

    Raster maps of the selected criteria were prepared and analyzed within the GIS software. The final map for candidate landfill sites was obtained through combining the GIS software and (MCDM) methods. Subsequently, comparison methods (Change Detection, Combination, Kappa and Overall Assessment) for each pair of raster maps that result from using the two different methods of multi-criteria decision making were implemented to determine the pixel percentage of matching and non-matching as well as to determine and check the suitability of the selected sites for landfills on both resulting maps using two methods.  

    Two suitable candidate sites for landfills were determined to fulfill the scientific and environmental requirements in each major city. These areas are (6.768 and 8.204) km2 in Al-Hillah, (2.766 and 2.055) km2 in Al-Qasim, (1.288 and 1.374) km2 in Al-Hashimiyah, (2.950 and 2.218) km2 in Al-Mahawil, and (7.965 and 5.952) km2 in Al-Musayiab. The required area of the selected sites can accommodate solid waste from 2020 until 2030 based on the required areas according to the third method.

    The third part of this study includes soil investigations for the selected landfill sites. The suggested design should ensure that there is no groundwater pollution by leachate from these sites because the groundwater depth is very shallow in the Babylon Governorate. To avoid this problem, soil investigation was conducted at these sites so that the most suitable landfill design could be established. Each site was subjected to field soil tests to find the composition of the soil strata at each site to a depth of 10 m, and these results were compared with the soil properties adopted for final site selection. The Iraqi Ministry of Housing & Construction, National Centre for Construction Laboratories and Research Babylon, Iraq, carried out the analytical work on the soil in 2016. The results of the soil investigation at these sites include the soil profile, groundwater depth, chemical properties, allowable bearing capacity, atterberg limits test results and material characteristics of the soil strata. According to the results of these tests, the best design is the one that puts the compacted waste at the surface.

    The fourth part of this study covers the selection of a suitable proposed design in the arid areas (Babylon Governorate, Iraq) for the selected landfill siting. In the current study, the design of this landfill includes the suggested soil layers for the liner system and final cover system.  

    For the base liner system (from the bottom toward the top), the composite bottom barrier layer consists of highly compacted sandy clay. The thickness of the bottom barrier layer is 60 cm, and its saturated hydraulic conductivity is 1.0E-7cm/s. The 1.5 mm thick geomembrane (HDPE), with hydraulic conductivity of 2.0E-13 cm/s, is placed over the composite bottom barrier layer. The leachate collection system consists of drainage layer (gravel) with a thickness of 30 cm and a hydraulic conductivity of 3.0E-1 cm/s. The diameter of the main drainpipes is between 15 and 20 cm. The protection layer consists of sand material, and its hydraulic conductivity is 5.0E-3 cm/s. The thickness of the protection layer is 30 cm.

    The compacted solid waste is placed upon the surface to a height of 2 m because of the shallow groundwater depth and to avoid groundwater contamination by leachate from the landfill site. The density of the compacted waste is 700 kg/m3, and its saturated hydraulic conductivity is 1.0E-5 cm/s.

    Three scenarios were used for the suggested designs for the final cover system of the landfills in arid areas. The first scenario was “evapotranspiration soil cover (ET) (capillary barriers type)”, the second scenario was a modified cover design of "RCRA Subtitle D", and the third scenario was the “Recommended design”. In this study, “Recommended design”, the third scenario for the final cover system, was adopted in the arid area (Babylon governorate, Iraq) based on combining certain layers from the first and second scenarios. For the three scenarios, the soil components in these designs used was based on available local materials in the study area. The layers of the base liner system were adopted in all scenarios.

    The third scenario for the final cover system, “Recommended design”, was implemented based on weather parameters in the arid areas. The water infiltrated from the surface of landfill is stored within upper layers that have fine particles. This allows the stored water to evaporate from the soil surface of the landfill or transpire through vegetation due to the high temperature during most months in the study area. The water that enters from the surface of the landfill should be contained above the geomembrane liner and top barrier layer without leakage into the waste body, thereby preventing leachate generation.

    For the layers of the final cover system (from the bottom to the top), the intermediate cover is used to cover the waste body, and this layer consists of moderate compacted silty clayey loam (native soil). The thickness of the intermediate cover is 30 cm, and its saturated hydraulic conductivity is1.0E-6 cm/s. The foundation layer consists of coarse sand material with a thickness of 30 cm and a saturated hydraulic conductivity of 1.0E-2 cm/s. This layer acts as a cushion for the layers of the final cover system. The gas collection system can be installed within the foundation layer.  

    The top barrier layer is placed over the foundation layer. This layer consists of highly compacted sandy clay of (45 - 60 cm) thickness with compacted lifts (each lift is 15 cm). The saturated hydraulic conductivity of the barrier layer is 1.0E-7 cm/s. The geomembrane liner, (HDPE) of 0.5 cm thickness and a saturated hydraulic conductivity of 2.0E-13 cm/s, is put on top of the barrier layer. The upper layers of the final cover system are the support vegetation layer and the topsoil layer. The composition of the support vegetation layer is moderate compacted loam. This layer is placed directly on the geomembrane liner. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of the support layer is1.0E-5 cm/s, and its thickness is 45 cm. The topsoil layer consists of silty clayey loam, and it is placed over the support vegetation layer with a slope of 3%. The thickness of the topsoil layer is 15 cm, and its hydraulic conductivity is 4.0E-5 cm/s.  

    The Hydrologic Evaluation of a Landfill Performance (HELP 3.95 D) model was applied to the selected landfill sites in the governorate to check if there could be any infiltration of the leachate that will result from the waste in the landfills in the selected sites in the future. The HELP model, which utilizes both weather and soil data, is the most commonly used model for landfill design, and it is employed to evaluate the quantity of water inflow through soil layers for the designed landfill. This suggested landfill is designed using the weather parameters (rainfall, temperature, solar, and the required date to calculate evapotranspiration) for the 12 consecutive years from 2005 to 2016, as well the required data for soil design.

    In the HELP model, the result for the suggested landfill design for both the recommended design (third scenario) and the second scenario was a modified cover design of "RCRA Subtitle D", which showed there was no leachate through the soil sub-layers, including the bottom barrier layer. The proposed design for the final cover system showed a reduction in the surface runoff and an increase in actual evapotranspiration. In the first scenario “evapotranspiration soil cover (ET) (capillary barriers type)”, there was no leachate percolation through the bottom barrier layer during the study years, apart from in 2013 and 2014. In these years, water percolation figures were 1.4E-5 and 4.0E-6 mm, respectively. These values are considered small, and they resulted from the high rate of rainfall during these years. Although, these values were small, they should still be taken into consideration when adopting this design in the study area.

    In the HELP model, the average annual and peak daily results for all scenarios showed that there was no water percolation through the bottom barrier layer during the years from 2005 to 2016.

  • 273.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Environment Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Alkaradaghi, Karwan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Kurdistan Institution for strategic studies and scientific Research, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq.
    Al-Rawabdeh, Abdulla Mustafa Muhamed
    Abdullah Mustafa Muhamed Al-Rawabdeh, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain Musa
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq; Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Landfill Final Cover Systems Design for Arid Areas Using the HELP Model: A Case Study in the Babylon Governorate, Iraq2018Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, nr 12, artikkel-id 4568Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of selecting proper designs for landfills is to accommodate quantities of waste without having a negative effect on the surrounding environment and human health. The Babylon Governorate (province) in Iraq was taken as an example of an arid area with very shallow groundwater and where irregular waste disposal sites had developed that had not been subject to international standards when they were selected for landfill use. In the current study, the suggested design for landfills is a base liner and final cover system. In this suggested design, the final cover system allows for three scenarios. The first scenario considers an evapotranspiration soil cover (ET) (capillary barriers type), the second scenario is a modified cover design of “RCRA Subtitle D”, and the third scenario is a combination of the first and second scenarios. The HELP 3.95 D model was applied to the selected landfill sites in the governorate to check if there was any penetration of the leachate that might in future percolate from the landfill’s bottom barrier layer in arid areas. The results from the suggested landfill design showed that there was no leachate percolation from the bottom barrier layer using the second and third scenarios. For the first scenario, however, there was a small amount of leachate through the bottom barrier layer in the years 2013 and 2014.

  • 274.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Environment Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon, Babylon 51001, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ezz-Aldeen, Mohammad
    Department of Dams and Water Resources Engineering, University of Mosul, Mosul 41001, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain Musa
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Kufa 51001, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Two Scenarios for Landfills Design in Special Conditions Using the HELP Model: A Case Study in Babylon Governorate, Iraq2018Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikkel-id 125Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The sound design of landfills is essential in order to protect human health and the environment (air, water, and soil). The study area, Babylon Governorate, is situated in the middle of Iraq, and is distinguished by a hot climate and shallow groundwater. The governorate did not have landfill sites that meet international criteria; in addition, the groundwater depth in Babylon Governorate is commonly shallow. Previously, the most important criteria for the study area and GIS software were used to select the best sites for locating landfills in the major cities of the governorate. In this study, the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP 3.95D) model was applied in order to ensure that there was no leakage of the leachate that results from the waste in the selected landfill sites. It is the most commonly utilized model for landfill design, and it is used to estimate water inflow through the soil layers. For the present study, to avoid groundwater pollution by leachate from a landfill site due to the shallow groundwater depth, compacted waste was placed on the surface using two height scenarios (2 m and 4 m). This design was developed using the soil properties of the selected sites coupled with the weather parameters in Babylon Governorate (precipitation, temperature, solar, and evapotranspiration) for a 12-year period covering 2005 to 2016. The results from both of the suggested landfill designs showed an absence of leachate from the bottom liner.

  • 275.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Kamaleddin, Suhair
    Iraqi Ministry of Housing & Construction, National Center for Construction Laboratories and Research Babylon, Baghdad.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Soil Characteristics in Selected Landfill Sites in theBabylon Governorate, Iraq2017Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 348-363Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Babylon Governorate is situated in the middle of Iraq. It covers an area of 5,315 km

    2 and has 2,092,998 inhabitants distributed throughout its five major cities (Qadhaa). Presently, there is no landfill site in the governorate that meets the environmental criteria for the disposal of municipal and industrial waste. Consequently, GIS (geographic information system) and methods of multi-criteria decision making were used here to select the best sites in each city in the Babylon Governorate that would fulfil the environmental requirements. Two sites were chosen in each city. As the groundwater is very shallow in this area, the design should ensure against groundwater pollution by leachate from these sites. To avoid this problem, soil investigation was conducted at these sites so that the most suitable landfill design could be accomplished. The results of soil investigation in these sites include the soil profile, groundwater depth, chemical properties, allowable bearing capacity, Atterberg limits test results and material characteristics of the soil strata. From the research, it is believed that the best design is one that puts the landfill above ground.

  • 276.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Department of Geology, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of Kufa.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    GIS-based assessment of combined AHP and SAW methods for selecting suitable sites for landfill in Al-Musayiab Qadhaa, Babylon, Iraq2017Inngår i: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 76, nr 5, artikkel-id 209Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting a landfill site is a difficult task because the process depends on many factors and restrictions. Landfill is an optimal solution for the disposal of solid waste in Al-Musayiab Qadhaa, which is located in the northern part of Babylon Governorate. At the moment, there is no landfill site in that area that follows the scientific selection site criteria. For this reason, in this research, fifteen variables were considered (groundwater depth, rivers, soil types; agriculture lands use, land use, elevation, slope, gas pipelines, oil pipelines, power lines, roads, railways, urban centers, villages and archeological sites) using geographic information system (GIS) to find out the best suitable landfill site. In addition, two methods of multi-criteria decision-making were used to derive weights for criterion’s maps on GIS to obtain potential landfill sites. The first method is analytical hierarchy process (AHP) which was used to identify the weight for each criterion from the matrix of pairwise comparisons. The second method was the simple additive weighting (SAW) which is a simple method to solve the problem of the selection landfill sites. After comparison of the results obtained based on combining two final maps resulted from methods of AHP and SAW using GIS environment to determine the pixels percentage of matching and non-matching for two maps, two suitable candidate landfill sites were identified that satisfy the requirements with an area of 7.965–5.952 km2. Area of these sites can accommodate the solid waste generated from the Qadhaa up to 2030.

  • 277.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Department of Geology, College of Science, Kufa University.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Landfill Sites Selection Using AnalyticalHierarchy Process and Ratio ScaleWeighting: Case Study of Al-Mahawil,Babylon, Iraq2017Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 123-141Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting a landfill site is an optimal solution for the disposal of solid waste inAl-Mahawil Qadhaa, both to fulfill the environmental and scientific requirements,and to comply with regulations and restrictions in this Qadhaa. Presently,there is no landfill site in the area that meets the scientific site selection criteria.Therefore, in this study, two methods of multi-criteria decision-makingand Geographic Information System (GIS) were used to produce a map ofcandidate sites for landfill. Fifteen criteria were entered within GIS: groundwaterdepth, rivers, soil types; agriculture lands use, land use, elevation, slope,gas pipelines, oil pipelines, power lines, roads, railways, urban centers, villagesand archaeological sites. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is the firstmethod that was applied to derive criteria weightings using the matrix of pairwisecomparisons. The second method was the Ratio Scale Weighting (RSW),which is based on experts’ opinion, in order to identify the criteria weightingsby giving a ratio score value for each criterion relative to the other criteria.Accuracy assessment (Kappa and Overall Assessment) methods were used tocompare the two raster maps which resulted from the two models, and to determinethe percentage value of matching pixels for the two maps. Two suitablecandidate sites for landfill were identified that satisfy the requirementswith an area of 2.218 km2 - 2.950 km2 in order to accommodate the solidwaste generated from the Qadhaa in the period 2020 to 2030.

  • 278.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Present Status of Solid Waste Management at Babylon Governorate, Iraq2015Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 5, nr 7, s. 408-423Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Babylon Governorate covers an area of 5315 km2 with a population that reaches about 1,974,490 inhabitants in the central part of Iraq. Iraq produced 31,000 tons/day solid waste in 2013. The Governorate of Babylon produces annual 483,221 tons of solid waste. Management of collection and disposal of waste in Babylon Governorate is done through open dumping of waste and poor collection process. These sites do not conform to the scientific and environmental criteria applied in the selection of landfill sites. To find out how much solid waste is expected in the future, two methods were used to calculate the population growth in Babylon Governorate to the year 2030. The results showed that the total waste in 2030 will be 761,104 tons and 943055 tons while the cumulated quantity of solid waste expected till 2030 was 12,494,521 tons and 14,095,437 tons according to the first and second methods respectively.

  • 279.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Landfill Sitting by Two Methods in Al-Qasim, Babylon, Iraq and Comparing Them Using Change Detection Method2017Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 9, nr 8, s. 723-737Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The selecting of a site for landfill is considered as a difficult process because many criteria should be involved. The main aim of establishing a landfill is to protect the human and environment. Al-Qasim district is considered as the study area in this work. It is one of the main districts in Babylon Governorate, Iraq. There is no systematic site as landfill that fulfil the environmental and scientific criteria in this area. Therefore, the most important fifteen criteria that suited the environmental requirements were selected in the current study. These criteria are: groundwater depth, urban centers, rivers, villages, soil types, elevation, roads agricultural land use, slope, land use, archaeological sites, power lines, gas pipelines, oil pipelines and railways. Two methods of multi criteria decision making AHP (analytical hierarchy process) and SRS (straight rank sum) were applied to obtain the weights of criteria in dissimilar styles. The raster maps of the selected criteria were prepared and analyzed within the GIS software. Then, the change detection method was implemented to compare the two output raster maps resulted from AHP and SRS methods. Two appropriate candidate sites for landfill were selected to accommodate the cumulative solid waste until the year 2030 in Qasim district. The areas of these sites were 2.766 km2 and 2.055 km2 respectively.

  • 280.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Environment Engineering, college of Engineering, U niversity of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq. .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Kufa, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hazim, Anwer
    Koya university, Koya, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Landfill Sites Selection Using MCDM and Comparing Method of Change Detection for Babylon Governorate, Iraq2019Inngår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill site`s selection represents a complicated process due to the large number of variables to be adopted. In this study, an arid area (Babylon Governorate as a case study) was selected. It is located in the middle region of Iraq. In this area, the  landfills do not satisfy the required  international criteria.  Fifteen  of the  most significant criterion were selected for this purpose. For suitable weight for each criterion, the multi criteria decision making (MCDM) methods were applied. These methods are AHP and RSW. In the GIS software 10.5, the raster maps of the chosen criterion were arranged and analysed. The method of change detection was implemented to determine the matching pixels and non-matching pixels. The final results showed that there are two candidate locations for landfills for each district in the governorate (ten sites). The areas of the selected sites were sufficient to contain the cumulative quantity of solid waste from 2020 until 2030.

  • 281.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain Musa
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Landfill site selection using geographic information system and analytical hierarchy process: A case study Al-Hillah Qadhaa, Babylon, Iraq2016Inngår i: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 34, nr 5, s. 427-437Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Al-Hillah Qadhaa is located in the central part of Iraq. It covers an area of 908 km2 with a total population of 856,804 inhabitants. This Qadhaa is the capital of Babylon Governorate. Presently, no landfill site exists in that area based on scientific site selection criteria. For this reason, an attempt has been carried out to find the best locations for landfills. A total of 15 variables were considered in this process (groundwater depth, rivers, soil types, agricultural land use, land use, elevation, slope, gas pipelines, oil pipelines, power lines, roads, railways, urban centres, villages and archaeological sites) using a geographic information system. In addition, an analytical hierarchy process was used to identify the weight for each variable. Two suitable candidate landfill sites were determined that fulfil the requirements with an area of 9.153 km2 and 8.204 km2. These sites can accommodate solid waste till 2030

  • 282.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain Musa
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Landfill Siting Using GIS and AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process): A Case Study Al-Qasim Qadhaa, Babylon, Iraq2016Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 5, s. 530-543Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The selection of a landfill site is considered as a complicated task because this process is based on many factors and restrictions. For Al-Qasim Qadhaa, which is situated in the southern part of the Babylon Governorate, Iraq, there is no landfill site in that area that conforms to the scientific criteria for selecting sites for landfill. For this reason, 15 criteria were adopted in this study (groundwater depth, rivers, soil types, agriculture lands use, land use, elevation, slope, gas pipelines, oil pipelines, power lines, roads, railways, urban centers, villages and archaeological sites) using GIS (geographic information system), which has a large ability to manage input data. In addition, the AHP (analytical hierarchy process) method was used to derive the relative weightings for each criterion using pair-wise comparison. To obtain the suitability index for candidate landfill sites, a weighted linear combination method was used. After combining these methods, two suitable candidate landfill sites, with areas of 2.766 km2 and 2.055 km2, respectively, were found to satisfy the scientific and environmental requirements. The area of these sites can accommodate solid waste from 2020 until 2030 based on the required area, which was 0.702 km2.

  • 283.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Environment Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussain, Hussain Musa
    Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Combining GIS Applications and Method of Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (AHP) for Landfill Siting in Al-Hashimiyah Qadhaa, Babylon, Iraq2017Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, nr 11, artikkel-id 1932Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill siting is a complex process. It is one of the major problems in waste management, where many factors should be taken into consideration when selecting a suitable site for landfill in any given area. At the present time, there are many random waste disposal sites distributed throughout Al-Hashimiyah Qadhaa in Iraq. In this study, the Geographic Information System (GIS) and the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) were used to select the best sites for landfill. The process of selecting sites for landfill in Al-Hashimiyah Qadhaa comprised two steps. First, fifteen different criteria were mapped and incorporated into overlay analyses within GIS software to produce the final suitability index map for the site. The second step comprises the exclusion of unsuitable areas from the final map to simplify identification of the candidate sites for landfill in the study area. The weightings of criteria were identified using AHP, and the weightings of the sub-criteria of each criterion were determined based on multiple factors. In order to accommodate solid waste from 2020 until 2030, two suitable candidate landfill sites were determined which fulfill the required area of 1.013 km2 with areas of 1.374 km2 and 1.288 km2 respectively.

  • 284.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hussein, Hussein M.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Landfills Site Selection in Babylon, Iraq2017Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. 1-15Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Babylon Governorate is located in the middle of Iraq and includes five major districts called Qadhaa. It occupies an area of 5315 km2 with population of 2,092,998 in 2015. The process of selecting landfill site is considered complicated task related to many factors and regulations. Currently, there is no landfill site in Babylon Governorate that fulfils the scientific and environmental criteria. Therefore, in this study fifteen of suitable criteria were selected. These criteria are: groundwater depth, urban canters, rivers, villages, soil types, elevation, agriculture, roads lands use slope, land use, archaeological sites, power lines, gas pipelines, oil pipelines and railways. Then these criteria were used in the GIS (geographic information system), which has a high ability to manage and analyse various data. In addition, the AHP (analytical hierarchy process) method was used to derive the weightings of criteria through using a matrix of pair-wise comparison. After that the weighted linear combination (WLC) method was used to obtain the suitability index map for candidate landfill sites. Ten suitable candidate sites for landfill were selected (two for each District), where all these sites satisfied the scientific and environmental criteria which were adopted in this study. The areas of the selected sites were adequate to accommodate solid waste from 2020 until 2030.

  • 285.
    Chabuk, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Alkaradaghi, Karwan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Kurdistan Institution for Strategic Studies and Scientific Research, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq.
    Hussain, Hussain M.
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Kufa, Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Application of the HELP Model for Landfill Design in AridAreas: Case Study Babylon Governorate, Iraq2018Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 12, nr 12, s. 848-879Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The landfill design is necessary to be implemented in various regions to protect public human health and the factors ofenvironment. The suggested design of landfill was performed in the arid areas, where that Babylon Governorate, Iraq was selected as a case study. Babylon overnorate is located in the middle of Iraq. The suggested design for the selected sites for landfill in the arid areas was consisted of the base liner and final cover systems. The HELP 3.95D model was applied on both systems to check if there is any leakage by leachate from the suggested soil layers of landfill base on the water balance in Babylon Governorate for the years 2005-2016. The suggested design of final cover system was implemented based on weather parameters in the arid areas through storing water that coming from the surface within upper layers that have fine particles and over the top barrier without leakage into the waste body, thereby preventing leachate generation. This is  allowing to the stored water to evaporate from the surface of soil or transpire through vegetation due to the high temperature during the most months in the study area. The results showed there was no percolation of leachate through the base liner system. The design of final cover system was acted to reduce the runoff on the surface and increase theactual evaporation.

  • 286.
    Chabuk, Ali Jalil
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Analysis of Landfill Site Selection-Case Studies Al-Hillah and Al-Qasim Qadhaas, Babylon, Iraq2016Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The selection of a landfill site is considered as a complicated task because the whole process is based on many factors and restrictions. This study shows the present status of solid waste management, solid waste sources, staffing for solid waste collection, machinery and equipment used in the waste collection process, finance and financial management at Babylon Governorate and its Qadhaa. The management of collection and disposal of waste in Babylon Governorate and its Qadhaa is done through open dumping of waste and the quality of the collection process is poor. This is the case in Al-Hillah Qadhaa, which is located in the central part of the governorate, Iraq and Al-Qasim Qadhaas, which is situated in the southern part of the Babylon Governorate, Iraq. These sites do not conform to the scientific and environmental criteria applied in the selection of landfill sites. 

    In the first part of the current study, to find out how much solid waste will be produced in the future; two methods were used to calculate the population growth in Al-Hillah and Al-Qasim Qadhaas to the year 2030. The results showed that the total waste in 2030 according to the first and second methods respectively will be 394,081 tonnes and 472,474 tonnes in Al-Hillah Qadhaa, and (54,481 tonnes and 76,374 tonnes) in Al-Qasim Qadhaa. The cumulated quantity of solid waste expected to be produced between 2020 and 2030 according to the first and second methods respectively was 3,757,387 tonnes and 4,300,864 tonnes in Al-Hillah Qadhaa, whilst in Al-Qasim Qadhaa it was 519,456 tonnes and 695,219 tonnes. The generation rate in 2020 will be (0.88 and 0.62) kg/ (capita. day) in Al-Hillah and Al-Qasim Qadhaas respectively; in year 2030, the generation rate will be (0.97 and 0.69) kg/ (capita. day) based on method 2 and an expected incremental increase in generation rate of 1 kg/ (capita. day) per year. 

    The second part of this study aims to find the best sites for landfills in Al-Hillah and Al-Qasim Qadhaas. For this reason, 15 criteria were adopted in this study (groundwater depth, rivers, soil types, agricultural land use, land use, elevation, slope, gas pipelines, oil pipelines, power lines, roads, railways, urban centres, villages and archaeological sites) using GIS (geographic information system), which has a large capacity for managing input data. In addition, the AHP (analytical hierarchy process) method was used to derive the relative weightings for each criterion using pairwise comparison. The suitability index map for candidate landfill sites was obtained. Two suitable candidate landfill sites were found to fulfill the scientific and environmental requirements in each Qadhaa, with areas of 9.153 km2 and 8.204 km2 respectively in Al-Hillah Qadhaa, and with areas of 2.766 km2 and 2.055 km2 respectively in Al-Qasim Qadhaa. The area of these sites can accommodate solid waste from 2020 until 2030 based on the required areas, which were 4.175 km2 and 4.778 km2 (Ali-Hillah Qadhaa) and 0.577 km2 and 0.772 km2 in (Al-Qasim Qadhaa) according to the first and second methods respectively.

  • 287.
    Chikatamarla, R.
    et al.
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich.
    Laue, Jan
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich.
    Springman, Sarah M.
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich.
    Modelling of rockfall on protection galleries2006Inngår i: Physical Modelling in Geotechnics, 6th ICPMG'06: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Physical Modelling in Geotechnics, 2006, Vol. 1-2, s. 331-336Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Rockfall impact energies can reach magnitudes of the order of millions of Joules, requiring understanding of the energy absorption mechanisms at high energy levels for improved design of the protection gallery. These high-energy ranges can be achieved at the laboratory scale with the help of a geotechnical centrifuge. In centrifuge, rockfall protection galleries are studied with an aim to optimise the design procedure by using a cushion material. Different cushion materials have been modelled against vertical and inclined impacts of steel block with input energy levels up to 20 MJ.A simple FE model (LS-DYNA) is used in addition to model the boulder impact on different cushion materials. The results from the centrifuge tests in terms of acceleration values of the boulder and deflection of the slab are discussed and a new design procedure for the protection galleries based on the centrifuge and numerical investigations has been proposed. © 2006 Taylor & Francis Group, London.

  • 288.
    Chikatamarla, R.
    et al.
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich.
    Laue, Jan
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich.
    Springman, Sarah M.
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich.
    Numerical modelling of rockfalls on protection galleries2005Inngår i: Prediction, analysis and design in geomechanical applications: the 11th international conference of IACMAG ; [Eleventh International Conference on Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics ; Torino, Italy, 19-24 June 2005] / [ed] Giovanni Barla, 2005, s. 489--497Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 289.
    Chikatamarla, R.
    et al.
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich.
    Laue, Jan
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich.
    Springman, Sarah M.
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich.
    Rockfall impact on protection galleries2004Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Rockfalls are one of the most prevailing natural hazards in the mountainous regions in Switzer- land. Concrete protection galleries are used to protect the local infrastructure and lifelines against these poten- tial rock impacts. Cushion materials are laid on these galleries to absorb the rockfall impact energy, which is one of the main input parameters in the design of the protection gallery. An attempt has been made to reduce the impact energies by placing a better damping material on the gallery. The high rock impact energy ranges are difficult to model at the laboratory scale. Field tests are generally avoided due to the high costs involved and also due to the singularity of the potential tests. The prototype energy levels can be achieved at the labo- ratory scale with the help of a geotechnical centrifuge. An instrumented model of the protection gallery is ro- tated under high g levels, thereby increasing the unit weight of the material. With the help of appropriate scal- ing laws, the prototype energy levels can be achieved. This paper focuses on the determination of the impact force of a rockfall of a specific energy and the forces induced in the gallery. The maximum acceleration val- ues of the rock and deflection of the galleries are compared for different energy ranges and cushion materials. The test results are later compared with numerical modelling using the finite element program LS-DYNA. Rockfall impact on protection galleries | Request PDF. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/242415233_Rockfall_impact_on_protection_galleries [accessed Aug 20 2018].

  • 290.
    Chikatamarla, R.
    et al.
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich.
    Springman, Sarah M.
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich.
    Stress distribution of rockfall events on galleries2005Inngår i: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering: Geotechnology in Harmony with the Global Environment, 2005, Vol. 4, s. 2789-2792Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Rockfall galleries are built to protect local infrastructure and lifelines against rockfall events. They are covered usually with a soil layer, sometimes for aesthetical reasons but also for protection against impact from rockfalls and snow avalanches. The effect of the impact has been quantified in a research project by investigating the properties of the cover (cushion) material. The stress distribution caused by a rockfall event is measured in centrifuge model tests by means of a tactile multipoint pressure transducer on the gallery below the cushion material as well as point load measurements at supports and strain gauges to determine bending of the gallery slab. The technique of measuring stress distribution under a soil layer is adapted from bio-medicine and the car industry to soil mechanics. Features of these pressure sensors will be discussed in relation to the response to a rockfall event and for different types and thicknesses of cushion material. Numerical modelling has also been carried out using LS DYNA. Knowledge gained can be used for formulation of guidelines for the gallery design.

  • 291.
    Chikatamata, R.
    et al.
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Zurich.
    Laue, Jan
    Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Zurich.
    Springman, Sarah M
    Institute of Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Hönggerberg, Zürich, Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, ETH Zurich.
    Centrifuge scaling laws for guided free fall events including rockfalls2006Inngår i: International Journal of Physical Modelling in Geotechnics, ISSN 1346-213X, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 15-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete protection galleries are generally used in mountainous regions to protect the local infrastructure and lifelines against potential impacts from rock boulders. These can be protected further by carefully designed cushion systems, most of which rely on granular geomaterials. Rockfall impact energies can reach magnitudes of the order of millions of Joules, requiring understanding of the combined energy absorption mechanisms at high energy levels for improved design of the gallery and cushion. These prototype high-energy ranges can be achieved at the laboratory scale with the help of a geotechnical centrifuge. The model is rotated under high g levels, thereby increasing the unit weight of the material. Prototype energy levels can be represented in a small scale model with consideration of appropriate scaling laws, and although free fall events in a centrifuge experience components of the Coriolis acceleration, projectiles (boulders) will move out of the centripetal gravity field when losing contact with the rotational field. A guiding tube is used in this case to keep the boulder in the acceleration field (ng) in order to achieve sufficient input energy levels to represent existing design criteria. The change in the g-level during the fall of the boulder in the centrifuge, due to the change in the radius, has to be taken into account for determination of the impact energy. In this case, direct application of traditional scaling laws for centrifuge modelling is invalid. This paper focuses on the determination of the change in the g field with time during the fall of the boulder to estimate the g level at the time of impact and this value is used in the calculation of the prototype energy levels. A summary of the performance of various cushion materials is given

  • 292.
    Dagli, Deniz
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laboratory Investigations of Frost Action Mechanisms in Soils2017Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Phase change of the water in the soil skeleton under cold climate conditions (also known as frost action in soils) affects soil properties and can be responsible for serious alterations in a soil body; causing damages (due to the volumetric expansion known as frost heave) to structures on or below the ground surface such as foundations, roads, railways, retaining walls and pipelines, etc. In order to improve the current design methods for roads against frost action, the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket) has initiated a research program. The main goals of the program are to revise the existing frost heave estimation methods and improve the frost susceptibility classification system for subgrade soils.

    Literature was reviewed to gather the details of different freezing test equipment around the world and to identify common trends and practices for laboratory freezing tests. Based on the literature review and the collaboration with the University of Oulu, Finland an experimental apparatus was assembled for studying frost action in the laboratory. A detailed description of the experimental apparatus is given. Top to down freezing of specimens (of 10cm height and diameter) can be monitored while keeping track of water intake, vertical displacements (heave) and the temperature profile within the sample. Loads can be applied at the top of the sample to study the effects of overburden. Moreover, the test setup was modified with a camera system to have the option of recording the experiments.

    Disturbed samples of two different soil types were tested. Experiments with fixed and varying temperature boundary conditions were conducted to assess the validity of the assumptions for the frost heave estimation methods currently in use in Sweden. To this end, a qualitative relationship between frost heave and heat extraction rates based on theoretical equations was established. It was shown that there is a significant difference between the preliminary findings of the experimental work and the current system being used in Sweden to quantify heave.

    Image analysis techniques were used on two experiments that were recorded by the camera system. Image recording and correlation analyses provided detailed information about frost front penetration and ice lens formation(s) under varying temperature boundary conditions. Thawing has also been regarded in further studies. Results of the image analyses were compared to readings from conventional displacement measurements during the same test. Significant agreement between the results of image analyses and displacement measurements has been found. Image analysis was shown to be a viable method in further understanding of frost heave mechanisms.

    Shortcomings and disadvantages of utilizing the theoretical equations as well as the image analysis techniques were discussed. Potential remedies for overcoming the drawbacks associated with each approach are suggested. The work is concluded by discussing the potential improvements, planned upgrades (addition of pore pressure transducers) and the future experiments to be conducted.

  • 293.
    Dagli, Deniz
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Zeinali, Amin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Gren, Per
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Image analyses of frost heave mechanisms based on freezing tests with free access to water2018Inngår i: Cold Regions Science and Technology, ISSN 0165-232X, E-ISSN 1872-7441, Vol. 146, s. 187-198Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A freezing test apparatus was supplemented with a camera to allow for recording and monitoring one-dimensional freezing tests to analyze the development of ice lenses via particle image velocimetry (PIV) in the laboratory. Two tests on disturbed, partially saturated samples of silt loam were conducted. Image recording and correlation analyses provided detailed information about frost front penetration and ice lens formation(s) under varying temperature boundary conditions. Thawing has also been regarded in further studies.

    Results of the image analyses were compared to readings from conventional displacement measurements during the same test. Significant agreement between the results of image analyses and displacement measurements has been found. Test results were also used to establish a qualitative relationship between heat extraction and heave rates. Advantages and disadvantages of utilizing image analysis methods were discussed. Potential remedies for overcoming the drawbacks of using image analysis are suggested.

    Image analysis is shown to be a viable method in further understanding of frost heave mechanisms.

  • 294.
    Dagli, Deniz
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Zeinali, Amin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Edeskär, Tommy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Theoretical Analysis of the Relationship between Heave and Net Heat Extraction Rates Based on Freezing Experiments2016Inngår i: Proceedings of Nordic Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical NGM: Reykjavik, Iceland 25th – 28th of May 2016, 2016, s. 411-421Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to improve the current design of roads against frost action, the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket) has initiated a research programme. The main goals of the research are to revise the existing frost design models and the frost susceptibility classification system for subgrade soils.A qualitative theoretical analysis to establish a relationship between frost heave and net heat extraction rates based on experimental data has been done. Experiments were carried on disturbed (hand compacted), saturated samples of same type of soil without any overburden. Several different cold end temperatures were applied to create different boundary conditions to make a more detailed analysis.Results were analysed and compared to those of other researchers while pointing out the similarities and differences. Potential reasons for these differences have been identified. Based on the findings of the experimental work, suggestions for improvements are given for future testing. Some preliminary results providing hints for the relationship between segregational heave and net heat extraction rates were obtained. At the end it was shown that there exists a significant difference between the findings of the experimental work and the current system being used in Sweden in order to quantify heave.

  • 295.
    Danielsson, Markus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Borehole Dimension Impact on LHD Operation in Malmberget Mine2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Sublevel caving is a highly mechanizable mass mining method normally utilized in large, steeply dipping orebodies. The fragmented ore flows freely, aided by gravity, down to the drawpoint while the surrounding waste rock caves in due to induced stresses and gravity. Fragmentation of the blasted ore is a vital component in any mining operation and directly affects productivity and efficiency of the following production steps (Nielsen et. al, 1996).

    In an attempt to reduce mining induced seismicity in Malmberget, LKAB is initiating various trials. One of these trials involves a reduction in blasthole dimension and an increase in the number of blastholes utilized in each ring. A reduction in blasthole dimension is undertaken to achieve a less impactful mining operation in terms of disturbances to surface populated areas, particularly addressed to ground vibrations. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to analyse if fragmentation and production is affected as a consequence of this change.

    This thesis sets out to evaluate how fragmentation and the LHD operation is affected by variations in blasthole dimension. The evaluation is carried out through analysis of logged production data, on-site filming of the loading sequence and interviews with the LHD operators. The discoveries will be presented chronologically to illustrate the complexities related to compiling a viable dataset to rely on for a credible analysis. The initial theory did not hold up properly and therefore the project was reshaped along the course of progression to provide further information and clarify uncertainties. Unfortunate, major production delays inhibited a quantitative comparison of two parallel drifts with different blasthole dimensions. Hence, no final answer can be provided in this thesis whether a change in blasthole dimension causes any differences in loadability and/or fragmentation or not. However, an analysis of how cycle times vary depending on causes such as operator induced differences, machine induced differences and road conditions will be provided. The field test also provides information on various loading scenarios and the difficulties connected to these.

    The result obtained in this project mainly addresses the significant operator difference in terms of cycle times which can extend to, on average, 60% depending on experience, road conditions and, most likely, preferences amongst operators. Time differences amongst seemingly experienced operators can reach more than, on average, 30% in hauling time alone. Roughly 96% of the operators state that road conditions in the production area is the controlling factor for hauling speed. Many of the operators further states that the risk of injuries is directly related to road conditions and this is a likely cause to why cycle times vary in this magnitude. Fragmentation was found to affect loadability but not to the same extent as shape and looseness of the muck pile. Compaction of the muck pile and flow disturbances where normally found to be connected to one another. Hence, good loadability would indicate a low occurrence of flow disturbances and a continuous flow of material into the drawpoint.

    This thesis is written as a part of the final stage of the civil engineering program at Luleå University of Technology (LTU) and represents 30 credits in the field of Soil and Rock Construction. The thesis is a part of a larger project, Face to surface, which sets out to analyse the impact of fragmentation on different stages in the production chain.

  • 296.
    Darwesh, Ali K.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Maack Rasmussen, Thorkild
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Kicks controlling techniques efficiency in term of time2017Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 9, nr 5, s. 482-492Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Kicks are the result of under balance drilling operation. Time consumed to control the kicks will be different in depending on the controlling technique. Drilling fluid considered as a first barrier to control formation pressure and well kicks. Any advance in drilling fluids leads to more controlled operation in term of time. This paper will follow the general increasing profile of pressure before entering the reservoir. Both methods of well controlling technique; circulating techniques and non-circulating have been implemented in many oil blocks. The process of designing and casing selection, setting depth and many other issues is predominately dependent on the utilization of accurate values of formation pressure. Formation pressures used to design safe mud weights to overcome fracturing the formation and prevent well kicks. Hence the emphasis has been placed on the practical utilization of kicks pressure near the reservoir. The presented relationships will help the engineer to better understand lithological columns and reduce potential hole problems during the kick appearance. Selecting the best well controlling practical method can lead to not harming the reservoir and more production later. Changes in some drilling fluid properties have been proposed with increasing the depth without damaging the reservoir. Suggestions in relation to the casing setting point of the intermediate section are also proposed. Standard equations with proper modification for gases and safety margin have been proposed for the future drilling operation in oil fields above the reservoir.

  • 297.
    Darwesh, Ali K.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Rasmussen, Thorkild Maack
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Time Optimizing near the Pay Zone2017Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 9, nr 10, s. 848-858Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Well control techniques are used in oil and gas drilling operations to control bottom hole pressure and avoid any fluid influx from formation to the well. These techniques are highly important near the pay zone in term of time. Controlling formation fluid pressure and thereby the formations behavior in a predictable fashion will help toward more optimized environmental friendly drilling operation. Time consumed to control the formation fluid pressure will range between few hours to many days. This paper discusses hydrostatic pressure distribution and changes near the pay zone for one oil blocks in Kur- distan, in the northern part of Iraq. Obtaining homogeneous increase in some drilling fluid properties will help the engineer to better interpret sampling of the lithological columns and reduce potential hole problems and operationtime.

  • 298.
    Darwesh, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Rasmussen, Thorkild Maack
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Evaluation of Limestone Interval in the Drilled Surface Section of Bn-1 Oil Well2016Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, nr 8, s. 515-524Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The first exploration oil well in any oil block consumes in general more time and cost than the other wells in the same block. Evaluating the drilled wells serves to improve the future operations. This paper evaluates the drilled surface section through real field data for the first exploration oil well drilled in one of the oil blocks, in Kurdistan north of Iraq. The surface section of the well was drilled with the conventional method to penetrate many different geological formations with tight intervals. Drilling efficiency and the difficulties encountered are discussed and explained using various data sources. All daily drilling reports concerning a specific interval were studied. This includes weight on bit, string rotation, mud pump flow and penetration rate. Evaluation was carried out by analyzing the used controllable drilling parameters with the formations features. Penetration of the Pila Spi formation (Middle Eocene) was the most difficult formation in the drilled section. Microsoft Office 365 Pro Plus used in making graphs and Excel tables. Evaluations showed that the conventional technology used left many negative effects, like increase in None Productive Time NPT, cost and ground water pollution. Simultaneous Casing Drilling method proposed as an alternative method for the future campaign.

  • 299.
    Darwesh, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Rasmussen, Thorkild Maack
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Wiper Trips Effect on Wellbore Instability Using Net Rising Velocity Methods2018Inngår i: Open Petroleum Engineering Journal, ISSN 1874-8341, Vol. 11, s. 14-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This paper discusses the wiper trip effects on well instability in shale formations.Objectives: Problematic shale interval sections have been studied for the time spent on the wiper trip operations. Lifting efficiency and well wall instability change with the time analyzed. Detailed drilling operation, formation heterogeneity, rheological and filtration characteristics of polymer water-based mud are discussed. Physical and chemical properties of the drilled formation and drilling fluid are also studied.Materials and Methods: Wiper trips are analyzed using a typical drawing program to find the relations between the most controllable parameters. For that, two calculation models have been implemented to find the net rising cutting particles velocity in the annular. The relation between the net rising velocity and wiper trips is analyzed. Laboratory works have been done to support the findings of field work.Results: Strong relations have been found between the wiper trip impacts and lithology types of the penetrated shale.Conclusion: A modified drilling program is proposed in relation to changes in casing setting depth and drilling fluid properties that make the operations more efficient in cost and time.

  • 300.
    Dineva, Savka
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Boskovic, Mirjana
    LKAB.
    Evolution of seismicity at Kiruna Mine2017Inngår i: Deep Mining 2017: Eighth International Conference on Deep and High Stress Mining / [ed] J Wesseloo, Perth: Australian Centre for Geomechanics , 2017, s. 125-140Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Kiirunavaara (Kiruna) iron ore mine owned by LKAB (Sweden) is one of the largest underground mines. Miningstarted in 1898 as an open pit mine. In mid-1950, the mine started a transition to underground mining andpassed to only underground mining in 1962. More substantial problems with seismicity started in 2007-2008when the deepest mining level was 907 m (ca. 670 m below surface). By 2016, the mining production is at1,022–1,079 m Level (ca. 785–845 m below surface). More than one billion tonnes of ore have been extractedsince the beginning of mining. The average yearly production in recent years is 28 million tonnes.By 2016 the mine has the largest underground seismic system in the world with 204 operational geophones.The number of the sensors (geophones with natural frequencies of 4.5, 14, and a few of 30 Hz) changed withthe increasing of production depth. The major stages with seismic system upgrades are: August 2008–June2009 with 112 installed geophones, and July 2012–September 2013 with 95 installed geophones. During2016–2017 it is planned to install some additional 45 geophones.The study was carried out to identify some trends in seismicity as the mining goes deeper and to find thecorrelation with some main controlling parameters – volume and depth of the production in order to obtaininformation for future seismic hazard and risk analysis. Custom made applications within mXrap were utilisedto carry out the spatial variations of seismicity.The analysis showed substantial difference between the seismicity in the three studied blocks – 15/16, 28/30,and 33-37/34, with the weakest seismic activity in Block 15/16 (Mmax 1.6, maximum observed magnitude),followed by Block 28/30 (Mmax 2.2), and then largest seismicity in Block 33-37/34 (Mmax 2.2). The dailyseismicity rate increased substantially through the years only for Block 33-37/34. The seismicity correlatesstrongly with the production depth. In general a straightforward correlation between the production volumeand number of larger events (M > 0) was not found for the three studied blocks, assuming there are otherfactors affecting the seismicity, e.g. geological structures, areas with contrast in geomechanical properties,etc. The spatial variations of some seismic source parameters were traced for varying periods of time,depending on the major production stages (opening of new levels, full production, closing) for the threeblocks. The distributions of the cumulative seismic energy showed a maximum around and below theproduction. The cumulative seismic moment and number of events in most cases showed a maximum aroundand above the production, indicating caving in these areas. The static stress drop shows the largest valuesaround and below the production on the footwall side, corresponding also to the areas with increased stress.The energy index showed increased stresses in the same areas (EI > 1).This study is only the first overview of the seismicity in Kiruna Mine. For seismic hazard assessment and riskanalysis further more detailed studies with smaller time intervals need to be carried out to obtain more precisecorrelations between the seismic parameters and the production volume and depth, and other possible factorsaffecting seismicity (geological structures, areas with contrast geomechanical properties, etc.).

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