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  • 251.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Grandjean, Mathilde
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Potential for acid leachate formation from air-cooled blast-furnace slag used in road construction2009Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Air-cooled blast-furnace slag (ACBFS) has suitable physical properties for use as an unbound aggregate in road bases. Results of laboratory leaching tests have also indicated that ACBFS can be used without posing any risk of negative environmental impacts. However, monitoring of drainages from a full-scale road test section with ACBFS has indicated that acid leachates (pH<6) with associated increased releases of constituents can occur under field conditions. In this paper, the potential and responsible mechanisms for acid leachate formation from ACBFS used in road construction are discussed. Analysis of a 10-year time series of drainage samples and 12 year old ACBFS from the road section indicates that acidity might develop from the oxidation of reduced sulphides released from the ACBFS. Currently, the impact of intermittent wetting and drying conditions on the weathering of minerals and leaching over time from ACBFS is investigated under controlled laboratory conditions to verify the field observations. A combination of chemical and mineralogical analyses is used to analyse the results.

  • 252. Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Environmental assessment of secondary construction materials: literature review2004Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Process industry, construction and other comparable activities generate large quantities of wastes, which are potentially suitable for use in geotechnical applications. This review presents the current status of reuse and recycling of secondary construction materials in Sweden. Also, different assessment methods to judge the environmental suitability of different utilisations are overviewed. Several driving forces for reuse and recycling of wastes have been introduced recently. For example, the alternative costs, e.g. for landfilling, have increased due to raised taxes on waste deposited on landfills. However, the amounts of wastes made use of as construction materials are lower than the potential. Uncertainties about potential risks and demanding permit processes are often hindering recycling. Approval practices also vary in different regions, causing confusion for users as well as authorities. Wastes of high utilisation rates are commonly produced in urban areas where the demand for construction materials is high and are released from the permit obligation based on earlier experience. Current environmental assessment practice is unfavourable to the use of secondary materials. The surrounding environment is often not considered which may lead to environmental damage of sensitive recipients. The methods applied vary and the results are rarely related to corresponding investigations of conventional materials, although shown to have a high leachability of certain pollutants. The lack of a general procedure to assess the suitability of an intended use leads to inconsistent assessments. Laboratory leaching tests can be used to assess fundamental leaching properties of materials, but do not necessarily reflect the actual field conditions. Risk assessments can provide a link between the leaching behaviour of a material and the recipient/-s of concern, but requires large amounts of data. Life-cycle assessments can be used for comparative studies of different materials, but are often irrelevant for specific utilisation scenarios. Further work is needed on how to improve the quality and the consistency in environmental assessments. The effect of different factors on the release and transport of contaminants from different materials in different utilisation scenarios need to be evaluated. Also, simplified assessment methods are lacking to account for characteristics in the surrounding environment and to address resource management at the strategic level.

  • 253. Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Evaluation of leachate emissions from crushed rock and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash used in road construction2007Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 27, nr 10, s. 1356-1365Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Three years of leachate emissions from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and crushed rock in a full-scale test road were evaluated. The impact of time, construction design, and climate on the emissions was studied, and the predicted release from standard leaching tests was compared with the measured release from the road. The main pollutants and their respective concentrations in leachate from the roadside slope were Al (12.8-85.3 mg l-1), Cr (2-125 μg l-1), and Cu (0.15-1.9 mg l-1) in ash leachate and Zn (1-780 μg l-1) in crushed rock leachate. From the ash, the initial Cl- release was high (≈20 g l-1). After three years, the amount of Cu and Cl- was in the same range in both leachates, while that of Al and Cr still was more than one order of magnitude higher in ash leachate. Generally, the release was faster from material in the uncovered slopes than below the pavement. Whether the road was asphalted or not, however, had minor impacts on the leachate quality. During rain events, diluted leachates with respect to, e.g., salts were observed. The leaching tests failed to simulate field leaching from the crushed rock, whereas better agreement was observed for the ash. Comparisons of constituent release from bottom ash and conventional materials solely based on such tests should be avoided.

  • 254. Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Evaluation of leachate emissions from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and crushed rock used in road construction2005Ingår i: BCRA Workshop : Recycled materials in road and airfield pavements - overcoming barriers, 2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash in road construction may possess a risk to the environment due to the release of e.g. salt and heavy metals. In this study, two years of leachate data from a test road built of MSWI bottom ash and crushed rock in northern Sweden were evaluated. It was found that Cu, Cr, Al, Na, and Cl- were leached in higher amounts from the bottom ash, while the release of Zn, Mg, Ba, and Ca was higher from the crushed rock. The difference between ash and crushed rock leachates decreased over time, mainly due to changes in the ash leachate composition. The road pavement reduced the release rate of most pollutants from the bottom ash compared to the release from the uncovered parts of the road, whereas the release of pollutants from the crushed rock was less affected by the presence of a pavement.

  • 255. Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Larsson, A.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Barriers for the use of secondary construction materials2003Ingår i: Sardinia 2003: Ninth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium. CISA. 6 - 10 October 2003, S. Margherita di Pula (Cagliari), Sardinia, Italy, 2003Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of secondary materials in geotechnical applications is regarded as favourable but is often hindered by uncertainty about the potential environmental impact of the utilisation. In this paper, the main hurdles restricting the use of waste derived construction materials in Sweden are analysed, and means to overcome these are discussed. Standard test procedures and limit values for the assessment of environmental compliance of waste materials have not yet been established in the legislation. This has lead to confusion both for prospective users and for authorities. Also, a risk assessment system developed for the use of the secondary materials is lacking. Formalising the way data on e.g. material properties is collected and structured facilitates the judgement if and how a waste derived material can be used in a specific project. A web based information system could be used to gather, store and communicate information regarding secondary materials used for construction purposes. The proposed information system may form a basis for a simplified evaluation of risks related to the use.

  • 256.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Macsik, Josef
    Ecoloop Stockholm.
    Carabante, Ivan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Leaching behaviour of copper slag, construction and demolition waste and crushed rock used in a full-scale road construction2017Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 204, nr 1, s. 695-703Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The leaching behaviour of a road construction with fayalitic copper slag, recycled concrete and crushed rock as sub-base materials was monitored over ten years. All studied materials used in the road construction, including crushed rock, contained concentrations of several elements exceeding the guideline values recommended by the Swedish EPA for total element concentrations for waste materials used in constructions. Despite that, leaching from the road construction under field conditions in general was relatively low. The leachates from the recycled materials contained higher concentrations of several constituents than the leachates from the reference section with crushed rock. The leaching of the elements of interest (Cr, Mo, Ni, Zn) reached peak concentrations during the second and fourth (Cu) years and decreased over the observation period to levels below the Swedish recommended values. Carbonation of the concrete aggregates caused a substantial but short-term increase in the leaching of oxyanions such as chromate. The environmental risks related to element leaching are highest at the beginning of the road life. Ageing of materials or pre-treatment through leaching is needed prior to their use in construction to avoid peak concentrations. Also, the design of road constructions should be adjusted so that recycled materials are covered with low-permeability covers, which would minimize the exposure to atmospheric precipitation and weathering.

  • 257. Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Management of iron stabilised CCA contaminated soil2006Ingår i: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on the Environmental and Technical Implications of Construction with Alternative Materials: WASCON 2006 / [ed] Marina Ilic, Belgrade: ISCOWA , 2006, s. 665-676Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical stabilisation of trace element contaminated soil may be used as pre-treatment prior to landfilling or re-utilisation. Three different treatments with iron amendments were evaluated for their efficiency in reducing trace element mobility in chromate copper arsenate (CCA) contaminated soil. The amendments tested were two industrial by-products from steel production industries, viz. blaster sand, containing mainly zerovalent iron (Fe0), and oxygen scarfing granulate, with mainly iron oxides. Batch, column, and lysimeter leaching tests were conducted on untreated and treated soils. The tests were used to firstly evaluate the potential of the amendments as stabilising agents, and secondly to assess the potential management of the treated soil. Soil amendments lowered concentrations of As, Cu, Cr, and Zn in soil pore water and leachate, whereas Fe, Mn, and Ni showed tendencies towards increased concentrations. The treatment efficiency can be ranked as 1% Fe0 < 4% iron oxides < 8% iron oxides. While iron oxides may be used as effective amendments to reduce As leaching from soil, their effects on leaching of e.g. Ni warrant careful consideration. Further, impurities of the iron oxides increased soil concentrations of e.g. Cr, potentially limiting re-utilisation of the treated soil. Lowered As leaching from column and lysimeter tests on treated soil indicated aerobic soil conditions and, hence, stability of iron oxides. This may, however, be an artefact of a too short testing period for anaerobic conditions to establish.

  • 258. Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    To assess arsenic leaching from iron stabilised CCA contaminated soil2006Ingår i: Abstract proceedings of the 4th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium, [June 14th to 16th 2006, Gällivare, Sweden] / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2006, s. 131-132Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 259.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Mácsik, Josef
    Ecoloop, Stockholm.
    Evaluation of leaching from four recycled materials used in full-scale road constructions2008Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Engineering for Waste Valorisation: June 3-5, 2008, Patras, Greece / [ed] Gerasimos Lyberatos; Ange Nzihou, Patras: University of Patras , 2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The medium-term (5-10 years) elemental leaching from five different materials used in full-scale road applications was evaluated. Two materials, fayalite slag and blast-furnace slag, leached high concentrations of trace metals such as Cu and Zn throughout the study period. At several occasions, the blast-furnace slag generated leachates with acidic pH-values (<4). Leachate from crushed concrete and MSWI bottom ash contained elevated concentrations of e.g. Cr and Cu during the first 2-3 years. Enrichment of trace elements occurred in sediments of roadside drainage ditches, but the respective contribution from leachate and road surface runoff is unclear. Migration of the elements through subsoil and plants in the ditches was limited, but clear anthropogenic signals were observed for e.g. Cu and Zn at the BA section. Further studies are recommended to verify if laboratory tests used for impact assessments are able to predict the observed field leaching and how the road environment is affected by leaching from the road materials in the longer term.

  • 260. Lidelöw, Sofia
    et al.
    Ragnvaldsson, Daniel
    Division of NBC-Defence, Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Leffler, Per
    Division of NBC-Defence, Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Tesfalidet, Solomon
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University.
    Maurice, Christian
    Field trials to assess the use of iron-bearing industrial by-products for stabilisation of chromated copper arsenate-contaminated soil2007Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 387, nr 1-3, s. 68-78Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two industrial by-products with high iron contents were tested for their effectiveness in the stabilisation of arsenic and trace metals in chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-contaminated soil. Steel abrasive (SA; 97% Fe0) and oxygen scarfing granulate (OSG; 69% Fe3O4) were applied at levels of 1% and 8% (w/w) respectively to two soils with different organic matter contents. Field lysimeter measurements indicated that SA and OSG treatments decreased the arsenic concentration in pore water by 68% and 92%, respectively, for the soil with low organic matter content, and by about 30% in pore water of soil with high organic matter content. At pH ≤6, the amended soil with low organic content contained elevated levels of manganese and nickel in their pore water, which were sufficient to induce cytotoxic effects in L-929 mouse fibroblast cells. The industrial by-products have significant potential for soil amendment at field-scale, but caution is required because of the potential release of their chemical contaminants and their reduced capacity for sorption of arsenic in organic-rich soils.

  • 261.
    Lindmark, Johan
    et al.
    School of Business, Society and Engineering, Mälardalen University, Västerås.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Nilsson, Erik
    School of Business, Society and Engineering, Mälardalen University, Västerås.
    Carlsson, My
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Thorin, Eva
    School of Business, Society and Engineering, Mälardalen University, Västerås.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    School of Business, Society and Engineering, Mälardalen University, Västerås.
    Evaluating the Effects of Electroporation Pre-treatment on the Biogas Yield from Ley Crop Silage2014Ingår i: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, ISSN 0273-2289, E-ISSN 1559-0291, Vol. 174, nr 7, s. 2616-2625Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Exploiting the full biogas potential of some types of biomass is challenging. The complex structures of lignocellulosic biomass are difficult to break down and thus require longer retention times for the nutrients to become biologically available. It is possible to increase the digestibility of the substrate by pre-treating the material before digestion. This paper explores a pre-treatment of ley crop silage that uses electrical fields, known as electroporation (EP). Different settings of the EP equipment were tested, and the results were analyzed using a batch digestion setup. The results show that it is possible to increase the biogas yield with 16 % by subjecting the substrates to 65 pulses at a field strength of 96 kV/cm corresponding to a total energy input of 259 Wh/kg volatile solid (VS). However, at 100 pulses, a lower field strength of 48 kV/cm and the same total energy input, no effects of the treatment were observed. The energy balance of the EP treatment suggests that the yield, in the form of methane, can be up to double the electrical energy input of the process.

  • 262.
    Lindmark, Per
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Jord- och vattenförorening vid avfallsupplag1989Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 263.
    Lindskog, Staffan
    et al.
    Swedish Radiation Safety Authority.
    Labor, B.
    Badania Dydaktycne.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Sustainability of nuclear energy with regard to decommissioning and waste management2013Ingår i: International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, ISSN 1743-7601, E-ISSN 1743-761X, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 246-264Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability aspects of nuclear power are analysed with regard to such environmental liabilities that are associated with decommissioning of nuclear facilities and with nuclear waste management. Sustainability is defined and evaluated based on information searches that also include energy from combustion of coal. It is concluded that the claims on sustainability put forward by different parties are inconsistent and that coherent methodologies for evaluation are needed together with appropriately structured knowledge bases. Examples are presented from the perspective of the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority. It is found that nuclear power can qualify as sustainable only if the nuclear liability associated with protection of health and the environment - now and in the future – is appropriately managed. Sustainability awareness is analysed in a historic perspective, and it is found that it has been around for at least as long as agriculture, and that at least some of the shortcomings are actually modern inventions. Comprehensive perspectives are essential, since sustainability awareness may appear as trends. It is a historical fact that planning for decommissioning and estimation of associated costs are frequently treacherous exercises. However, costs must be relatively accurately estimated already at early stages so that adequate funds are available at the time when they are needed. Thus, the timing of the technical planning is often governed by the needs for financial planning. It is the duty of the present generation to assess what is adequate and to find responsible solutions. But the next generation should also be asked to carefully consider the perspective that they provide to us.

  • 264.
    Lindskog, Staffan
    et al.
    Swedish Radiation Safety Authority.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Division of nuclear liabilities between different license holders and owners2011Ingår i: Proceedings of the ASME 2011 14th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management: ICEM2011 : September 25-29, 2011, Reims, France., New York: American Society of Mechanical Engineers , 2011, Vol. PARTS A AND B, s. 985-994Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden was one of the first six countries to build and operate a nuclear power reactor. Thus, there exists a corresponding legacy in terms of liabilities for decommissioning and waste management of the historic facilities. Compliance with the Polluter Pays Principle (PPP) and its corollary on equity between generations implies that plans for decommissioning must be made and funds set aside for its execution. The need for precision in the cost estimates often governs the timing of the technical planning. Cost estimates are treacherous since cost raisers may be identified and evaluated only after considerable efforts have been made. Further complications and challenges arise as a result of changes that take place between construction and decommissioning of facilities in terms of the entities involved as owners, operators, license holders, Authorities and financiers. From this perspective, the present paper summarizes the general legislation as well as the legislation that applies particularly to nuclear activities. It also summarizes the relation between the nuclear decommissioning fund system and financial reporting. Three examples are provided that wholly or partially fall under the Studsvik act (that specifically covers old facilities): The Ågesta nuclear power plant The Ranstad uranium mining and beneficiation facility The Neutron Research Laboratory at Studsvik The findings include the following: It is important that the legislation be clear as to what is included and not. The rationale for the legislation should also be clear and well communicated. Old agreements can be significant for the assessment of liabilities, even in cases where a party may no longer exist. Support for assessment of when activities are continuing or not (which may have a strong significance for the liability) can be found in court cases on chemically contaminated soil. Analysis of facilities and the work carried out at different times can be very helpful in determining whether or not a facility is auxiliary. In order to be essentially correct, annual reporting must be coherent with the declarations of the funding system and in compliance with the IAR/IFRS standards. Keeping of searchable records is essential Research is essential, not only to provide bases for high quality decisions, but also to promote consensus based on agreement on factual circumstances

  • 265.
    Lundeberg, Simon
    et al.
    Svenska Renhållningsverksföreningen.
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Biologisk behandling av avfall i Borås1998Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 266.
    Lundmark, Carina
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Fokusgrupper för förbättrat samarbetsklimat mellan landstingets politiker och tjänstemän: en pilotstudie i Västernorrlands, Västerbottens och Norrbottens läns landsting2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under hösten 2009 genomfördes en pilotstudie, där tjänstemän och förtroendevalda från Norrbottens och Västerbottens läns landsting samt Landstinget Västernorrland fick diskutera rollfördelning och samarbetsklimat i fokusgrupper, under ledning av två forskare från Luleå tekniska universitet. Syftet var att inventera deltagarnas erfarenheter och bidra till bättre förståelse för respektive parts arbetssituation och problembild. I rapporten redovisas de olika upplevelser och tolkningar som framkommit under diskussionerna, med särskild betoning på de förslag som deltagarna själva lyft fram som möjliga strategier att göra rollerna tydligare och förbättra samarbetsklimatet. Fokusgruppsdeltagarna var överens om att det behövs fler tillfällen att diskutera rollerna. Förståelsen för rollerna behöver fördjupas i en ständigt pågående process. Det är viktigt för både politiker och tjänstemän att förstå sin egen roll och att ha respekt för varandras roller. Det behövs också en medvetenhet om det gränsland som alltid kommer att finnas, där politik och förvaltning överlappar. Studien visar att heltids- och fritidspolitiker har helt olika förutsättningar att arbeta politiskt. Heltidspolitiker är med och sätter dagordningen, har täta kontakter med tjänstemännen och får god inblick i de ärenden som är på väg upp till beslut. Fritidspolitiker, särskilt de som enbart sitter i fullmäktige, kan uppleva beslutsförslagen som både svåra att förstå och svåra att påverka. Fokusgruppsdiskussionerna visade att fritidpolitiker i allmänhet och oppositionen i synnerhet behöver bättre förutsättningar för att kunna arbeta politiskt på ett meningsfullt sätt, till exempel föreslogs att överväga organisationsförändringar (Oppositionen med i beredningar? Tjänstemannatid reserverad för oppositionen? Politiska sekreterare?). Förbättrad måluppföljning lyftes fram som en förutsättning för att politiker ska kunna arbeta med mål på ett meningsfullt sätt. De förtroendevalda önskade också mer nyanserade beslutsunderlag samt tydligt medborgarperspektiv i beslutsunderlagens konsekvensanalyser. Tjänstemännen önskade en större politisk tydlighet och målinriktning hos de förtroendevalda. Fokusgruppsmetoden har fungerat bra, både för att inventera erfarenheter av relationen och för att förbättra deltagarnas förståelse för den andra gruppens situation.

  • 267.
    Lundqvist, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lösningsmedelsåtervinning i Norrbotten1987Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 268.
    Lundqvist, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Återvinning av putsdukar1987Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 269.
    Luthbom, Karin
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Uncertainty in environmental decision-making: effects of defined or undefined guidance in the decision process2004Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision-making in environmental issues often includes uncertainty in the input data and the resulting uncertainty when the data is used. Some spatial decisions are however taken without any formal analysis, meaning that the decision-makers have a mental map and preconceived notions about the decision options before the final decision actually is taken. An example of such decision situation is siting of new landfills, where there is no standard method to aid in the decision-making process today. In other decision situations, the methods and criteria may be well developed. A commonly used method for investigation contaminated sites in Sweden is called "MIFO"- Method of Surveying Contaminated Sites. In MIFO investigations start at a superficial level and after each phase, efforts are focused further on the brownfields with highest priority. A strict model has advantages as resources are prioritized at the most polluted sites. But having a static model with strict guidance also leads to problems as the sampling approach suggested by the model is not optimally adapted to individual sites. The risk is that contamination is overestimated or underestimated, leading to unexpected costs as well as waste of resources in a remediation situation. Variability of the data, uncertainty in the data quality and the consequences in having no versus strict guidance in a decision situation are discussed in two cases; a regional landfill siting project, and a local investigation of a contaminated site. Future research involves how to include uncertainty modelling as a standard in all environmental decision-making processes. Tools are needed to aid decision-makers in expressing the maximum accepted uncertainty in the outcome. Guidance for selecting and weighing of criteria in decision- situations must be developed, as well as models that consider the case specific demands and conditions.

  • 270.
    Luthbom, Karin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Tools for landfill siting2003Ingår i: Sardinia 2003: Ninth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium. CISA. 6 - 10 October 2003, S. Margherita di Pula (Cagliari), Sardinia, Italy, Cagliari, 2003Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 271.
    Marklund, Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Treatment oriented waste characterization2019Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    New types of materials and products are developed every day, and subsequently, new types of wastes. At the same time, new regulations are put forth to protect human health and the ecosystems from the negative impacts of wastes. Often, the waste management industry is responsible to deal with these problems, and hence, good knowledge about wastes and their treatment is crucial. Waste is normally characterized in order to determine a treatment; however, this usually implies a known treatment method.

    This thesis aims to provide a structured approach about how to describe different treatments, and to provide guidance on how to characterize wastes in a solution oriented manner. A distinction is made between two types of treatments: those based on separation processes and those based on transformation processes, as well as combinations of the two. Separation processes are common in mechanical treatment such as sieving or air-classification. Transformation processes are common in such treatments as shredding, electroporation, radiation treatment, and stabilization. Most treatments consist of both a transformation and a separation process, such as incineration, in which the organic carbon is oxidized (transformed) into CO2,that then is separated from the remaining solids. Other examples of combined processes are composting and anaerobic digestion.

    A framework is presented that enables a quantitative description of different waste treatments such as anaerobic digestion and incineration in the same context. All transformation processes take place in an environment that can be described by environmental factors such as temperature, pH, redox, radiation etc. By relating different treatments or observations to each other in an n-dimension matrix, it is possible to not only locate the currently known treatments, but also to locate unexplored areas, i.e. combinations of environmental factors that could be used to treat wastes in new ways.

    The addition of the n-dimensional framework to the general characterization model, together with the “top down” strategy for characterization provide valuable insights useful for dealing with new types of wastes in an efficient manner.

  • 272.
    Marklund, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Characterization and mechanical separation of organic matter in construction and demolition waste finesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Construction and demolition waste (CDW) amounts to a large fraction of produced waste. 37 %-58 % was found to be fines. Wood is a common building material in the Nordic countries, so CDW fines have a high organic content. Typically, CDW fines are landfilled, but due to the high content of total organic carbon (TOC), this is not allowed. In order to investigate potential treatments or uses of these fines, they were characterized, with focus on their organic content. The potential for mechanical separation was tested by sieving and by float-sink separation in water. The organic content is higher in the larger and lighter particles. Mechanical separation by particle size using a 10 mm screen is not likely to consistently produce an under sieve fraction with low TOC content (<10 %). After float-sink separation, the sink fraction still contains 9-42% volatile solids (VS). However, based on tests of biogas potential and respiration activity, the biological activity of the sink fraction can be considered low. This is confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis, showing an organic carbon (OC) content of only 1-2 %. The TOC (measured by CO2 formation) is up to nine times higher than the OC, indicating that the TOC is not a reliable assay to measure organic carbon. Further studies will show if screening up to 10 mm, or screening in combination with density separation can yield a low TOC fraction for landfilling.

  • 273.
    Marklund, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Float-sink separation of C&D waste: a case of treatment oriented waste characterization2017Ingår i: Sixteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium: 2 -6 October 2017 S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy, Italy, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfilling and waste incineration are two major waste management options. However, some wastes can,due to their carbon content,be unsuitable for neither of these systems. Therefore, there is aneed for methods to remove organic carbon from wastes. One of these wastesis the construction and demolition fines. In this paper, we investigate using water for separating the waste by density, to see if this is a suitable method for separating carbon-containingmaterials, both in lab and field scale tests. Results show that halfof the carbon (measured as volatile solids) can be separated. However, this method cannot be said to reliably produce a sink fraction that is suitable for landfilling, as it still contains too much organic materials.

  • 274.
    Marklund, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Float-sink separation of construction and demolition waste fines2018Ingår i: Detritus, ISSN 2611-4135, Vol. 3, s. 13-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfilling and waste incineration are two major waste management options. However, due to their carbon content, some wastes may be unsuitable for these systems. Therefore, methods capable of removing organic carbon from wastes should be identified. One of these wastes is represented by construction and demolition fines. In this paper, we investigate the use of water in separating the waste by density, to verify the suitability of this method in the separation of carbon-containing materials, both in lab and field scale tests. The results obtained show that half of the carbon (measured as volatile solids) can be separated. However, this method fails to reliably produce a sink fraction suitable for landfilling, as it continues to be characterized by an excessively high organic material content.

  • 275.
    Marklund, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    The impacts of environments on waste: Part 1: The influence of thermal environments on organic wastesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 276.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bioindication and bioremediation of landfill emissions2001Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med avhandlingsarbetet var att undersöka huruvida växter, svampar och mikroorganismer kan användas för att indikera respektive behandla deponigas, lakvatten och förorenad jord. Eftersom emissioner från deponier sker under lång tid, är det nödvändigt att utveckla passiva och billiga metoder för emissionskontroll, dvs sådana som kräver lite mänsklig inblandning. Vissa organismer kan spela en viktig roll i sådana metoder, såvida de har goda livsbetingelser, dvs att deras krav på t ex temperatur, näring och fukthalt är uppfyllda. Utformning och drift av deponier kan utvecklas för att gynna denna typ av passiva biologiska behandlingar. En kartläggning av föroreningssituationen kan erhållas genom att studera organismers reaktion på densamma. Följande potentiella användningsområden för bioindikation och -sanering har studerats:Metanoxiderande bakterier i marken kan användas för att indikera metanemissioner. En indirekt mätmetod har utvecklats, som är mindre känslig för plötsliga emissionsvariationer över tiden än direkta mätmetoder. Metoden baseras på mätningen av den tryckförändring som resulterar från metanoxidationen. Längden på perioden innan metanoxidationen når sin maximala nivå används som indikator för metanemissioner. Perioden förkortades när jorden tidigare exponerats för metan. En inkubationstemperatur av 30°C och en vattenhalt motsvarande fältkapaciteten rekommenderas. Svampen Telephora caryophyllea tar upp arsenik från förorenad mark och kan indikera arsenikföroreningar i jorden. Mätbara halter av arsenik kunde påvisas efter lakning av svampen med ammoniumacetat och efterföljande färgtest, som tar några minuter. Användning av metoden kan vara tillräcklig för att avgränsa ett arsenikförorenat område. Deponivegetationen exponeras för föroreningarna och kan indikera dessa. Trots täckskiktets stora artrikedom kunde inte några skador på vegetationen upptäckas, som orsakats av förekomsten av Cu, Zn, Pb, As, metan och koldioxid. Detta beror troligtvis på att den naturliga vegetationen är tolerant mot dessa föroreningar. Metanoxidationskapaciteten hos de undersökta jordarna (upp till 24.6 mol metan år-1 kg-1 TS jord) är tillräcklig för att oxidera all metanemission från gamla eller små deponier. Trots att kapaciteten är tillräcklig, resulterar icke optimala förhållanden i metanemissionstoppar, t.ex. när marktemperaturen är låg eller marken torr. Eftersom metanoxiderande bakterier lever i den övre delen av täckskiktet, är de utsatta för olika klimatförhållanden. Lakvattenbevattning kan begränsa torka i avfallsupplagets täckskikt och har alltså en positiv effekt på metanoxidationen. Våtmarker kan minska nitrathalten i lakvatten. Höga kanter runt våtmarksanläggningar i kallt klimat leder till att ett extra 50 cm isolerande snötäcke kan bildas. Trots detta var vattentemperaturen lägre än 5°C under mer än en tredjedel av året. Högt vattenstånd efter planteringen och ett tunt jordlager gynnar växtetableringen. Minst fyra år behövs för att få en etablerad vegetation som genererar vissna växtdelar, vilka kan användas av mikroorganismer för t ex denitrifikation. En 30-procentig nitratminskning kunde erhållas tack vare denitrifikation. Det finns dock en osäkerhet i beräkningen och en noggrann massbalans behövs för att utvärdera behandlingskapaciteten. Vegetationen på det undersökta området skulle kunna användas för att binda t.ex. Cu, Zn, Pb och As i sina rötter. Dock rekommenderas användning av tillsatser för att binda föroreningarna i jorden och minska transporten av dessa till bladmassan. Trots förekomsten av det zink-hyperackumulerande gräset Thlaspi caerulescens på området, rekommenderas inte phytoextraktion, eftersom arten har låg biomassaproduktion och andra föroreningar förekommer (Cu, Pb och As).

  • 277.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Landfill gas emission and landfill vegetation1998Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 278.
    Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bergman, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Ecke, Holger
    Vegetation som biologisk indikator för deponigasavgång: en bakgrundsstudie1996Ingår i: Symposium om svensk upplagsforskning / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Malmö: Svenska renhållningsverks-föreningens Service AB , 1996, s. 169-179Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns ett behov av att kunna uppskatta gasavgången från ett helt upplag och under en längre period. Växtligheten som finns på plats året runt och som påverkas kontinuerligt skulle kunna användas som indikator eftersom deponigas kan ha en skadlig inverkan på växterna. I projektet har hypotesen att vissa arter skulle vara "typiska" för en viss avgångsnivå prövats.

  • 279. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Bergman, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Utilization of ashes in landfill constructions2004Ingår i: The 3rd Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium November 29th - December 2nd, 2004 in Toya, Hokkaido Japan / [ed] Morton Barlaz; Anders Lagerkvist; Toshihiko Matsuto, Hokkaido: Center for Applied Ethics and Philosophy, Hokkaido University, 2004, s. 133-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 280.
    Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bergman, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ecke, Holger
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Vegetation as a biological indicator for landfill gas emissions: initial investigations1995Ingår i: Sardinia 95: 5th International landfill symposium : Papers / [ed] Thomas H. Christensen, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 1995, Vol. 3, s. 481-494Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 281. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Ecke, Holger
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Todorovic, Jelena
    Road runoff water treatment in road ditches2003Ingår i: International conference on urban drainage and highway runoff in cold climate / [ed] Maria Viklander; J. Marsalek; P.-A. Malmqvist; W. E. Watt, IWA Publishing, 2003Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 282. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Ettala, M.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Effect of leachate irrigation and LFG on short rotation tree plantations1997Ingår i: Sardinia 97: proceedings ; [13 - 17 October 1997, S. Margherita di Pula - Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy] / [ed] Thomas H. Christensen, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 1997, Vol. Vol. 4, s. 343-352Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 283. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Björn
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Stabilization of CCA-contaminated soil with iron products: a field experiment2005Ingår i: Kalmar ECO-TECH '05: conference on waste to energy, bioremediation and leachate treatment : the Second Baltic symposium on environmental chemistry : the First Kalmar nanotechnology workshop / [ed] William Hogland, Högskolan i Kalmar, 2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical stabilization of metals is lately considered as a possible pretreatment for soil contaminated with average levels of trace elements. The element mobility in soil can be altered by adding soil amendments that can adsorb, complex, or co-precipitate trace elements. As a consequence, pollutant spreading from the contaminated soil and effect on the recipient can be reduced. The different contaminants originating from wood impregnation chemicals, e.g. Cu, Cr, and As limit the choice of amendments because e.g. large pH fluctuations and consequent mobilization of Cu or As should be avoided. The results show that the leaching of arsenic is lowest in the lysimeter with 15% Fe3O4. In both lysimeters with untreated soil and with 1% Fe0, the arsenic leaching seems to decrease with the sampling depth. The leaching of copper is generally low. Further the addition of iron seems to increase the leaching of manganese and nickel but to reduce the leaching of zinc. Results from the laboratory experiment show that the arsenic content in the leachate is lowest with the highest mixture of magnetite. Mixing is one of the key issues when discussing the treatment efficiency and possible use of the treated soil. The results so far indicate that magnetite can be used for treatment of CCA contaminated soil also at a large scale. Reduction of both arsenic and copper using a single amendment is challenging as they behave opposite. Magnetite seems to be a promising amendment even though a high amount of amendment needs to be added. Moreover, the potential establishment of reducing conditions at larger depths in the soil is of concern since this might lead to a rapid increase in arsenic leaching.

  • 284.
    Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Gustavsson, Björn
    Ragnvaldsson, Daniel
    Department of Threat Assessment, Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI).
    Rydvall, Björn
    Pelagia Miljökonsult AB.
    Berglind, Rune
    Swedish Defence Research Institute (FOI), Department of Threat Assessment, Toxicology.
    Haglund, Peter
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University.
    Johnson, Torbjörn
    Pelagia Miljökonsult AB.
    Leffler, Per
    Swedish Defence Research Institute (FOI), Department of Threat Assessment, Toxicology.
    Luthbom, Karin
    Ramböll Sverige AB, Luleå.
    Heijne, Patrik von
    Ramböll Sverige AB, Luleå.
    Improving soil investigations at brownfield sites using a flexible work strategy and screening methods inspired by the US Environmental Protection Agency's Triad approach2007Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 36, nr 6, s. 502-511Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigations of polluted brownfield sites and sample analyses are expensive, and the resulting data are often of poor quality. Efforts are needed, therefore, to improve the methods used in investigations of brownfield sites to both reduce costs and improve the quality of the results. One approach that could be useful for both of these purposes is the triad strategy, developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency, in which managing uncertainty is a central feature. In the investigations reported here, a field study was conducted to identify possible ways in which uncertainties could be managed in practice. One example considered involves optimizing the uncertainty by adjusting the sizes of samples and the efforts expended in analytical work according to the specific aims of the project. In addition, the potential utility of several toxicity assessment methods for screening sites was evaluated. As well as presenting the results of these assessments, in this contribution we discuss ways in which a flexible work strategy and screening methods inspired of the triad philosophy could be incorporated into the Swedish approach to remediate brownfield sites. A tiered approach taking advantage of field and screening methods is proposed to assess brownfield sites focusing on the response and acceptable uncertainty that are required for the task.

  • 285. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Kylefors, Katarina
    LTU.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Denitrification in constructed wetlands in cold climate regions: review2001Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This literature study focuses on the feasibility of using constructed wetlands (CW) for denitrification of leachate at a local leachate treatment facility, in cold climate. Constructed wetlands have the advantage of requiring less maintenance and control compared with more sophisticated systems. They are also cheaper to run. Finely they are part of the natural nutrient cycle. The environmental factors identified as limiting factors for the constructed wetlands considered in this literature study, e.g. the leachate salinity and the climatic conditions, governed the design of the wetland and the choice of the vegetation. Denitrification is done by heterotrophic microorganisms living in the soil, in anaerobic conditions. They use decaying organic material as carbon source. The role of the plants in the constructed wetlands is to provide substrate to the microorganisms as well as the root system increases the surface available to bacterial colonisation. The cold and long winter sets high requirements on the constructed wetlands. It shortens the period when the bacteria are most efficient i.e. when the water is warm. It will lead to a short period of high activity and the load will have to be reduced during winter and eventually stopped. Subsurface flow systems filled with gravel appeared to be the best alternative. Baffles should be installed to force the water transport around the in constructed wetlands. To reduce the risks for short cuts of the water flow the inlet and outlet of the systems were placed at the bottom to avoid risks for freezing. A design with edges is also recommended to increase snow accumulation on the top of the constructed wetland. Local species were selected for their tolerance to salt and high nutrient content in the water.

  • 286. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Kylefors, Katarina
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Results from a pilot constructed wetland for denitrification2001Ingår i: SARDINIA 2001: proceedings ; [1 - 5 October, S. Margerita di Pula - Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy] / [ed] Thomas Christensen; Raffaello Cossu; Rainer Stegmann, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2001, Vol. 2: Leachate and landfill gas, s. 303-309Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 287. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Assessment of methane oxidation capacity of soils2004Ingår i: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 42-48Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Methane oxidation capacity of three soil matrices was assessed using a new method based on the pressure fall resulting from methane oxidation. The effects of incubation temperature, moisture and methane content on the oxidation capacity were studied. Parameters observed were non-methanotrophic oxygen consumption, methane assimilation, length of the lag period before steady pressure fall was reached, initial pressure fall and maximum pressure fall. Filling material taken from a biofilter was tested. The length of the lag period was an index of prior exposure of the soil to methane emissions. Incubation temperature of 30°C and soil moisture at the water-holding capacity were chosen to standardize the test. Oxygen depletion by non-methanotrophs varied between 40 and 60% of the total oxygen consumption while methane assimilation was at 40 to 50% of the total methane consumption.

  • 288. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Carbonisation in fly ash and its effects on permeability1998Ingår i: Svenskt symposium om upplagsforskning 1998: Third Swedish landfill research symposia 1998, 1998, s. 147-148Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 289. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Establishing vegetation in a pilot scale wetland in a cold climate region1999Ingår i: Sardinia 99: Seventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, [4 - 8 October 1999, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy]. / [ed] Thomas H. Christensen, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 1999, Vol. 2, s. 231-237Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 290. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Landfill gas properties and effect on green plants: litterature review1997Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 291. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    LFG emission and methane oxidation in cold climate conditions1998Ingår i: Svenskt symposium om upplagsforskning 1998: Third Swedish landfill research symposia 1998, 1998, s. 79-80Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 292. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    LFG emission measurements in cold climatic conditions: seasonal variations and methane emissions mitigation2003Ingår i: Cold Regions Science and Technology, ISSN 0165-232X, E-ISSN 1872-7441, Vol. 36, nr 1-3, s. 37-46Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill gas (LFG) emissions were measured at three landfills in Northern Sweden and Northern Finland. Several strategies for measuring gas emissions in winter conditions (i.e., a snow-covered surface and frozen ground) were tested. Static chambers appeared to be the most suitable measurement technique. The study results showed that winter measurements should be done directly at the soil surface and that any snow cover should be removed beforehand. A seasonal variation of the emissions was observed. Methane emissions were measured during late winter at the three sites and during late summer at two of the same three sites. Monitoring performed during the different seasons yields a better estimation of the annual LFG emissions. Variations in methane oxidation are likely sources of any differences as low temperature and low soil water content both reduce methane oxidation activity. At low emission rates, the main methane emission may occur during wintertime because of the mitigation effect landfill cover has on methane oxidation during summertime. A reduced methane oxidation activity was observed during the late summer at two of the sites. A combination of summer dryness and heat from methane oxidation is believed to have dried the soil, which then caused a subsequent decrease in methane oxidation. To use landfill covers for the management of methane emissions in cold climates, special consideration must be given to the moisture and extreme low temperature factors.

  • 293. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Pilot scale tests of leachate denitrificatin in constructed wetlands2000Ingår i: Modern landfill technology and management: proceedings of the Asian Pacific Landfill Symposium organized by Japan Society of Waste Management Experts and held at Fukuoka, Japan on October 11 - 13, 2000 / [ed] Masataka Hanashima, Tokyo: JSWME , 2000, s. 132-138Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 294. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Seasonal variation of landfill gas emissions1997Ingår i: Sardinia 97: proceedings ; [13 - 17 October 1997, S. Margherita di Pula - Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy] / [ed] Thomas H. Christensen, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 1997, s. 87-93Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 295. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Using Betula pendula and Telephora caryophyllea for soil pollution assessment2000Ingår i: Journal of soil contamination, ISSN 1058-8337, E-ISSN 1878-5956, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 31-50Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentrations of available arsenic, copper, lead, and zinc in the soil, and the concentration of these elements in vegetal tissues were measured. The most common species at the sites were studied. All the species that were analyzed took up pollutants and could indicate polluted soil. However, all the studied species did not fit to map pollution. The birch (Betula pendula) and most of the fungi species had still quite low concentrations in their tissues compared with the available concentrations in the sail. No direct correlation between the pollution content in the soil and in the vegetation tissues could be observed. Specimens of Thlaspi caerulescens were accumulating zinc Of the four fungi species collected: only Thelephora caryophyllea seemed to accumulate actively in the studied pollutants. Moreover, it was possible to use an arsenic test with the fungi, which is also interesting from the perspective of preliminary assessment of the degree of pollution. A qualitative judgement of the soil pollution is possible by examining the plant material. To obtain a more quantitative and complete mapping, the method has to be developed further and completed with other investigations when vegetation is missing.

  • 296. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Using vegetation to assess distribution of pollutants in soil1998Ingår i: Svenskt symposium om upplagsforskning 1998: Third Swedish landfill research symposia 1998, 1998, s. 149-150Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 297. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Utveckling av bottentätning för avfallsupplag baserad på vedaska1998Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 298. Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ettala, M.
    University of Kuopio.
    Effects of leachate irrigation on landfill vegetation and subsequent methane emissions1999Ingår i: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 113, nr 1-4, s. 203-216Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Short-rotation tree forests are irrigated with landfill leachate to reduce both leachate volume and nutrient content. It is of interest both for leachate treatment and energy recovery to optimise the productivity of such plantations. This study's aim was to investigate the effects of irrigation on soil quality, tree growth and on emissions of landfill gas (LFG) produced in the wastes. Soils irrigated with leachate had a higher average nutrient and organic matter contents, and a lower dry solids content. Larger trees occur on plots irrigated with leachate, presumably due to the positive effect of water and nutrient supply. The willows used in this experiment seemed to be tolerant of high carbon dioxide concentrations, as no statistically effect arising from LFG emissions could be linked to tree growth. Methane oxidation levels between 50 and 950 mol m(-2) yr(-1) were observed. The positive correlation between soil methane oxidation capacity and tree presence is an interesting perspective on reduction of methane emissions by landfill's top cover vegetation type. Optimising methane oxidation using vegetation as a 'cover crop' could reduce the amount of methane discharged into the atmosphere.

  • 299.
    Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Assessment of redox-sensitive element mobility: discrepancy between laboratory and field data2009Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Leaching tests have become popular tools to assess the environmental effect of materials containing pollutants e.g. wastes, construction materials, soils. Batch (EN 12457-3) and column (prEN 14405) leaching tests are both standardised. The standardisation regulates how the test should be performed i.e. the procedure, the amount of material to be used and how to handle the leachate. However, standardisation is often misinterpreted as quality insurance that the results of the test are relevant for any type of material and application. The EN 12457-3 test has thanks to the standardisation and its relatively low price become the most popular tests used to assess if waste material could be used in constructions. Basically waste materials fulfilling acceptance criteria for landfill for inert waste are often regarded as acceptable to reuse in the society.The aim of the presentation is to discuss the risk of using tests without a critical assessment of their relevance and limitations. Materials containing sulphides, iron and arsenic are specially challenging to assess as the standard batch leaching test underestimates the risk for leaching.The leaching of arsenic was underestimated by the EN 12457-3 test and the effect of open filtration, sample preparation and test conditions are discussed. The results showed that a material fulfilling criteria for landfill for inert waste leached more arsenic than was acceptable at a landfill for hazardous waste. In the second example, the documented generation of acidic leachate from blast furnace slag in field conditions has never been observed in the laboratory. The main hypothesis is that the development of unsaturated conditions caused the oxidation of sulphidic minerals in the blast furnace slag heap and generation of acid leachate.The selection of appropriate leaching tests should be done with regard to the real conditions that are to be assessed. Standardisation does not mean that the test is automatically adapted to the need. A relevant assessment requires therefore understanding of the geochemical process controlling the pollutant mobilisation and immobilisation in the actual material and its application. Such comprehension is a prerequisite to the selection of appropriate leaching procedures.

  • 300.
    Maurice, Christian
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Gustavsson, Björn
    Lättström, Anders
    Umeå university.
    Ragnvalssson, Daniel
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Leffler, Per
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Lövgren, Lars
    Umeå university.
    Tesfalidet, Solomon
    Umeå university.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Techniques for the stabilization and assessment of treated copper- chromium- and arsenic-contaminated soil2007Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 36, nr 6, s. 430-436Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Remediation mainly based on excavation and burial of the contaminated soil is impractical with regard to the large numbers of sites identified as being in need of remediation. Therefore alternative methods are needed for brownfield remediation. This study was conducted to assess a chemical stabilisation procedure of CCA-contaminated soil using iron-containing blaster sand or oxygen scarfing granulate. The stabilisation technique was assessed with regard to the feasibility of mixing ameliorants at an industrial scale and the efficiency of the stabilisation under different redox conditions. The stability was investigated under natural conditions in 1-m3 lysimeters in a field experiment and the effect of redox conditions was assessed in a laboratory experiment (10 l). The treatments with high additions of ameliorant (8 and 17%) were more successful in both the laboratory and field experiments, even though there was enough iron on a stochiometric basis even at the lowest addition rates (0.1 and 1%). The particle size of the iron and the mixing influenced the stabilisation efficiency. The development of anaerobic conditions, simulated by water saturation, increases the fraction of AsIII and, consequently, arsenic mobility. The use of high concentrations of OSG under aerobic conditions increased the concentrations of Ni and Cu in the pore water. However, under anaerobic conditions, it decreased the arsenic leaching compared to the untreated soil and Ni and Cu leaching was not critical. The final destination of the treated soil should govern the amendment choice, e.g. an OSG concentration around 10% may be suitable if the soil is to be landfilled under anaerobic conditions. Alternatively, the soil mixed with 1% BS could be kept under aerobic conditions in a landfill cover or in situ at brownfield site. In addition, the treatment with BS appeared to produce better effects in the long term than with OSG.

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