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  • 251.
    Holst, Marita
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Enabling boundary-crossing collaboration for innovation: issues for collaborative working environments2007Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, boundary-crossing collaborative knowledge work aiming for innovation and use of ICT is in focus. The starting point for the research was the proposition that we still have much to learn about boundary- crossing collaboration for innovation and the use of ICT before we can design enabling and supporting ICT and collaborative working environments. Thus, the purpose has been to study and understand collaborative boundary- crossing working groups' activities, as a way to extend the possibilities to design enabling and supporting ICT. To meet this purpose, I wanted to answer the question: How can boundary-crossing collaboration aiming for innovation be enabled in collaborative working environments? Three case studies, with somewhat different focuses, methods and also results, have been performed. Different models as frameworks for both analysis and design have been used in the cases. Main conclusions and contributions of the thesis are given as lessons learned, related to four main areas which were identified from analysis of case data. The first set of conclusions is related to processes and factors enabling knowledge work across boundaries. These are: application of energizing factors, use of boundary objects, addressing roles, norms, values and knowledge assets and, finally, creating dedicated places and spaces. The second set of conclusions is related to ICT issues in boundary- crossing knowledge work. These are: choice of technology, shared virtual platform and models for appreciating technology needs. The third set of conclusions is related to the importance of appreciation of user needs, and methods for this, in the process of designing or developing a collaborative working environment. The fourth set of conclusions comes in the form of reflections on the theoretical models that have been used during the research. There is a need for models and methods that enable design of collaborative environments, as well as models and methods that enable this to be done from a user needs perspective. From the lessons learned, some overarching reflections on implications for collaborative working environments are made. Hence, implications for CWEs as a whole, and some ideas on future research, are presented in the form of a tentative model which can be viewed as a model for designing group processes and relevant technology in a CWE. In this model, designing a CWE and its processes imply more that just designing technology. To conclude, the thesis contributes to the understanding of organisational processes for boundary-crossing collaborative knowledge work through lessons learned, which, in turn, give implications for CWEs.

  • 252.
    Holst, Marita
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Knowledge work across boundaries: inquiring into the processes of creating a shared context2004Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem area focused on in this thesis is knowledge work across boundaries and the processes of information exchange which lead to sharing, creation and use of knowledge and, thus, a shared context. The purpose of the thesis is to explore the management of these processes and which roles information and communication technology are given by the boundary-crossing groups. The relevance of this exploration is based on the importance of learning about knowledge integration in cross-functional projects, since our understanding of how knowledge is integrated within these groups remain limited. In order to inquire into the processes of boundary-crossing knowledge work and information exchange, an interpretative interview study, involving three groups working across knowledge boundaries, was performed. Moreover, the experiences of four student groups were explored. To be able to draw some conclusions from these processes, two models, the POM-model and the Ba- model, focusing on interaction and communication, were used as frameworks for the analysis. The thesis contributes to the existing knowledge of groups working across boundaries and the specific conditions of this, in relation to knowledge sharing, creation and use. Moreover, it makes more explicit the role ICT plays in these processes. Insights and understanding of the processes of creation of a shared context across boundaries give possibilities to more intentionally created conditions for knowledge work. This, in turn, gives support and enables knowledge sharing, creation and use in groups working across boundaries. The lessons learnt from the study are as follows. Different strategies have been used to handle the processes of knowledge creation, sharing and use. In this context I have found that a smaller group that focuses on a boundary object has come furthest in the creation of a shared context. Further, information exchange processes have been the ultimate source for creating the shared context and has been most effectively managed through a balance of physical, virtual and mental contexts. Hence, interplay between different contexts has enabled the groups to create a shared context. ICT has been used to a lesser extent, probably because of the complex nature of the task at hand. In relation to this, the groups argue that the fact that they work across knowledge boundaries has made face-to-face meetings more important. Finally, I have found that the two sense-making-models, used for analysis, complement each other in their respective shortcomings. They offer a potential for designing boundary-crossing knowledge work and its enabling and supporting systems in a holistic way, taking both social and technical aspects into account.

  • 253. Holst, Marita
    Knowledge work across traditional boundaries: a compilation of interviews2004Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a compilation of ten interviews made with people active in three new Arenas at Luleå University of Technology. The report is intended for the International Evaluation Group connected to the strategic work at the University of Technology in Luleå (LTU). The collected data will be used in a future licentiate thesis. In this report however the material is not completely processed and analyzed. Therefore the report should be considered as a preliminary report containing empirical findings and an early analysis. The purpose with the report is to give illustrative examples of new boundary crossing groups in order to develop our knowledge of how to design for knowledge work. Through the understanding of what experiences people who work in boundary-crossing groups meet when they interact and communicate and in this way create a shared context important input to which issues to consider when we design or chose systems for boundary- crossing knowledge work will be given. The systems I focus on are human activity systems (Checkland 1981) and their supporting systems, i.e. information systems in Checkland’s vocabulary. The results from the interviews are presented in the context of Arenas as a way to keep the respondents anonymous but still in a rich way with the ambition to give a rich picture of the work within the Arenas. Showing how communication, interaction, knowledge creation and the creation of shared context have been done. The resluts show taht all three Arenas have been successful and innovative in that they all have been able to create new undergraduate programs and new research projects. This work have been supported by the social networking which can be viewed as a communications process in which knowledge is shared and new knowledge is created. The creation of a shared knowledge base within the Arenas have facilitated and made the innovation process possible. The social networking gives possibilities for redundant knowledge and this redundancy is essential since it gives the ability to envisage a social system of joint actions. Information and communication technology (ICT) is used to complement these processes and in this way increase the ability to communicate across boundaries in time and space. It has been a natural process to begin work with face to face meetings as a way to create the shared context for the work and that as the process proceeds the respondents now considers virtual media.

  • 254. Holst, Marita
    Needfinding through narrative inquiry in systems design2005Inngår i: Internet and information technology in modern organizations: challenges & answers : proceedings of the 5th International Business Information Management Association Conference, December 13-15, 2005, Cairo, Egypt / [ed] Khalid S. Soliman, International Business Information Management Association (IBIMA), 2005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explicates the process of applying needfinding and narrative inquiry as a way to identify needs and, thus, enable the design of a viable community for knowledge-sharing and creation across boundaries among young entrepreneurs. The specific situation which the design of a knowledge community constitute is discussed and the usefulness of needfinding is thereafter evaluated in relation to the challenges of creating a viable community constructed from participants' identified needs and interests. With a focus on discovering users' needs early on, needfinding involves users throughout the design process, leading to perpetual and persistent user-centred systems.

  • 255. Holst, Marita
    et al.
    Mirijamdotter, Anita
    An application of Ba: deconstructing formative processes in multdisciplinary work groups2005Inngår i: International Journal of Knowledge, Culture and Change Management, ISSN 1447-9524, E-ISSN 1447-9575, Vol. 4, s. 1051-59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper draws on an empirical study and examines how new multidisciplinary groups interact to create a shared context for knowledge work. Within the context of the campus-wide commitment to transform itself into a "Creative University", Luleå University of Technology explores new ways to further collaborative multidisciplinary knowledge-creation. Multidisciplinary knowledge areas, such as "Media, Music and Technology", have been defined, originating in multifaceted and complex problems. New knowledge will be shaped through enabling organisational processes created among participants dedicated to realising the full potential of the organisational commitment. Enabling the development of organisational knowledge implies that people from different disciplines - e.g., engineering and social sciences - cooperate and thereby share and use information which they convert into knowledge. The fact that these groups work in partnership in a logical, not physical, organisation leads to questions about how they organise their work, how they communicate, and interact, and where they meet physically, mentally and virtually, and for what purposes. The authors conducted semi-structured interviews with selected employees with the intention of learning from group-members in the new multidisciplinary organisational project. Interview data were analysed in terms of Ba elements. Ba is a perception of a place - which can be virtual, mental or physical - with a shared purpose. Ba provides guidance on "making sense of" how an organisation works and why it works the way it does in relation to knowledge-creation. Predicated on grounded theory about cross-functional work transcending traditional boundaries, Ba can also serve as a framework for designing sustainable new processes that create organisational learning, where information and communication technology are the driving forces.

  • 256.
    Holst, Marita
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT.
    Mirijamdotter, Anita
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Framing multidisciplinary teams: sense making through the POM model2006Inngår i: Integrating Visions of Technology: Proceedings of the 12th Annual Working Conference of CPTS / [ed] Andrew Basden; Anita Mirijamdotter; Sytse Strijbos, CPTS , 2006, s. 111-140Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we focus on Living Labs for promoting and developing collaborative working environments (CWEs). The issues we address in this context are related to knowledge-sharing for innovation. More precisely we explore methodologies for appreciative inquiry that stimulate creativity and facilitate the process for co-creative needfinding and innovation. Additionally we contribute to a European state-of-the-art in utilizing Living Labs to user-centric ICT innovation and to establishing a foundation for a European Network of Living Labs. A pan-European Network of Living Labs brings the extreme benefit of leveraging the concept of a Europe of Regions. However, when interactions are conducted at a distance across organisational, geographical and cultural boundaries, placing at risk the overall competiveness of an organisation, the challenge is to develop tools, methods, and work-practices to manage this interaction. This is the aim of this research. The context and content for this paper is transformation processes in higher education in which knowledge from distinct disciplines are integrated into new multidisciplinary education and research. Checkland's and Holwell's model of Process for Organisational Meanings (POM) is used to present and appreciate the efficacy of these set-up processes. The POM-model is found to be useful for making sense of design work across boundaries and for identifying best practices as it visually represents the important processes of making meaning by interactions among participants in various organisational settings and by means of technology. The results of the study point to best practices for creating shared vision across disciplinary boundaries. Shared visions enable knowledge creation and integration, in turn generating common ground for aligned action and design. Important insights for how to cultivate the fragile processes of setting up multidisciplinary teams are currently lacking. Hence, the findings from this study contribute to set up of multidisciplinary teams successfully. Aware of the start up issues, chances of successful implementation will be enhanced.

  • 257. Holst, Marita
    et al.
    Mirijamdotter, Anita
    The creation of a shared context in a multdisciplinary setting2004Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper draws on an empirical study and examines how new multidisciplinary groups interact to create a shared context for knowledge work. Within the context of the campus-wide commitment to transform into a モCreative Universityヤ, Luleå University of Technology explores new ways to further collaborative multidisciplinary knowledge creation. Multidisciplinary knowledge areas, such as ムMedia, Music and Technologyメ, have been defined, with origins in multifaceted and complex problems. New knowledge will be created through enabling environmental processes created among participants committed to realizing the full potential of the organizational commitment. Enabling the development of organizational knowledge implies that people from different disciplines - e.g., engineering and social sciences - cooperate and thereby share and use information which they convert into knowledge. The fact that these groups work in partnership in a logical, not physical, organization leads to questions about how they organize their work, how they communicate, and interact, and where they meet physically, mentally and virtually, and for what purposes. With the intention of learning from group members in a new multidisciplinary organizational project, the authors conducted semi-structured interviews with selected employees. Interview data were analysed in terms of Ba elements. Ba is a perception of a place - which can be virtual, mental or physical - with a shared purpose. Ba provides guidance on ムmaking senseメ of how an organisation works and why it works the way it does in relation to knowledge creation. Predicated on grounded theory about crossfunctional work transcending traditional boundaries, Ba can also serve as a framework for designing sustainable new processes that create organizational learning, where information and communication technology are driving forces.

  • 258.
    Holst, Marita
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Appreciating needs for innovative IT design2007Inngår i: International Journal of Knowledge, Culture and Change Management, ISSN 1447-9524, E-ISSN 1447-9575, Vol. 6, nr 4, s. 37-46Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying user needs is important as use of interaction technologies have grown and influence leisure time and work. This paper presents methods for identifying and operationalising needs in design processes

  • 259. Holst, Marita
    et al.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Enriching the process of appreciating needs with storytelling2006Inngår i: International Journal of Technology, Knowledge and Society, ISSN 1832-3669, Vol. 2, nr 4, s. 61-68Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explicates the possibility to enrich the process of appreciating needs with storytelling. In this way we are able to identify needs and, thus, facilitate the design process of a viable community for knowledge-sharing and creation across boundaries among young entrepreneurs. The specific situation which the design of a knowledge community constitute is discussed and the usefulness of our approach is thereafter valued in relation to the challenges of creating a viable community constructed from participants' identified needs and interests.

  • 260. Holst, Marita
    et al.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Expanding and enriching needfinding with narrative inquiry2005Inngår i: Second International Conference on Technology, Knowledge and Society: The Social Ecology of Digital Technologies, 2005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explicates the process of expanding and enriching needfinding through narrative inquiry. In this way we are able to identify needs and, thus, facilitate the design process of a viable community for knowledge-sharing and creation across boundaries among young entrepreneurs. The specific situation which the design of a knowledge community constitute is discussed and the usefulness of our approach is thereafter valued in relation to the challenges of creating a viable community constructed from participants' identified needs and interests.

  • 261.
    Holst, Marita
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Need-finding through narrative inquiry in systems design2005Inngår i: Internet and information technology in modern organizations: Internet and information technology in modern organizations : challenges & answers : proceedings of the 5th International Business Information Management Association Conference, December 13-15, 2005, Cairo, Egypt / [ed] Khalid S Soliman, International Business Information Management Association (IBIMA), 2005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explicates the process of expanding and enriching need-finding through narrative inquiry. In this way we are able to identify needs and, thus, facilitate the design process of a knowledge community and its virtual spaces for knowledgesharing and creation across boundaries among young entrepreneurs. The specific situation which the design of a knowledge community constitute is discussed and the usefulness of our approach is thereafter valued in relation to the challenges of creating a viable community constructed from participants' identified needs and interests

  • 262.
    Holst, Marita
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Openness in living labs: facilitating innovation2010Inngår i: Proceedings of the 33rd IRIS Seminar, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation has come to replace efficiency and quality as the main source of competitive advantage for firms from the 1990s onwards. Hence, to an increasing extent, organisations need to consider in which ways they can achieve higher levels of innovative thinking and flexibility. Moreover, the creation of today's complex systems of products, services and processes requires a merging of knowledge from diverse perspectives, e.g. disciplinary or skill-based. One common way to meet these challenges is to set up boundary crossing collaborative groups. The idea is that innovative processes can be fertilised by having people with differentiated knowledge collaborating. Knowledge necessary for innovation and product/service development is, therefore, increasingly distributed both within and across organisations or other types of stakeholders, posing new challenges. To manage these challenges one new approach is evolving, called Living Labs. In this paper we present an innovative development process of a mobile service, taking a Living Lab approach. This paper focus on the effects of openness in an innovation process supported by a Living Lab approach for development of mobile services. The study shows that the innovation process was remarkably shortened in the open and multi-perspective process.

  • 263.
    Howcroft, Debra
    et al.
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    A Typology of Crowdwork Platforms2019Inngår i: Work, Employment and Society, ISSN 0950-0170, E-ISSN 1469-8722, Vol. 33, nr 1, s. 21-38Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite growing interest in the gig economy among academics, policy makers and media commentators, the area is replete with different terminology, definitional constructs and contested claims about the ensuing transformation of work organisation. The aim of this positional piece is to provide a timely review and classification of crowdwork. A typology is developed to map the complexity of this emerging terrain, illuminating range and scope by critically synthesising empirical findings and issues from multidisciplinary literatures. Rather than side-tracking into debates as to what exactly constitutes crowdwork, the purpose of the typology is to highlight commonalities rather than distinctions, enabling connections across areas. The framework serves as a heuristic device for considering the broader implications for work and employment in terms of control and coordination, regulation and classification, and collective agency and representation.

  • 264.
    Howcroft, Debra
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Richardson, Helen
    University of Salford.
    The back office goes global: exploring connections and contradictions in shared service centres2012Inngår i: Work, Employment and Society, ISSN 0950-0170, E-ISSN 1469-8722, Vol. 26, nr 1, s. 111-127Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores a neglected aspect of IT-enabled service work: the back office. The fieldwork study reveals how back office service work has been identified as suitable for ongoing reorganization and reconfiguration as firms respond to the pressures of contemporary capitalism. The article focuses on standardization as a means of facilitating organizational restructuring into shared service centres as highly skilled back office work is reframed as routine service work. Standardization is the vehicle that drives the commodification of the labour process as tasks are fragmented, quantified and traded in the global sourcing of services, allowing work to be lifted out of traditional organizational structures and placed elsewhere, or outsourced to other service providers. The study shows how this ongoing process is fraught with contradictions, problematically rendering people and place ancillary.

  • 265.
    Hsu, Erica
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Utmaningar vid implementering av ett e-kollaborationssystem för volontärer i en pingstförsamling2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Allt fler religiösa organisationer har börjat använda sig av informationsteknik i sin verksamhet i takt med den digitala teknologins frammarsch i samhället. På grund av deras starka fokus på evangelisation är församlingar inom protestantiska samfund, och då i synnerhet pingstförsamlingar, i hög grad benägna att ta till sig informations- och kommunikationsteknik (IKT).

    Tidigare studier inom detta forskningsområde har fokuserat på hur religiösa samfund använder IKT för att nå ut med sitt budskap samt på aktiva medlemmars användning av teknik och sociala medier. Få studier har undersökt implementering av interna informationssystem i religiösa organisationer. Syftet med detta arbete är att för en församling inom pingstkyrkan i en svensk kontext genomföra en förstudie till implementeringen av ett e-kollaborationssystem, för att identifiera eventuella problem som kan uppstå och vilka åtgärder som kan vidtas för att förebygga dessa.

    Detta arbete utformades som en fallstudie där datainsamlingen främst bestod av intervjuer och en enkätundersökning med volontärer som arbetar i församlingen, samt observationer av delar av verksamheten vari volontärer deltar.

    Ur resultatet från intervjuerna och enkäten identifierades förväntade problem i samband med implementeringen av ett e-kollaborationssystem. I likhet med de problem som finns beskrivna i litteraturen handlar dessa främst om användarmotstånd eller felaktig användning av systemet på grund av användarnas ovana eller ointresse av ny teknik. Likaså överensstämmer volontärernas uppfattningar gällande de viktigaste faktorerna för att använda ett e-kollaborationssystem – utbildning inom systemet, uppfattad nytta och fördelar med systemet, men framför allt att systemet ska vara lättanvänt - med de som beskrivs i litteraturen.

    Studiens resultat är inte direkt generaliserbar då den endast studerat en församling, men resultatet skulle kunna användas som underlag för projekt som utförs i andra organisationer och under liknande förutsättningar. Vidare kan denna studies resultat jämföras med en verklig, framtida implementering av ett e-kollaborationssystem i en religiös organisation.

  • 266. Hägerfors, Ann
    Att samlära i systemdesign1995Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 267. Hägerfors, Ann
    Co-learning in participative systems design: enhancement of genuine participation by consideration of communication and group dynamics1994Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 268.
    Hägerfors, Ann
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Digitalt bevarande - en tillväxtmotor i vardande2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns idag stora problem med bevarande av digitalt material. Centrum för långsiktigt digitalt bevarande är en kontaktyta för samverkan runt lösningar på dessa problem och en av de tidiga aktörerna som arbetar med FoU i samverkan med sina partners inom detta område. Artikeln beskriver hur etableringen av centret gått till och vad som krävs för att förverkliga och konsolidera en centrumbildning så att den kontinuerligt utvecklar ny vetenskapligt grundad kunskap som löser problem för parter och andra intressenter.

  • 269. Hägerfors, Ann
    et al.
    Brattgård, Bengt
    Bred delaktighet i förändringsarbete: översikter över de senaste årens forskning1992Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 270.
    Hägerfors, Ann
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Quisbert, Hugo
    Nilsson, Jörgen
    Agent technology supporting digital preservation2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU FP7 PROTAGE project opens up a novel approach to digital preservation by utilizing agent ecosystems for automation of preservation processes. The resulting preservation tools have the potential to enable integrated automated digital preservation operations in digital archives and libraries of different scales throughout Europe. It could also assist individuals in preserving their personal digital collections. The PROTAGE multi-agent system, a set of integrated tools, is developed as a prototype system in several iterations. The first prototype contains functionality for pre-ingest, i.e. the preparation of information packages for transfer from active usage to a digital archive.

  • 271.
    Iden, Jon
    et al.
    Norwegian School of Economics.
    Tessem, Bjørnar
    University of Bergen.
    Päivärinta, Tero
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    IS development/IT operations alignment in system development projects: a multi-method research2012Inngår i: International Journal of Business Information Systems, ISSN 1746-0972, E-ISSN 1746-0980, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 343-359Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore IS development/IT operations alignment in system development projects. The paper triangulates data from four independent studies in order to explore how the two domains are aligned in today's system development projects. The paper concludes that the two domains are unsatisfactorily aligned: communication and information flow is not efficient, plans and activities are not well-connected, and they do not have a close working relationship. Our findings suggest that improving IS development/IT operations alignment must be a priority for IT managers, and we offer suggestions for focal issues. This study shed light on a new aspect of IT governance and alignment challenges, and provides researchers with data and perspectives for further research.

  • 272.
    Iden, Jon
    et al.
    NHH – Norwegian School of Economics, Bergen.
    Tessem, Bjørnar
    University of Bergen.
    Päivärinta, Tero
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Problems in the interplay of IS development and IT operations: an alignment analysis2013Inngår i: Information Systems Development: Reflections, Challenges and New Directions / [ed] Rob Pooley; Jennifer Coady; Christoph Schneider; Henry Linger; Chris Barry; Michael Lang, New York: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2013, s. 23-33Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter addresses the interplay of IS development and IT operations in system development projects, as seen from the perspective of IT operations. The underlying perspective is that a well-performed interplay of the two domains is essential, both for the successful development of a new information system, as well as for its subsequent operation. In this chapter, we use alignment theory to analyse data from a Delphi study in order to investigate the interplay of the two areas. The chapter concludes that the two areas are often unsatisfactorily aligned and that improving their interplay must be a priority for IS development and IT operations alike.

  • 273.
    Iden, Jon
    et al.
    Norwegian School of Economics.
    Tessem, Bjørnar
    University of Bergen.
    Päivärinta, Tero
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    The alignment of IS development and IT operations in system development projects: A multi-method research2011Inngår i: Norsk konferanse for organisasjoners bruk af informasjonsteknologi, NOKOBIT 2011 / [ed] Terje Fallmyr, Trondheim: Tapir Academic Press , 2011, s. 39-52Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This research addresses the relationship of IS development and IT operations in system development projects. The paper uses an alignment perspective to analyze data from four independent studies: one focus group discussion, two case studies, and one Delphi study, in order to explore the relationship of the two domains. The paper concludes that the two domains are unsatisfactorily aligned, they are not well acquainted with each other’s domains, ommunication and information flow is not efficient, plans and activities are not well connected, and they do not have a close working relationship characterized by long-term commitments, and where goals, risk and benefits are shared. Improving their alignmentmust be a priority for IS development and IT operations alike.

  • 274.
    Ilvonen, Ilona
    et al.
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Jussila, Jari
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Kärkkäinen, Hannu
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Päivärinta, Tero
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Knowledge security risk management in contemporary companies – toward a proactive approach2015Inngår i: 2015 48th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2015): Hawaii, USA, 5-8 January 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 3941-3950, artikkel-id 7070291Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although emerging organizational knowledge systems, such as social media, are widely researched, related knowledge security risks have received less attention. Traditional information security management models tend to concentrate on the technological viewpoint to secure existing information assets. However, the use of contemporary approaches for knowledge creation and sharing offer new important possibilities for making use of internal and external knowledge. Simultaneously, their implementation involves changesin technologies, as well as a change in work processes and communications. Hence, knowledge security risk management should be developed from the current focus on relatively static containers and information assets toward more proactive management of the potential future risks of knowledge sharing. This paper introduces a proactive process for managing knowledge security risks and reports experiences of its use by professionals with experience in various topics of information and knowledge security.

  • 275.
    Iqbal, Sarfraz
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Applying the analytical lens of constructive alignment and conversational framework for course and e-learning platform development2013Inngår i: NOKOBIT - Norsk konferanse for organisasjoners bruk av informasjonsteknologi 2013, Trondheim: Tapir Akademisk Forlag, 2013, s. 159-172Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of educational needs for offering a master’s degree program in Information Security both to campus and distance students is of extreme importance in order to improve curriculum design as well as e-learning platform. The case of an Internet Security course and e-learning platform were analyzed. The theoretical framework based on constructive alignment theory (Biggs, 1996) and conversational frame-work (Laurillard, 2002) has been used as an analytical lens to analyze the case and guide the ongoing research process for improvement in the courses as well as for the development and improvement of e-learning platform. It is proposed that in order to improve the quality of teaching and enhance the e-learning platform all the courses included in MSc program in Information Security should be developed systematically based on specific pedagogical principles. The systematic development approach will help the instructors to enhance understanding and provide guidelines to incorporate the mindset of construc-tive alignment. Information Security education benefits greatly from hands-on laboratory oriented exer-cises. Therefore, e-learning platform including InfoSec lab must be designed and developed based on pedagogical principles. In this way we can argue for the true benefits of the learning technology being developed for a specific purpose. Hence, learning technology is not considered as merely a knowledge-transmitting tool but viewed as an ensemble artifact. This article attempts to put forward a theoretical framework to provide pedagogical guidelines for alignment of courses and for the selection of suitable e-learning platform.

  • 276.
    Iqbal, Sarfraz
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Design and Emergence of a Pedagogical Online InfoSec Laboratory as an Ensemble Artefact2016Inngår i: Journal of Information Systems Education, ISSN 1055-3096, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 17-36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Information security (InfoSec) education becomes increasingly important. Building hands-on capabilities to tackle challenges is a precondition to mitigate and eliminate cyber threats. Existing studies, however, show that the field lacks pedagogically founded information security laboratories that can be used flexibly to educate both on-campus and online learners. To address this issue, this paper reports on an online InfoSec laboratory. Development of the laboratory follows an action design research approach. For this purpose, initial design principles were used that are derived from the existing pedagogical theories such as Conversational Framework, Constructive Alignment, and Personalized System of Instruction, literature reviews and empirical data. Through iterative cycles of building, intervention, and evaluation of an InfoSec laboratory, and side-by-side critical reflections, this study refines the conceptual model of an online InfoSec laboratory and initial design principles and provides general guidelines on the process of establishing a pedagogically underpinned online InfoSec laboratory for hands-on exercises. This study contributes by serving two major purposes. First, this study proposes a conceptual model of an online InfoSec laboratory that comprises important entities: Laboratory Infrastructure, Exercise (document), Exercise Processing and Management Interface (EPI), and Concrete Exercise Interface. Secondly, the research proposes design principles for implementing a conceptual model of an online InfoSec laboratory in different educational contexts.

  • 277.
    Iqbal, Sarfraz
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Designing the online educational information security laboratories2014Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Distance education and e-learning in the field of information security is gaining popularity. In the field of information security education, virtual labs have been suggested to facilitate hands-on learning in distance education. An internet-based information security lab is an artifact which involves a collection of systems and software used for teaching information security, and which is accessible through the Internet. This research is motivated from an on-going information security lab development initiative at Luleå University of Technology. A literature review on the online educational information security laboratories (InfoSec labs) in the academic literature was conducted. The current literature about online InfoSec labs still lacks well-specified pedagogical approaches and concrete design principles. It hinders the accumulation of technically and pedagogically rigorous knowledge for the implementation and use of online educational InfoSec labs. Moreover, the literature focused mainly on details of technical lab implementations whereas the pedagogical elements of the curriculum and rationale behind them were ignored. This leads to inadequate guidance about how the instructor and the learner can make use of the lab to pedagogically align the course objectives, teaching / learning activities and assessment methods.A theoretical framework comprising the Constructive alignment theory (Biggs 1996) and Conversational Framework (Laurillard 2002) was proposed to further guide the research process and analyze the case of an internet security course and e-learning platform. The framework suggested that the MSc program and individual courses in information security should be developed based on specific pedagogical principles in order to improve the quality of teaching and enhance the e-learning platform for flexible hands-on security education. Therefore, to design an online InfoSec lab to improve flexible hands-on education and security skills development in the courses; Action design research (ADR) was chosen as the whole approach to continue with this research project. The ultimate goal is to design an ensemble IT artifact as a result of emerging design, use, and refinement in context through continuous interaction between technology and organization during design process. This licentiate thesis is mainly focused on the 1st stage (Problem Formulation) of the ADR method where the trigger for the first stage is the problems perceived in the teaching of information security, i.e., how to improve students’ security knowledge, how to provide the students with flexible online educational information security lab.The review of prior research, observations, interviews with teachers and program management and reflection on pedagogical approaches lead to formalize five initial design principles (Contextualization, Collaboration, Flexibility, Cost-effectiveness and Scalability). These initial design principles have been derived keeping in view the requirements of an information security course in the degree program. A conceptual design for the information security course based on Personalized System Of Instruction (PSI) approach including online InfoSec lab design to promote student’s hands-on security knowledge level and to provide them flexibility to study at their desired speed has been proposed. The anatomy of design theory framework by Gregor & Jones (2007) is used for outlining a few first components of a design theory for an online-InfoSec-lab course. In its current form, this study makes a contribution to the literature by identifying and discussing about hitherto scattered research reports of educational online InfoSec labs in a common frame of reference, which will help other developers and researchers of information security pedagogy as an index of previous literature. The theoretical framework will be used to provide further guidelines to develop theory-ingrained artifact which will not only help to provide the necessary justification for elements of curriculum and the rationale behind its selection but also it will help to align the course objectives with teaching / learning activities in a specific teaching context for better hands-on education of information security. The initial design principles suggested in this study will provide help to start the next phase of ADR, Building, Intervention and Evaluation (BIE), which will support us to achieve a refined set of more concrete emergent design principles. The proposed conceptual design of online information security course will be implemented including development, implementation and use of online InfoSec lab. The future research will be focused on IT-dominant BIE (building, intervention and evaluation phases of the ADR method). Further research work after the licentiate phase will cover the rest of the phases of ADR.

  • 278.
    Iqbal, Sarfraz
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Ensemble View on Designing Pedagogical Online Information Security Laboratories2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Distance education and e-learning in the field of information security is gaining popularity. An online information security programme is supposed to include plenty of hands-on exercises, but in most cases the lab experiments are unavailable to distance students that represent a challenge in online education. In information security education, virtual labs facilitate hands-on learning in distance education. An online information security lab is an artefact which involves a collection of systems and software used for teaching information security, and which is accessible through the Internet. However, the design, development and implementation of an online InfoSec lab has many challenges. This research is motivated from an on-going information security lab development initiative at Luleå University of Technology (LTU).Thus, the researcher focused on the question of how we can design a pedagogical online InfoSec lab which is flexible, usable and adapts to different educational contexts. The current literature about online InfoSec labs still lacks well-specified pedagogical approaches and concrete design principles. This hinders the accumulation of technical and pedagogical knowledge for the implementation and use of online educational InfoSec labs. Moreover, the literature focuses mainly on details of technical lab implementations, whereas the pedagogical elements of the curriculum and the rationale behind them were ignored. This leads to inadequate guidance about how the instructor and the learner can make use of the lab to pedagogically align the course objectives, teaching / learning activities and assessment methods. In order to design an online InfoSec lab to improve flexible hands-on education and security skills development the Action design research (ADR) approach was chosen. The ultimate goal is to design an ensemble IT artefact as a result of emerging design, use, and refinement in context through continuous interaction between technology and organization during the design process. Following the IT-dominant BIE process of ADR approach made it possible not only to develop the lab and instantiate it in different courses but also to formulate design principles and abstract the findings to a generalizable level. Furthermore, a framework for evaluation in design science research (FEDS) was adopted for evaluation purposes. The framework was used to conduct formative and summative evaluations. Feedback from all the stakeholders including teachers and students showed that the online InfoSec lab is a usable learning media for hands-on education from a distance.This research contributes by showing the design, development and implementation of an online InfoSec lab aimed at the improvement of hands-on education and evaluation of its use in context. Following technology as a development project perspective of an ensemble view, my research work at its current status contributes by serving two major purposes. First, this study proposed a conceptual design model of an online InfoSec lab comprising important building blocks or entities. The study conceptualizes the online InfoSec lab as an ensemble artefact. This study unfolded the black-box tools view of the lab so as to understand and explain the important building blocks (entities of the lab), and the interrelationships of the entities. This study provides conceptual clarity given the existing literature on online InfoSec labs, by recognizing the stakeholders and explaining their roles for each entity in the proposed conceptual model of an online InfoSec lab; this is a view which has not been recognized or discussed in similar earlier works. Second, the study suggests design principles for implementing a conceptual model of an online InfoSec lab in different educational contexts. The emerging design principles were shaped during this research work together with the other stakeholders. The design principles such as Contextualization based on programme goals, Contextualization based on course goals, Pedagogical alignment of lab activities, Flexible learning, Collaboration among lab stakeholders, Scalability, User friendly interface with properly arranged resources and targets and Isolate the InfoSec lab incorporate the socio-technical perspective, which ensures that the resulting artefact developed using these principles should be an ensemble artefact. The design principles can provide support to practically construct, implement and test the online InfoSec lab. The study introduced a productive learning media (InfoSec lab) that is designed to meet the active learning preferences of distance learners of information security, such as support for flexible and individualized hands-on learning. Practitioners wishing to include lab activities in their courses and programmes can utilize this knowledge to understand fully how much human and technical resources are needed to design the lab and conduct exercises.

  • 279.
    Iqbal, Sarfraz
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Awad, Ali Ismail
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Thapa, Devinder
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Design Principles for online Information Security laboratory2014Inngår i: Selected Papers of the Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, 2014, s. 65-79Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we reported an online InfoSec Lab based on initial design principles derived from kernel theories such as Conversational Framework (CF), Constructive Alignment (CA), and Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The overall research was conducted using the action design research approach. In doing so, the iterative cycles and critical reflections during the process helped to refine a set of existing design principles. The study contributes to the IS community by providing design principles for an online InfoSec Lab that utilizes state-of-the art technology for mixed classrooms.

  • 280.
    Iqbal, Sarfraz
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Booth, Todd
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Päivärinta, Tero
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Towards personalized system of instruction for educational online information security lab exercises: research-in-progress2012Inngår i: Norsk konferanse for organisasjoners bruk av informasjonsteknologi: NOKOBIT 2012 / [ed] Terje Fallmyr, Trondheim: Tapir Akademisk Forlag, 2012, s. 133-144Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Information Security education benefits greatly from hands-on laboratory oriented exercises. Campus students often have access to security lab equipment. However, remote students, who never visit the campus, often have no laboratory access at all. While previous literature describing designs for information security laboratories are seldom based on specified pedagogical approaches or systematic design theories, this paper contributes by outlining a design theory of online InfoSec labs based on the “Personalized system of instruction” (PSI). We also illustrate the PSI-oriented approach to on-line information security education with help of design suggestions and general level evaluation measures.

  • 281.
    Iqbal, Sarfraz
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Booth, Todd
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Päivärinta, Tero
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Towards personalized system of instruction for educational online information security lab exercises: research-in-progress2012Inngår i: Norsk konferanse for organisasjoners bruk av informasjonsteknologi: NOKOBIT 2012 / [ed] Terje Fallmyr, Trondheim: Tapir Akademisk Forlag, 2012, s. 133-144Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Information Security education benefits greatly from hands-on laboratory oriented exercises. Campus students often have access to security lab equipment. However, remote students, who never visit the campus, often have no laboratory access at all. While previous literature describing designs for information security laboratories are seldom based on specified pedagogical approaches or systematic design theories, this paper contributes by outlining a design theory of online InfoSec labs based on the “Personalized system of instruction” (PSI). We also illustrate the PSI-oriented approach to on-line information security education with help of design suggestions and general level evaluation measures.

  • 282.
    Iqbal, Sarfraz
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Päivärinta, Tero
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Towards a design theory for educational on-line information security laboratories2012Inngår i: Advances in Web-Based Learning - ICWL 2012: 11th International Conference, Sinaia, Romania, September 2-4, 2012. Proceedings / [ed] Elvira Popescu; Qing Li; Ralf Klamma; Howard Leung; Marcus Specht, Heidelberg: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2012, s. 295-306Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Online learning for educating information security professionals has increased in popularity. The security curriculum and technology, as well as hands-on laboratory experiences implemented in information security labs, are important elements in an online education system for information security. We drew our motivation from an on-going information security lab development initiative in our own institution, and this paper aims to provide an integrated overview on reported instances of online hands-on education in information security. Our review contributes to the existing knowledge by using the anatomy of design theory framework as a basis for literature analysis, as this provides a common basis to examine theories about human-created information technology artifacts such as information security labs and how such knowledge has been communicated to academia. Our results show that none of the articles studied here puts forward a well-grounded and tested design theory for on-line information security laboratories. This hinders accumulation of knowledge in this area and makes it difficult for others to observe, test and adapt clear design principles for security laboratories and exercises.

  • 283.
    Iqbal, Sarfraz
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Thapa, Devinder
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Initial design principles for an educational, on-line information security laboratory2013Inngår i: Advances in web-based learning ICWL 2013: 12th International Conference, Kenting, Taiwan, October 6-9, 2013, Proceedings / [ed] Jhing-Fa Wang; Rynson Lau, Heidelberg: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2013, s. 89-100Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    E-Learning systems should be based on systematic pedagogical approaches and well-designed procedures and techniques. However, current literature on several areas of technology-enhanced learning environments, such as online information security (InfoSec) laboratories, may still lack well-specified pedagogical approaches and concrete design principles. In information security education, hands-on lab exercises play a major role in learning. Distance education brings in new challenges as the hands-on exercises require now virtual labs, which need to be accessible anywhere and often also anytime. This creates technological and pedagogical challenges, which are not fully understood in terms of explicit design principles that would enhance implementation and use of on-line educational labs. To contribute to this knowledge gap the paper based on the interviews, observations, and literature review formulates and describes five initial design principles: contextualization, collaboration, flexibility, cost-effectiveness, and scalability. The initial concretization of the principles adopts the pedagogical approach of Personalized System of Instruction (PSI), which is deemed to represent a good fit to the contextual goals for developing on-line security labs in the context of the target university. Further research for actual design of virtual InfoSec labs, adopting the action design-based research tradition to develop learning environments, is needed in order to concretize, to test and to elaborate these design principles.

  • 284.
    Iqbal, Sarfraz
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Thapa, Devinder
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Awad, Ali Ismail
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Päivärinta, Tero
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Conceptual Model of Online Pedagogical Information Security Laboratory: Toward an Ensemble Artifact2015Inngår i: 2015 48th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2015): Hawaii, USA, 5-8 January 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 43-52, artikkel-id 7069664Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Distance education in information security has unique requirements in comparison to on-campus education. For instance, an online InfoSec lab is required to provide hands-on education to distance students while development and operation of a lab is a non-trivial problem. There is a need to understand the nature of the online InfoSec labs as ensemble artifacts, and just a black-box tool’s view is not enough. This article suggests a conceptual model to explain the ensemble view of the online InfoSec lab. In doing so, the paper makes two specific contributions: First, it conceptualizes the online Information Security (InfoSec) lab as an ensemble artifact so that we can unfold the black-box view of an InfoSec lab and understand the important building blocks (entities of the lab) and their interrelationships. Second, it suggests design principles to implement the conceptual model of an InfoSec lab.

  • 285.
    Isaksson, Janinah
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Isaksson, Erika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Elbolagens omställning mot tjänstefiering och vikten av kundinvolvering i tjänstedesignprocessen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 286.
    Jain, Mohit
    et al.
    IBM Res, Yorktown Hts, NY.
    Chandan, Vikas
    IBM Res, Yorktown Hts, NY.
    Minou, Marilena
    Network Economics and Services Group, Athens University of Economics and Business.
    Thanos, George A.
    Network Economics and Services Group, Athens University of Economics and Business.
    Wijaya, Tri K.
    École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.
    Gylling, Arne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT.
    Lindt, Achim
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen.
    Methodologies for Effective Demand Response Messaging2016Inngår i: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm): Data Management, Grid Analytics and Dynamic Pricing ; 2-5 Nov. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, s. 453-458Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Demand Response (DR) is considered an effective mechanism by utilities worldwide to address demand supply mismatch and reduce energy consumption, peak load and emissions. Consumer participation is central to realize the full potential offered by DR programs. The communication between a utility company and consumers participating in DR is through DR messages. However, despite the importance of DR messages in the context of residential DR programs, only a limited number of relevant experimental studies have been reported in literature so far. To address this gap, in this paper, we report findings from 6-month long DR field trials involving residential participants in Lulea, Sweden. The trials specifically focus on four aspects related to DR messages - notification mechanism, message type, associated incentive, and participation feedback. The primary outcome of these trials is a set of guidelines and recommendations for design of effective DR programs.

  • 287. Jansson, Maria
    Homecare and technology: old dreams - new means?2005Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    To meet the demands and to maintain an acceptable level of services in health and homecare, implementation and use of ICT as support for caring work, are increasing. The assumption is that technology will give rise to a large number of improvements, such as effectiveness and ability to follow up and evaluate the performance of the services provided. Representatives from government and municipalities also assume that use of technology will attract young people, raise the status and improve the whole work situation within homecare. However, people working in this area are seldom consulted when development and implementation of ICT into their work practices take place. Given the assumptions of participatory design principles that have in¬fluenced Scandinavian research and design work, this is surprising. To address this shortcoming, this thesis takes the perspective of the care assistants. The purpose of this thesis is to explore the expectations, needs, dreams, and no¬tions, care assistants have on/about ICT and homecare work. I pose five re¬search questions which will help me to understand and bring insight into those issues. To bring forward care assistants’ expectations and needs, I have conducted focus group interviews with personnel working at a care resource centre in the north of Sweden. Additionally, I have studied legislations, strategies and official authority reports regarding social service in health care and homecare. My research is based on the qualitative, interpretivistic and hermeneutic ap¬proaches. The gathered data has been analysed using three different methods: content analysis, Critical Systems Heuristics and the cyborg approach. The findings from each analysis complement each other and support different re¬search questions. The conclusions point to contradictions and ambivalence and are as follows: Care assistants experienced that they have no influence over the purchase, development or implementation of ICT into their work. At the same time, care assistants were not able to express their needs when it comes to ICT, and responded with silence. However, when they discussed their concrete work and work tasks they could very well express their needs in relation to tech¬nologies. They wished for improved functions in existing technologies and improvement in organisational issues surrounding technology. I also found that care assistants’ dreams and expectations on/about ICT were always ex¬pressed from the clients’ perspective. This is the prevailing discourse of care and their own dreams and expectations came second. Care assistants do not believe that implementation of new technology will raise the status of their work. They emphasised increased salaries and better working conditions as a way to raise the status. They also believed that the profession needs more men in order to raise the status. On the other hand, they do not think that implementation of new technologies will attract young people, not least men, to work in care and nursing areas. Care assistants do not share the positive assumptions that representatives from government and municipalities express in regard to technology. Still, they will accept the technology when it arrives and their strategy is to deal with the problems as they occur. Assumptions and solutions of public representa¬tives are created in the discourse of technology, while the assumptions and solutions of care assistants are created in and through the discourse of care. In the “fight” of representations of realities between a dominating and a com¬peting discourse, we are perhaps witnessing what is, in effect, a revival of old and new dreams - old dreams of offering citizens welfare in terms of care and services; and new dreams, of developing and implementing new technologies in order to recruit personnel

  • 288.
    Jansson, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Participation, knowledges and experiences: design of IT-systems in e-home health care2007Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    People working in the home health care sector are seldom consulted when development and implementation of ICT is involved and which effects their work practices. This is surprising given the assumptions of participatory design principles that have in¬fluenced Scandinavian re¬search and design work. To address this shortcoming, this thesis takes the perspective of the homecare personnel. A central purpose of the thesis is to explore care staff's participation in, experiences and knowl¬edge of the design and use of ICT in home health care services, with a special focus on care assistants. The methodological approach for this exploration is based on qualita¬tive methods and interpretive and hermeneutic perspectives applied in four different research and development projects. The empirical ma¬terial was conducted with focused interviews, undertaken work with focus groups, facilitated workshops, engaged in systematic observations and used the storyboard technique with personnel working in the home health care services. Thus a variety of participatory design meth¬ods and techniques have been used. The gathered data has been ana¬lysed using different methods: discourse analysis, the cyborg figure, thematic analysis, and reflective analysis. The findings from each analy¬sis complement each other and bring forward different perspectives. Common assumptions about participatory approaches are that partici¬pation improves workplace democracy and increases user acceptance. Nonetheless, it is not that straight forward. This research has revealed that participation involves conscious reflections on when, where, and how the users should participate in the design process. The degree of participation is an issue where the ultimate level is shared collaborative decision-making for reaching effective and high quality systems that supports the work processes. An additional issue in the design process is the quest for official power. The conducted research confirms that participatory design is difficult and takes time, participation and participatory design techniques that have been used demonstrate the complexity in the work practice and that it is not only to "get the work done". Further, if the point of de¬parture is taken in (participatory) action research and participatory de¬sign it is possible to intervene in the process and change the direction of a research and development project in order to engage all stake¬holders that are involved in the care of the client. Finally, when applying an appreciative approach, care staff were en¬abled to value their situated knowledge and how it contributes to the services delivered i.e., they were enabled to reflect on their work, learn, and share together. Findings indicate that by integrating the principles of participatory action research (PAR) in the participatory design (PD) process, the users participate during the full development process, make decisions and take part in the design work. With this degree of participation, the care staff are able to follow the whole process, reach a realistic expectation of what to expect from the de¬signed technology and additionally develop their situated knowledge about the relations between technology and work practices.

  • 289.
    Jansson, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Melander-Wikman, Anita
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Hälsa och rehabilitering.
    It's OK if we just get the time to get used to IT2004Inngår i: IRIS 27: plenary papers : August 14-17, 2004, Falkenberg, Sweden / / [ed] Per Flensburg; Carina Ihlström, Växjö: Växjö universitet , 2004Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 290.
    Jansson, Maria
    et al.
    Norrbottens Läns Landsting.
    Mirijamdotter, Anita
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Runardotter, Mari
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Participatory design - in need of angels2010Inngår i: Travelling Thoughtfulness: feminist technoscience stories, Umeå: The Department of Informatics, Umeå University , 2010, s. 115-134Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a sentence by Bob Dylan – the times they are a-changin’. This is true also for participatory design (PD) – today design projects are distributed between sites and people, and extended in time. PD is now diverse and multi-directional and in need of re-thinking designer responsibility. How to change our methods in line with concerned personnel’s abilities and ways of expressing themselves? Yet, still it is needed someone that overlooks and ensure the PD process. This is especially important when a PD project results in new experiences for people. We suggest that systems designers’ shoulder the responsibility as an angel, which we use as a metaphor for a person with the overall responsibility for the PD process. As part of this we suggest that systems designers would gain by adapting the PD process in line with the PAR methodology and by the use of Soft Systems Methodology’s Rich Picture building.

  • 291.
    Jansson, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Mörtberg, Christina
    Department of Informatics, University of Oslo/University of Umeå.
    Berg, Elisabeth
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Old dreams, new means: an exploration of visions and situated knowledge in information technology2007Inngår i: Gender, Work and Organization, ISSN 0968-6673, E-ISSN 1468-0432, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 371-387Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to explore the tensions and ambivalences of new and old technology and political visions of keeping viable, quality care and services for elderly citizens through the use of new information technologies. The visions of politicians and social service managers of keeping alive the welfare state and retaining its ability to offer quality care and services for elderly citizens are compared with the experiences of female care assistants and their expectations of technology. A feminist figure — the cyborg — will be used in this exploration. We consider how care assistants are integrated in networks of socio-technical relations between humans and non-humans, and the extent to which gender or asymmetrical power relations between women and men intervene in their stories.

  • 292.
    Johansson, Dan
    et al.
    Informatics, Umeå University.
    Lassinantti, Josefin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Informatics, Umeå University.
    Mobile e-Services and Open Data in e-Government Processes: Concept and Design2015Inngår i: Mobile Web and Intelligent Information Systems: 12th International Conference, MobiWis 2015, Rome, Italy, August 24-26, 2015, Proceedings / [ed] Muhammad Younas; Irfan Awan; Massimo Mecella, New York: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2015, s. 149-160Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The traditional service life cycle starts with the formulation of required needs and ends with the adoption and ownership of the service. In an e-government context, this takes the form of citizens consuming services provided by the public sector bodies. We examine how a combination of mobile e-services and open data can extend and allow possible citizen-driven continuation of the service life cycle. The chosen method is a concept-driven approach, manifesting our concept in a digital prototype, which allows citizens to generate and acquire open data, as well as develop and publish their own e-services

  • 293.
    Johansson, Dan
    et al.
    Department of Informatics, Umeå University.
    Lassinantti, Josefin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Informatics, Umeå University.
    Mobile e-services and open data in e-government processes: transforming citizen involvement2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Information Integration and Web-based Applications & Services (iiWAS2015) / [ed] Maria Indrawan-Santiago; Matthias Steinbauer; Ismail Khalil; Gabriele Anderst-Kotsis, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2015, artikkel-id 8Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile computing is one of the most important paradigms to influence and enhance modern e-services, mainly due to its anytime and anywhere availability adding value to the delivered service. In a traditional e-government context, the service life cycle takes the form of citizens consuming services provided by public sector bodies. In this paper, we use a novel concept combining mobile e-services and open data to extend and allow possible citizen-driven continuation of the service life cycle. The concept is evaluated throughout the design process, and also becomes the subject of a focus group. Our most important conclusions are that the concept design extends the service life cycle within the public sector context, and also creates new entrances for citizens to participate in generating and acquiring open data, thus transforming citizens' involvement. The result is increased co-operation, as well as increased adoption and availability of data and e-services, enhancing citizen participation

  • 294.
    Johansson, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Fältholm, Ylva
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Wykowska, Agnieszka
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Work and Organization in a Digital Industrial Context2017Inngår i: Management Revue, ISSN 0935-9915, E-ISSN 1861-9908, Vol. 28, nr 3, s. 281-297Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There are clear signs that digitalization attempts such as Industry 4.0 will becomemore apparent in workplaces. This development requires reflections and considerationsso we do not create more problems than we solve. In our paper, we have raisedseveral questions related to the Industry 4.0 that need answers: Is Industry 4.0 a discourse,an organizational model, or just technology? Does the requirement for flexibilitycall for a new labour market? How will Industry 4.0 affect competence andskill requirements? Will Industry 4.0 encourage a new gender order? Will Industry4.0 take over dangerous routine work or will old work environmental problems appearin new contexts and for other groups of workers? Can we rely on robots aswork mates or will they spy on us and report to management? Based on our analysis,we addressed four knowledge gaps that need more research in relation to thedigitalization of work: The relationship between new technology, working conditions,qualifications, identity, and gender; the future of the workers' collective;crowdsourcing in an industrial context; and human-machine interaction with a focuson integrity issues.

  • 295.
    Johansson, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Lassinantti, Josefin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Project: EAA - Ericsson Application Awards2015Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Samarbetspartner med Ericsson Research under deras arrangemang av Ericsson Application Awards, en internationell utvecklartävling för mobila applikationer. I detta ingick att göra undersökningar bland deltagarna för att skapa en ökad förståelse för drivkrafterna bakom deltagandet samt hur en sådan här typ av tävling har för påverkan som drivkraft för tjänsteinnovation.

  • 296.
    Johansson, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT.
    Lassinantti, Josefin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Parnes, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Wennberg, Paula
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT.
    Broberg, Anders
    Institutionen för Datavetenskap, Umeå Universitet.
    Palmquist, Lena
    Institutionen för Datavetenskap, Umeå Universitet.
    Lidgren, Aron
    Alec Consulting AB.
    Bengtsson, Johan
    Internit, Sverige.
    Davoli, Lorenzo
    Designhögskolan, Umeå Universitet.
    Kuenen, Stoffel
    Designhöskolan, Umeå Universitet.
    Börjesson, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Project: SATIN - System för användardriven tjänsteinnovation2015Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The overall mission of SATIN is to empower end-users without programming skills to create mobile-services, and to share services with other end-users. In the project researchers from Luleå University of Technology and Umeå University join forces together with different industrial actors to solve the issues on technologies for mobile service-creation, user-driven service design and implementation and the future mobile service business ecosystem.

  • 297.
    Johansson, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT.
    Lassinantti, Josefin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Nolin, Marie
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT.
    Project: SMART CAMPUS - Building-User Learning Interaction for Energy Efficiency2015Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    From DOW: "This project aims at the development of services and applications supported by a data gathering platform that integrates real time information systems and intelligent energy management systems that drive a bi-directionallearning process such that the user learns how to interact with the building and the building learns how to interact with the user in a more energy efficient way.SMART CAMPUS targets Public buildings (Universities) through the use of Services enabled by ICT in particular by supporting the user behaviour transformation through the interaction between the user and the building’sintelligent energy management system. Furthermore the eco-conscious educated user will be empowered with real time ubiquitous information and decision making guidance that will enable and motivate the interactionleading to Energy Efficiency. SMART CAMPUS expects an impact of substantial Energy Savings up to 20% of total saving, being up to 15% the result of consumer behaviour transformation.The users will be addressed at 4 public Universities located at Helsinki, Lulea, Lisbon and Milan. The service will be used to educate, influence and transform the user energy consumption behaviour sustaining these behavioural changes by his/her empowerment with real time interactive information (simulation) andguided/influenced decision making (usage profile modelling and negotiation). The services and applications provided will be based on a reference of best practices in terms of energy usage but will also take into accountthe user preferences, balancing the pre-set definitions with the user preferences, having therefore a bidirectional learning process between the building and the users. The project progress and results will be pro-actively disseminated trough Web 2.0 tools, namely the SMART CAMPUS Portal, and with brochures, newsletters and videos, aiming at reaching a wide audience."

  • 298.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Chronéer, Diana
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Malmström, Malin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Nilsson, Michael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, CDT.
    Engström, Anne
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Ek Styvén, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Projekt: MeMo - Meta-affärsmodell för mobila tjänster2010Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta projekt är att identifiera affärsmodeller för mobila tjänster och att föreslå en meta-affärsmodell som kan tillvarata affärspotential genom samverkan mellan aktörer som tjänsteleverantörer, tjänsteförmedlare och kunder i ett större nätverk. I projektet samverkar forskare från fem forskningsområden (industriell marknadsföring, e-handel, redovisning & styrning, informatik, och industriell organisation) vid Luleå tekniska universitet (LTU) för att från sina respektive angreppsvinklar: Identifiera och beskriva affärsmodeller för mobila tjänster. Föreslå en meta-affärsmodell för att möjliggöra effektiva framtida affärer för mobila tjänsteleverantörer. Samla insamlade erfarenheter i ett white paper som kananvändas som stöd för utveckling av framgångsrika affärsmodeller för de deltagande företagen. Synliggöra vetenskapliga resultat i publikationer och presentationer. MeMo-projektet är finansierat av VINNOVA och genomförs i samarbete mellan LTU och TeliaSonera och ett antal av dess nuvarande och framtida tjänsteleverantörer. Genom Centrum för Distansöverbryggande Teknik (CDT) vid LTU och dess Living Lab-nätverk, når projektet ut till stora grupper av slutanvändare.

  • 299.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Malmström, Malin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Chronéer, Diana
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Project: Amplifire2013Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 300.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Malmström, Malin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Chronéer, Diana
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Styvén, Maria Ek
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Engström, Anne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Business models at work in the mobile service sector2012Inngår i: iBusiness, ISSN 2150-4075, E-ISSN 2150-4083, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 84-92Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to enhance the knowledge of business models in the mobile service sector by exploring their key mechanisms and underlying components. By combining the business model literature with empirical interview-based case studies of 69 business models in the mobile service sector, it illustrates the findings of a longitudinal case study of a business model design attached to an iPhone application. A model for managing business model design in an open innovation context of mobile services is proposed. The model extends earlier frameworks by adding contingency aspects and the view of core resources for addressing logics in the dynamic sector. Findings highlight the importance of ventures in the mobile service sector continually managing the business model design in order to support the sustainability of their business models.

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